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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253436, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355870

ABSTRACT

Abstract The in vitro sporulation of Didymella bryoniae is of great importance for studies that require pure inoculum and in large quantities. Thus, the objectives of this study were to identify the best condition for D. bryoniae sporulation combining different light spectra (UV-A or UV-B light, white light, and continuous dark), with distinct culture media (PDA, V8, ML, and PDAB) and, to evaluate fungus' survivability stored at -20°C over time. The fungus samples were only able to sporulate when subjected to the UV-B light treatment, regardless of the culture medium. The highest appearance of spores conidium type was observed in the PDAB medium, and the lowest production occurred in the ML medium. Reproductive structures, such as perithecia and pycnidia, were observed in all culture media. However, there was considerable variation in the amount of each structure between the different culture media. The ML and V8 media showed a greater number of perithecia and the PDA and PDAB media presented a greater proportion of pycnidia compared to perithecia. The storage duration at -20°C did not affect mycelial growth or mycelial growth rate. In conclusion, the UV-B light is essential for D. bryoniae in vitro sporulation. Moreover, the culture medium composition influences the type of fungal structure produced, as well as spores' size and quantity. Freezing at -20°C is an efficient technique that can be used to store D. bryoniae for at least five months without loss of viability.


Resumo A esporulação de Didymella bryoniae in vitro é de grande importância para estudos que requerem inóculo puro e em grandes quantidades. Assim, os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar a melhor condição para esporulação de D. bryoniae combinando diferentes espectros de luz (luz UV-A ou UV-B, luz branca e escuro contínuo) com distintos meios de cultura (PDA, V8, ML e PDAB) e, avaliar a sobrevivência do fungo armazenado a -20°C ao longo do tempo. As amostras de fungo só esporularam quando submetidas ao tratamento com luz UV-B, independentemente do meio de cultura. Maior aparecimento de esporos do tipo conídio foi observado no meio PDAB, e a menor produção ocorreu no meio ML. Estruturas reprodutivas, como peritécios e picnídeos, foram observadas em todos os meios de cultura. No entanto, houve uma variação considerável na quantidade de cada estrutura entre os diferentes meios de cultura. Os meios ML e V8 apresentaram maior número de peritécios e os meios PDA e PDAB apresentaram maior proporção de picnídeos em relação aos peritécios. A duração do armazenamento a -20°C não afetou o crescimento micelial ou a taxa de crescimento micelial. Em conclusão, a luz UV-B é essencial para a esporulação de D. bryoniae in vitro. Além disso, a composição do meio de cultura influencia o tipo de estrutura fúngica produzida, bem como o tamanho e a quantidade dos esporos. O congelamento a -20°C é uma técnica eficiente que pode ser usada para armazenar D. bryoniae por pelo menos cinco meses sem perda de viabilidade


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Spores, Fungal , Temperature , Mycelium
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253156, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355904

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endophytic fungi are a ubiquituos group that colonize all plant species on earth. Studies comparing the location of endophytic fungi within the leaves and the sampling time in Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) are limited. In this study, mature leaves of M. esculenta from Panama were collected in order to compare the cultivable diversity of endophytic fungi and to determine their distribution within the leaves. A total of one hundred sixty endophytes belonging to 97 species representing 13 genera and 8 morphospecies determined as mycelia sterilia that containing 63 isolates were isolated. Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia, and mycelia sterilia 1 and 3 were the most predominant isolated endophytes. We detected that endophytes varied across the sampling time, but not amongst locations within leaves. The endophytes composition across sampling and the location of endophytes within leaf was similar, except for Periconia and mycelia sterilia 3 and 7. The data generated in this study contribute to the knowledge on the biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Panama, and establish the bases for future research focused on understanding the function of endophytes in M. esculenta crops.


Resumo Os fungos endofíticos são um grupo ubiquituo que colonizam todas as espécies de plantas na terra. Os estudos que comparam a localização dos fungos endofíticos dentro das folhas de Manihot esculenta Crantz (mandioca) e o tempo de amostragem são muito escassos. Neste estudo, folhas maduras de M. esculenta foram coletadas do Panamá com a finalidade de comparar a diversidade cultivável de endófitos e determinar sua distribuição dentro das folhas. Um total de 170 endófitos foram isolados de 97 espécies que representam 13 gêneros e 8 morfoespécies determinadas como micélios esterilizados contendo 63 isolados. Os fungos Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia e mycelia sterilia 1 e 3 foram os isolados mais predominantes. Também detectamos que os endófitos variaram ao longo do tempo de amostragem, mas não entre os locais dentro das folhas. A composição de endófitos na amostragem e localização de endófitos dentro da folha foi semelhante, exceto para Periconia e mycelia sterilia 3 e 7. Os dados gerados neste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da biodiversidade de fungos endofíticos no Panamá e estabelecem as bases para pesquisas sobre o entendimento da função de endófitos em culturas de M. esculenta.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Manihot , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Biodiversity , Endophytes , Fungi
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242070, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278554

ABSTRACT

Abstract Interactions between endophytic fungi (EFs) and their host plants range from positive to neutral to negative. The results of such interactions can vary depending on the organ of the infected host plant. EFs isolated from the leaves of some species of plants have potential for use as agents to inhibit seed germination and control invasive plants. The objectives of this study were to identify EFs present in the leaves of Copaifera oblongifolia and to evaluate the role of these fungi in seed germination and seedling development. A total of 11 species of EFs were isolated, which were identified using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequence of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The isolated species of EFs are generalists and probably are transmitted horizontally. Laboratory tests revealed that filtrates of these fungal isolates differently affect seed germination and seedling development of C. oblongifolia. The species Curvularia intermedia, Neofusicoccum parvum, Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum and Phomopsis sp. negatively affected seed germination, with N. parvum standing out for its negative effects, inhibiting seedling germination and survival in 89 and 222%, respectively. In addition, Cochliobolus intermedius negatively affected seedling development. Thus, the combined use of N. parvum and C. intermedius, or products from the metabolism of these microorganisms, in the control of invasive plants deserves attention from future studies.


