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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 67-78, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889191

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The use of dark septate fungi (DSE) to promote plant growth can be beneficial to agriculture, and these organisms are important allies in the search for sustainable agriculture practices. This study investigates the contribution of dark septate fungi to the absorption of nutrients by rice plants and their ensuing growth. Four dark septate fungi isolates that were identified by Internal transcribed spacer phylogeny were inoculated in rice seeds (Cv. Piauí). The resulting root colonization was estimated and the kinetic parameters Vmax and Km were calculated from the nitrate contents of the nutrient solution. The macronutrient levels in the shoots, and the NO3--N, NH4+-N, free amino-N and soluble sugars in the roots, sheathes and leaves were measured. The rice roots were significantly colonized by all of the fungi, but in particular, isolate A103 increased the fresh and dry biomass of the shoots and the number of tillers per plant, amino-N, and soluble sugars as well as the N, P, K, Mg and S contents in comparison with the control treatment. When inoculated with isolates A103 and A101, the plants presented lower Km values, indicating affinity increases for NO3--N absorption. Therefore, the A103 Pleosporales fungus presented the highest potential for the promotion of rice plant growth, increasing the tillering and nutrients uptake, especially N (due to an enhanced affinity for N uptake) and P.


Subject(s)
Fungi/physiology , Oryza/growth & development , Oryza/microbiology , Ascomycota/classification , Ascomycota/genetics , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Ascomycota/physiology , Biomass , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Nitrogen/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , Phosphates/metabolism , Phylogeny , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Potassium/metabolism
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(6): 670-674, Nov.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888914

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Graphium basitruncatum, a synanamorph of Pseudoallescheria has been rarely reported in human infections. We report a case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by this fungus in a heart transplant recipient. We also describe the phenotypic, molecular methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) used to achieve isolate identification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ascomycota/genetics , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Transplant Recipients , Phenotype , Ascomycota/classification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Heart Transplantation , Immunocompromised Host
3.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1801-1813, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886769

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Foliar diseases impose severe restrictions on the persistence and productivity of Medicago sativa, both of which may be increased by developing disease resistant and more competitive genotypes that can improve pasture quality. We found Curvularia geniculata as the principal alfalfa foliar pathogen in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Growth chamber experiments evaluated the resistance of alfalfa genotypes 'E1C4', 'CPPSul', 'ABT 805' and 'CUF-101' to C. geniculata as compared the control 'Crioula' genotype. These genotypes were also evaluated in field trials at a sea level site in Eldorado do Sul in central RS and at two sites £200 m above sea level, one in Bagé municipality in south west RS and the other at a farm near the town of Alto Feliz in north east RS. Plants were spray-inoculated with 1.6 x 106 ml-1 of C. geniculata spores and visually evaluated for leaf damage 14 days later. The C. geniculata infection rates varied from zero to 100%. Alfalfa persistence and forage mean dry mass (DM) production at the Eldorado site were measured during different seasons from November 2013 to January 2015 by calculating the incidence of invasive plants and morphologically separating leaves from stems and calculating both leaf and stem DM. Data were analysed using mixed statistical models. The best results for persistence and forage DM were shown by the 'CPPSul' genotypes (DM = 16,600 kg ha-1) and 'Crioula' (DM = 15,750 kg ha-1). These two genotypes will be used for subsequent investigations and selection cycles.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/pathogenicity , Selection, Genetic/genetics , Medicago sativa/genetics , Medicago sativa/microbiology , Ascomycota/classification , Seasons , Brazil , Genotype
4.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(3): 871-884, jul.-sep. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-778090

