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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1767-1778, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134510

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Acrylamide (ACR) is a cytotoxic and carcinogenic material. It is a product of a Maillard reaction during the cooking of many types of fried fast food, e.g. potato chip fries, and chicken nuggets. ACR has a severe toxic effect on different body organs. This study investigates the hepatotoxic effect of ACR, and the protective effect of ascorbic acid and silymarin. For this purpose, forty adult, male, albino rats were divided into four groups and received the following treatments for fourteen days: Group I: (the control) normal saline; Group II: ACR only; Group III: ACR and ascorbic acid; and Group IV: ACR and silymarin. Under a light microscope, the liver from rats treated with ACR only presented disturbed liver architecture, degenerated hepatocytes, reduced glycogen contents, congested central vein, and increased collagen fibres with areas of fibrosis. Immunohistochemical examination revealed an increased mean number of CD68-, and α-SMA-positive cells. This indicates the presence of large numbers of stellate macrophages (Kupffer cells) and Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The combination of ACR with either ascorbic acid or silymarin resulted in less hepatic degeneration, less fibrosis and fewer CD68 and α-SMA positive cells compared to the ACR only group. In conclusion, treatment with silymarin or ascorbic acid along with ACR appears to alleviate ACR-induced hepatotoxicity with more protection in silymarin treated rats.


RESUMEN: La acrilamida (ACR) es un material citotóxico y cancerígeno. Es producto de la reacción de Maillard durante la cocción de muchos tipos de comida rápida y frita, por ejemplo: papas fritas y nuggets de pollo. ACR tiene un efecto tóxico severo en diferentes órganos del cuerpo. Este estudio investigó el efecto hepatotóxico del ACR y el efecto protector del ácido ascórbico y la silimarina. Con este fin, cuarenta ratas albinas machos adultas se dividieron en cuatro grupos y recibieron los siguientes tratamientos durante catorce días: Grupo I (control), solución salina normal; Grupo II, solo ACR; Grupo III, ACR y ácido ascórbico; y Grupo IV, ACR y silimarina. Bajo microscopio óptico, el hígado de ratas tratadas con ACR solo presentó alteración de su arquitectura, entre ellos hepatocitos degenerados, contenido reducido de glucógeno, vena central congestionada y aumento de fibras de colágeno con áreas de fibrosis. El examen inmunohistoquímico reveló un aumento del número medio de células CD68 y α-SMA positivas. Esto indica la presencia de un gran número de macrófagos estrellados (células de Kupffer) y células estrelladas hepáticas (HSC). La combinación de ACR con ácido ascórbico o silimarina resultó en menos degeneración hepática, menos fibrosis y menos células positivas para CD68 y α-SMA en comparación con el grupo de ACR solo. En conclusión, el tratamiento con silimarina o ácido ascórbico junto con ACR parece aliviar la hepatotoxicidad inducida por ACR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Silymarin/pharmacology , Acrylamide/toxicity , Liver/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Antigens, CD/analysis , Actins/analysis , Hepatocytes , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 48-55, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056396

ABSTRACT

This research was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of vitamin C supplementation against hepatocyte ultrastructural alterations induced by artemether (antimalarial drug) administration. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were used in this study and were divided into four groups (n=6). Group I served as a control and rats in group II administrated artemether (4 mg/kg B.W) orally for three consecutive days. Group III administered artemether plus a low dose of vitamin C (2.86 mg/kg/l water) while group IV received artemether plusa high dose of vitamin C (8.56 mg/kg). At the end of the experimental period (14 days), the harvested liver tissues were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of liver injury and oxidative stress. Artemether significantly (p<0.05) augmented biomarkers of liver injury such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and oxidative stress such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX), and caused degeneration and damage of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and disrupted mitochondria. The blood sinusoids were also damaged with distortion of their canaliculi. Administration of vitamin C showed improvement of liver biomarkers, and liver parenchyma, especially in a high dose of vitamin C.We concludes that vitamin C is a partial protective agent against artemether-induced liver injury.


Esta investigación fue diseñada para investigar el posible efecto protector de la vitamina C contra las alteraciones ultraestructurales de los hepatocitos, inducidas por la administración de arteméter (medicamento antipalúdico). En el estudio se utilizaron 24 ratas albinas macho adultas y se dividieron en cuatro grupos (n = 6). El grupo I fue designado como control y las ratas en el grupo II se adminstró Arteméter (4 mg / kg de peso corporal) por vía oral durante tres días consecutivos. En el grupo III se administró arteméter, además de una dosis baja de vitamina C (2,86 mg / kg / l de agua) mientras que el grupo IV recibió arteméter más una dosis alta de vitamina C (8,56 mg / kg). Al final del período experimental (14 días), los tejidos hepáticos recolectados se examinaron por microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET), y las muestras de sangre se analizaron en busca de biomarcadores de daño hepático y estrés oxidativo. El arteméter aumentó significativamente (p <0,05) los biomarcadores de daño hepático como alanina aminotransferasa (ALT), aspartato aminotransferasa (AST) y estrés oxidativo como superóxido dismutasa (SOD), glutatión peroxidasa (GPX) y causó degeneración y daño de la retículo endoplásmico rugoso y mitocondrias alteradas. Los sinusoides sanguíneos también fueron dañados con la distorsión de sus canalículos. La administración de vitamina C mostró una mejoría de los biomarcadores hepáticos y el parénquima hepático, especialmente en una dosis alta de vitamina C. Concluimos que la vitamina C es un agente protector parcial contra la lesión hepática inducida por arteméter.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic/drug therapy , Artemether/toxicity , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Biomarkers , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Hepatocytes/ultrastructure , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Hepatoprotector Drugs , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis
3.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1234-1242, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975655

