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1.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(4): 537-541, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156337

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se presenta un caso de áscaris de la vía biliar (AB), cuya manifestación clínica fue ictericia obstructiva, acompañada de dolor abdominal causado por un cuadro de pancreatitis aguda. Inicialmente, se sospechó de etiología litiásica, por lo cual se realizaron estudios de imágenes diagnósticas y se evidenció la presencia de AB como hallazgo incidental, diagnosticado por ultrasonografía endoscópica biliopancreática (UEB), que fue confirmado y tratado mediante colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE).


Abstract The following is a case of biliary ascariasis (BA), whose clinical presentation was obstructive jaundice, accompanied by abdominal pain due to acute pancreatitis. At first, clinical suspicion led to consider a stone etiology, for which diagnostic imaging studies were performed, evidencing BA as an incidental finding diagnosed by endoscopic biliopancreatic ultrasonography (EBU), which was confirmed and treated using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ascaris , Bile Ducts , Ultrasonography , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Pancreatitis , Abdominal Pain , Jaundice, Obstructive , Literature
2.
Med. U.P.B ; 38(1): 46-56, 13 de febrero de 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-980299

ABSTRACT

Las parasitosis siguen siendo un grave problema de salud en pediatría, no tanto por la mortalidad que ocasionan sino por la morbilidad y sus secuelas en el crecimiento y desarrollo de los niños y en su desempeño en la vida adulta. Dentro de los parásitos de mayor prevalencia en los niños, están los que se transmiten por contacto con el suelo (geohelmintos o helmintos transmitidos por contacto con el suelo, HTS), dentro de los cuales, los de mayor prevalencia, son los áscaris, tricocéfalos y uncinarias. Como los parásitos intestinales no se reproducen en el organismo humano, su principal fuente de contagio se da a través del suelo que esté contaminado con materias fecales. Es por esta razón que los principales factores determinantes son: contaminación fecal del ambiente, agua contaminada, falta de excretas y malos hábitos higiénicos, especialmente en el lavado de manos. Sus manifestaciones clínicas son variables en intensidad y en signos, hay que tener presente que muchas de las personas parasitadas pueden estar asintomáticas durante mucho tiempo, pero siguen excretando huevos en las fecales, contaminando así el ambiente y perpetuando su prevalencia. Por esta razón, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) recomienda que en aquellas regiones o áreas donde la prevalencia de las geohelmintiasis sea igual o superior al 20% se debe hacer una desparasitación masiva y con una periodicidad acorde con la gravedad de esta prevalencia. En la actualidad se dispone de antiparasitarios efectivos, fáciles de suministrar (incluso por personal no médico). Los más comunes (albendazol y mebendazol) actúan inhibiendo la síntesis de adenosín trifosfato (ATP) necesario para su supervivencia. Como solamente se absorbe entre el 1% y el 5% del medicamento y su metabolismo es rápido, los efectos secundarios son leves y transitorios. Lo ideal es emplearlos en los pacientes que vivan en zonas de riesgo y en comunidades con una prevalencia igual o mayor al 20%, continuando con desparasitaciones periódicas de acuerdo al comportamiento de la prevalencia. Es evidente el impacto que se logra con la desparasitación periódica, tanto en el crecimiento y en el estado nutricional, como en el desempeño cognitivo, así como sus efectos en el campo social y ambiental.


Parasitosis continues to be a serious problem in pediatrics, not only because it is a cause of death, but because of the morbility and the long-term effects it has on growth and development in children and later on in their adult life. The most prevalent parasites in children include those transmitted by contact with the soil (geohelminths or soil-transmitted helminths, STH), amongst which the most common are the ascaris, trichocephalia, and uncinaria. Since intestinal parasites are not produced inside the human body, they are mainly contracted through soil contaminated with fecal matter. Thus, the principal determining factors include fecal contamination in the environment, contaminated water, improper excreta management, and poor personal hygiene, especially hand washing. Its clinical manifestations vary in intensity and in signs; also, many individuals with parasites may be asymptomatic for a long period of time, but their fecal matter contains eggs, thus, contaminating the environment and perpetuating its prevalence. Therefore, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that regions where geohelminthiasis prevalence is 20% or higher should be massively treated for parasites with a periodicity that is appropriate for the seriousness of the prevalence. Currently, there are effective antiparsitics available that are easy to administer (even by non-medical personnel). The most common medications (albendazole and mebendazole) inhibit the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) needed for survival. Since only between 1 and 5% of the medication is absorbed and children's metabolism is fast, secondary effects are minor and transitory. It is recommended that they be used in patients that live in high-risk areas and in communities with a prevalence of 20% or higher, conducting periodic mass drug administration for parasite removal depending on the behavior of the prevalence. Regular parasite removal has an evident impact on growth, nutritional state, cognitive performance, as well as its effects on the social and environmental fields.