ABSTRACT

Diaporthe(telomorfo) - Phomopsis(anamorfo) (DP) constituye un grupo fúngico de amplia diversidad genética con más de 900 especies distribuidas en un amplio rango de hospedantes que incluye especies cultivadas y no cultivadas, forestales, frutales y malezas. Los aislamientos de DP son hemi-biótrofos y disponen de diferentes fuentes de inóculo primario, como el rastrojo y las semillas, para reiniciar sus ciclos de parasitismo-saprofitismo. Ellos colonizan los tejidos del hospedante desde los estadios tempranos del desarrollo y establecen relaciones nutricionales de endofitia y necrotrofia fúngica. La plasticidad del género Phomopsisha favorecido su expansión a diferentes agro-ecosistemas y hospedantes constituyendo un importante riesgo epidemiológico. El objetivo fue validar la identidad y evaluar las relaciones biológicas de 12 aislamientos de P. longicollay D. phaseolorumvar. sojaeobtenidos en distintos agro-ambientes templados y subtropicales de Argentina, para analizar la variabilidad y estrategias de conservación de la bio-diversidad fúngica. Las cualidades macro-morfo-lógicas(textura y color de colonias, forma y distribución de estromas, desarrollo, forma y distribución de cuerpos fructíferos), y los caracteres micro-morfológicos(tamaño y forma de conidios, ascos y ascosporas) permitieron identificar a tres nuevos aislamientos de P. longicollaincluidos en el complejo D/P. El análisis molecular complementario corrigió las limitaciones derivadas de la caracterización basada sólo en marcadores morfológicos y logró reubicar al aislamiento AFP.8413 de identidad dudosa, en el nodo correspondiente a P. longicolla.De esta manera, la caracterización molecular definió la identidad de los aislamientos y los ubicó en los 4 taxones del complejo DP: diez aislamientos fueron incluidos en Plo(AFP.Gpo 4.4, AFP.Gpo 3.5, AFP.Gpo 4.3, AFP.Gpo 3.4, AFP.CaA, AFP. CaB, AFP.B5L16, AFP.B4L17, AFP.227B2, AFP.8413), un aislamiento incluido en Dps(AFP.Qcol7), un aislamiento en Dpc(AFP.Dpc16) y dos aislamientos incluidos en Dpm(AFP.Dpm109 y AFP.Dpm112). La adecuada identificación de P. longicollay el avance en el conocimiento de las relaciones biológicas (hibridaciones homo o heterotálicas) entre variedades de D. phaseolorum (P. phaseoli)y especies de Diaporthe- Phomopsispermiten comprender la plasticidad para colonizar un amplio rango de hospedantes, los mecanismos de variabilidad genética y la preservación de la diversidad fúngica.


Diaporthe(teleomorpho)-Phomopsis (anamorph) (DP) is a fungal group of great genetic diversity with over 900 species associated to a wide host range that includes cultivated and uncultivated species, forest, fruit trees and weeds. DP isolates are hemi-biotrophs and have different sources of primary inoculum as stubble and seeds to restart cycles of parasitism -saprophytism. They colonize host tissues from early plant stages and establish different nutritional relationships, acting as endophytic and necrotrophic fungi. The plasticity of the Phomopsisgenus has favored its expansion to different agro-ecosystems and various hosts constituting an epidemiological risk. The objective was to validate the identity and evaluate the biological relationships among 12 isolates of P. longicollaand D. phaseolorumvar. sojae(anamorph P. phaseolivar. sojae)obtained in different tempered and subtropical agro-environments of Argentina, in order to analyze the variability and strategies for preserving fungal biodiversity. Macro-morphological attributes (such as texture and color of colonies, stroma shape and distribution, pycnidia and perythecia shape and distribution) and micro-morphological characteristics (such as size and shape of conidia, asci and ascospores) allowed identifying three new isolates as P. longicolla.A complementary molecular analysis was also made to overcome the limitations derived from the morphological analysis, thus the AFP.8413 isolate was finally identified as P. longicolla.The molecular characterization was useful to identify the evaluated isolates and to group them in four taxa of the Diaporthe-Phomopsiscomplex: ten isolates were included in P. longicolla,one isolate was included in D. phaseolorumvar. sojae(anamorph P. phaseolivar. sojae),one isolate was identified as D. phaseolorumvar. caulivoraand two isolates were included in D. phaseolorumvar. meridi-onalis.The use of phenotipic and molecular tools have contributed to an accurate identification of P. longicolla,and comprehension about the biological relationships (homo or heterothallic hibridizations) among D. phaseolo-rumvarieties (P. phaseoli)and species of Diaporthe-Phomopsis.This allowed also a better understanding of the mechanisms of fungic plasticity, to colonize and expand their host range and genetic variability, promoting thus their biodiversity conservation.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Biodiversity , Genetic Variation , Argentina , Ascomycota/classification , Ascomycota/cytology , Ascomycota/genetics , Phylogeny
5.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(6): 750-754, dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734770