Resumo As interações entre fungos endofíticos (FEs) e suas plantas hospedeiras variam de positivas, neutras a negativas. Os resultados destas interações podem variar dependendo do órgão da planta hospedeira infectada. FEs isolados de folhas de algumas espécies de plantas têm potencial para serem usados como agentes inibidores da germinação de sementes e no controle de plantas invasoras. Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar os FEs presentes nas folhas de Copaifera oblongifolia e avaliar o papel destes fungos na germinação das sementes e no desenvolvimento das plântulas. Um total de 11 espécies de FEs foi isolado das folhas de C. oblongifolia e identificado através da sequência dos espaçadores internos transcritos do DNA ribossomal nuclear. As espécies de FEs isoladas são generalistas e provavelmente devem ser transmitidas horizontalmente. Os resultados dos testes de germinação mostraram que filtrados destes isolados fúngicos podem afetar diferentemente a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento das plântulas de C. oblongifolia. As espécies Curvularia intermedia, Neofusicoccum parvum, Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum e Phomopsis sp. afetaram negativamente a germinação das sementes de C. oblongifolia. Dentre estas espécies devemos destacar que N. parvum reduziu a germinação e a sobrevivência das plântulas em 89 e 222%, respectivamente. Além disso, Cochiliobolus intermedius afetou negativamente o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Assim, o uso combinado de N. parvum e C. intermedius, ou de produtos do metabolismo destas espécies de fungos, têm potencial para serem usados no manejo de plantas invasoras.


Subject(s)
Germination , Fabaceae , Ascomycota , Seeds , Plant Leaves , Seedlings , Fungi , Curvularia
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244261, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285633

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endophytic bacteria serve key roles in the maintenance of plant health and growth. Few studies to date, however, have explored the antagonistic and plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties of Prunus cerasifera endophytes. To that end, we isolated endophytic bacteria from P. cerasifera tissue samples and used a dual culture plate assay to screen these microbes for antagonistic activity against Verticillium dahliae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Fusarium oxysporum, F. graminearum, and F. moniliforme. Of the 36 strains of isolated bacteria, four (strains P1, P10, P16, and P20) exhibited antagonistic effects against all five model pathogens, and the P10 strain exhibited the strongest antagonistic to five pathogens. This P10 strain was then characterized in-depth via phenotypic assessments, physiological analyses, and 16s rDNA sequencing, revealing it to be a strain of Bacillus subtilis. Application of a P10 cell suspension (1×108 CFU/mL) significantly enhanced the seed germination and seedling growth of tomato in a greenhouse setting. This P10 strain further significantly suppressed tomato Verticillium wilt with much lower disease incidence and disease index scores being observed following P10 treatment relative to untreated plants in pot-based experiments. Tomato plants that had been treated with strain P10 also enhanced defense-related enzymes, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity upon V. dahliae challenge relative to plants that had not been treated with this endophytic bacterium. The results revealed that the P10 bacterial strain has potential value as a biocontrol agent for use in the prevention of tomato Verticillium wilt.


Resumo As bactérias endofíticas desempenham papel fundamental na manutenção da saúde e do crescimento das plantas. Poucos estudos até o momento, no entanto, exploraram as propriedades antagônicas e promotoras de crescimento de plantas (PGP) de endófitos de Prunus cerasifera. Para esse fim, isolamos bactérias endofíticas de amostras de tecido de P. cerasifera e usamos um ensaio de placa de cultura dupla para rastrear esses micróbios quanto à atividade antagonista contra Verticillium dahliae, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Fusarium oxysporum, F. graminearum e F. moniliforme. Das 36 cepas de bactérias isoladas, quatro (cepas P1, P10, P16 e P20) exibiram efeitos antagônicos contra todos os cinco patógenos modelo, e a cepa P10 exibiu o antagonista mais forte para cinco patógenos. Essa cepa P10 foi então caracterizada em profundidade por meio de avaliações fenotípicas, análises fisiológicas e sequenciamento de rDNA 16s, revelando ser uma cepa de Bacillus subtilis. A aplicação de uma suspensão de células P10 (1 × 108 UFC / mL) aumentou significativamente a germinação das sementes e o crescimento das mudas de tomate em casa de vegetação. Essa cepa P10 suprimiu ainda mais a murcha de Verticillium do tomate com incidência de doença muito menor e pontuações de índice de doença sendo observadas após o tratamento com P10 em relação a plantas não tratadas em experimentos baseados em vasos. As plantas de tomate que foram tratadas com a cepa P10 também aumentaram as enzimas relacionadas à defesa, peroxidase, superóxido dismutase e atividade da catalase após o desafio de V. dahliae em relação às plantas que não foram tratadas com essa bactéria endofítica. Os resultados revelaram que a cepa bacteriana P10 tem valor potencial como agente de biocontrole para uso na prevenção da murcha de Verticillium em tomate.


