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1.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 366-371, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126133

ABSTRACT

Jatobá (Hymenaea sp.) is an arboreal legume native to the Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado) and its fruit has a high functional potential, but the jatobá-da-mata specie has been poorly explored. This study evaluated the nutritional profile, bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of jatobá-da-mata byproducts: pulp flour, fibrous pulp residue and sap. Jatobá fruits were pulped to obtain pulp flour and fibrous pulp residue, and the jatobá tree's sap was obtained in a typical extraction location in the Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah). Fibrous pulp residue and pulp flour had high protein (11 and 12 g/100 g) and dietary fiber (49 and 44 g/100 g) content, respectively, and the fibrous residue showed the highest total and insoluble fibers, ash and vitamin C content. Regarding polyphenols, the fibrous residue showed a high concentration (775 mg GAE/100 g); an intermediate value in pulp flour (462 mg GAE/100 g); and considerable content in sap(181 mg GAE/100 g). Jatobá residue and pulp flour are suitable ingredients for the formulation of functional foods, and the sap is a promising non-caloric product with potential health benefits.


Jatobá (Hymenaea sp.) es una leguminosa arbórea originaria de la sabana brasileña y su fruto tiene un alto potencial funcional, pero la especie jatobá-da-mata ha sido poco explorada. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el perfil nutricional, compuestos bioactivos y capacidad antioxidante de subproductos del jatobá-da-mata: harina de la pulpa, residuo fibroso de la pulpa y la savia. Los frutos fueron despulpados para obtener la harina juntamente con el residuo fibroso de la pulpa, y la savia de la planta fue obtenida en un lugar exclusivo de extracción en el Cerrado (Sábana brasileña). El residuo fibroso y la harina de la pulpa contienen un alto contenido de proteína (11 y 12 g/100 g) y de fibra dietética (49 y 44 g/100 g), respectivamente, y el residuo fibroso mostró el mayor contenido de fibras totales y insolubles, cenizas y vitamina C. En cuanto a los polifenoles, el residuo fibroso presentó alta concentración (775 mg AGE/100 g); la harina de la pulpa, un valor intermedio (462 mg AGE/100 g); y la savia, un contenido considerable (181 mg AGE/100 g). El residuo fibroso y la harina de la pulpa son ingredientes adecuados en la formulación de alimentos funcionales, y la savia es un producto no calórico prometedor con potenciales beneficios a la salud.


Subject(s)
Hymenaea/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Phytochemicals , Flour
2.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 31-40, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092741

ABSTRACT

It is important to determine the chemical composition of fruits in order to establish their potential health benefits for human nutrition and thus stimulate their cultivation and consumption. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the physical and chemical parameters, vitamin C content, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and carotenoids, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of fruits from different regions of Brazil. We observed that the different regions and fruits studied presented very distinct characteristics. For example, the cupuaçu pit is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, while the genipap and java plum presented high flavonoid content and the butia had a high concentration of carotenoids. Guava was the fruit with the highest antioxidant activity through the ABTS radical, while the yellow mombim presented the best response when the activity was determined by FRAP.


Es importante determinar la composición química de las frutas para establecer sus potenciales beneficios para la salud humana y, por lo tanto, estimular su cultivo y consumo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar parámetros físicos y químicos, el contenido de vitamina C, los compuestos fenólicos, los flavonoides y los carotenoides, el perfil de ácidos grasos y la actividad antioxidante de las frutas de diferentes regiones de Brasil. De los resultados obtenidos en este estudio se pudo observar que las diferentes regiones y frutas estudiadas presentaban características muy distintas, ya que la semilla de cupuaçu es rica en ácidos grasos insaturados, mientras que el genipapo y la ciruela java presentaron un alto contenido de flavonoides y el butia presentó alta concentración de carotenoides. La guayaba fue la fruta con la mayor actividad antioxidante determinada por el radical ABTS, mientras que el mombim amarillo presentó la mejor respuesta cuando la actividad fue determinada por FRAP


Subject(s)
Phytochemicals/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Brazil , Carotenoids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 742-748, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001482

ABSTRACT

Abstract Citrus fruit production occupies a place of considerable importance in the economy of the world including Pakistan. Tristeza disease caused by Citrus Tristeza Virus (CTV) exists in various forms that may or may not cause symptoms in the plants. The bioactive compounds and antioxidants are naturally present in plants and provide a defense mechanism that is generally accelerated in response to a stress. The objective of the present study was to target and analyze the citrus plants that were CTV positive to observe the changes in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants of citrus (Sweet Oranges only). It was observed that in response to CTV infection, both the non-enzymatic antioxidants (total flavonoid, ascorbic acid, phenolic acid) and enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase) activities showed an increasing trend overall. The profiling of antioxidants in response to a viral infection may help in the discovery of new biomarkers that can be used as a monitoring tool in disease management.


