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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(1): 30-35, ene. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-914997

ABSTRACT

Chemical characterization of the essential oils of two Lippia species by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy revealed that limonene (84.3%) and ß-caryophyllene (6.1%) were the most abundant components in Lippia turbinata while (6S,7S,10S)-trans-davanone (99.1%) predominated in Lippia integrifolia. Antifungal activity of the essential oils was determined by headspace volatile exposure assay against the fungal phytopathogenic Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani. The essential oil of L. turbinata showed potent antifungal activity against the panel of fungi tested while that the oil of L. integrifolia significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of S. rolfsii and R. solani.


La caracterización química de los aceites esenciales de dos especies de Lippia por cromatografía gaseosa-espectrometría de masas (CG-EM) y espectroscopia de RMN reveló que limoneno (84,3%) y ß-cariofileno (6,1%) fueron los componentes más abundantes de Lippia turbinata mientras que (6S,7S,10S)-trans-davanona (99,1%) predominó en Lippia integrifolia. La actividad antifúngica de los aceites esenciales se determinó por el ensayo de exposición a los vapores frente a los hongos fitopatógenos Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii y Rhizoctonia solani. El aceite esencial de L. turbinata mostró una potente actividad antifúngica frente al panel de hongos ensayados, mientras que el aceite de L. integrifolia inhibió significativamente el crecimiento micelial de S. rolfsii y R. solani.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Lippia/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Rhizoctonia/drug effects , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 1020-1029, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828195

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sweet or bell pepper is a member of the Solanaceae family and is regarded as one of the most popular and nutritious vegetable. Blight, in the form of leaf and fruit blight, has been observed to infect bell pepper crops cultivated at the horticulture farm in Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur, India. Based on disease severity, we attempted to curb this newly emerged problem using different fungicides, plant extracts, bio-control agents, and commercial botanicals against the fungus in laboratory and pot experiments. Bio-control agent Trichoderma viride and plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolate Neist-2 were found to be quite effective against bell pepper blight. All evaluated fungicides, botanicals, commercial botanicals, and bio-control agents in vitro were further studied as seed dressers and two foliar sprays at ten days interval in pot experiments. The combinations of Vitavax, PGPR isolate Neist-2, and Mehandi extract were found to be very effective against bell pepper blight followed by Vitavax, T. viride, and Mehandi extract used individually. All treatments in the pot experiments were found to significantly reduce seedling mortality and enhance plant biomass of bell pepper. Thus, these experimental findings suggest that a better integrated management of bell pepper blight could be achieved by conducting field trials in major bell pepper- and chilli-cultivated areas of the state. Besides fungicides, different botanicals and commercial botanicals also seem to be promising treatment options. Therefore, the outcome of the present study provides an alternate option of fungicide use in minimizing loss caused by Drechslera bicolor.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/microbiology , Ascomycota , Capsicum/microbiology , Ascomycota/drug effects , Capsicum/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Seedlings/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 19(6): 12-20, Nov. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840307

ABSTRACT

Background: Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, an endophytic fungus from a poplar hybrid, was a high producer of botrallin and TMC-264 with various bioactivities. In this study, the influences of eight metal ions (i.e.,Mn2+,Na+, Mg2+,Zn2+,Cu2+,Fe2+,Fe3+ and Al3+) on botrallin and TMC-264 production in liquid culture of the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 were investigated. Results: Three most effective metal ions (Zn2+,Cu2+ and Mg2+) along with their optimum concentrations were screened. The optimum addition time and concentrations of Zn2+,Cu2+ and Mg2+ were further obtained respectively for improving botrallin and TMC-264 production. The combination effects of Zn2+,Cu2+ and Mg2+ on the production of botrallin and TMC-264 by employing statistical method based on the central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were evaluated, and two quadratic predictive models were developed for botrallin and TMC-264 production. The yields of botrallin and TMC-264, which were predicted as 144.12 mg/L and 36.04 mg/L respectively, were validated to be 146.51 mg/L and 36.63 mg/L accordingly with the optimum concentrations of Zn2+ at 0.81 mmol/L, Cu2+ at 0.20 mmol/L, and Mg2+ at 0.13 mmol/L in medium. Conclusion: The results indicated that the enhancement of botrallin and TMC-264 accumulation in liquid culture of the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 by the metal ions and their combination should be an effective strategy.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/metabolism , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/metabolism , Pyrones/metabolism , Ascomycota/drug effects , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/chemistry , Metals/pharmacology , Pyrones/chemistry
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(7): e5313, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951690