As parasitoses seguem sendo um grave problema de saúde em pediatria, não tanto pela mortalidade que ocasionam senão pela morbilidade e suas sequelas no crescimento e desenvolvimento das crianças e no seu desempenho na vida adulta. Dentro dos parasitos de maior prevalência nas crianças, estão os que se transmitem por contato com o solo (geohelmintos ou helmintos transmitidos por contato com o solo, HTS), dentro dos quais, os de maior prevalência, são os áscaris, tricéfalos e uncinárias. Como os parasitos intestinais não se reproduzem no organismo humano, sua principal fonte de contágio se dá através do solo que esteja contaminado com matérias fecais. É por esta razão que os principais fatores determinantes são: contaminação fecal do ambiente, água contaminada, falta de excretas e maus hábitos higiênicos, especialmente na lavagem das mãos. Suas manifestações clínicas são variáveis em intensidade e em signos, há que ter presente que muitas das pessoas parasitadas podem estar assintomáticas durante muito tempo, mas seguem excretando ovos nas fecais, contaminando assim o ambiente e perpetuando sua prevalência. Por esta razão, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) recomenda que naquelas regiões ou áreas onde a prevalência das geohelmintiase seja igual ou superior a 20% se deve fazer uma desparasitação massiva e com uma periodicidade acorde com a gravidade desta prevalência. Na atualidade se dispõe de antiparasitários efetivos, fáceis de subministrar (incluso por pessoal não médico). Os mais comuns (albendazol e mebendazol) atuam inibindo a síntese de adenosina trifosfato (ATP) necessário para sua supervivência. Como somente se absorbe entre 1% e 5% do medicamento e seu metabolismo é rápido, os efeitos secundários são leves e transitórios. O ideal é empregá-los nos pacientes que vivam em zonas de risco e em comunidades com uma prevalência igual ou maior a 20%, continuando com desparasitações periódicas de acordo ao comportamento da prevalência. É evidente o impacto que se consegue com a desparasitação periódica, tanto no crescimento e no estado nutricional, como no desempenho cognitivo, assim como seus efeitos no campo social e ambiental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Pediatrics , Ascaris , Water Pollution , Albendazole , Hand Disinfection , Public Health , Nutritional Status , Eggs , Helminths , Mebendazole , Antiparasitic Agents
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786646

ABSTRACT

Excavation (2008–2014) carried out under the Uffizi Gallery (Florence, Italy) led to the discovery of 75 individuals, mostly buried in multiple graves. Based on Roman minted coins, the graves were preliminarily dated between the second half of the 4th and the beginning of the 5th centuries CE. Taphonomy showed that this was an emergency burial site associated with a catastrophic event, possibly an epidemic of unknown etiology with high mortality rates. In this perspective, paleoparasitological investigations were performed on 18 individuals exhumed from 9 multiple graves to assess the burden of gastrointestinal parasitism. Five out of eighteen individuals (27.7%) tested positive for ascarid-type remains; these are considered as “decorticated” Ascaris eggs, which have lost their outer mammillated coat. Roundworms (genus Ascaris) commonly infest human populations under dire sanitary conditions. Archaeological and historical evidence indicates that Florentia suffered a period of economic crisis between the end of 4th and the beginning of the 5th centuries CE, and that the aqueduct was severely damaged at the beginning of the 4th century CE, possibly during the siege of the Goths (406 CE). It is more than plausible that the epidemic, possibly coupled with the disruption of the aqueduct, deeply affected the living conditions of these individuals. A 27.7% frequency suggests that ascariasis was widespread in this population. This investigation exemplifies how paleoparasitological information can be retrieved from the analysis of sediments sampled in cemeteries, thus allowing a better assessment of the varying frequency of parasitic infections among ancient populations.


Subject(s)
Ascariasis , Ascaris , Burial , Cemeteries , Eggs , Emergencies , Humans , Italy , Mentha , Mortality , Numismatics , Ovum , Social Conditions
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786644

ABSTRACT

As we learn more about parasites in ancient civilizations, data becomes available that can be used to see how infection may change over time. The aim of this study is to assess how common certain intestinal parasites were in China and Korea in the past 2000 years, and make comparisons with prevalence data from the 20th century. This allows us to go on to investigate how and why changes in parasite prevalence may have occurred at different times. Here we show that Chinese liver fluke (Clonorchis sinensis) dropped markedly in prevalence in both Korea and China earlier than did roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and whipworm (Trichuris trichiura). We use historical evidence to determine why this was the case, exploring the role of developing sanitation infrastructure, changing use of human feces as crop fertilizer, development of chemical fertilizers, snail control programs, changing dietary preferences, and governmental public health campaigns during the 20th century.