Resumo As frutas cítricas ocupam um lugar de considerável importância na economia do Paquistão, assim como o resto do mundo. A doença da tristeza causada pelo Vírus da Tristeza dos Citros (CTV) existe em várias formas que podem ou não apresentar sintomas nas plantas. Os compostos bioativos e antioxidantes estão naturalmente presentes nas plantas e fornecem um mecanismo de defesa que é geralmente acelerado em resposta a um estresse. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar as alterações causadas pelo CTV nos antioxidantes enzimáticos e não enzimáticos de laranjas doces. Foi observado que, em resposta ao ataque de CTV, os antioxidantes não enzimáticos como flavonoides totais, ácido ascórbico, ácido fenólico e antioxidantes enzimáticos, como as atividades de catalase, superóxido dismutase e peroxidase, geralmente mostram uma tendência crescente. O perfil de antioxidantes em resposta a um ataque viral pode ajudar na descoberta de novos biomarcadores que podem ser usados ​​como uma ferramenta de monitoramento no gerenciamento de doenças.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plant Diseases/virology , Closterovirus/physiology , Citrus sinensis/enzymology , Citrus sinensis/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/classification , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Catalase/analysis , Peroxidase/analysis
4.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 325-332, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886914

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the frequency of bee pollen production, its botanical origin and chemical composition when collected in different seasons. Our results indicate that higher proteins (22.80 ± 3.09%) and flavonoids (2789.87 ± 1396.00 μg 100g-1) levels were obtained in the winter season, which also showed greater pollen production (134.50 ± 35.70 grams) and predominance of the Myrtaceae family. As for spring we found high concentrations of lipids (4.62 ± 2.26%) and low ash content (2.22 ± 0.39%). Regarding the amino acid composition and vitamin C content, we found no differences between the averages throughout the seasons. Our results highlight the importance of understanding not only the botanical origin and the chemical composition of bee pollen, but also the harvesting frequency of this product by bees, so that it becomes possible to supplement the colonies in times of natural food resources shortage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pollen/physiology , Pollen/chemistry , Seasons , Bees/physiology , Magnoliopsida/physiology , Pollen/classification , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Reference Values , Flavonoids/analysis , Proteins/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Amino Acids/analysis , Lipids/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(1): 131-138, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-888085

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da inclusão de óleo de peixe associado ao ácido ascórbico no diluidor para criopreservação de sêmen caprino. Dois machos da raça Boer foram submetidos à coleta de sêmen pelo método de vagina artificial, sendo os ejaculados avaliados quanto aos aspectos físicos e morfológicos. Após avaliação, formou-se um pool, seguido do fracionamento em cinco grupos: G1 - diluidor citrato-gema e G2, G3, G4 e G5 - diluidor citrato-gema acrescido de 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0% de óleo de peixe e 0,05% de ácido ascórbico, respectivamente. Após descongelamento, foram realizadas avaliações físicas do sêmen e os testes complementares de termorresistência lento (TTR), hiposmótico (HO), integridade acrossomal e compactação da cromatina espermática. Houve comportamento linear crescente (P<0,05) para motilidade pós-descongelamento. Não houve diferença (P>0,05) para vigor pós-descongelamento (2,00±0,24). No TTR não houve diferença (P>0,05) para motilidade e vigor espermáticos entre os tempos cinco e 180min, com médias inicial e final de 62,17±12,13 e 14,29±10,55 para motilidade e de 2,00±0,52 e 0,49±0,44 para vigor. Não houve diferença (P>0,05) para o HO, com porcentagem média de espermatozoides reativos de 23,5±5,96%. Houve comportamento linear crescente para acrossoma íntegro e decrescente para acrossoma irregular (P<0,05). Não houve diferença (P>0,05) na compactação da cromatina, com 97,06±1,17% de cromatina íntegra. A inclusão até 4% de óleo de peixe acrescido de ácido ascórbico no diluidor melhorou motilidade e integridade de acrossoma após a criopreservação.(AU)