ABSTRACT

We report a case of mycotic keratitis caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae in a 60-year-old man with a history of ocular trauma with vegetable matter. Ophthalmological assessment with slit-lamp and microbiological evaluation of the corneal ulcer by conventional microbiological techniques were performed. Mycology study of the corneal scraping showed the presence of fungal filaments and the isolate was identified as Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Patient was treated with natamycin 5% and fluconazole 0.2% for 37 days. The infection was controlled but the corneal scars required a cornea transplant. This is the first case of keratitis by Lasiodiplodia theobromae in Paraguay. Difficulties in the management of these cases, which often requires surgical procedures, are discussed.


Se presenta un caso clínico de queratitis causada por Lasiodiplodia theobromae en un agricultor de 60 años de edad, con antecedentes de un trauma ocular con un vegetal. Se realizó un examen oftalmológico con lámpara de hendidura y estudio microbiológico de la úlcera corneal por técnicas microbiológicas convencionales. El examen micológico del raspado corneal reveló la presencia de hifas septadas y el cultivo fue identificado como Lasiodiplodia theobromae. El paciente fue tratado con natamicina al 5% y fluconazol al 0,2% durante 37 días. La infección fue controlada, sin embargo, el paciente quedó con cicatrices corneales y con necesidad de trasplante. Es el primer caso de queratitis por Lasiodiplodia theobromae en Paraguay. Se discute la dificultad de manejo de estos casos que a menudo requieren procedimientos quirúrgicos y trasplante de córnea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Keratitis/diagnosis , Ascomycota/classification , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Keratitis/drug therapy
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(5): 613-617, Sep-Oct/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728898

ABSTRACT

Introduction Purpureocillium lilacinum is emerging as a causal agent of hyalohyphomycosis that is refractory to antifungal drugs; however, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying P. lilacinum infection are not understood. In this study, we investigated the interaction of P. lilacinum conidia with human macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro. Methods Spores of a P. lilacinum clinical isolate were obtained by chill-heat shock. Mononuclear cells were isolated from eight healthy individuals. Monocytes were separated by cold aggregation and differentiated into macrophages by incubation for 7 to 10 days at 37°C or into dendritic cells by the addition of the cytokines human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin-4. Conidial suspension was added to the human cells at 1:1, 2:1, and 5:1 (conidia:cells) ratios for 1h, 6h, and 24h, and the infection was evaluated by Giemsa staining and light microscopy. Results After 1h interaction, P. lilacinum conidia were internalized by human cells and after 6h contact, some conidia became inflated. After 24h interaction, the conidia produced germ tubes and hyphae, leading to the disruption of macrophage and dendritic cell membranes. The infection rate analyzed after 6h incubation of P. lilacinum conidia with cells at 2:1 and 1:1 ratios was 76.5% and 25.5%, respectively, for macrophages and 54.3% and 19.5%, respectively, for cultured dendritic cells. Conclusions P. lilacinum conidia are capable of infecting and destroying both macrophages and dendritic cells, clearly demonstrating the ability of this pathogenic fungus to invade human phagocytic cells. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascomycota/physiology , Dendritic Cells/microbiology , Macrophages/microbiology , Ascomycota/classification , Phagocytosis , Time Factors
8.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(1): 266-281, ene.-mar. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-715429