Subject(s)
Lycopersicon esculentum , Verticillium , Prunus domestica , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Ascomycota , Bacillus subtilis , Fusarium
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e250865, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285604

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major toxicants, which affects human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effects of morel mushrooms against Cd-induced reproductive damages in rats. For this purpose, 30 male rats were divided into 6 groups (n=5/group), the first group served as the control group, second group was treated with an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of 1 mg/kg/day of Cd. Third and fourth groups were co-treated with 1 mg/kg/day of Cd (i.p) and 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract (orally) respectively. The final 2 groups received oral gavage of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract alone. After treatment for 17 days, the animals were euthanized, and testes and epididymis were dissected out. One testis and epididymis of each animal were processed for histology, while the other testis and epididymis were used for daily sperm production (DSP) and comet assay. Our results showed that Cd and morel mushrooms have no effect on animal weight, but Cd significantly decreases the DSP count and damages the heritable DNA which is reversed in co-treatment groups. Similarly, the histopathological results of testes and epididymis show that morel mushrooms control the damage to these tissues. Whereas the morel mushroom extract alone could enhance the production of testosterone. These results conclude that morel mushrooms not only control the damage done by Cd, but it could also be used as a protection mechanism for heritable DNA damage.


Resumo O cádmio (Cd) é um dos principais tóxicos, que afeta a saúde humana por meio da exposição ocupacional e ambiental. No presente estudo, avaliamos os efeitos protetores dos cogumelos morel contra os danos reprodutivos induzidos pelo Cd em ratos. Para tanto, 30 ratos machos foram divididos em 6 grupos (n = 5 / grupo); o primeiro grupo serviu de controle, o segundo grupo foi tratado com injeção intraperitoneal (i.p) de 1 mg / kg / dia de Cd. O terceiro e o quarto grupos foram cotratados com 1 mg / kg / dia de Cd (i.p) e 10 e 20 mg / kg / dia de extrato de cogumelo morel (por via oral), respectivamente. Os dois grupos finais receberam gavagem oral de 10 e 20 mg / kg / dia de extrato de cogumelo morel sozinho. Após o tratamento por 17 dias, os animais foram sacrificados e os testículos e o epidídimo foram dissecados. Um testículo e epidídimo de cada animal foram processados ​​para histologia, enquanto o outro testículo e epidídimo foram usados ​​para produção diária de esperma (DSP) e ensaio cometa. Nossos resultados mostraram que os cogumelos Cd e morel não têm efeito sobre o peso do animal, mas o Cd diminui significativamente a contagem de DSP e danifica o DNA hereditário, que é revertido em grupos de cotratamento. Da mesma forma, os resultados histopatológicos dos testículos e do epidídimo mostram que os cogumelos morel controlam os danos a esses tecidos. Considerando que o extrato de cogumelo morel sozinho pode aumentar a produção de testosterona. Esses resultados concluem que os cogumelos morel não apenas controlam os danos causados pelo Cd, mas também podem ser usados ​​como um mecanismo de proteção para danos hereditários ao DNA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cadmium/toxicity , Agaricales , Ascomycota , Spermatozoa , Testis
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(4): 490-493, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285086

ABSTRACT

Abstract The detection of muriform cells in direct mycological or anatomopathological examination is considered pathognomonic for chromoblastomycosis. The morphological aspect that these fungal structures acquire were called "Borelli spiders", when associated with hyphae. Reports of this association have been described for decades, initially related to more pathogenic agents of this mycosis. More recent studies have shown aspects related to the host's immunity that participate in this process, as well as an association with a worse disease prognosis. The present study discloses the findings of complementary examinations with the presence of "Borelli's spiders" in a patient diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascomycota , Chromoblastomycosis/diagnosis , Chromoblastomycosis/drug therapy , Hyphae , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 27-36, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153332

ABSTRACT

Abstract The use of more than one control technique can maximize the reduction of the damages caused by the fungus Asperisporium caricae causal agent of the black spot in the papaya crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the sensitivity of the fungi Hansfordia pulvinata and Acremonium spp. to alternative products with potential for use in the control of the black-spotted ptarmigan. Three isolates of Acremonium spp. (A-598, A-602 and A-617) and an isolate of H. pulvinata (H-611) were grown in BDA medium containing Agro-Mos®, Bion®, Ecolife®, Hortifospk®, Matriz G®, Vitaphol® separately. The Amistar 500WG ® fungicide was used as a positive control and pure BDA as a negative control. The toxicity of the tested products was determined based on the values of the biological index, derived from the means of mycelial growth, sporulation and germination of conidia, in each experimental unit. In this way it was possible to select the products classified as compatible for all isolates, and to test them in vivo. In the greenhouse, only the isolates and isolates with selected products, were applied in papaya plants with foliar symptoms of black-spotted. The incidence of leaves with hyperparasites and the percentage of black-painted lesions colonized by the tested isolates were evaluated. Thus, the H-611 isolate proved to be compatible with most of the alternative products tested, except with Hortifos®. Bion® and Matrix® products were compatible with all tested isolates and could be used in conjunction with Acremonium spp. and H. pulvinata to control the papaya black spot, since these products did not present toxicity on the hyperparasitic fungi.