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Formation of struvite stones is associated with urinary tract infection by urease-producing bacteria. Biogenic crystal growth in natural and synthetic materials is regulated by the action of inhibitors, ranging from small ions, molecules to large macromolecules. Materials and Methods: We report the dynamics of in vitro crystallization of struvite in presence of vitamin C in synthetic urine using single diffusion gel growth technique. Sodium metasilicate gel of specific gravity 1.05 and the aqueous solution of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate were used as the medium for growing the struvite crystals. The crystallization process was induced by a urease positive struvite stone associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa to mimic the infection leading to stone formation. The grown crystals were characterized by ATR-FTIR and powder XRD. The surface morphology was analysed through FE-SEM for comparison between treatments. Results: We observed decrease in number, dimension, and growth rate of struvite crystals with the increasing concentrations of vitamin C. Crystals displayed well-defined faces and dendritic morphology of struvite in both control and biogenic systems. Conclusion: The results strongly suggest that, vitamin C can modulate the formation of struvite crystals in the presence of uropathogenic bacteria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Urine/microbiology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Calculi/prevention & control , Struvite/chemistry , Time Factors , Crystallization
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(8): 703-712, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949375

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To assess the action of vitamin C on the expression of 84 oxidative stress related-genes in cultured skin fibroblasts from burn patients. Methods: Skin samples were obtained from ten burn patients. Human primary fibroblasts were isolated and cultured to be distributed into 2 groups: TF (n = 10, fibroblasts treated with vitamin C) and UF (n = 10, untreated fibroblasts). Gene expression analysis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction array was performed for comparisons between groups. Results: The comparison revealed 10 upregulated genes as follows: arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12), 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24), dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1), glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2), glutathione peroxidase 5 (GPX5), microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3 (MGST3), peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4), phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate dependent Rac exchange factor 1 (P-REX1), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (PTGS1), and ring finger protein 7 (RNF7). Conclusion: Cultured fibroblasts obtained from burn patients and treated with vitamin C resulted in 10 differentially expressed genes, all overexpressed, with DUOX1, GPX5, GPX2 and PTGS1 being of most interest.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Burns/pathology , Gene Expression/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/pathology , Reference Values , Skin/pathology , Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase/analysis , Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase/drug effects , Burns/drug therapy , Cells, Cultured , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/analysis , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/analysis , Cyclooxygenase 1/analysis , Cyclooxygenase 1/drug effects , Peroxiredoxins/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dual Oxidases/analysis , Dual Oxidases/drug effects , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Glutathione Peroxidase/drug effects
5.
Biol. Res ; 51: 34, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent and its underlying pathogenesis involves dyslipidemia including pro-atherogenic high density lipoprotein (HDL) remodeling. Vitamins C and E have been proposed as atheroprotective agents for cardiovascular disease management. However, their effects and benefits on high density lipoprotein function and remodeling are unknown. In this study, we evaluated the role of vitamin C and E on non HDL lipoproteins as well as HDL function and remodeling, along with their effects on inflammation/ oxidation biomarkers and atherosclerosis in atherogenic diet-fed SR-B1 KO/ApoER61h/h mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were pre-treated for 5 weeks before and during atherogenic diet feeding with vitamin C and E added to water and diet, respectively. Compared to a control group, combined vitamin C and E administration reduced serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels by decreasing apo B-48-containing lipoproteins, remodeled HDL particles by reducing phospholipid as well as increasing PON1 and apo D content, and diminished PLTP activity and levels. Vitamin supplementation improved HDL antioxidant function and lowered serum TNF-α levels. Vitamin C and E combination attenuated atherogenesis and increased lifespan in atherogenic diet-fed SR-B1 KO/ApoER61h/h mice. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin C and E administration showed significant lipid metabolism regulating effects, including HDL remodeling and decreased levels of apoB-containing lipoproteins, in mice. In addition, this vitamin supplementation generated a cardioprotective effect in a murine model of severe and lethal atherosclerotic ischemic heart disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Myocardial Ischemia/prevention & control , Apolipoprotein B-48/drug effects , Hyperlipidemias/prevention & control , Lipoproteins, HDL/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Reference Values , Coronary Artery Disease/prevention & control , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Immunoblotting , Reproducibility of Results , Cytokines/blood , Treatment Outcome , Myocardial Ischemia/blood , Dietary Supplements , Phospholipid Transfer Proteins/blood , Diet, Atherogenic , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/drug effects , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/blood , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Apolipoprotein B-48/blood , Hyperlipidemias/blood , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Mice, Inbred C57BL
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 85-91, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742500