Subject(s)
Ascaris , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , China , Civilization , Fasciola hepatica , Feces , Fertilizers , Humans , Korea , Mummies , Parasites , Prevalence , Public Health , Sanitation , Snails , Trichuris
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742235

ABSTRACT

The giant roundworm Ascaris infects pigs and people worldwide and causes serious diseases. The taxonomic relationship between Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides is still unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of 258 Ascaris specimens from humans and pigs from 6 sympatric regions in Ascaris-endemic regions of China using existing simple sequence repeat data. The microsatellite markers showed a high level of allelic richness and genetic diversity in the samples. Each of the populations demonstrated excess homozygosity (Ho 0). According to a genetic differentiation index (Fst=0.0593), there was a high-level of gene flow in the Ascaris populations. A hierarchical analysis on molecular variance revealed remarkably high levels of variation within the populations. Moreover, a population structure analysis indicated that Ascaris populations fell into 3 main genetic clusters, interpreted as A. suum, A. lumbricoides, and a hybrid of the species. We speculated that humans can be infected with A. lumbricoides, A. suum, and the hybrid, but pigs were mainly infected with A. suum. This study provided new information on the genetic diversity and population structure of Ascaris from human and pigs in China, which can be used for designing Ascaris control strategies. It can also be beneficial to understand the introgression of host affiliation.


Subject(s)
Ascaris lumbricoides , Ascaris suum , Ascaris , China , Gene Flow , Genetic Structures , Genetic Variation , Humans , Microsatellite Repeats , Swine
6.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 35(2): 48-54, Diciembre 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-998920

ABSTRACT

Introducción:La ascaridiasis intestinal en ocasiones se complica con la migración del parásito a vía hepatobiliar o a vesícula, dando sintomatología parecida a la de una colecistitis o de una coledocolitiasis. Entre los principales medios para llegar al diagnóstico esta la colangiopancreatografía endoscópica (CPRE), la tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) y principalmente la ecografía. Materiales y métodos:Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivode corte transversal con una muestra de 183 pacientes que acudieron al Hospital General de Macas por presentar dolor abdominal superior. Se aplicó un cuestionario validado para obtener datos de las características sociodemográficas, clínicas y ecográficas de los pacientes. Se realizó análisis descriptivo univariado y bivariado. La asociación se determinó con la prueba chi cuadrado. Se consideró resultados estadísticamente significativos a valores de p<0.05. Resultados:La mayoría de pacientes tuvo edades entre los 19-44 años,fueron mujeres, de la etnia shuar, con condición socioeconómica baja y extrema pobreza. Más de la mitad de la población estudiada no tiene agua potable, muy pocos refirieron antecedentes quirúrgicos, y un cuarto de la muestra analizada manifestó expulsión de vermes. Los principales síntomas por los que acudieron los pacientes fueron: náusea, vómito,dolor abdominal y alza térmica. La incidencia de áscaris en vías biliares fue del 29.0%, con un 13.2% de complicaciones principalmente pancreatitis y abceso hepático. Se encontró asociación significativa con alza térmica; sin embargo, el sexo, el consumo de agua potable, los antecedentes quirúrgicosy el estado nutricional no estuvieron asociados con la enfermedad. Conclusiones:la incidencia de ascaridiasis es alta y está asociada con alzatérmica como factor de riesgo para migración del parásito a las víasbiliares.


Introduction:The intestinal ascaridiasis is sometimescomplicated by the migration of the parasite to thehepatobiliary pathway or to the gallbladder, givingsymptoms similar to that of cholecystitis or choledo-cholithiasis. The endoscopic cholangiopancreatography(ERCP), computerized axial tomography (CT), andmainly ultrasound are among the main means toreach the diagnosis.Materials and methods:An observational, descriptive,cross-sectional study was conducted with a sampleof 183 patients who attended to the Macas GeneralHospital due to upper abdominal pain. A validatedquestionnaire was applied to obtain data on the so-ciodemographic, clinical and ultrasound characteristicsof the patients. A descriptive univariate and bivariateanalysis was performed. The association was deter-mined with the chi square test. Statistically significantresults were considered at values of p <0.05.Results:The majority of patients were between 19-44 years old, everybody were women of the Shuarethnic group, with low socioeconomic status and ex-treme poverty. More than half of the populationstudied does not have drinking water, very fewpeople reported surgical history, and a quarter ofthe sample analyzed expressed expulsion of worms.The main symptoms for which the patients attendedwere: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and thermalrise. The incidence of ascaris in the biliary tract was29.0%, with 13.2% of complications, mainly pancre-atitis and hepatic abscess. There was an associationwith thermal rise; however, sex, drinking water con-sumption, surgical history and nutritional status werenot associated with the disease.Conclusions:the incidence of ascariasis is high andit is associated with thermal rise as a risk factor formigration of the parasite to the bile ducts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Ascaris , Bile Ducts , Incidence , Ascaridiasis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Life Style
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207488