Resumo O uso de mais de uma técnica de controle pode maximizar a redução dos danos causados pelo fungo Asperisporium caricae agente causal da pinta preta na cultura do mamoeiro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade dos fungos Hansfordia pulvinata e Acremonium spp. a produtos alternativos com potencial para uso no controle da pinta-preta. Três isolados de Acremonium spp. (A-598, A-602 e A-617) e um isolado de H. pulvinata (H-611) foram cultivados em meio BDA contendo Agro-Mos®, Bion®, Ecolife®, Hortifospk®, Matriz G®, Vitaphol® separadamente. Fungicida Amistar 500WG® foi utilizado como controle positivo e BDA puro, como controle negativo. A toxicidade dos produtos testados foi determinada com base nos valores do índice biológico, provenientes das médias do crescimento micelial, esporulação e germinação de conídios, em cada unidade experimental. Dessa forma foi possível selecionar os produtos classificados como compatíveis para todos os isolados, e testá-los in vivo. Em casa de vegetação, somente os isolados e os isolados com produtos selecionados, foram aplicados em plantas de mamoeiro com sintomas foliares de pinta-preta. Avaliaram-se a incidência de folhas com hiperparasitas e a porcentagem de lesões de pinta-preta colonizadas pelos isolados testados. Assim o isolado H-611 mostrou-se compatível com a maioria dos produtos alternativos testados, exceto com Hortifos®. Os produtos Bion® e Matriz® apresentaram compatibilidade com todos os isolados testados, podendo ser utilizados em conjunto com o Acremonium spp. e H. pulvinata para controlar a pinta-preta do mamoeiro, uma vez que estes produtos não apresentaram toxidade sobre os fungos hiperparasitas.


Subject(s)
Carica , Plant Diseases , Ascomycota
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 604-609, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144258

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los hongos dematiáceos son un grupo heterogéneo de microorganismos capaces de sintetizar melanina. Las infecciones de este grupo que producen hifas en tejidos se denominan feohifomicosis y generalmente afectan la piel y tejidos vecinos. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 86 años con un tumor quístico blando progresivo en su mano y muñeca derecha, no asociado a dolor o signos inflamatorios. Se demostró una tenosinovitis de los flexores con pseudocapsula y sinovitis adherida a los tendones. El cultivo demostró un hongo dematiáceo compatible con Pleurostomophora richardsiae que se confirmó por secuenciación de la región ITS. La biopsia mostró una inflamación crónica granulomatosa e hifas. Después del drenaje quirúrgico, el paciente fue dado de alta sin terapia antifúngica, pero falleció por causas no relacionadas, tres meses después. Esta es la primera descripción de P. richardsiae como causa de feohifomicosis en Chile. Esta patología se puede sospechar cuando una lesión quística cutánea crónica involucra extremidades sin signos inflamatorios. Puede afectar a pacientes inmunocompetentes o inmunocomprometidos. El tratamiento contempla la escisión quirúrgica con o sin terapia antifúngica.


Abstract Dematiaceous fungi are a heterogeneous group of microorganisms able to synthesize melanin. Infections by this group that provoke tissular hyphae are called phaeohyphomycosis and usually involve skin and neighbor tissues. We present the case of a 86 years old men with a progressive soft cystic tumor in his right hand and wrist not associated to pain or inflammatory signs. A surgical intervention demonstrated flexor tenosynovitis with serous secretion, pseudocapsule and synovitis. Fungal culture demonstrated a dematiaceous fungi compatible with Pleurostomophora richardsiae that was confirmed by sequencing of the ITS region. Biopsy showed chronic inflammation with granuloma and hyphae. After surgical drainage, the patient was discharged without antifungal therapy but died of unrelated causes three month later. This is the first description of P. richardsiae as a cause of phaeohyphomycosis in Chile, a country with a template climate. Phaeohyphomycosis can be suspected when a chronic skin cystic lesion involves extremities without inflammatory signs, sometimes with an associated fistula. It may affect immunocompetent or immunosuppressed patients. Treatment involves surgical excision with or without antifungal therapy and prognosis is favorable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Abscess , Phaeohyphomycosis/diagnosis , Phaeohyphomycosis/drug therapy , Ascomycota , Chile , Hand , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 1816-1820, 01-11-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147941

ABSTRACT

A model to estimate the damage caused by white mold to soybean yield from experimental field data gathered during the summer season of 2009-10 was generated. Six soybean cultivars were grown on six sites of the Savana (Cerrados) region, resulting in a total of nine separate experiments. The gradient of disease intensity (plant stem incidence) and yield was generated through the application of different fungicides and rates three times over the course of the season. The disease incidence in plant stems was evaluated at the R1, R5.2 and R5.5 growing stages. Manual harvest at the physiological ripening stage was followed by grain drying, threshing, and cleaning. Finally, grain yield was estimated in kg/ha, and regression analysis was performed. Nine linear equations representing the damage function were generated. The mean damage function was y = - 6.7 x + 1,000, where y represents grain yield normalized to 1,000 kg/haand x represents WM incidence in plants. To appraise the damage caused by various disease intensities, these models should first be validated. Damage coefficients may be used to determine the level of economic damage.