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Ascorbic acid has been reported to have an adipogenic effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, while evidence also suggests that ascorbic acid reduces body weight in humans. In this study, we tested the effects of ascorbic acid on adipogenesis and the balance of lipid accumulation in ovariectomized rats, in addition to long-term culture of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Murine 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and ovariectomized rats were treated with ascorbic acid at various time points. In vitro adipogenesis was analyzed by Oil Red O staining, and in vivo body fat was measured by a body composition analyzer using nuclear magnetic resonance. RESULTS: When ascorbic acid was applied during an early time point in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) in rats, adipogenesis and fat mass gain significantly increased, respectively. However, lipid accumulation in well-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes showed a significant reduction when ascorbic acid was applied after differentiation (10 days after induction). Also, oral ascorbic acid administration 4 weeks after OVX in rats significantly reduced both body weight and subcutaneous fat layer. In comparison to the results of ascorbic acid, which is a well-known cofactor for an enzyme of collagen synthesis, and the antioxidant ramalin, a potent antioxidant but not a cofactor, showed only a lipolytic effect in well-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, not an adipogenic effect. CONCLUSION: Taking these results into account, we concluded that ascorbic acid has both an adipogenic effect as a cofactor of an enzymatic process and a lipolytic effect as an antioxidant.


Subject(s)
3T3-L1 Cells , Adipocytes/drug effects , Adipocytes/metabolism , Adipogenesis/drug effects , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Body Composition/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Female , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Lipolysis/drug effects , Mice , Ovariectomy , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
7.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2805-2815, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886850

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Morus nigra L. (Moraceae) is a tree known as black mulberry and the leaves are used in folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes, high cholesterol and menopause symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the M. nigra leaves phytochemical profile in different extractions and the hypolipidemic effect of the infusion comparing to the fenofibrate. Morus nigra infusion (MN) showed higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids (83.85 mg/g and 79.96 µg/g, respectively), as well as antioxidant activity (83.85%) than decoction or hydromethanolic extracts. Although, decoction showed the best result for ascorbic acid (4.35 mg/100 g) than hydromethanolic or infusion (2.51 or 2.13 mg/100 g, respectively). The phenolic acids gallic, chlorogenic and caffeic and the flavonoids quercetin, rutin and catechin were found in the M. nigra extracts. Hyperlipidemic rats treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg of MN decreased serum cholesterol, triglycerides and normalized lipoproteins. Furthermore, MN inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain of hyperlipidemic rats. This study provides evidence that M. nigra leaves extracts are rich in polyphenols, mainly chlorogenic acid, which normalized hyperlipidemic disturbance. The results suggest a potential therapeutic effect of the M. nigra leaves infusion on dislipidemic condition and related oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Phenols/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Morus/chemistry , Lipids/blood , Phenols/isolation & purification , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Antioxidants/pharmacology
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(10): 853-861, Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886175

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the preventive effect of ascorbic acid on sevoflurane-induced acute renal failure in an experimental rat model. Methods: Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into three groups. Subjects were allocated into 3 groups: Group I received sevoflurane only, whereas Groups II and III had moderate (150 mg/kg) and high (300 mg/kg) doses of AA in addition to sevoflurane, respectively. Rhabdomyolysis and myohemoglobinuric ARF was formed by intramuscular administration of glycerol on the upper hind limb on the 15th minute of inhalation anesthesia. Biochemical parameters consisted of serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and protein carbonyl content. Histopathological variables were tubular necrosis, fibrin, and cast formation. Results: NGAL levels were significantly lower in Group III than Group II and Group I. On the other hand, TAC, PCO, urea and creatinine levels were notably higher in Group I compared with Groups II and III. There was a significant difference between 3 groups on frequencies of acute tubular necrosis (p=0.003), fibrin (p<0.001) and cast (p<0.001). Acute tubular necrosis and fibrin formation were more prominent in Group I. Casts were more common in Groups II and III. Conclusions: The ascorbic acid serve as a prophylactic agent against renal damage in patients receiving sevoflurane anesthesia and higher doses were associated with more apparent protective effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Biomarkers/blood , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Sevoflurane
9.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1095-1109, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886704