ABSTRACT

Toxocara vitulorum has been rarely reported in yaks at high altitudes and remote areas of Sichuan Province of Tibetan Plateau of China. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence, associated risk factors, and phylogenetic characteristics of T. vitulorum in yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau. Fecal samples were collected from 891 yak calves and were examined for the presence of T. vitulorum eggs by the McMaster technique. A multivariable logistic regression model was employed to explore variables potentially associated with exposure to T. vitulorum infection. T. vitulorum specimens were collected from the feces of yaks in Hongyuan of Sichuan Province, China. DNA was extracted from ascaris. After PCR amplification, the sequencing of ND1 gene was carried out and phylogenetic analyses was performed by MEGA 6.0 software. The results showed that 64 (20.1%; 95% CI 15.8–24.9%), 75 (17.2; 13.8–21.1), 29 (40.9; 29.3–53.2), and 5 (7.6; 2.5–16.8) yak calves were detected out to excrete T. vitulorum eggs in yak calve feces in Qinghai, Tibet, Sichuan, and Gansu, respectively. The present study revealed that high infection and mortality by T. vitulorum is wildly spread on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau, China by fecal examination. Geographical origin, ages, and fecal consistencies are the risk factors associated with T. vitulorum prevalence by logistic regression analysis. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of ND1 gene of T. vitulorum indicated that T. vitulorum in the yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau are homologous to preveiously studies reported.


Subject(s)
Altitude , Animals , Ascaris , Cattle , China , DNA , Eggs , Feces , Logistic Models , Mortality , Ovum , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Tibet , Toxocara
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99319

ABSTRACT

To know the infection status of helminths in primary schoolchildren of southern parts of Vietnam, we performed an epidemiological study in Krong Pac district, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. A total of 1,206 stool specimens were collected from ethnic Ede schoolchildren in 4 primary schools in 2015 and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. In addition, stool cultures were done by the Harada-Mori method to obtain hookworm larvae and then to clarify the species of hookworms infected. The results showed that the helminth infection rate was 25.0%, including 2.0% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.33% Trichuris trichiura, and 22.8% hookworm infections. The average intensity of infection was 102.0 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) for Ascaris, 36.0 EPG for Trichuris, and 218.0 EPG for hookworms. ITS1 gene sequences of the hookworm larvae were identical with those of Necator americanus (100% homology) reported in GenBank. It has been confirmed in this study that the hookworm, N. americanus, is a dominant helminth species infected in primary schoolchildren of a southern part of Vietnam. Public health attention is needed for control of hookworm infections among schoolchildren in surveyed areas of Vietnam.


Subject(s)
Ancylostomatoidea , Ascaris , Ascaris lumbricoides , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Eggs , Epidemiologic Studies , Feces , Helminths , Hookworm Infections , Humans , Larva , Methods , Necator americanus , Ovum , Prevalence , Public Health , Trichuris , Vietnam
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45964

ABSTRACT

Until the 1950s, Ascaris was regarded as an essential part of life which controls every aspect of human physiology among Koreans. Therefore, Ascaris should not be removed from human body. Efforts from medical professionals and the Korean government officials who wished to push forward the parasite control program, had to constantly contest with this perception of Ascaris among ordinary Koreans. In 1966, the 'Parasitic Disease Prevention Act' was promulgated and 'the Korean Association for Parasite Eradication (KAPE)' established in Korea. From the 1970s, Korea mobilized 15 million people each year to achieve the eradication goal. Such mass mobilization could not be possible without public awareness on necessity of parasite eradication. Until the early 1960s, however, Korean people were not sympathetic to the needs of eradication of parasites, especially that of Ascaris. Then, what changed the social perception towards Ascaris during the 1960s? What contributing factors allowed the mass mobilization and public involvement for that campaign? Employing newspaper articles and periodicals, this paper analyzes how social perception on Ascariasis changed during the 1960s, when the 'Parasitic Disease Prevention Act' was established. During the 1960s, Ascariasis became a shameful disease for Koreans. A series of events made Ascariasis more visible and shameful to Koreans. First event happened with Korean miners who were dispatched to Germany in 1963. When the miners turned out to have been infected with intestinal parasites, they were prohibited from work at the mines by the authorities in Germany and quarantined for several weeks. This humiliating experience of Korean expatriate people having bodies swarmed with parasites became a national shame to Koreans. The parasite infected bodies of Korean workers were revealed to the World through German newspapers. Second event happened when a child died of intestinal obstruction due to Ascariasis. The doctor retrieved 1,063 Ascaris from the bowel of the 9 year-old girl, and the photo of the 1,063 worms was published in several newspapers. It was a shocking visualization of Ascariasis in Korean society. Through these visualizations of Ascariasis, the Korean society began to perceive Ascariasis as a shame of the nation as well as that of an individual.