The study aimed to evaluate the effect of fish oil inclusion associated with ascorbic acid in the thinner for goat semen cryopreservation. Two male Boers underwent semen collection through the artificial vagina method, ejaculates being then assessed for physical and morphological aspects. After evaluation, a pool was formed, followed by the split into five groups: G1 - yolk-citrate extender and G2, G3, G4 and G5 - yolk-citrate extender plus 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0% fish oil and 0.05% ascorbic acid, respectively. After thawing, physical evaluations of semen were assessed and additional testing slow heat resistance (TTR), hiposmotic (HO), acrosome integrity and compression of sperm chromatin. There was linear increase (P<0.05) post-thaw motility. No difference was obtained for post-thaw vigor and there was no influence of the association of fish oil and ascorbic acid in TTR. Plasma membrane integrity, by hyposmotic test (HO), presented a mean of reactive spermatozoa of 23.5±5.96% (P>0.05). There was linear increase for intact acrosome and decreasing acrosome irregular (P<0.05). In the analysis of the chromatin compaction, approximately 3% of damages (P>0.05) were observed. The inclusion of 4% fish oil plus ascorbic acid in diluter improved motility and acrosome integrity after cryopreservation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Ruminants/embryology , Cryopreservation/veterinary , Fish Oils
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e17700, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001589

ABSTRACT

The stability of vitamins A, E, and C was determined in 12 brands of vitamin supplements over a 12-month storage period. The variations in concentrations of these vitamins across three different batches of five brands were measured. Vitamins A and E was determined by HPLC method, and vitamin C was measured by using potentiometric titration. All samples for stability studies were maintained at room temperature and protected from light. Measurements were carried out in the first semester of the expiration date and then every six months up to 12 months of storage. After this period, only one sample showed no significant decrease in vitamin A and E concentrations in relation to the concentrations measured at the beginning of the study. The concentration of vitamin C showed no significant decrease in 50% of the samples after 6 months of storage, although after 12 months, 92% had significant losses in concentration. The analysis of the different batches showed significant variations in the vitamin levels, which do not seem to be significant for inspection purposes considering the tolerance outlined in the legislation. Over-fortification of vitamin supplements during manufacture seems to be required, but the additional amount of supplementation will depend on each sample.


Subject(s)
Vitamin A/analysis , Product Labeling/standards , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Vitamin E/analysis , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Food Storage/instrumentation , Provitamins/classification
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e6533, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888965

ABSTRACT

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibits nociceptive transmission. This effect has been associated partly with its antioxidant properties. However, the effect of NAC on the levels of lipid hydroperoxides (a pro-oxidant marker), content of ascorbic acid (a key antioxidant molecule of nervous tissue) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is unknown. Thus, our study assessed these parameters in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, one of the most commonly employed animal models of neuropathic pain. Thirty-six male Wistar rats weighing 200-300 g were equally divided into the following groups: Naive (rats did not undergo surgical manipulation); Sham (rats in which all surgical procedures involved in CCI were used except the ligature), and CCI (rats in which four ligatures were tied loosely around the right common sciatic nerve). All rats received intraperitoneal injections of NAC (150 mg·kg−1·day−1) or saline for 1, 3, or 7 days. Rats were killed 1, 3, and 7 days after surgery. NAC treatment prevented the CCI-induced increase in lipid hydroperoxide levels only at day 1, although the amount was higher than that found in naive rats. NAC treatment also prevented the CCI-induced increase in ascorbic acid content, which occurred at days 1, 3, and 7. No significant change was found in TAC with NAC treatment. The changes observed here may be related to the antinociceptive effect of NAC because modulation of oxidative-stress parameters seemed to help normalize the spinal cord oxidative status altered by pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Neuralgia/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Antioxidants , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Constriction , Lipid Peroxides/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Sciatic Neuropathy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1): 81-88, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-780041

ABSTRACT

RESUMO No Nordeste do Brasil é bastante comum e variado o uso da coroa-de-frade (Melocactus spp.). Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi realizar diversas análises em cladódios de coroa-de-frade [Melocactus zehntneri (Britton & Rose) Luetzelburg], para que possamos compreender as razões estes usos. Os cladódios foram coletados na cidade de Campina Grande e levados ao Laboratório de Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, onde foram feitas as seguintes análises: peso, altura, diâmetro, cor, umidade, acidez, pH, ácido ascórbico, carotenoides, flavonoides e compostos fenólicos, tanto na epiderme quanto no parênquima aquífero. Os resultados mostraram que a epiderme tem uma acidez elevada e mais ácido ascórbico, e um pH mais baixo em comparação com o parênquima aquífero. O conteúdo de carotenoides, flavonoides e compostos fenólicos, foram diferentes nas partes estudadas. A epiderme apresentou sempre maiores quantidades de carotenoides, flavonoides e compostos fenólicos em relação ao parênquima aquífero, nas três plantas estudadas, indicando que a maior parte da defesa da planta acontece neste tecido. Mais estudos são necessários com técnicas mais precisas, para identificar os componentes bioativos desta espécie.