Desenvolveu-se um modelo para estimar os danos causados pelo mofo-branco (MB) (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) na cultura da soja, com dados gerados em experimentos de campo conduzidos na safra de soja de 2009/10. Seis cultivares de soja foram cultivados em seis locais perfazendo um total de nove experimentos em distintas regiões edafoclimáticas na região do Cerrado. O gradiente da intensidade da doença, avaliada em função de incidência de sintomas/sinais em hastes, foi gerado pela aplicação de diferentes fungicidas em momentos e doses distintas. A intensidade da doença foi avaliada, nos estádios fenológicos de R1, R5.2 e R5.5. A colheita foi realizada na maturação fisiológica e o rendimento de grãos expresso em kg/ha. As análises de regressão entre o rendimento de grãos e a incidência da doença foram realizadas para todas as combinações obtidas e geraram nove equações lineares da função de dano. Função de dano média de nove experimentos foi R = 1.000 - 6,7 I (onde R = rendimento de grãos normalizado para 1.000 kg/ha e I incidênciaa do MB em plantas). Para estimar o dano causado por intensidades diferentes da doença, esses modelos devem ser previamente validado. Os coeficientes de dano podem ser usados para determinar o limiar de dano econômico


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Soybeans
10.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 273-277, jul. - set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118861

ABSTRACT

Three species of the Ascomycetes genus Camillea were recorded in a fragment of Amazon rainforest in the region of Santarém, Pará state, Brazil. The occurrence of C. leprieurii, C. cyclops and C. bilabiata expand the range of distribution of these species in the state. Camillea leprieurii has previous records in the regions of Marabá, Oriximiná, Itaituba and Novo Progresso, while C. cyclops had been recorded in the west of the state. This is the first record of C. bilabiata for Pará. We provide a morphological description of the specimens and an identification key for Camillea species found in Pará. (AU)


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Xylariales , Fungi , Amazonian Ecosystem
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 460-464, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132394

ABSTRACT

Abstract Essential oils (EO) from aromatic and medicinal plants generally perform a diverse range of biological activities because they have several active constituents that work in different mechanisms of action. EO from Citrus peel have an impressive range of food and medicinal uses, besides other applications. EO from Citrus reticulata, C. sinensis and C. deliciosa were extracted from fruit peel and analyzed by GC-MS. The major constituent of EO under evaluation was limonene, whose concentrations were 98.54%, 91.65% and 91.27% for C. sinensis, C. reticulata and C. deliciosa, respectively. The highest potential of inhibition of mycelial growth was observed when the oil dose was 300 μL. Citrus oils inhibited fungus growth in 82.91% (C. deliciosa), 65.82% (C. sinensis) and 63.46% (C. reticulata). Anti-Sclerotinia sclerotiorum activity of 90% pure limonene and at different doses (20, 50, 100, 200 and 300 μL) was also investigated. This monoterpene showed to be highly active by inhibiting 100% fungus growth even at 200 and 300 μL doses. This is the first report of the in vitro inhibitory effect of natural products from these three Citrus species and its results show that there is good prospect of using them experimentally to control S. sclerotiorum, in both greenhouse and field conditions.


Resumo Óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas e medicinais geralmente exibem uma gama diversificada de atividades biológicas, pois possuem vários constituintes ativos que atuam por meio de vários mecanismos de ação. Os óleos essenciais das cascas de Citrus têm uma variedade impressionante de usos em alimentos, medicamentos entre várias outras aplicações. Os óleos essenciais (OE) de Citrus reticulata, C. sinenses e C. deliciosa foram extraídos das cascas dos frutos e analisados por CG-EM. O limoneno foi o constituinte majoritário encontrado nos óleos essenciais avaliados, nas concentrações de 98,54%, 91,65% e 91,27% para C. sinensis, C. reticulata e C. deliciosa, respectivamente. Os maiores potenciais de inibição do crescimento micelial foi observado na dose de 300 µL dos óleos. Os óleos de Citrus inibiram em 82,91% (C. deliciosa), 65,82% (C. sinensis) e 63,46% (C. reticulata) o crescimento do fungo. A atividade anti-Sclerotinia sclerotiorum do limoneno 90% puro e em diferentes doses (20, 50, 100, 200 e 300 µL) foi também investigada e este monoterpeno demonstrou-se altamente ativo inibindo 100% o crescimento do fungo inclusive nas doses de 200 e 300 µL. Este é o primeiro relato sobre o efeito inibitório in vitro dos óleos essenciais destas três espécies de Citrus e os resultados deste estudo mostram que existe uma boa perspectiva de uso destes produtos naturais experimentalmente para controlar o S. sclerotiorum tanto em condições de estufa como em condições de campo.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Oils, Volatile , Citrus , Plant Oils , Limonene , Fruit
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 691-701, 01-05-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146440

ABSTRACT

The application of chemical pesticides for the control of fungal diseases results in impacts on the environment and human health. The use of vegetal extracts with antifungal properties for the proper management of crops becomes a viable alternative, mainly for organic and family farming. The objective of this study was to carry out the phytochemical evaluation of Datura inoxia, evaluating its antifungal potential against the mycelial growth of Fusarium solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The extracts, aqueous and ethanolic, obtained from the leaves of the plant collected in areas of the municipality of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, were submitted to phytochemical prospecting and quantification of flavonoids and total phenols. It was evaluated its antifungal activity at concentrations of 800, 1200, 1600, 2000, and 2400 µg 100 mL-1. Each concentration was separately incorporated into BDA agar, poured into Petri dishes, and inoculated with the mycelial disc of the fungus. The diameter of the colonies were measured daily. Two solutions were prepared as control, one containing the solvent added to PDA medium (ethanol solution), and another with only PDA medium (without D. inoxia extract, control). In both extracts were found the same diversity of secondary metabolites (nine classes). The ethanolic extract, a solvent of lower polarity than water, was more efficient in the extraction of these constituents. Alkaloids and phenolic compounds were the most frequent compounds (100%). In relation to antifungal activity, the ethanolic extract provided 100% inhibition of mycelial growth ofSclerotinia sclerotitorum in all concentrations, relative to the control. On the other hand, the growth ofFusarium solani was only negatively affected at the highest concentrations of 800 and 1200 µmL-1 100 mL-1. The antifungal potential of Datura inoxia was probably related to the abundance of alkaloids and phenolic compounds in its chemical constitution that negatively effects the development of the vegetative mycelium.