Subject(s)
Ascariasis , Ascaris , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Germany , Human Body , Humans , Intestinal Obstruction , Korea , Miners , Occupational Groups , Parasites , Periodical , Physiology , Shame , Shock , Social Perception
11.
La Habana; Editorial Ciencias Médicas; 2016. 174 p. ilus, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-972170

ABSTRACT

La ascariosis encabeza la lista de las enfermedades tropicales desatendidas. Las geohelmintosis afectan a 2 000 millones de personas, aproximadamente la tercera parte de la población mundial. De estas, unos 300 millones sufren de formas clínicas graves y unas 155 mil mueren anualmente por causas atribuibles a esas parasitosis. Sin embargo, los motivos para propiciar un mejor conocimiento sobre el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de las geohelmintosis no se agotan en esas cifras. Otras dos aristas de esas parasitosis se debeb tener en cuenta: su significativa contribución a la perpetuación de la pobreza en los paises donde son endémicas, al deteriorar el crecimiento y desarrollo cognoscitivo infantil y reducir la capacidad de trabajo de sus adultos, y la habilidad de los helmintos para modular las respuestas inmunitarias del hospedero. El libro está dirigido, en primer lugar, a los profesionales relacionados con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y control de las geohelmintosis, en general, y de la ascariosis, en particular. Los autores, investigadores del Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri, proponen un conocimiento más actualizado sobre estos temas y simplificaciones operativas más armónicas con el pensamiento médico contempóraneo y las evidencias experimentales de hoy...


Subject(s)
Humans , Communicable Diseases , Helminths , Ascariasis , Ascaris , Parasitology , Helminthiasis/prevention & control
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51150

ABSTRACT

Analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) extracted from Ascaris is very important for understanding the phylogenetic lineage of the parasite species. When aDNAs obtained from a Joseon tomb (SN2-19-1) coprolite in which Ascaris eggs were identified were amplified with primers for cytochrome b (cyt b) and 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene, the outcome exhibited Ascaris specific amplicon bands. By cloning, sequencing, and analysis of the amplified DNA, we obtained information valuable for comprehending genetic lineage of Ascaris prevalent among pre-modern Joseon peoples.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Ascariasis/diagnosis , Ascaris/classification , Base Sequence , Cytochromes b/genetics , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Female , Fossils/history , History, Ancient , Humans , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Mummies/history , Ovum/chemistry , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics
13.
Rev. guatemalteca cir ; 21(1): 29-33, 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869918

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infestación por áscaris consttuye un problema de salud pública importante en áreas endémicas, provocando en algunos casos complicacionesque requieren la intervención del cirujano. El propósito del presente estudio es analizar las complicaciones quirúrgicas de la ascaridiasis,en nuestro medio.Diseño, lugar y partcipantes: se realizó un estudio descriptvo retrospectvo de los pacientes que presentaron complicaciones quirúrgicas debido a lainfestación por A. lumbricoides de enero de 1999 a marzo de 2015 que fueron tratados en la unidad de cirugía pediátrica del hospital general San Juande Dios.Resultados: Ingresaron 47 pacientes con infestación por áscaris, comprendidos en las edades de 1 a 13 años. Hubo 39 pacientes con obstrucción intestnal,7 con ascaridiasis en el colédoco y 1 con apendicits por áscaris. El diagnóstco de los 39 pacientes con oclusión intestnal por áscaris fue clínicoy con rayos X simple de abdomen, 19 resolvieron con tratamiento médico y 20 requirieron de tratamiento quirúrgico. Los pacientes con áscaris en elcolédoco fueron diagnostcados por USG a 1 se le logró extraer el áscaris por CPRE mientras que a los 6 restantes fue necesario la exploración de la víabiliar por laparotomía. El diagnóstco de la apendicits secundario a la obstrucción por áscaris se realizó trans operatoriamente. La morbilidad observadafue del 21% (10/47) de los pacientes: 8 presentaron respuesta infamatoria sistémica y 2 dehisencias de la anastomosis intestnal. La mortalidadfue del 2% (1/47): un paciente con fallo orgánico múltple por sepsis abdominal y desnutrición.Conclusiones: en este estudio, las complicaciones de la infestación por áscaris fueron la obstrucción intestnal, obstrucción de la vía biliar y apendicits...