ABSTRACT In Northeast Brazil, the use of melon cactus (Melocactus spp.) is quite common and varied. Thus, the present study aimed to perform various analyzes in cladodes of melon cactus [Melocactus zehntneri (Britton & Rose) Luetzelburg], to understand the reasons for the use of this species. The cladodes were collected in the city of Campina Grande and taken to the Food Engineering Laboratory of the Federal University of Campina Grande, where we performed the following analyses: mass, height, diameter, color, moisture, acidity, pH, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds, both in the epidermis and in the aquifer parenchyma. The results showed that the epidermis has a higher acidity, ascorbic acid content and lower pH compared to the aquifer parenchyma. The contents of carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds, were different from the both parts analyzed. The epidermis always had greater quantities of carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds than the aquifer parenchyma for the three plants, showing that most of the plant defense takes place in this tissue. Further studies, with more accurate techniques, are needed to identify the bioactive components of this species.


Subject(s)
Cactaceae/classification , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Carotenoids/analysis , Groundwater , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Plant Stems/classification
9.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(1): 35-43, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789077

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (amla) is used in Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine and its major constituent is vitamin C which has effective free radical scavenging property. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity and the bioavailability profile of vitamin C in amla and its combinations with piperine and ginger in comparison to synthetic vitamin C using New Zealand rabbits. In vitro antioxidant activity studies of synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger were carried out using different models such as 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Nitric Oxide, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods, Total reductive capability and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity estimation. The study results showed that synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger possess significant in vitro antioxidant activity. For bioavailability studies, synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger 100 mg/kg, were administered orally and the serum samples were analyzed by HPLC at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. Bioavailability studies revealed that amla with piperine combination has higher concentration of vitamin C when compared to synthetic vitamin C. This is probably due to presence of piperine, which is a bioavailability enhancer. The present study supports the fact that amla with piperine combination can be an alternative to synthetic vitamin C.


RESUMO Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (amla) é utilizada na medicina Ayurveda, medicina da Índia antiga e seu principal constituinte é a vitamina C, que possui propriedade sequestrante de radicais livres. O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antioxidante in vitro e o perfil de biodisponibilidade da vitamina C na amla e suas combinações com piperina e gengibre em comparação com a vitamina C sintética, utilizando coelhos da Nova Zelândia. Os estudos de atividade antioxidante in vitro de vitamina C sintética, amla, amla com piperina e amla com gengibre foram realizados utilizando-se diferentes modelos para sequestrantes, como 2,2-difenil-1-picrilidrazil, óxido nítrico, peróxido de hidrogênio, capacidade redutiva total e a estimativa da capacidade de absorvância do radical oxigênio. Os resultados do estudo mostraram que vitamina C sintética, amla, amla com piperina e amla com gengibre possuem atividade antioxidante in vitro significativa. Para os estudos de biodisponibilidade, administraram-se oralmente vitamina C sintética, amla, amla com piperina e amla com gengibre 100 mg/kg e as amostras de soro foram analisadas por CLAE em 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 e 24 horas. Os estudos de biodisponibilidade revelaram que a associação de amla com piperina tem maior concentração de vitamina C, quando comparada com a vitamina C sintética. Este efeito é provavelmente devido à presença de piperina, que é intensificador de biodisponibilidade. O presente estudo apoia o fato de que a associação de amla e piperina pode ser uma alternativa para a vitamina C sintética.