ABSTRACT

Colombia is a megadiverse country, but with a substantial gap in the taxonomic and ecological knowledge of fungi and lichens. Thus, the objective of the present study was an ecogeographical analysis of the Sticta species in Colombia. The data included macrodistribution (with respect to mountain ranges and life zones) and microhabitat preferences (light, substrate) and were obtained from field work and herbarium collection labels (completed by comparison with modern geographic and vegetation maps), for 103 species of Sticta currently recognized in Colombia (plus seven additional biotypes with different photobionts or reproductive mode). Using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS), correlations between ecogeographical variables and species were established, and ecotypes were delimited. Colombian species of Sticta showed distinct distribution patterns relative to altitude, mountain ranges, life zones, as well as light exposure and substrate, forming several distinct groups. Cyanobacterial species tend to have wider distribution ranges than green algal species. We concluded that the orogeny of the Northern Andes substantially affected speciation of the genus Sticta and its ecogeographical differentiation.


Colombia es un país megadiverso, pero con una ausencia significativa en el conocimiento de la taxonomía y ecología de hongos y líquenes. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio era un análisis ecogeográfico de las especies de Sticta de Colombia. Los datos incluyeron la macrodistribución (con respeto a las cordilleras y zonas de vida) y preferencias de microhabitat (luz, sustrato) y fueron obtenidos mediante trabajo de campo y en el herbario (complemetados con mapas modernos de geografía y vegetación), para 103 especies actualmente reconocidas en Colombia (más siete biotipos con diferentes fotobiontes o modo de reproducción). Se elaboró un análisis de ordenación usando la técnica de escalamiento multidimensional no métrico (NMS), para establecer correlaciones entre variables ecogeográficas y las especies y para definir ecotipos. Las especies de Sticta en Colombia presentan patrones de distribución relativos a la altitud, las zonas de vida y la ubicación en las cordilleras, tanto como luz y sustrato, formando varios grupos distintos. Las especies con ciano-bionte tienen un rango de distribución más amplio que las especies con fotobionte verde. Concluimos que la orogenia de los Andes afectó significativamente la especiación del género Sticta y su diferenciación ecogeográfica.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/classification , Colombia , Ecosystem , Geography , Phylogeny
9.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(3): 319-322, jun. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-679905

ABSTRACT

Curvularia inaequalis (Shear) Boedijn is a fungus dematiaceo, saprophyte and plant pathogen found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas, associated with various organic substrates. Rarely been identified in systemic infections, skin and there is only one report of allergic rhinosinusitis described above. A case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis by Curvularia inaequalis (Shear) Boedijn in which diagnosis was considered the signs and symptoms, sinus CT and cultivation of mucin.The patient was treated with endoscopic surgical toilet, plus use of inhaled steroids and itraconazole systemic. With good clinical response, is asymptomatic at one year.