Introducton: In endemic areas, ascariasis is an important public health problem. In cases of severe infestaton, some cases need to be surgically treated.The aim of this study is to analyze surgical complicatons of childhood ascariasis in our insttuton.Design, Place and Partcipants: A retrospectve study of all patents with ascariasis, from 1999 to 2015, evaluated in the surgical pediatric unit at SanJuan de Dios General Hospital.Results: We analyzed 47 patents with ascariasis, age range 1 to 13 years old. There were 39 patents with intestnal obstructon due to ascariasis, 7 withcholedochal ascariasis and 1 with appendiceal ascariasis. Diagnosis of intestnal obstructon due to ascariasis was made with clinical evaluaton andplain abdominal radiography. Of the 39 patents with abdominal obstructon, 19 resolved with medical treatment and 20 required surgical interventon.Patents with choledochal ascariasis were diagnosed by ultrasonography. In one patent, extracton of the worm was possible with endoscopic retrogradecholangiopancreatography, in the remaining 6 patents, open common bile duct exploraton was required. Diagnosis of the appendiceal ascariasiswas made during appendectomy without previous clinical suspicion. Serious morbidity was 21% (10/47): 8 patents with severe infammatory responseand 2 anastomosis dehiscences. Mortality was 2% (1/47), a patent with multple organ failure, abdominal sepsis and malnourishment. Morbidity andmortality occurred only in patents with intestnal obstructon due to ascariasis. Conclusions: In this study, complicatons of ascariasis were intestnal obstructon, choledochal obstructon and acute appendicits...


Subject(s)
Humans , Appendicitis/etiology , Ascaridiasis/surgery , Ascaris lumbricoides/pathogenicity , Ascaris/pathogenicity , Common Bile Duct/pathology
14.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2015. 98 p. ilus, mapas, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-756965

ABSTRACT

Os estudos paleoparasitológicos se caracterizam pela busca de parasitos em material arqueológico e paleontológico. Em geral, a maioria das pesquisas gira em torno de material de épocas mais recentes, principalmente relacionados a grupos humanos, que não chegam a datações de um milhão de anos. A busca por explicações mais antigas em relação ao surgimento das parasitoses nos leva aos animais extintos, que revelam nos vestígios deixados por eles, os parasitos que circulavam antes do surgimento dos seres humanos. Esse trabalho objetivou identificar parasitos que por ventura fossem encontrados em vestígios de animais extintos de diferentes idades geológicas. Então, 32coprólitos de 6 hospedeiros diferentes (caprino, hiena, duas espécies de peixes, cinodonte e dicinodonte), foram analisados nessa pesquisa, com datações que compreendem do Quaternário ao Triássico (10 mil a 240 milhões de anos antes do presente). Várias técnicas de recuperação de material mineralizado e dessecado foram utilizadas, de acordo com que cada coprólito foi preservado. Se mineralizado, técnicas com ácido e aparelho de ultrassom possibilitaram a análise, já para os coprólitos dessecados, foi feita apenas a reidratação com fosfato trissódico. Amostras de 4 hospedeiros foram positivas para parasitos. Cisto de protozoário em caprino, dois ovos de helmintos em coprólitos de hiena, um nematoda em dicinodonte, foram encontrados. Além de um ascarídeo e um oxyurídeo em coprólito de cinodonte, um réptil mamaliforme pertencente a um clado que originou os mamíferos, que apresentaram dois parasitos comumente achados em mamíferos modernos. Portanto, esses achados permitem que respostas sejam respondidas para compreender melhor a relação parasito hospedeiro-ambiente em diferentes épocas da história da vida...


Paleoparasitological studies are characterized by the search for parasites in archaeological and paleontological material. In general, most research centers around more recent material, mainly related to human groups, which doesn‟t reach the dating ofa million years. The search for older explanations in relation to the emergence of parasites leads us to extinct animals, which reveal on the traces left by them, the parasites that circulates before the appearance of humans. This study aimed to identifyparasites that were found in traces of extinct animals of different geological ages.Thereby, 32 coprolites 6 different hosts (goat, hyena, two species of fish, cynodont anddicynodonte) were analyzed in this study, with dating comprising from Quaternary toTriassic (10 thousands to 240 million years before present). Several techniques forrecovery of mineralized and dried material were used in accordance with the way eachcoprolite was preserved. If mineralized, techniques with acid and ultrasound deviceenabled the analysis, and for the disiccated coprolites, it was only made rehydrationwith trisodium phosphate. Samples of 4 hosts were positive for parasites. Protozoan cystin goats, two eggs of helminths in coprolites of hyena and nematode in dicynodonte, were found. In addition, an ascarid and an oxyurid egg in a coprolites of cynodont, amamaliforme reptile that belongs to a monophiletic clade that originated mammals,which showed two parasites commonly found in modern mammals. Therefore, thesefindings allow to fill gaps to understand the host-parasite-environment relationship better at different times in the history of life...