Subject(s)
Rabbits , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Phyllanthus emblica , Piper nigrum , Antioxidants/pharmacokinetics , Ginger
10.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 65(2): 119-127, June 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752722

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was investigate the synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of fruit mixtures on total antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds in tropical fruit juices, and optimize its formulation by the response surface methodology based on the responses: total polyphenols (TP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ascorbic acid content and sensorial acceptance. Camu-camu, acerola and acai were the major factors that influenced the antioxidant potential of the juice; and the yellow mombin showed a positive effect on the acceptance of the tropical juice. It was observed an antagonistic effect between acerola and camu-camu for the TAC response. The optimum formulation obtained was 20% acerola, 10% camu-camu, 10% yellow mombin, 10% cashew apple and 10% acai, which was responsible for a response of 155.46 mg.100 g-1 of ascorbic acid, 103.01 mg of GAE.100 g-1 of TP, 10.27 μM Trolox g-1 of TAC and approximately 6.1 of acceptance.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar los efectos sinérgicos, aditivos y antagónicos de mezclas de diferentes frutas tropicales en la capacidad antioxidante total (TAC) y compuestos bioactivos presentes en los jugos mixtos, y optimizar su formulación por la metodología de superficie de respuesta basado en las evaluaciones de: polifenoles totales (TP), capacidad antioxidante total (TAC), contenido de ácido ascórbico y la aceptación sensorial. Camu-camu, acerola y acai fueron las frutas que más influyeron en el potencial antioxidante del jugo mixto; y el jobo mostró un efecto positivo en la aceptación del jugo mixto tropical. Se observó un efecto antagónico entre acerola y camu-camu para la TAC. La formulación óptima obtenida contenía 20% acerola, 10% de camu-camu, 10% el jobo, 10% de manzana de marañón y 10% de acai, la cual ha proporcionado contenidos medio de 155,46 mg.100 g-1 de ácido ascórbico, 103,01 mg de GAE.100 g-1 de TP, 10,27 mM Trolox g-1 de TAC y aproximadamente 6.1 de aceptación sensorial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/analysis , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Anacardium/chemistry , Ananas/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Chemical Fractionation/methods , Drug Interactions , Euterpe/chemistry , Mangifera/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Research Design , Taste
11.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-8, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-734615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C) and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. 'Beyaz Kismis' (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless), 'Askeri', 'El Hakki', 'Kirmizi Kismis', 'Inek Emcegi', 'Hacabas', 'Kerim Gandi', 'Yazen Dayi', and 'Miskali' spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey. RESULTS: Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P < 0.01). Among the cultivars investigated, 'Miskali' showed the highest citric acid content (0.959 g/l) while 'Kirmizi Kismis' produced predominant contents in tartaric acid (12.71 g/l). The highest glucose (16.47 g/100 g) and fructose (15.55 g/100 g) contents were provided with 'Beyaz Kismis'. 'Kirmizi Kismis' cultivar had also the highest quercetin (0.55 mg/l), o-coumaric acid (1.90 mg/l), and caffeic acid (2.73 mg/l) content. The highest ferulic acid (0.94 mg/l), and syringic acid (2.00 mg/l) contents were observed with 'Beyaz Kismis' cultivar. The highest antioxidant capacity was obtained as 9.09 μmol TE g-1 from 'Inek Emcegi' in TEAC (Trolox equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assay. 'Hacabas' cultivar had the highest vitamin C content of 35.74 mg/100 g. CONCLUSIONS: Present results illustrated that the historical table grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey contained diverse and valuable sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, Vitamin C values and demonstrated important antioxidant capacity for human health benefits. Further preservation and use of this gene pool will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.


Subject(s)
Citric Acid/analysis , Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Vitis/chemistry , Acids/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Caffeic Acids/analysis , Coumaric Acids/analysis , Crops, Agricultural/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/classification , Gallic Acid/analysis , Gallic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxybenzoates/analysis , Turkey , Tartrates/analysis , Vitis/classification
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(1): 20-26, ene. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708846