A aplicação de defensivos químicos para o controle de doenças fúngicas tem por consequência impactos sobre o ambiente e a saúde humana. Desta forma, a utilização de extratos vegetais com propriedades antifúngicas associado ao manejo adequado de culturas, torna-se uma proposta viável de controle alternativo, principalmente na agricultura orgânica e familiar. Neste sentido, objetivou-se realizar a avaliação fitoquímica das folhas de Datura inoxia, avaliando seu potencial antifúngico frente ao crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Os extratos, aquoso e etanólico, obtidos das folhas da planta coletadas em áreas do município de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, foram submetidos à prospecção fitoquímica e quantificação flavonoides e fenóis totais, avaliando-se sua atividade antifúngica em concentrações de 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 e 2400 µg 100 mL-1. Cada concentração foi incorporada, separadamente, em ágar BDA, vertida em placas de petri, seguida da colocação do disco de micélio do fungo, com diâmetro das colônias sendo medido diariamente. Utilizou-se como controle negativo, ágar sem extrato e ágar com solução etanólica. Nos dois extratos ocorreu a mesma diversidade de metabólitos secundários (nove classes); porém o extrato etanólico, um solvente de menor polaridade que a água, foi mais eficiente na extração destes constituintes, com destaque aos alcaloides e compostos fenólicos com maior frequência (100%). Em relação a atividade antifúngica, o extrato etanólico proporcionou inibição de 100% do crescimento micelial de Sclerotinia sclerotitorum, em todas as concentrações, em relação a testemunha. Por outro lado, o crescimento de Fusarium solani foi afetado negativamente apenas nas maiores concentrações, 800 e 1200 µmL-1 100 mL-1.O potencial antifúngico da planta provavelmente está relacionado a sua constituição química, com abundância de alcaloides e compostos fenólicos, afetando negativamente o desenvolvimento do micélio vegetativo.


Subject(s)
Soil , Plant Extracts , Datura metel , Fungi , Pesticides , Plant Diseases , Ascomycota , Control , Phenolic Compounds , Phytochemicals , Fusarium , Noxae
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 602-605, 01-03-2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146426

ABSTRACT

Informally known as black earth tongue, Geoglossum fallax has a large terrestrial dark brown or black ascoma. The species belongs to the Geoglossomycetes class of fungi, which includes the genera Geoglossum, Sarcoleotia, Thuemenidium and Trichoglossum. This study describes the first record of G. fallaxin Bahia, northeastern Brazil, and presents the species' main identification features. The specimens were found growing on a lawn, in Campus X, Bahia State University (UNEB), municipality of Teixeira de Freitas, southernmost region of Bahia state. After gross inspection and microscopy, all specimens were identified based on the specialized literature. Slides and exsiccata of specimens were deposited in the Fungi Collection, Fungal Biology Laboratory, Campus X, UNEB. This is the first record of G. fallax in northeastern Brazil.


Conhecido como "língua-da-terra", o fungo Geoglossum fallax pertence à classe Geoglossomycetes e é tipicamente caracterizado por ascocarpo terrestre grande, escuro, variando de cor entre marrom-escuro a preto. Atualmente encontram-se incluídos na classe Geoglossomycetes os gêneros Geoglossum, Sarcoleotia, Thuemenidium e Trichoglossum. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram apresentar o primeiro registro da espécie G. fallax no extremo sul da Bahia, nordeste brasileiro, e descrever as principais características que permitiram sua identificação. Os espécimes foram encontrados em um gramado no CampusX da Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), município de Teixeira de Freitas. Todo o material foi analisado macro e microscopicamente e identificado com base na literatura especializada. Lâminas e exsicatas dos espécimes foram depositadas na Micoteca do Laboratório de Biologia dos Fungos, Campus X da UNEB. A identificação de G. fallax confirma o primeiro registro desta espécie no extremo sul da Bahia e no nordeste do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Brazil , Fungi
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(1): 77-81, feb. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092725

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los episodios de neutropenia febril son cuadros graves, que requieren un estudio etiológico exhaustivo y un inicio rápido de antimicrobianos. Dentro de los posibles microorganismos causales se encuentran los de origen fúngico, los que, dependiendo de su grado de invasión tisular, pueden llegar a presentar una alta mortalidad. Presentamos el caso de un niño con una leucemia mieloide aguda, que tras su quimioterapia de inducción, presentó un episodio de neutropenia febril, con una infección rino-sinusal por Exserohilum rostratum, hongo filamentoso que raramente se asocia a cuadros patológicos. Se inició rápidamente terapia antifúngica, lo cual, asociado a un aseo quirúrgico precoz, lograron una respuesta clínica favorable, sin complicaciones. Luego del seguimiento, y tras recibir profilaxis secundaria durante los episodios de neutropenia, no ha vuelto a presentar nuevas lesiones ni compromiso rino-sinusal.