Curvularia inaequalis (Shear) Boedijn es un hongo dematiáceo, saprófito y fitopatógeno, presente principalmente en áreas tropicales y subtropicales, asociado a distintos sustratos orgánicos. Se ha identificado escasamente en infecciones sistémicas, cutáneas y sólo existe una comunicación de un caso de rinosinusitis alérgica descrito anteriormente. Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente con una rinosinusitis alérgica fúngica por Curvularia inaequalis (Shear) Boedijn en cuyo diagnóstico se consideró los síntomas y signos clínicos, la TAC de senos paranasales y el cultivo de la mucina. El paciente fue tratado con un aseo quirúrgico por vía endoscópica, además del uso de corticoesteroides inhalatorios e itra-conazol sistémico. Presentó una buena respuesta clínica, encontrándose asintomático a un año del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ascomycota , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/microbiology , Sinusitis/microbiology , Ascomycota/classification , Paranasal Sinuses , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
An. bras. dermatol ; 87(4): 555-560, July-Aug. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-645323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection caused by fungi from the Dematiaceae family. According to several studies, Fonsecaea pedrosoi is the most common of these fungi. The infection is more common in tropical countries, with the Brazilian state of Pará having one of the largest infected populations worldwide. The disease is difficult to treat and recurrences are common. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiological and mycological aspects of cases of chromoblastomycosis and its clinical forms in the state of Pará, Brazil. METHODS: Mycological exams (direct mycological examinations, culture and microculture) were performed and a clinical/epidemiological evaluation was made of 65 patients receiving care at the Dermatology Department of the Federal University of Pará between 2000 and 2007. The clinical classification proposed by Carrión in 1950 was used in this study. RESULTS: The majority of the patients were male (93.8%), agricultural workers (89.2%) of 45 to 55 years of age, and the majority of lesions (55.4%) were of the verrucous type, located principally on the lower limbs (81.5%). In the majority of the cases investigated (61.5%), the infection had been present for a long time, with a mean duration of 11 years. Direct mycological examination was performed in 86.2% of the patients (n=56). Of these, 96.4% (n=54) tested positive. Culture and microculture were performed in vitro in 47 cases of those that tested positive at direct microscopy, results showing Fonsecaea pedrosoi to be the only agent present in this sample. CONCLUSION: This study highlighted the extent to which chromoblastomycosis still affects the quality of life of the local population, principally individuals working in agriculture. This is a chronic disease for which there is no effective treatment. The importance of continuing to investigate this disease should be emphasized, as further studies may lead to new clinical or epidemiological findings.


FUNDAMENTOS: A cromoblastomicose é uma infecção fúngica crônica, causada por fungos da família Dematiaceae, sendo Fonsecaea pedrosoi a mais comum, segundo vários estudos. É mais frequente em países tropicais e o estado do Pará possui grande casuística mundial. A doença é de difícil tratamento e apresenta recorrência frequente. OBJETIVOS: Descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos, micológicos e formas clínicas dos casos de cromoblastomicose procedentes do estado do Pará - Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram realizados exames micológicos (direto, cultura e microcultivo) e observação clinicoepidemiológica em 65 pacientes do Serviço de Dermatologia da Universidade Federal do Pará, atendidos no período de 2000 a 2007. Empregou-se a classificação clínica proposta por Carrión em 1950. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes eram, em sua maioria, homens (93,8%), lavradores (89,2%), faixa etária entre 45-55 anos, com predominância de lesões verruciformes (55,4%), localizadas principalmente nos membros inferiores (81,5%). A maioria dos casos pesquisados (61,5%) apresentou um longo tempo de doença, com uma média de 11 anos. O exame micológico direto foi realizado em 86,2% (n=56) dos pacientes; destes, 96,4% (n=54) apresentaram resultado positivo. Foram realizados cultura e microcultivo in vitro de 47 pacientes com exame micológico positivo e os resultados mostraram o Fonsecaea pedrosoi como único agente etiológico identificado nesta amostra. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo mostrou o quanto a cromoblastomicose ainda compromete a qualidade de vida da população local, principalmente a de indivíduos que trabalham em lavouras, cursando com evolução crônica e sem tratamento eficaz. Observa-se a importância de dar continuidade a este estudo, o que poderá proporcionar novas contribuições clínicas ou epidemiológicas.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Chromoblastomycosis/epidemiology , Ascomycota/classification , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chromoblastomycosis/microbiology , Chromoblastomycosis/pathology
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(3): 389-391, May-June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-593369

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Strongyloides venezuelensis tem sido utilizado como um modelo para estudo da estrongiloidose humana. MÉTODOS: O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a capacidade predatória dos fungos nematófagos Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001), Arthrobotrys robusta (I-31) e Monacrosporium sinense (SF53) sobre larvas infectantes (L3) de Strongyloides venezuelensis em condições laboratoriais no meio ágar-água 2 por cento. RESULTADOS: Ao final do experimento, os percentuais de redução de L3 de Strongyloides venezuelensis observados foram de: 93 por cento (AC001); 77,2 por cento (I-31) e 65,2 por cento (SF53). CONCLUSÕES: Os fungos nematófagos foram capazes de capturar e destruir in vitro as L3, podendo ser utilizados como controladores biológicos de Strongyloides venezuelensis.


INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides venezuelensis has been used as a model for studying human strongyloidosis. METHODS: This study aimed to compare the ability of predatory nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001), Arthrobotrys robusta (I-31) and Monacrosporium sinense (SF53) and on infective larvae (L3) of Strongyloides venezuelensis in laboratory conditions on 2 percent water-agar medium. RESULTS: At the end of the experiment, the percentage reductions of Strongyloides venezuelensi L3 were: 93 percent (AC001), 77.2 percent (I-31) and 65.2 percent (SF53). CONCLUSIONS: The nematophagous fungi were able to capture and destroy the L3 in vitro and can be used as biological controllers of Strongyloides venezuelensi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ascomycota/physiology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Strongyloides/microbiology , Ascomycota/classification , Larva/microbiology
13.
An. bras. dermatol ; 85(6): 805-810, nov.-dez. 2010. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-573618

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: As dermatomicoses causadas por fungos filamentosos não dermatófitos são infecções raras, exceto as onicomicoses, cuja prevalência vem crescendo nos últimos anos. Dentre esses agentes etiológicos destacam-se o Scytalidium dimidiatum e o S. hyalinum, fungos emergentes responsáveis por micoses em unhas e pele. OBJETIVO: Investigar as características epidemiológicas das onicomicoses e micoses de outras localizações causadas pelos fungos do gênero Scytalidium, utilizando-se como parâmetros sexo, idade e localizações das lesões. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 81 amostras com cultura positiva para o gênero em estudo, oriundas de 74 pacientes encaminhados ao Laboratório de Investigação em Dermatologia (ID) situado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro (RJ), no período de 1997 a 2006. As amostras foram submetidas a confirmação diagnóstica por exame direto e cultura. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de onicomicoses por Scytalidium spp. foi de 0,87 por cento, entre as idades de 41 e 60 anos (48,64 por cento). Em relação à localização das lesões, os pés foram mais acometidos (91,36 por cento), com predomínio do hálux esquerdo. No exame direto, as estruturas mais encontradas foram hifas hialinas; na cultura, a espécie S. dimidiatum foi a mais frequente. CONCLUSÃO: As onicomicoses por Scytalidium spp. são raras e o S. dimidiatum foi a espécie mais isolada neste laboratório no período em estudo.


BACKGROUND: Dermatomycoses caused by non-dermatophyte filamentous fungi are rare infections, except for onychomycosis, whose prevalence has increased over the past few years. Among these etiologic agents, we highlight Scytalidium dimidiatum and S. hyalinum, emergent fungi that cause mycoses that affect the nails and skin. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of onychomycosis and other mycoses caused by the fungi Scytalidium spp, using sex, age and site of infection as parameters. METHODS: Eighty-one samples were evaluated showing positive culture for Scytalidium spp, obtained from 74 patients referred to the Laboratory of Investigation in Dermatology (ID) located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, between 1997 and 2006. The samples were submitted to diagnostic confirmation through direct exam and culture. RESULTS: The prevalence of onychomycosis caused by Scytalidium spp. was of 0,87 percent. The most prevalent age was between 41-60 years (48.64 percent). Regarding the site of infection, the feet (91.36 percent) were most affected, with predominance of the left hallux. Hyaline hyphae were the most common structures in direct examination and the species S. dimidiatum was the most frequent in culture. CONCLUSION: Onychomycosis caused by Scytalidium spp. is rare and S. dimidiatum was the most isolated species in this laboratory during the period of the study.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Foot Dermatoses/microbiology , Hand Dermatoses/microbiology , Onychomycosis/microbiology , Ascomycota/classification , Foot Dermatoses/diagnosis , Foot Dermatoses/epidemiology , Hand Dermatoses/diagnosis , Hand Dermatoses/epidemiology , Onychomycosis/diagnosis , Onychomycosis/epidemiology , Prevalence
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(5): 588-590, set.-out. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-564301