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascaris/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Helminths/parasitology , Oxyurida/parasitology , Paleopathology , Parasitology
15.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 85(3): 149-154, ago. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-768431

ABSTRACT

La infección por Ascaris lumbricoides (AL) es una geohelmintiasis que constituye un problema de salud pública, especialmente en niños con vulnerabilidad socio económica y ambiental. La carencia de saneamiento y agua potable, el hacinamiento, la precariedad de la vivienda y las malas condiciones de higiene constituyen los principales factores de riesgo. El impacto de esta enfermedad en Uruguay no está claramente definido. La existencia de casos graves de infección por AL sugiere la presencia de zonas de alta prevalencia. El objetivo de esta comunicación es alertar sobre la presencia de complicaciones y formas graves de esta enteroparasitosis. Se revisaron los aspectos patogénicos y modalidades de evaluación y tratamiento. Se incluyeron siete niños hospitalizados entre el 1 de enero de 2007 y el 31 de mayo de 2012, edad mínima 18 meses y máxima 59 meses. Todos habitaban viviendas precarias, de las cuales cinco carecían de saneamiento y cuatro de baño interno. Las complicaciones asociadas fueron: abscesos múltiples pulmonares y hepáticos, síndrome suboclusivo, oclusión intestinal, síndrome de Loffler, peritonitis biliar por perforación del conducto hepático común y colangitis. Los síntomas abdominales fueron los más frecuentes. La media de la estadía hospitalaria fue 11 días. Ingresaron a Unidad de cuidado intensivo cuatro niños, dos requirieron alimentación parenteral y dos apoyo ventilatorio. En todos los casos se realizaron estudios imagenológicos. Requirieron tratamiento quirúrgico tres niños. Todos sobrevivieron. Esta enfermedad es un “marcador de pobreza” y se relaciona directamente con las condiciones de vida de la población. Fortalecer las medidas de promoción y prevención contribuye al control de esta enfermedad. Erradicar el problema exige políticas dirigidas a superar las condiciones de exclusión social, identificando zonas de riesgo con intervenciones intersectoriales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Ascariasis/complications , Ascariasis/therapy , Ascariasis/epidemiology , Ascariasis/etiology , Ascaris/pathogenicity , Risk Factors , Child, Hospitalized , Uruguay
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14627

ABSTRACT

A paleoparasitological survey to detect helminth eggs was performed in archaeological sites of Jeolla-do and Jeju-do, the Republic of Korea. Total 593 soil samples were collected in 12 sites of Jeolla-do and 5 sites of Jeju-do from April to November 2011, and examined by the methods of Pike and coworkers. A total of 4 helminth eggs, 2 eggs each for Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris sp., were found in soil samples from 1 site, in Hyangyang-ri, Jangheung-eup, Jangheung-gun, Jeollanam-do. The egg-recovery layer was presumed to represent a 19th century farm, which fact suggested the use of human manures. This is the third archaeological discovery of parasite eggs in Jeolla-do. Additionally, no helminth eggs in archaeological sites of Jeju-do is an interesting problem to be solved in the further investigations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Archaeology , Ascaris/classification , History, Ancient , Humans , Ovum/classification , Paleontology , Parasite Egg Count , Parasitology/history , Republic of Korea , Soil/parasitology , Trichuris/classification
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12564

ABSTRACT

In a series of paleo-parasitological investigations, we have been able to obtain invaluable data on parasite infection patterns prevalent among the Joseon (1392-1910) people in Korea. Thus far we have established that the Joseon people were in fact heavily infected by various species of parasites, though precise patterns and exact statuses of infection in specific town and cities have proved elusive. In the present study, relevant historical documentation was obtained and examined, shedding light on some of the operative socio-cultural factors that might have played a role in inducing a high infection prevalence of Ascaris, a soil-transmitted roundworm, in Joseon society. On this evidentiary basis, we could confirm that the recycling of human feces as fertilizer and the habit of eating raw vegetables were both closely related to infection. These factors were sufficient to maintain the life cycle of Ascaris, there by perpetuating a cycle of infection and reinfection among the Joseon inhabitants. Overall, this study demonstrated the value of close medical-scientist / historian interdisciplinary collaboration infacilitating comprehensive and meaningful paleo-parasitological findings and interpretations.