ABSTRACT

Background: Biliary cholesterol is transported by vesicles and micelles. Cholesterol microcrystals are derived from thermodynamically unstable vesicles. In experimental animals vitamin C deficiency leads to a super-saturation of biliary cholesterol and to the formation of gallstones. Aim: To search for a possible relationship between serum levels of vitamin C and the formation of cholesterol gallstones in patients with cholelithiasis. Material and Methods: Thirteen patients with cholelithiasis and a programmed surgical intervention were treated with 2 g/day of vitamin C per os for two weeks before surgery. Forty nine patients subjected to a cholecystectomy not supplemented with vitamin C were studied as controls. Plasma concentrations of vitamin C and lipid profiles were measured. The cholesterol saturation index, crystallization time, cholesterol and phospholipid content in vesicles and micelles, separated by gel filtration chromatography, were studied in bile samples obtained from the gallbladder. Results: Vitamin C supplementation did not change significantly plasma lipids and bile lipid concentrations. However, in supplemented patients, significant reductions in vesicular cholesterol content (6.5 ± 4.8% compared to 17.9 ± 14.0% in the control group; p < 0.05) and vesicular cholesterol/phospholipid ratio (0.71 ± 0.53 compared to 1.36 ± 1.15 in controls; p < 0.05), were observed. Conclusions: Vitamin C administration may modify bile cholesterol crystallization process, the first step in cholesterol gallstone formation.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Cholelithiasis/etiology , Cholesterol/metabolism , Lipids/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Bile Acids and Salts/chemistry , Case-Control Studies , Crystallization , Cholelithiasis/chemistry , Cholesterol/analysis , Lipid Metabolism , Micelles
13.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-11, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unstable generation of free radicals in the body are responsible for many degenerative diseases. A bloom forming algae Euglena tuba growing abundantly in the aquatic habitats of Cachar district in the state of Assam in North-East India was analysed for its phytochemical contents, antioxidant activity as well as free radical scavenging potentials. RESULTS: Based on the ability of the extract in ABTS•+ radical cation inhibition and Fe3+ reducing power, the obtained results revealed the prominent antioxidant activity of the algae, with high correlation coefficient of its TEAC values to the respective phenolic and flavonoid contents. The extract had shown its scavenging activity for different free radicals and 41.89 ± 0.41 µg/ml, 5.83 ± 0.07 µg/ml, 278.46 ± 15.02 µg/ml and 223.25 ± 4.19 µg/ml were determined as the IC50 values for hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide and hypochlorous acid respectively, which are lower than that of the corresponding reference standards. The phytochemical analysis also revealed that the phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and carbohydrates are present in adequate amount in the extract which was confirmed by HPLC analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that 70% methanol extract of the algae possesses excellent antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Cell Extracts/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers/metabolism , Reducing Agents/metabolism , Euglena/chemistry , Antioxidants/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Phenols/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Tannins/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Chromans/metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methanol , Alkaloids/analysis , Microalgae , Glucose/analysis , India
14.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-5, 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Hawthorn (Crateagus sp.) mostly occurs around the temperate region of the world with a high number of species, producing a fruit with numerous beneficial effects for human health. The aim of the study was to determine organic acid and sugar contents in the fruit of a number of hawthorn species grown in Erzincan province of Turkey. RESULTS: Citric acid was the predominant organic acid in all hawthorn species and C. pseudoheterophylla had the highest citric acid content (23.688 g/100 g). There were not statistically significant differences among hawthorn species (except C. atrosanguinea Pojark) in terms of fumaric acid content. C. pontica C.Koch had a higher content of vitamin C (9.418 mg/100 g) compared to other species. Fructose was the predominant sugar component in all species and C. monogyna subsp. monogyna Joiq had the highest fructose content (18.378 g/100 g). CONCLUSIONS: The high fruit quality of the studied species indicates the importance of this fruit in human nutrition as a natural source. The study revealed that there were differences in terms of fruit characteristics among hawthorn species and thus better quality hawthorn genotypes can be selected within the species. Hence, this study is considered to be a valuable reference for forthcoming studies. The high fruit quality of the studied species indicates the importance of this fruit in human nutrition as a natural source.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Citric Acid/analysis , Crataegus/chemistry , Fructose/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Nutritive Value , Sucrose/analysis , Turkey , Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis , Plant Extracts/analysis , Crops, Agricultural/chemistry , Dicarboxylic Acids/analysis , Glucose/analysis
16.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 72(2): 142-146, 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-729379

ABSTRACT

O doce de leite é um alimento muito consumido em todo o Brasil, com sabor, cor, aroma e texturas características. A pimenta dedo-de-moça também está presente na mesa dos consumidores e é rica emácido ascórbico (vitamina C), que é excelente antioxidante. No presente trabalho, foi elaborado o docede leite adicionado de pimenta dedo-de-moça. No produto desenvolvido, foi determinada a composiçãocentesimal, e foi avaliada a aceitação do doce quanto aos atributos sensoriais de cor, aroma, sabor, texturae aceitação global. O teor de ácido ascórbico foi quantificado em diferentes períodos de armazenamento(0, 30 e 60 dias). O doce de leite com pimenta preparado apresentou composição centesimal de acordocom a legislação vigente. O teor de ácido ascórbico mostrou-se praticamente estável durante o período dearmazenamento, e o produto demonstrou boa aceitação na análise sensorial.