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Strongyloides stercoralis é um nematoide que infecta grande parte da população mundial. MÉTODOS: O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a capacidade predatória dos fungos nematófagos Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001), Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34) e Arthrobotrys robusta (I-31) sobre larvas infectantes (L3) de Strongyloides stercoralis em condições laboratoriais no meio ágar-água 2 por cento. RESULTADOS: Ao final do experimento, os percentuais de redução de L3 de Strongyloides stercoralis observados foram de: 83,7 por cento (AC001); 75,5 por cento (NF34) e 73,2 por cento (I-31). CONCLUSÕES: Os fungos nematófagos foram capazes de capturar e destruir in vitro as L3, podendo ser utilizados como controladores biológicos de Strongyloides stercoralis.


INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides stercoralis is a nematode that infects much of the population worldwide. METHODS: This study aimed to compare the ability of predatory nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001), Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34) and Arthrobotrys robusta (I-31) on infective larvae (L3) of Strongyloides stercoralis in laboratory conditions on 2 percent water-agar. RESULTS: At the end of the experiment, the percentage reductions in Strongyloides stercoralis L3 were 83.7 percent (AC001), 75.5 percent (NF34) and 73.2 percent (I-31). CONCLUSIONS: The nematophagous fungi were able to capture and destroy the L3 in vitro and may be used as biological controls of Strongyloides stercoralis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Ascomycota/physiology , Mitosporic Fungi/physiology , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Strongyloides stercoralis/microbiology , Ascomycota/classification , Larva/microbiology , Mitosporic Fungi/classification , Strongyloides stercoralis/growth & development
15.
Bol. micol ; 24: 21-25, dic. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-585739

ABSTRACT

Marine fungi ascribed to the ascomycetes and the hyphomycetes are infrequently reported for the Southern Ocean. For this reason, the main objective of the present work was to detect the presence of these fungi seawater of Potter Cove, King George (25 de Mayo) Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica. For this purpose marine fungi were grown on wood test panels, placed into plastic nets in the tidal zone, exposed to the Antarctic seawater for different periods of time, which ranged between 2 and 12 months.As a result of this survey, we were able to recover and identify two marine fungi, Papulospora halima (which represents the first report for this environment) and a new morphological variety of Halosphaeria tubulifera.


Los ascomicetes e hifomicetes marinos están escasamente documentados para el océano Atlántico Sur. Por este motivo, el principal objetivo del presente trabajo fue detectar la presencia de dichos hongos en las agua marinas de la Potter Cove, en la isla Rey Jorge/25 de Mayo (islas Shetland del Sur, Antártida). Para este propósito, los hongos marinos se desarrollaron en paneles de madera dentro de una red plástica en la zona tidal, expuestos al agua de mar antártica por diferentes períodos de tiempo que oscilaron entre 2 a 12 meses. Como resultado de este estudio, fuimos capaces de recuperar e identificar 2 hongos marinos, Papulospora halima (que representa el primer reporte para este ambiente) y una nueva variedad morfológica de Halosphaeria tubulifera.


Subject(s)
Aquatic Fungi , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Ascomycota/classification , Ascomycota/growth & development , Mitosporic Fungi/isolation & purification , Mitosporic Fungi/growth & development
16.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2008 Oct-Dec; 26(4): 392-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53739

ABSTRACT

Cladophialophora bantiana, a dematiaceous fungus and a member of the family Phaeohyphomycetes, is primarily a neurotropic fungus causing central nervous system (CNS) infection. We report a case of a well preserved, young adult male presenting with a capsuloganglionic abscess caused by C. bantiana, a rare entity. Diagnosis was made based on the mycology and histopathology findings of the aspirate from the abscess through a burr hole. The patient responded clinically to amphotericin B.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ascomycota/classification , Brain Abscess/microbiology , Brain Diseases/microbiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Humans , Male , Mycoses/microbiology , Young Adult
17.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2008 Oct-Dec; 51(4): 556-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-74675