Subject(s)
Ascaris , Cooperative Behavior , Eating , Feces , Helminths , Humans , Korea , Life Cycle Stages , Light , Parasites , Prevalence , Recycling , Vegetables
19.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 35-44, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-749888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Common antigens between intestinal parasites and environmental allergens may play a role in the modulation of allergic immune responses. There is a growing interest in investigating cross-reactivity between common helminths and dust mites affecting humans, particularly in the tropics. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the cross-reactivity between the human roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) and three house dust mite (HDM) species. METHODS: Specific serum IgE levels to HDM species Blomia tropicalis (Bt), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), and Dermatophagoides farinae (Df ); and Al extracts among allergic (n=100) and ascariasis (n=60) subjects were measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IgE-reactive components of HDM and Al extracts were detected through Western-Blot Analysis. Cross-reactivity between HDMs and Al was determined by ELISA inhibition using HDM and Al-specific sera from allergic (n=15) and ascariasis (n=15) subjects. The IgE-binding capacity of a recombinant paramyosin peptide (Blo t 11-fD) to allergic (n=50) and ascariasis (n=50) subjects' sera were likewise determined. RESULTS: Among allergic subjects, 70% exhibited Al-specific positive IgE-reactivity, while 20-28% of ascariasis subjects demonstrated HDM-specific positive IgE-reactivity. Multiple IgE-reactive components of HDM allergens (14-240 kDa) and Al antigens (15-250 kDa) were detected, indicating multi-allergen sensitization among the subjects tested. Al antigens can inhibit up to 92% of HDM-specific IgE-reactivity among allergic subjects, while up to 54% of Al-specific IgE-reactivity among ascariasis subjects was inhibited by HDM allergens. Positive rBlo t 11-fD-specific IgE reactivity was observed in 80% of the allergic subjects and 46% of the ascariasis subjects. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the presence of multiple cross-reactive antigens in HDM and Al extracts. Identification of these molecules may provide basis for designing novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The potential role of paramyosin as a specific cross-reactive allergen present in HDMs and Al has been shown.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Ascariasis , Ascaris lumbricoides , Ascaris , Dermatophagoides farinae , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Dust , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Helminths , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Mites , Parasites , Pyroglyphidae , Tropomyosin
20.
São Paulo; s.n; 2012. 75 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-643267

ABSTRACT

Introdução O lodo gerado em estações de tratamento de esgotos é um resíduo de composição variável e com potencial poluidor dependendo de sua origem, tipo de tratamento e sazonalidade; pode conter patógenos dentre os quais os parasitas. Porém, quando tratado adequadamente, o lodo de esgoto pode ser aplicado na agricultura como fertilizante ou condicionador de solo. Em países em desenvolvimento, estudos têm demonstrado que a incidência de enteroparasitoses é elevada, sendo Ascaris sp um dos mais prevalentes. Portanto, o uso agrícola do lodo de esgoto pode oferecer riscos à saúde humana. Com intuito de salvaguardar a saúde da população entrou em vigor a Resolução CONAMA nº375/06, que estabelece critérios e procedimentos para o uso do lodo em áreas agrícolas. Objetivo - Determinar e quantificar ovos de helmintos e de Ascaris sp em lodos provenientes de três ETEs de uma região metropolitana, verificando o atendimento ao padrão parasitológico estabelecido pela CONAMA nº375/06. Método Utilizou-se o método descrito no apêndice I da norma CFR 503 USEPA de 2003. Resultados Os lodos analisados no período do estudo apresentaram rica fauna parasitária onde foram observados ovos de Ancylostoma sp, Ascaris sp, Capillaria sp, Enterobius vermicularis, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis sp, Taenia sp, Toxocara sp e Trichuris sp. Observou-se que ovos de Ascaris sp foram os mais prevalentes com 67,71 por cento , seguido por Toxocara sp (13,62 por cento ). Ovos viáveis de Ascaris sp estavam presentes em 10,16 por cento das amostras. Conclusão Pode-se concluir que o lodo gerado nas ETEs estudadas apresentaram amplo espectro de ovos de helmintos, sendo Ascaris sp o mais prevalente. Das três ETEs analisadas, nenhuma atendia os parâmetros parasitológicos para lodo classe A, segundo a Resolução CONAMA nº375/06.


Subject(s)
Agricultural Irrigation , Agriculture/standards , Ascaris/pathogenicity , Helminths , Sludges (Environmental Health) , Sanitation/legislation & jurisprudence , Eggs/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence
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