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Hepatic disorders such as steatosis and alcoholic steatohepatitis are common diseases that affect thousands of people around the globe. This study aims to identify the main phenol compounds using a new HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS method, to evaluate some oxidative stress parameters and the hepatoprotective action of green dwarf coconut water, caffeic and ascorbic acids on the liver and serum of rats treated with ethanol. The results showed five polyphenols in the lyophilized coconut water spiked with standards: chlorogenic acid (0.18 µM), caffeic acid (1.1 µM), methyl caffeate (0.03 µM), quercetin (0.08 µM) and ferulic acid (0.02 µM) isomers. In the animals, the activity of the serum γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GT) was reduced to 1.8 I.U/L in the coconut water group, 3.6 I.U/L in the ascorbic acid group and 2.9 I.U/L in the caffeic acid groups, when compared with the ethanol group (5.1 I.U/L, p<0.05). Still in liver, the DNA analysis demonstrated a decrease of oxidized bases compared to ethanol group of 36.2% and 48.0% for pretreated and post treated coconut water group respectively, 42.5% for the caffeic acid group, and 34.5% for the ascorbic acid group. The ascorbic acid was efficient in inhibiting the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the liver by 16.5% in comparison with the ethanol group. These data indicate that the green dwarf coconut water, caffeic and ascorbic acids have antioxidant, hepatoprotective and reduced DNA damage properties, thus decreasing the oxidative stress induced by ethanol metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , DNA Damage/drug effects , Caffeic Acids/pharmacology , Cocos/chemistry , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Ethanol/pharmacology , Liver/drug effects , Time Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Water/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation , Cholesterol/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances , Rats, Wistar , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Liver/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
10.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1133-1141, Apr.-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886699

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Studies have shown that schizophrenic patients seem to have nutritional deficiencies. Ascorbic acid (AA) has an important antioxidant effect and neuromodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AA on locomotor activity and the acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) in an animal model of schizophrenia (SZ). Rats were supplemented with AA (0.1, 1, or 10 mg/kg), or water for 14 days (gavage). Between the 9th and 15th days, the animals received Ketamine (Ket) (25 mg/kg) or saline (i.p). After the last administration (30 min) rats were subjected to the behavioral test. Brain structures were dissected for biochemical analysis. There was a significant increase in the locomotor activity in Ket treated. AA prevented the hyperlocomotion induced by ket. Ket also showed an increase of AChE activity within the prefrontal cortex and striatum prevented by AA. Our data indicates an effect for AA in preventing alterations induced by Ket in an animal model of SZ, suggesting that it may be an adjuvant approach for the development of new therapeutic strategies within this psychiatric disorder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acetylcholinesterase/analysis , Acetylcholinesterase/drug effects , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Schizophrenia/enzymology , Locomotion/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Acetylcholinesterase/physiology , Schizophrenia/prevention & control , Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists , Dietary Supplements , Corpus Striatum/drug effects , Corpus Striatum/enzymology , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/drug effects , Hippocampus/enzymology , Ketamine , Locomotion/physiology
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(3): 197-201, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897909

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Ischemia-reperfusion injury after acute ischemia treatment is a serious condition with high mortality and morbidity. Ischemia-reperfusion injury may result in organ failure particularly in kidney, lung, liver, and heart. In our study, we investigated the effects of papaverine and vitamin C on ischemia-reperfusion injury developed in the rat liver after occlusion-reperfusion of rat aorta. Methods: 32 Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomized into four groups (n=8). Ischemia was induced with infrarenal aortic cross-clamping for 60 minutes; then the clamp was removed and reperfusion was allowed for 120 minutes. While the control group and the ischemia-reperfusion group did not receive any supplementary agent, two other groups received vitamin C and papaverine hydrochloride (papaverine HCL). Liver tissues were evaluated under the light microscope. Histopathological examination was assessed by Suzuki's criteria and results were compared between groups. Results: In ischemia-reperfusion group, severe congestion, severe cytoplasmic vacuolization, and parenchymal necrosis over 60% (score 4) were observed. In vitamin C group, mild congestion, mild cytoplasmic vacuolization and parenchymal necrosis below 30% (score 2) were found. In papaverine group, moderate congestion, moderate cytoplasmic vacuolization and parenchymal necrosis below 60% (score 3) were observed. Conclusion: An ischemia of 60 minutes induced on lower extremities causes damaging effects on hepatic tissue. Vitamin C and papaverine are helpful in reducing liver injury after acute ischemia reperfusion and may partially avoid related negative conditions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Papaverine/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Liver/drug effects , Liver/blood supply , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Aorta, Abdominal , Papaverine/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Constriction , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/pathology , Necrosis , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
12.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 695-704, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886666

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Both the scientific community and society have shown interest in improving the content of amino acids, carbohydrates and mineral nutrients in maize because it represents an important staple food in many developing countries. Earlier studies demonstrated that the treatment of seeds using ascorbic acid (AsA-seed priming) enhanced soluble carbohydrates, proteins and soluble amino acids for other species. AsA seed priming in maize showed the potential for reducing abiotic stresses. The effects on grain quality have not been previously demonstrated. This study investigated the impacts of AsA seed priming on maize kernel quality of seeds produced by the plants generated from the primed seeds, based on the amino acid profile and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient contents. AsA seed priming improved the maize kernel quality with respect to the ascorbate content, boron allocation, total carbohydrate content and increased soluble amino acid levels, including serine, tyrosine, alanine, valine, glutamate, arginine, proline, aspartate, lysine and isoleucine, whereas soluble methionine was decreased. Therefore, AsA seed priming can represent a potential technique for improving maize grain quality.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Seeds/drug effects , Carbohydrates/analysis , Zea mays/chemistry , Amino Acids/analysis , Minerals/analysis , Zea mays/drug effects
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(5): 427-436, Nov. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827863