ABSTRACT

Ascosphaera apis is a bee pathogen that causes bee larvae infection disease, to which treatment is not yet well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal susceptibility in vitro against A. apis and to identify a new antifungal agent for this pathogen through minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay and western blot analysis. Macelignan had 1.56 and 3.125 μg/mL MIC against A. apis after 24 and 48 h, respectively, exhibiting the strongest growth inhibition against A. apis among the tested compounds (corosolic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, loganic acid, tracheloside, fangchinoline and emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside). Furthermore, macelignan showed a narrow-ranged spectrum against various fungal strains without any mammalian cell cytotoxicity. In spite of miconazole having powerful broad-ranged anti-fungal activity including A. apis, it demonstrated strong cytotoxicity. Therefore, even if macelignan alone was effective as an antifungal agent to treat A. apis, combined treatment with miconazole was more useful to overcome toxicity, drug resistance occurrence and cost effectiveness. Finally, HOG1 was revealed as a target molecule of macelignan in the anti-A. apis activity by inhibiting phosphorylation using S. cerevisiae as a model system. Based on our results, macelignan, a food-grade antimicrobial compound, would be an effective antifungal agent against A. apis infection in bees.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ascomycota/drug effects , Bees/microbiology , Lignans/pharmacology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Tetrazolium Salts , Time Factors , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Blotting, Western , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/analysis , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/analysis , Drug Synergism , Formazans , Larva/drug effects , Larva/microbiology , Larva/pathogenicity , Mycoses/drug therapy
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 359-364, 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709492

ABSTRACT

The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L-1 for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L-1 for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Musa/microbiology , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Ascomycota/genetics , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Drug Utilization , Mexico , Mutation, Missense , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plant Diseases/therapy , Tubulin/genetics
6.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Nov; 51(11): 1024-1031
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149413

ABSTRACT

A new antagonistic bacterial strain PGPR2 was isolated from the mungbean rhizosphere and documented for the production of hydrolytic enzymes with antifungal activity. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotyping, this strain was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Maximum protease activity (235 U/mL) was obtained at 24 h of fermentation. The protease was purified to homogeneity in three steps: ammonium sulphate precipitation, anion exchange chromatography on DEAE- cellulose resin and gel filtration chromatography using P6 column. The purified enzyme had a molecular weight of ~33 kDa. The purified protease exhibited maximum activity at pH 6.0 and retained 80% of activity in a pH range of 5.0 - 9.0. Proteolytic activity was maximum in a temperature range of 40–70 °C. However, the enzyme was stable at 40 °C for 60 min. Among the metals tested, Mg2+ enhanced the protease activity. Internal amino acid sequence of the protease obtained by MALDI -ToF and subsequent Mascot database search showed maximum similarity to the HtpX protease of P. aeruginosa strain PA7. Thus, by virtue of its early production time, thermostability and effective antifungal ability, the protease purified and characterized from P. aeruginosa PGPR2 has several potential applications as fungicidal agents in agriculture.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/drug effects , Chromatography, Liquid , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme Stability , Peptide Hydrolases/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/pharmacology , Proteolysis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 18(supl.1): 63-68, out.-dez. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-624832