Abstract The episodes of febrile neutropenia are severe cases that require an exhaustive etiological study and a quick start of antimicrobial agents. Within the possible microorganisms, fungal origins are also found, and depending on its tissue invasion, they can reach a high mortality rate. A case of a pediatric patient who suffered from acute myeloid leukemia is reported, and after his induction chemotherapy, the patient showed an episode of febrile neutropenia, which matches a rhinosinusal infection caused by Exserohilum rostratum, a filamentous fungi that is uncommonly associated with pathological cases. An antifungal therapy and an early surgical treatment were started, which lead to a positive response, without complications to the patient. After the monitoring and receiving secondary prophylaxis during the episodes of neutropenia, the patient hasn't presented new injuries nor rhinosinusal damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Sinusitis/complications , Sinusitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Neutropenia/etiology
15.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(1): 65-68, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088960

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We describe a case of keratomycosis caused by Arthographis kalrae after excimer laser keratomileusis. A 38-year-old female developed stromal keratitis eight weeks after refractive surgery. She developed severe corneal stromal infiltration and mild anterior segment inflammation, which could not be treated with topical voriconazole 1%, but topical natamycin 5% ameliorated her condition. A reactivation of keratomycosis symptoms was observed; therefore, longer treatment was administered to the patient. It has been reported that A. kalrae keratomycosis is associated with exposure to soil and contact lens usage. However, the patient, who lived in a rural location, was neither involved in gardening activities nor had a history of wearing contact lenses. This is the first case of post-refractive A. kalrae keratomycosis.


RESUMO Descrevemos um caso de ceratomicose por Arthographis kalrae após ceratomileusis por excimer laser. Uma mulher de 38 anos desenvolveu ceratite estromal oito semanas após a cirurgia refrativa. Ela desenvolveu infiltração estromal grave da córnea e uma leve inflamação do segmento anterior, que não pode ser tratada com voriconazol tópico a 1%, mas a natamicina tópica a 5% melhorou sua condição. Uma reativação dos síntomas de ceratomicose foi observada; portanto, tratamento mais prolongado foi administrado a paciente. Tem sido relatado que a ceratomicose por A. kalrae está associada à exposição ao solo e ao uso de lentes de contato. No entanto, a paciente, que vivía em um local rural, não estava envolvida em atividades de jardinagem e nem tinha histórico de uso de lentes de contato. Este é o primeiro caso de ceratomicose pós-refrativa por A. kalrae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Keratitis/microbiology , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Natamycin/therapeutic use , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ/adverse effects , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Keratitis/drug therapy
16.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0612019, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1130105

ABSTRACT

The use of highly toxic pesticides to control soil pathogens, such as Fusarium spp. and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has generated concern, due to the irreversible impacts caused on the environment, in addition to selecting resistant isolates. In this way, essential oils appear as an efficient alternative in control of diseases. Facing the problem of soil pathogens control and high antimicrobial fungicide that essential oils present, this work aimed to evaluate the in vitro fungicidal potential of essential oils in control of Fusarium spp. and S. sclerotiorum. A completely randomized design, factorial scheme 2×4×8 was used, with two isolates (Fusarium spp. and S. sclerotiorum), four essential oils (Aloysia citriodora, Cymbopogon winterianus, Lippia alba and Ocimum americanum), eight essential oil concentrations (0.0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8; 1.0; 1.2 and 1.4 ?L·mL-1), and ten replicates. The essential oils inhibited mycelial growth of the fungi in different concentrations, being their potential justified by the presence of antifungal chemical compounds. Essential oils of A. citriodora, C. winterianus, L. alba and O. americanum present high fungicidal potential, being viable alternatives for formulation of commercial products, boosting the pesticides industry.(AU)


O uso de pesticidas com alta toxicidade para controlar patógenos do solo, como Fusarium spp. e Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, tem gerado preocupação, devido aos impactos irreversíveis causados no meio ambiente, além de selecionar isolados resistentes. Dessa forma, os óleos essenciais surgem como uma alternativa eficiente no controle de doenças. Diante da problemática de controle de patógenos do solo e alto potencial antimicrobiano que os óleos essenciais possuem, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial fungicida de óleos essenciais no controle de Fusarium spp. e S. sclerotiorum, in vitro. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente randomizado, esquema fatorial 2×4×8, com dois isolados (Fusarium spp. e S. sclerotiorum), quatro óleos essenciais (Aloysia citriodora, Cymbopogon winterianus, Lippia alba e Ocimum americanum) e oito concentrações de óleo essencial (0,0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,8; 1,0; 1,2 e 1,4 ?L·mL-1), com dez repetições. Os óleos essenciais inibiram o crescimento micelial dos fungos em diferentes concentrações, sendo seu potencial justificado pela presença de compostos químicos antifúngicos. Os óleos essenciais de A. citriodora, C. winterianus, L. alba e O. americanum apresentam alto potencial fungicida, sendo alternativas viáveis para formulação de produtos comerciais, impulsionando a indústria de agrotóxicos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pesticides/toxicity , Pesticide Utilization , Oils, Volatile , Noxae , Ascomycota , Soil , Ocimum canum , Environment , Fusarium , Antifungal Agents
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2824-2837, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878532