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The mechanism underlying the vascular dysfunction induced by ethanol is not totally understood. Identification of biochemical/molecular mechanisms that could explain such effects is warranted. Objective: To investigate whether acute ethanol intake activates the vascular RhoA/Rho kinase pathway in resistance arteries and the role of NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) on such response. We also evaluated the requirement of p47phox translocation for ethanol-induced NAD(P)H oxidase activation. Methods: Male Wistar rats were orally treated with ethanol (1g/kg, p.o. gavage) or water (control). Some rats were treated with vitamin C (250 mg/kg, p.o. gavage, 5 days) before administration of water or ethanol. The mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) was collected 30 min after ethanol administration. Results: Vitamin C prevented ethanol-induced increase in superoxide anion (O2-) generation and lipoperoxidation in the MAB. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and the reduced glutathione, nitrate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were not affected by ethanol. Vitamin C and 4-methylpyrazole prevented the increase on O2- generation induced by ethanol in cultured MAB vascular smooth muscle cells. Ethanol had no effect on phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B (Akt) and eNOS (Ser1177 or Thr495 residues) or MAB vascular reactivity. Vitamin C prevented ethanol-induced increase in the membrane: cytosol fraction ratio of p47phox and RhoA expression in the rat MAB. Conclusion: Acute ethanol intake induces activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway by a mechanism that involves ROS generation. In resistance arteries, ethanol activates NAD(P)H oxidase by inducing p47phox translocation by a redox-sensitive mechanism.


Resumo Fundamento: O mecanismo da disfunção vascular induzido pelo consumo de etanol não é totalmente compreendido. Justifica-se, assim a identificação de mecanismos bioquímicos e moleculares que poderiam explicar tais efeitos. Objetivos: Investigar se a ingestão aguda de etanol ativa a via vascular RhoA/Rho quinase em artérias de resistência e o papel das espécies reativas de oxigênio (ERO) derivadas da NAD(P)H oxidase nessa resposta. Nós também avaliamos se ocorreu translocação da p47phox e ativação da NAD(P)H oxidase após o consumo agudo de etanol. Métodos: Ratos Wistar machos foram tratados com etanol via oral (1g/kg, p.o. gavagem) ou água (controle). Alguns ratos foram tratados com vitamina C (250 mg/kg, p.o. gavagem, 5 dias) antes de água ou etanol. O leito arterial mesentérico (LAM) foi coleado 30 min após a administração de etanol. Resultados: A vitamina C preveniu o aumento da geração de ânion superóxido (O2 -) e lipoperoxidação no LAM induzidos pelo etanol. A atividade da catalase (CAT), da superóxido dismutase (SOD) e os níveis de glutationa reduzida(GSH), nitrato e peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2) não foram afetados após a ingestão aguda de etanol. A vitamina C e o 4-metilpirazol preveniram o aumento na geração de O2 - induzido pelo etanol em cultura de células do músculo liso vascular (CMLV). O etanol não afetou a fosforilação da proteína quinase B (Akt) e nem da óxido nítrico sintase endotelial (eNOS) (nos resíduos de Ser1177 ou Thr495) ou a reatividade vascular do LAM. A vitamina C preveniu o aumento da razão membrana:citosol da p47phox e a expressão da RhoA no LAM de rato induzido pelo etanol. Conclusão: A ingestão aguda de etanol induz a ativação da via RhoA/Rho quinase por um mecanismo que envolve a geração de ERO. Nas artérias de resistência, o etanol ativa NAD(P)H oxidase induzindo a translocação da p47phox por um mecanismo redox-sensível.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , NADPH Oxidases/metabolism , rhoA GTP-Binding Protein/metabolism , Ethanol/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , NADPH Oxidases/drug effects , Protein Transport , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme Activation
14.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 29(4): 579-587, July-Aug. 2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-789065

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos da vitamina C sobre níveis de peroxidação lipídica e glutationa reduzida em tecido hepático de camundongos imunossuprimidos por ciclofosfamida. Métodos: O estudo foi realizado em camundongos Swiss, fêmeas, com 45 dias de idade, separados em quatro grupos com oito animais cada. Grupos: controle (água destilada), vitamina C (50 mg/kg), ciclofosfamida (100 + 150 mg/kg) e tratamento (vitamina C 50 mg/kg + ciclofosfamida 100 +150 mg/kg). Todas as aplicações foram via intraperitoneal. O ensaio biológico teve duração de seis dias, sendo o sétimo a eutanásia dos animais. As análises bioquímicas de peroxidação lipídica (quantificação de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico) e glutationa reduzida (estimativa de tiois não proteicos) foram realizadas em tecido hepático. Resultados: A ciclofosfamida causou aumento significativo (p<0,0001) nos níveis de peroxidação lipídica. Não foram observadas alterações significativas nos grupos tratados com vitamina C. A ciclofosfamida por si só, não alterou níveis de glutationa reduzida. A vitamina C causou a redução do nível de glutationa reduzida em relação ao controle tanto nos animais que receberam ciclofosfamida quanto nos que não receberam. No entanto, nos grupos tratados com o quimioterápico houve uma interação entre a droga e a vitamina, ou seja, o quimioterápico intensificou a diminuição da glutationa reduzida provocada pela vitamina C. Conclusão: A ciclofosfamida, na dose e período utilizados, foi capaz de induzir o dano oxidativo verificado pelo aumento da peroxidação lipídica. A vitamina C, na dose de 50 mg/kg de peso, não apresentou potencial para proteger contra o dano oxidativo provocado pelo quimioterápico.


ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the effects of vitamin C supplementation on the levels of lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione in the liver tissue of mice immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide. Methods: Thirty-two 45-day-old female Swiss mice were divided into four groups of eight animals each as follows: control (distilled water); vitamin C (50 mg/kg); cyclophosphamide (100 + 150 mg/kg); and treatment (vitamin C 50 mg/kg + cyclophosphamide 100 +150 mg/kg). The substances were provided intraperitoneally for six days, and on the seventh day, the mice were euthanized. The biochemical analyses of lipid peroxidation (quantification of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and reduced glutathione (estimate of non-protein thiols) were performed on liver tissue. Results: Cyclophosphamide increased the levels of lipid peroxidation (p<0.0001). Significant changes were not found in the groups treated with vitamin C. Cyclophosphamide alone did not affect the levels of reduced glutathione. Compared with the control group, vitamin C reduced the levels of reduced glutathione in animals that received or not cyclophosphamide. Vitamin C interacted with cyclophosphamide, that is, the chemotherapeutic agent further decreased the lower levels of reduced glutathione secondary to vitamin C intake. Conclusion: Cyclophosphamide, in the study dosage and duration, was capable of inducing oxidative damage, verified by increased lipid peroxidation. A vitamin C dosage of 50mg/kg of body weight did not protect against the oxidative damage caused by the chemotherapeutic agent.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Cyclophosphamide/pharmacology , Glutathione/drug effects , Mice
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(1): 102-109, Mar. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780482

ABSTRACT

Testicular toxicity has been implicated in highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) treatment. Hence there is need to identify an effective antioxidant product that can alleviate testicular necrosis due to HAART administration. Forty eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. The animals were divided into eight (8) groups: A-H (n= 6). Group A animals received normal saline as the control; Group B was given Nevirapine (Nv); Group C was given Kolaviron (Kv); Group D was given vitamin C; Group E was given Nv and Kv; Group F was given Nv and Vitamin C; Group G was given Nv for 56 d and Kv for 28 d serving as a withdrawal group; Group H was given corn oil. Nv, Kv and Vit. C were given at 1.54, 200 and 250 (mg·kg)/bw respectively while all administrations were through oral gavage. The body weights were taken every other day. Thereafter, they were anaesthetized with halothane. The testes were excised, weighed, fixed in Bouin's fluid and stained with H&E while the epididymes removed for semen fluid analyses. The results showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in sperm motility in group E (Nevirapine + kolaviron) when compared with group F (Nevirapine + Vitamin C) while Sperm count was not significantly different (P>0.05) across the groups. The testicular histoarchitectural studies revealed indistinct spermatogonia, necrotic interstititial endocrine cells in the altered interstitial space, fragmented spermatids, atrophy of mature spermatocytes, degenerated germ cells, obliterated seminiferous tubules lumen, undifferentiated spermatogonia and cellular debris in the somniferous tubules lumen of nevirapine administered group but normal across the other groups. In the testis, there were no significant reduction in SOD, Catalase and GPx activities but a significant decrease in GST activity (P<0.001) when group E was compared with group F. In conclusion, vitamin C presents a better remediation in nevirapine induced spermiotoxicity compared to kolaviron in Sprague-Dawley rats.