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho teve como escopo avaliar a compatibilidade dos isolados IBCB66 e IBCB21 de Beauveria bassiana com os carrapaticidas a base de Flumetrina + Coumafós, Deltametrina, Diclorvós + Cipermetrina, Diclorvós + Clorpirifós, Cipermetrina High Cis, Diclorvós + Cipermetrina High Cis, Cipermetrina e Amitraz utilizados no controle do carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus em nosso país. O efeito dos produtos comerciais sobre os isolados foi verificado por meio da observação do crescimento vegetativo, produção de conídios e viabilidade das estirpes do fungo B. bassiana. Com referência ao isolado IBCB66, os produtos Deltametrina, Cipermetrina High Cis e Amitraz foram classificados como compatíveis, não interferindo no desenvolvimento do entomopatógeno. O produto Cipermetrina foi classificado como tóxico e os produtos Flumetrina + Coumafós, Diclorvós + Cipermetrina, Diclorvós + Clorpirifós e Diclorvós + Cipermetrina High Cis, muito tóxicos. Em relação ao isolado IBCB21, os produtos Flumetrina + Coumafós, Diclorvós + Cipermetrina, Diclorvós + Clorpirifós, Cipermetrina High Cis, Diclorvós + Cipermetrina High Cis e Cipermetrina foram classificados como muito tóxicos e o produto Amitraz como tóxico. Entre os carrapaticidas avaliados, o produto Deltametrina foi o único que não produziu efeito tóxico sobre o entomopatógeno.


The purpose of the present study was to assess compatibility between IBCB66 and IBCB21 isolates of Beauveria bassiana and acaricides: Flumethrin + Coumaphos, Deltamethrin, Dichlorvos + Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos + Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin High Cis, Dichlorvos + Cypermethrin High Cis, Cypermethrin and Amitraz, utilized on the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in our country. The effect of commercial products on the isolates was assayed according to observation of vegetative growth, conidia production, and viability of strains of B. bassiana fungus. With concerning about IBCB66 isolate, products Deltamethrin, Cypermethrin High Cis and Amitraz were compatible, not affecting the entomopathogen development. Product Cypermethrin was toxic, and products Flumethrin + Coumaphos, Dichlorvos + Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos+ Chlorpyrifos and Dichlorvos + Cypermethrin High Cis were very toxic. In regard to IBCB21 isolate, products Flumethrin + Coumaphos, Dichlorvos + Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos + Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin High Cis, Dichlorvos + Cypermethrin High Cis and Cypermethrin were very toxic and product Amitraz was toxic. From the acaricides evaluated, product Deltamethrin was the single agent that did not produce toxic effect on the entomopathogen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Acaricides/pharmacology , Ascomycota/drug effects , Beauveria/drug effects , Pest Control, Biological , Ticks
8.
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Jan; 28(1): 15-20
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113303

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria especially Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates were tested against charcoal rot of chickpea both in green house as well as in field conditions. Most of the isolates reduced charcoal rot disease and promoted plant growth in green house. A marked increase in shoot and root length was observed in P. fluorescens treated plants. Among all the P. fluorescens isolates Pf4-99, was found most effective in the improvement of chickpea crop in green house as well as in field. Pf4-99 effectively promoted plant growth and produced indole acetic acid in culture medium. This isolate also inhibited the mycelial growth of the M. phaseolina under in vitro conditions and reduced the disease severity Potential isolate (Pf4-99) also significantly increased the biomass of the chickpea plants, shoot length, root length and protein content of the chickpea seeds. A part from these, the total number of seeds per plant and their weight were also enhanced. The colonization of Pf4-99 reduced the incidence of seed mycoflora by which indirectly enhanced the seed germination and vigour index of seedlings. The observations revealed that isolate Pf4-99 is quite effective to reduce the charcoal rot disease both in field and greenhouse, and also increases seed yields significantly Therefore, this isolate appears to be an efficient biocontrol agent against charcoal rot disease as well as yield increasing rhizobacterium.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/drug effects , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Carbamates/pharmacology , Cicer/growth & development , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Nitrogen/metabolism , Pest Control, Biological , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Pseudomonas fluorescens/metabolism
9.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 2005 Oct; 103(10): 555-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-102203

ABSTRACT

Phaeomycotic cyst or subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is the most common type of phaeohyphomycosis. Fonsecaea pedrosoi as the causative agent of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis was earlier reported in India. Here a case of a patient of 22-year-old farmer is presented with a soft cystic swelling on the left wrist. Direct examination of the aspirate from the swelling showed dematiaceous hyphae. Culture grew Fonsecaea pedrosoi. The patient responded to antifungal therapy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Ascomycota/drug effects , Cysts/drug therapy , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Mitosporic Fungi/drug effects , Naphthalenes/therapeutic use , Subcutaneous Tissue/microbiology , Wrist/microbiology
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