Subject(s)
Chemical Phenomena , Candy , Genus Pimenta , Ascorbic Acid/analysis
17.
Biol. Res ; 46(1): 79-85, 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676825

ABSTRACT

The effects of nickel, cobalt, chromium and zinc on the content of vitamins A, E and C, malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll and carotenoids were investigated in bean seedlings (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Hoagland solution Control and heavy metal-treated plants were grown for ten days in Hoagland solution. Vitamin A, E, and C content were measured in primary leaves by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC). MDA, chlorophyll and carotenoids were measured in leaves by spectrophotometer. In heavy metal treated plants, the levels of MDA, vitamins A, E and C and carotenoids significantly increased, while chlorophyll content decreased in leaves of seedlings. The results indicate that heavy metals caused an oxidative stress in bean plants. The strongest effect on vitamins A, E and C, MDA, chlorophyll and carotenoids was found in plants exposed to nickel, followed by the sequence cobalt > chromium> zinc.


Subject(s)
Malondialdehyde/analysis , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Phaseolus/physiology , Pigments, Biological/analysis , Seedlings/physiology , Vitamins/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Carotenoids/analysis , Chlorophyll/analysis , Chromium/metabolism , Cobalt/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Nickel/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Vitamin A/analysis , Vitamin E/analysis , Zinc/metabolism
18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 62(4): 381-388, dic. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-714893

ABSTRACT

El tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea) es apreciado por sus cualidades nutritivas y ser fuente de compuestos antioxidantes, calcio, fósforo, potasio y hierro, azúcares, ácidos orgánicos, pectinas y flavonoides. En este estudio se determinaron parámetros físicos (peso, tamaño, fuerza compresión, humedad) y químicos (°Brix, acidez titulable, pH, proteína, fibra dietaria, cenizas, minerales y bioaccesibilidad de minerales, pectina, compuestos antioxidantes) del fruto procedente del Estado Aragua, Venezuela, como una contribución para incentivar y diversificar su consumo. La caracterización reflejó que los frutos estaban en estado de madurez para su consumo (°Brix 10,51, pH 3,5, acidez 0,02 g/100 ml y fuerza de compresión 4,32 Kgf/cm2), con rendimiento de pulpa del 74%. Los resultados del análisis de la pulpa madura reflejan un aporte de 30 Kcal/100g, fibra dietaria (4,10g/100g) y valores de fósforo, calcio, magnesio potasio y hierro de 331,32; 21,25; 21,18; 17,03; 7,44 mg/100g respectivamente. Se obtuvo 6,71 y 1,86 % de bioaccesibilidad para calcio y hierro. La pectina extraída (1,00 g/100g) resultó ser de alto metoxilo y alto grado de esterificación. La capacidad antioxidante de la pulpa madura (EC50 de 165 g /g DPPH y poder reductor de 0,07 mmol Fe +2/100g) pudiera atribuirse a la presencia de ácido ascórbico (23,32 mg/100g), licopeno (1,22 mg/100g), compuestos fenólicos (1,39 mg EAG/ g), antocianinas (0,29 mg cianidina/g) y taninos (0,40 mg catequina/ 100g). Los resultados obtenidos pueden ser utilizados para promover los beneficios sobre la salud y sugerir su uso como ingrediente funcional en el desarrollo de productos.


Physical, chemical and bioactive compounds of tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea). Tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea) is appreciated for its excellent nutritional qualities, being considered a good source of antioxidants compounds, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and iron, sugars, organic acids, pectins and flavonoids. In this study, were evaluated physical parameters (weight, size, compression strength and humidity) and chemical (°Brix, titratable acidity, pH, protein, dietary fiber, ash, minerals and their bioaccesibility, pectin, antioxidants compounds) of the fruit from the Aragua State, Venezuela, as a contribution to stimulate and diversify the consumption of the tree tomato. The characterization showed that the fruits were at the ripening stage for consumption (°Brix 10.51, pH 3.5, acidity 0.02 g/100ml and 4.32 Kgf/cm2 compression strength) gave a yield of 74% pulp. The analytical results of the ripped pulp showed a content of 30 Kcal/100g, dietary fiber (4.10g/100g), and minerals such as phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron (331.32, 21.25, 21.18, 17.03 and 7.44 mg/100g, respectively). Bioaccesibility values of 6.71 and 1.86% were reported for calcium and iron. The extracted pectin (1.00 g/100g) was classified as high methoxyl with high degree of esterification. The antioxidant capacity of the ripped pulp (EC50 of 165.00 g /g DPPH and reducing power of 0.07 mmol Fe +2/100g), could be attributed to the presence of ascorbic acid (23.32 mg/100g), lycopene (1.22 mg/100 g), and phenolic compounds (1.39 mg GAE/g), anthocyanins (0.29 mg cyanidin/ g) and tannins (0.40 mg catechin/100g).The results obtained encourage the nutritional benefits and suggest applications as a functional ingredient in food product development.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Solanaceae/chemistry , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Carotenoids/analysis , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Dietary Proteins/analysis , Functional Food/analysis , Nutritive Value , Pectins/analysis , Phenols/analysis , Plant Extracts/analysis , Solanum/chemistry , Tannins/analysis , Venezuela
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 72(4): 831-837, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660378