La toxicidad testicular ha sido implicada en la terapia antirretroviral altamente activa (TARAA). Por lo tanto existe la necesidad de identificar un producto antioxidante eficaz que pueda aliviar la necrosis testicular en la administración de la TARAA. Cuarenta y ocho ratas macho Sprague-Dawley adultas fueron utilizadas. Los animales se dividieron en ocho (8) grupos: AH (n= 6). Grupo A, animales recibieron solución salina normal como el control; Grupo B, recibió Nevirapina (Nv); Grupo C, recibió Kolaviron (Kv); Grupo D, recibió vitamina C; Grupo E, recibió Nv y Kv; Grupo F, recibió Nv y vitamina C; Grupo G, recibió Nv durante 56 d y Kv por 28 d como un grupo de retirada; Grupo H, recibió aceite de maíz. Nv, Kv y Vit. C se administraron en dosis de 1, 54, 200 y 250 (mg · kg) de peso corporal respectivamente; todas las administraciones fueron por sonda oral. Los pesos corporales se tomaron cada dos días. A partir de ese momento los animales fueron anestesiados con halotano. Los testículos fueron extirpados, pesados y fijados en solución de Bouin y teñidos con H&E, mientras que el epidídimo se retiró para analizar el semen. Los resultados mostraron un descenso (p<0,05) en la motilidad de los espermatozoides en el grupo E (Nevirapina + Kolaviron) en comparación con el grupo F (Nevirapina + vitamina C), mientras que el recuento espermático no mostró diferencias significativas (P>0,05) entre los grupos. El estudio de la histoarquitectura testicular reveló espermatogonias indiferenciadas, con células intersticiales necróticas en el espacio intersticial y espermátidas fragmentadas. Además, en el grupo que recibió Nevirapina mostró espermatocitos maduros atrofiados, degeneración de células germinales, lumen de los túbulos seminíferos obliterados, espermatogonias indiferenciadas y restos celulares en el lumen de los tubulos seminíferos. En el resto de los grupos los resultados fueron normales. En el testículo hubo una reducción significativa en las actividades de la superóxido dismutasa, catalasa y glutatión peroxidasa, pero una disminución significativa en la actividad glutatión S-transferasa (P <0,001) al comparar los grupo E y F.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Garcinia kola/chemistry , Nevirapine/toxicity , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/antagonists & inhibitors , Testis/drug effects , Anti-HIV Agents/toxicity , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , Body Weight , Catalase/antagonists & inhibitors , Glutathione Peroxidase/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Seeds , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Testis/enzymology , Testis/pathology
16.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(1): 29-36, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-773481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intra-articular injections of local anesthetics are commonly used to enhance post-operative analgesia following orthopedic surgery as arthroscopic surgeries. Nevertheless, recent reports of severe complications due to the use of intra-articular local anesthetic have raised concerns. OBJECTIVES: The study aims to assess use of vitamin C in reducing adverse effects of the most commonly employed anesthetics - ropivacaine, bupivacaine and lidocaine - on human chondrocytes. METHODS: The chondrocyte viability following exposure to 0.5% bupivacaine or 0.75% ropivacaine or 1.0% lidocaine and/or vitamin C at doses 125, 250 and 500 µM was determined by LIVE/DEAD assay and annexin V staining. Expression levels of caspases 3 and 9 were assessed using antibodies by Western blotting. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the generation of reactive oxygen species. RESULTS: On exposure to the local anesthetics, chondrotoxicity was found in the order ropivacaine < bupivacaine < lidocaine. Vitamin C effectively improved the reduced chondrocyte viability and decreased the raised apoptosis levels following exposure to anesthesia. At higher doses, vitamin C was found efficient in reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species and as well down-regulate the expressions of caspases 3 and 9. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin C was observed to effectively protect chondrocytes against the toxic insult of local anesthetics ropivacaine, bupivacaine and lidocaine.


JUSTIFICATIVA: Injeções de anestésicos locais por via intra-articular são comumente usadas para melhorar a analgesia no período pós-operatório de cirurgia ortopédica como artroscopia. No entanto, relatos recentes de complicações graves devido ao uso de anestésico local por via intra-articular causou preocupações. OBJETIVOS: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o uso de vitamina C para reduzir os efeitos adversos dos anestésicos mais comumente usados (ropivocaína, bupivacaína e lidocaína) sobre condrócitos humanos. MÉTODOS: A viabilidade dos condrócitos após a exposição à bupivacaína a 0,5% ou ropivacaína a 0,75% ou lidocaína a 1,0% e/ou vitamina C em doses de 125, 250 e 500 µM foi determinada pelo ensaio Vivo/Morto e coloração com anexina V. Os níveis de expressão das caspases 3 e 9 foram avaliados com o uso de anticorpos pela técnica Western blotting. Citometria de fluxo foi feita para analisar a geração de espécies reativas ao oxigênio. RESULTADOS: Na exposição aos anestésicos locais, condrotoxicidade foi encontrada na seguinte ordem: ropivacaína < bupivacaína < lidocaína. A vitamina C efetivamente melhorou a redução da viabilidade dos condrócitos e diminuiu os níveis elevados de apoptose após a exposição à anestesia. Em doses mais altas, a vitamina C foi eficiente para reduzir a geração de espécies reativas ao oxigênio e assim regular negativamente a expressão das caspases 3 e 9. CONCLUSÕES: Observamos que a vitamina C foi eficaz na proteção dos condrócitos contra a agressão tóxica dos anestésicos locais ropivacaína, bupivacaína e lidocaína.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Chondrocytes/drug effects , Anesthetics, Local/toxicity , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/toxicity , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Apoptosis/drug effects , Chondrocytes/pathology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Caspase 3/genetics , Caspase 9/genetics , Flow Cytometry , Ropivacaine , Amides/toxicity , Lidocaine/toxicity , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/pharmacology
17.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 19(1): 10-15, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741533

ABSTRACT

Introduction Neural response telemetry (NRT) is a method of capturing the action potential of the distal portion of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users, using the CI itself to elicit and record the answers. In addition, it can alsomeasure the recovery function of the auditory nerve (REC), that is, the refractory properties of the nerve. It is not clear in the literature whether the responses from adults are the same as those from children. Objective To compare the results of NRT and REC between adults and children undergoing CI surgery. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and retrospective study of the results of NRT and REC for patients undergoing IC at our service. The NRT is assessed by the level of amplitude (microvolts) and REC as a function of three parameters: A (saturation level, in microvolts), t0 (absolute refractory period, in seconds), and tau (curve of the model function), measured in three electrodes (apical, medial, and basal). Results Fifty-two patients were evaluated with intraoperative NRT (26 adults and 26 children), and 24 with REC (12 adults and 12 children). No statistically significant difference was found between intraoperative responses of adults and children for NRTor for REC's three parameters, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. Conclusion The results of intraoperative NRT and REC were not different between adults and children, except for parameter A of the basal electrode. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Exercise , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Physical Endurance/drug effects , Vitamin E/pharmacology , Vitamins/pharmacology
18.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Nov; 52(11): 1112-1121
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153800