ABSTRACT

In order to explore the microbial communities and functions of activated sludge in an Anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A²/O) process under the start-up of Actinic reaction enzyme system (ARES) system and to understand the impact of the ARES system in domestic sewage treatment process, the activated sludge microbial community structure in the A²/O process system before and after ARES system start-up was analyzed by Illumina-HiSeq 2000 high-throughput sequencing platform. By combining with the main parameters related to the effect of sewage treatment, we analyzed the environmental functions of the microbial communities. The microbial community structure of activated sludge was significantly different before and after the ARES system start-up. There were 9 main bacterial phyla in the system (average relative abundance ≥1%), accounting for 96%-98% of the total bacteria sequenced. After the ARES system was started, the relative abundance of Betaproteobacteria and Chlorobi increased by 3.45%-3.85% and 0.45%-2.61%, respectively. In the anaerobic unit, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes increased by 12.97%, while the Actinobacteria and Firmicutes decreased by 9.60% and 1.45%, respectively. At the genus level of bacteria, the relative abundance of Denitratisoma increased by 0.80%-3.27%, while the Haliangium and Arcobacter decreased by 3.36%-4.52% and 1.48%-3.45%, respectively. The relative abundance of bacteria was significantly different before and after the ARES system start-up. There were 7 abundant fungi phyla (average relative abundance ≥1%) in the system. After the ARES system was started, the relative abundance of Rozellomycota decreased by 42.71%-46.77%. In the anaerobic unit, the relative abundance of Ascomycota decreased by 13.39%, while the relative abundance of Glomeromycota increased by 13.86%. At the genus level of fungi. The relative abundance of Entomophthoraceae sp. and Glomcromycota sp. increased by 31.35%-36.50% and 6.27%-13.84%, respectively, while the Rozellomycota sp. and Xylochrysis lucida decreased by 42.71%-46.77% and 3.67%-5.54%, respectively. Our results showed that the application of ARES system caused the response of the microbial community to environmental changes, especially for the fungi communities, in the meanwhile, improved the effluent quality, especially the removal rate of total nitrogen.


Subject(s)
Anaerobiosis , Ascomycota , Bioreactors , Microbiota , Nitrogen , Sewage , Waste Disposal, Fluid
18.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 302-306, dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057393

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fungi from the genus Cladorrhinum (Ascomycota) are promising agents in the biocontrol of phytopathogens, in the promotion of plant growth, and in the production of enzymes with technological application. We analyzed comparatively the ability of 5 native strains of Cladorrhinum samala and Cladorrhinum bulbillosum with reference strains belonging to the same genus. We used 95 individual carbon sources available in microplates from the Biolog® FF system. Although most of the strains mainly used soluble carbohydrates, the metabolic profile was highly dependent upon each isolate and it revealed intraspecific physiological variability in Cladorrhinum species.


Resumen Los hongos del género Cladorrhinum (Ascomycota) son agentes prometedores en el biocontrol de fitopatógenos, la promoción del crecimiento de las plantas y la producción de enzimas con aplicación tecnológica. En este trabajo se analizaron comparativamente las habilidades de 5 cepas nativas pertenecientes a las especies Cladorrhinum samala y Cladorrhinum bulbillosum con cepas de referencia del mismo género. Se usaron 95 fuentes individuales de carbono, disponibles en microplacas de Biolog® FF system. Aunque la mayoría de las cepas utilizaron principalmente carbohidratos solubles, el perfil metabólico fue altamente dependiente de cada aislamiento y reveló variabilidad fisiológica intraespecífica en las especies de Cladorrhinum.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Ascomycota/metabolism , Biological Control Agents/analysis
19.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(5): 574-577, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054870

ABSTRACT

Abstract The authors report a case of 40-year-old male patient with a five-year history of chromoblastomycosis on his right leg. Diagnosis was performed by direct 40% KOH exam of skin scales, culture with micro- and macromorphologic analysis, and genotypic characterization (sequencing of a fragment of the ITS region and phylogenetic analysis) of the isolated fungus. Rhinocladiella aquaspersa was identified as the etiological agent. Initially, the treatment was with oral itraconazole 200 mg/day for one year. However, the presence of "sclerotic cells" with filaments ("Borelli spiders") resulted in a change of medical treatment: a higher dose of itraconazole (400 mg/day) and surgery, achieving clinical and mycological cure in one year. This is the first report of chromoblastomycosis caused by R. aquaspersa in Guatemala.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Chromoblastomycosis/microbiology , Ascomycota/ultrastructure , Chromoblastomycosis/pathology , Chromoblastomycosis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Guatemala , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 65-70, July. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053486

ABSTRACT

Background: In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Msn2, which acts as a key transcription factor downstream the MAPKHOG cascade pathway, also regulates the expression of genes related to stress responses. However, little is known about the regulation mechanisms of the transcription factor in Setosphaeria turcica. Results: In this study, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein, designated as StMSN2, was cloned from S. turcica. Sequencing results showed that StMSN2 had a 1752 bp open reading frame (ORF), which was interrupted by an intron (135 bp) and encoded a putative 538-amino acid protein. Phylogenetic analysis further revealed that StMsn2 was more closely related to Msn2 of Aspergillus parasiticus. StMSN2 was cloned into the pET-28a vector with His (Histidine) tags and induced with 1 mM IPTG (isopropyl-ß-D-thiogalactoside) at 37°C. The recombinant His-tagged StMsn2 was purified, and a band of size approximately 58.8 kDa was obtained. The high specificity of the polyclonal antibody Msn2-2 was detected with the StMsn2 protein from S. turcica and prokaryotic expression system, respectively. Conclusions: A new gene, named StMSN2, with 1617 bp ORF was cloned from S. turcica and characterized using bioinformatics methods. StMsn2 was expressed and purified in a prokaryotic system. A polyclonal antibody, named Msn2-2, against StMsn2 with high specificity was identified.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases , Ascomycota/genetics , Ascomycota/pathogenicity , Transcription Factors/isolation & purification , Ascomycota/metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Carrier Proteins , Gene Expression , Blotting, Western , Open Reading Frames , Zinc Fingers , Cloning, Molecular , Zea mays , Escherichia coli , Helminthosporium , Epitopes
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