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species can be produced in leaf cells during normal aerobic metabolism or in a variety of exogenous factors, which may cause oxidative damage to plants, unless they have an efficient antioxidant defense system, consisting of enzymatic and non-enzymatic substances. This work raised the hypothesis that plants of Ipomoea nil cv. Scarlet O'Hara, a native species and ornamental vine of the tropics, might tolerate oxidative stress factors imposed by natural fluctuations in weather conditions through changes in the antioxidant profile.The objective of this study was to determine the variations in three leaf antioxidants in plants growing inside a greenhouse without air pollutants and exposed to varying meteorological conditions throughout the four seasons of the year and to observe if such variations are related to the oscillations in meteorological factors. Four experimental campaigns were carried out, one in each season of 2006. Each campaign lasted 28 days and started with 45 plants. Ascorbic acid (AA) concentrations and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were determined in leaves of five plants in nine sampling days of each campaign. The antioxidant responses oscillated throughout the year. The highest values were found during the spring. This seasonal antioxidant profile was associated to variations in temperature, relative humidity and global radiation. Plants of this cultivar may then tolerate oxidative stress naturally imposed by meteorological conditions.


As espécies reativas de oxigênio podem ser produzidas em células de folhas durante o metabolismo aeróbico normal ou o sob uma diversidade de fatores exógenos que, por sua vez, podem causar danos oxidativos às plantas, a menos que estas tenham um eficiente sistema de defesa antioxidativo, formado por substâncias enzimáticas e não enzimáticas. Neste trabalho, levantou-se a hipótese de que as plantas de Ipomoea nil cv. Scarlet O'Hara, uma espécie trepadeira ornamental e nativa dos trópicos, podem tolerar fatores de estresse oxidativo imposto por oscilações naturais nas condições meteorológicas por meio de mudanças no perfil antioxidativo. Assim, este trabalho objetivou determinar as variações em três espécies antioxidantes foliares em plantas crescidas em casa de vegetação sob ar filtrado e expostas a condições meteorológicas variáveis ao longo das quatro estações do ano de 2006, bem como verificar se tais variações estão relacionadas às oscilações de fatores meteorológicos. Para tanto, realizaram-se quatro campanhas experimentais. Cada campanha durou 28 dias e começou com 45 plantas. Concentrações de ácido ascórbico (AA) e as atividades de superóxido dismutase (SOD) e peroxidase (POD) foram determinadas em folhas de cinco plantas distintas e retiradas da casa de vegetação em nove dias de amostragem de cada campanha. As respostas antioxidativas oscilaram durante todo o ano, sendo os maiores valores encontrados durante a primavera. Este perfil sazonal de antioxidantes foi associado às variações de temperatura, umidade relativa e radiação global. As plantas desta cultivar podem, então, tolerar o estresse oxidativo naturalmente imposto pelas condições meteorológicas.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Ipomoea nil/chemistry , Ipomoea nil/enzymology , Peroxidase/analysis , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Oxidation-Reduction , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Leaves/enzymology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Seasons
20.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 71(2): 331-336, abr.-jun. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: lil-688210

ABSTRACT

The determination of ascorbic acid (AA) contents in beverages is a challenging and necessary task because consumers have to know the exact amount of this component in the product as displayed on the containerlabel. More over, the food industries have to add the exact (± 20%) quantity of ascorbic acid as it is statedon the label. This study aimed at evaluating 60 ready-to-drink beverages and powdered juices marketedin Curitiba (PR, Brazil). The results were compared with the values declared on the label, and in 76.7% of the samples no statistically similar values (p < 0.05) were found by comparing with those stated onthe packaging label. Moreover, the A A values found in this analysis were from 12 to 90% lower than those reported by manufacturers. For that reason, the ascorbic acid contents in these products should bemonito red by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA).


Subject(s)
Beverages , Quality Control , Ascorbic Acid/analysis
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