ABSTRACT

Various parameters including explant-type, medium compositions, use of phytohormones and additives were optimized for direct and indirect regeneration of E. ochreata, a medicinal orchid under threat. Protocorm-like-bodies (PLBs) proved to be the best explants for shoot initiation, proliferation and callus induction. Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium containing 2.5 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1.0 mg L-1 kinetin (Kin) and additives (adenine sulfate, arginine, citric acid, 30 mg L-1 each and 50 mg L-1 ascorbic acid) was optimal for shoot multiplication (12.1 shoots and 7.1 PLBs per explant with synchronized growth), which also produced callus. Shoot number was further increased with three successive subcultures on same media and ~40 shoots per explant were achieved after 3 cycles of 30 days each. Additives and casein hydrolysate (CH) showed advantageous effects on indirect shoot regeneration via protocorm-derived callus. Optimum indirect regeneration was achieved on MS containing additives, 500 mg L-1 CH, 2.5 mg L-1 BAP and 1.0 mg L-1 Kin with 30 PLBs and 6 shoots per callus mass (~5 mm size). The shoots were rooted (70% frequency) on one by fourth-MS medium containing 2.0 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid, 200 mg L-1 activated charcoal and additives. The rooted plantlets were hardened and transferred to greenhouse with 63% survival rate. Flow-cytometry based DNA content analysis revealed that the ploidy levels were maintained in in vitro regenerated plants. This is the first report for in vitro plant regeneration in E. ochreata.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Chromosomes, Plant , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Culture Media/pharmacology , Cytokinins/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Orchidaceae/genetics , Orchidaceae/growth & development , Orchidaceae/physiology , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/physiology , Plant Cells/drug effects , Plant Cells/physiology , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Plants, Medicinal/growth & development , Plants, Medicinal/physiology , Ploidies , Regeneration , Rhizome/drug effects , Rhizome/growth & development
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Sept; 52(9): 912-916
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153776

ABSTRACT

An efficient and reproducible protocol for plantlet regeneration from nodal segments of Olive cv ‘Frontio’ has been developed. Media and explants browning due to exudation of phenolics from the explants were controlled by fortification of the medium with 100 mg/L ascorbic acid. Best establishment of olive explants was observed on half-strength MS salts fortified with 2.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), which resulted in 56.2% of bud break and 93.7% survival whereas, a combination of full strength MS medium with 1.0 mg/L each of 3-indole-butyric-acid (IBA) and kinetin was found to be the best for shoot multiplication, in terms of number of shoots (3.6 shoots/explant) and shoot length (2.2 cm). The in vitro shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium fortified with 0.2 mg/L IBA and 0.2 mg/L α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) with 1.5 g/L activated charcoal, which supported optimum rooting (60 %), with an average of 2-3 roots/shoot, about 2.4 cm length were produced on four weeks of culture.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Olea/drug effects , Olea/physiology , Plant Roots/drug effects , Plant Roots/physiology , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Shoots/physiology , Regeneration/drug effects
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154639

ABSTRACT

Context: Antioxidant properties and Vitamin C. Background: Vitamin C is a naturally occurring organic compound and a potent antioxidant preventing oxidative damage to lipids and other macromolecules. It can also exhibit bimodal activity as a pro‑oxidant at a higher concentration. Vitamin C has a switch over role from being an antioxidant in physiologic conditions to a pro‑oxidant under pathologic conditions. A systematic review of this role would help to elucidate whether it is an antioxidant or a pro‑oxidant in the oral environment. Objective: To review studies reported in the literature elucidating the activity of Vitamin C and determine whether it is an antioxidant or a pro‑oxidant. Materials and Methods: Articles were searched in PubMed, MEDLINE using appropriate key words like “Vitamin C,” “antioxidant activity,” “pro‑oxidant activity,” “oral health” “oral disease.” Hand search of journals was also performed. Articles were reviewed and analyzed. Results: Search strategy reviewed 10 relevant articles which studied the dual role of Vitamin C. 65% of authors analyzed antioxidant action of ascorbic acid compared to 35% of the pro‑oxidant potential. Vitamin C acts as an antioxidant and a pro‑oxidant by a plethora of mechanisms. Factors determining its bimodal activity were studied, and the frequencies of their occurrence in the literature were depicted in percentage. Conclusion: The data validates the role of Vitamin C as an antioxidant under physiologic conditions exhibiting a cross over role as a pro‑oxidant in pathological conditions. Further studies are required to substantiate its pro‑oxidant activity to draw concrete conclusions.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/physiology , Mouth Diseases/drug therapy , Oral Health/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/physiology
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