ABSTRACT

Phaeohyphomycosis, caused by heterogeneous group of phaeoid fungi causes both subcutaneous and systemic infections. The disease is more of a histopathological than a clinical entity. We present a case of phaeohyphomycosis in a 29-year-old male who presented with the complaint of painful swelling of the right eye of 1-year duration. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed an abnormal hyper dense enhancing soft tissue in the extra coronal aspect of the right orbit along the superolateral and superomedial aspect. A provisional clinical diagnosis of lymphoma or fungal infection was entertained. Histopathology revealed granulomas with numerous multinucleated giant cells and fungal hyphae within and in between the giant cells. Per-iodic acid Schiff (PAS stain) was used to confirm the presence of hyphae. Based on the clinical, CT and histopathological features, a diagnosis of Phaeohyphomycosis was given.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ascomycota/classification , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Ethmoid Sinus/pathology , Humans , Male , Orbit/pathology , Silver Nitrate/metabolism , Soft Tissue Infections/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 4(4): 642-652, 2005. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-444861

ABSTRACT

Bipolaris sorokiniana is a phytopathogenic fungus causing diseases of cereal crops such as common root rot, the leaf spot disease, seedling blight, and black point of the grain. Random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay was used to investigate the genetic diversity of 20 isolates collected from different cultivars in wheat-producing regions in Brazil. Seventy primers, with random nucleotide sequences, were tested. Reproducibility to amplify the genomic DNA of isolates was found for 30 of the 70 primers tested, generating between 1 and 17 fragments ranging from 0.35 to 2.0 kb (average size). The degree of similarity between samples was calculated through simple association and the dendrogram was assessed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetical average. After the RAPD analyses 19 isolates were closely grouped, having a similarity coefficient of >or= 78%. Isolate I017 showed very low similarity coefficients, ranging between 38 and 46%. The RAPD analyses provided important information as to the degree of genetic variability and the relationship between the isolates investigated, revealing polymorphism and establishing electrophoretic profiles useful to characterize the phytopathogen.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/classification , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Genetic Variation , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Mycological Typing Techniques/methods , Ascomycota/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Reproducibility of Results
19.
J Environ Biol ; 2001 Oct; 22(4): 283-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113809

ABSTRACT

On decomposing mangrove leaves and woods collected from west coast of India, a new species of Aniptodera was encountered. Aniptodera indica sp. nov. differs from other members of the genus, as the ascospores possess single polar appendage. This new species is described, illustrated and compared with closely resembling species: Aniptodera chesapeakensis and A. juncicola.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ascomycota/classification , Classification , Environment , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Spores , Trees , Wood
20.
Invest. clín ; 39(4): 293-306, dic. 1998. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-251940

ABSTRACT

El pneumocystis carinii (PNC) continúa siendo un reto ya que su taxonomía no ha sido completamente dilucidada. El PNC pareciera ser una quimera con características de parásitos y de hongo. El objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar por medio del microscopio electrónico de transmisión los diferentes estadios presentes en el PNC y correlacionar estos hallazgos con la información bibliográfica para contribuir a su posible clasificación taxonómica. El estadio trófico fue la forma más frecuentemente encontrada en el espacio alveolar y estuvo constituida por organismos que variaron tanto en forma como en tamaño, llegando a medir de 6 a 20 micras. Los quistes podían ser redondos u ovales, con diámetros que oscilaron entre 4 a 12 micras, en su interior se observó un número máximo de cuatro cuerpos intraquísticos, limitados individualmente por membranas celular y con conexiones entre la membrana de distintas estructuras intraquísticas e inclusive, uniones entre éstas y la membrana celular interna del quiste. Nuestro estudio ultraestructural coincide con otros hallazgos que ubican a este interesante microorganismo patógeno dentro del reino de los hongos probablemente relacionado con los Ascomicetos no gemantes


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Ascomycota/classification , Cysts/diagnosis , Fungi/classification , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Parasites/classification , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications
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