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1.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(5): 439-445, May 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949344

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of capsiate treatment on hepatic hyperplasia in partially hepatectomized rats. Methods: The animals were divided into a Capsiate group (CPH), a Capsiate Post-Partial Hepatectomy group (CPPH) and a Partial Hepatectomy Control group (PH). CPH and CPPH animals received 60 mg/kg/day Capsiate for 30 days. Next, the rats underwent partial hepatectomy. CPPH animals continued to receive treatment for 48 h after partial hepatectomy. Liver tissue and intracardiac blood samples were obtained 24 or 48 h after PH. Results: Capsiate treatment interfered with hepatic parameters, reducing the number of mitoses and apoptosis and increasing blood ALT and alkaline phosphatase concentrations. Conclusion: Capsiate treatment preceding hepatic surgery may compromise the initial period of postoperative recovery.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Capsaicin/analogs & derivatives , Hepatectomy , Liver/enzymology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Capsaicin/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Apoptosis/drug effects , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Liver Regeneration/drug effects , Mitosis/drug effects
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(8): 633-640, Aug. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886223

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of hyperin in cisplatin-induced liver injury in mice. Methods: Mice were pretreated with hyperin at doses of 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively, for six days, and intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (40 mg/kg) was administrated one hour after the final intragastrication of hyperin. Twenty-four hours later, blood and liver were collected for further research. Results: A single injection of cisplatin (40 mg/kg) for 24 h significantly increased serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT/AST) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, whileas hyperin reversed cisplatin-induced such increases. Liver histopathological examination further demonstrated the protection of hyperin against cisplatin-induced liver injury. Further results showed hyperin reversed cisplatin-induced the increase in content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the decrease in level of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in liver. Moreover, hyperin increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s transferase (GST) in cisplatin-induced liver. Conclusion: Hyperin inhibits cisplatin-induced hepatic oxidative stress, which contributes greatly to the amelioration of cisplatin-induced liver injury in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Quercetin/pharmacology , Reference Values , Lipid Peroxidation , Catalase/analysis , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Cisplatin/antagonists & inhibitors , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Glutathione/analysis , Glutathione Peroxidase/analysis , Glutathione Transferase/analysis , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Liver/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Mice, Inbred ICR , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(3): 168-175, Mar. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777089

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE : To investigate the effects of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) against desflurane induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS : Thirty experimental animals were divided into groups as healthy (HG), desflurane control (DCG) , TPP and desflurane group (TDG). 20 mg/kg TPP was injected to intraperitoneally TDG. After one hour of TPP administration, desflurane was applied for two hours. After 24 hours, liver tissues of the animals killed with decapitation were removed. The oxidant/antioxidant levels and ALT, AST and LDH activities were measured. The histopathological examinations were performed in the liver tissues for all rats. RESULTS : Notwithstanding the levels of oxidants and liver enzymes were significantly increased (p<0.0001), antioxidant levels were significantly decreased in DCG (p<0.0001). On contrary to the antioxidant parameters were increased (p<0.05) the oxidant parameters and liver enzymes were decreased in TDG (p<0.0001). Whereas multiple prominent, congestion, hemorrhage and dilatation were observed in sinusoids and lymphocyte-rich inflammation results in the centrilobular and portal areas of liver tissue in DCG, these findings were observed less frequently in TDG. CONCLUSİON : Thiamine pyrophosphate prevented liver oxidative damage induced with desflurane and may be useful in prophylaxis of desflurane induced hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Thiamine Pyrophosphate/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Isoflurane/analogs & derivatives , Aspartate Aminotransferases/drug effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Alanine Transaminase/drug effects , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Glutathione/drug effects , Glutathione/metabolism , Isoflurane , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/drug effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Liver/enzymology , Liver/pathology , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(3): 183-189, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777096

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To determine the effect of grape-seed extract against ischemia/reperfusion injury in cholestatic liver. METHODS: Eighteen Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. In control and study groups, cholestasis was provided by bile duct ligation. Seven days later, the rats were subjected to 30 min hepatic ischemia, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. Oral administration of 50 mg/kg/day grape-seed extract was started 15 days before bile duct ligation and continued to the second operation in the study group. Serum, plasma and liver samples were taken. Laboratory analysis, tissue gluthation, malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase levels and histopathological examination were performed. RESULTS: Significant decrease in liver gluthation level and significant increase in malondialdehyde level and myeloperoxidase activity were observed after ischemia/reperfusion in cholestatic rats. Serum and plasma levels for laboratory analysis were also significantly higher in cholestatic I/R group. Hepatic necrosis and fibrosis were detected in histopathological examination. Oral grape-seed extract administiration reversed all these parameters and histopathological findings except serum bilirubin levels. CONCLUSION: Oral grape-seed extract treatment can improve liver functions and attenuate the inflammation and oxidative stress in cholestatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Cholestasis/complications , Grape Seed Extract/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/drug effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Bilirubin/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Cholestasis/metabolism , Cholestasis/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Lactate Dehydrogenases/drug effects , Lactate Dehydrogenases/metabolism , Alanine Transaminase/drug effects , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology
5.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1283-1293, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172977

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and clinical outcomes of chemoembolization in Child-Pugh class C patients with hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised 55 patients with HCC who were classified as Child-Pugh class C and who underwent initial chemoembolization between January 2003 and December 2012. Selective chemoembolization was performed in all technically feasible cases to minimize procedure-related complications. All adverse events within 30 days were recorded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). The tumor response to chemoembolization was evaluated using the modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors. RESULTS: Thirty (54.5%) patients were within the Milan criteria, and 25 (45.5%) were beyond. The mortality of study subjects at 30 days was 5.5%. Major complications were observed in five (9.1%) patients who were all beyond the Milan criteria: two hepatic failures, one hepatic encephalopathy, and two CTCAE grade 3 increases in aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase abnormality. The mean length of hospitalization was 6.3 ± 8.3 days (standard deviation), and 18 (32.7%) patients were discharged on the next day after chemoembolization. The tumor responses of the patients who met the Milan criteria were significantly higher (p = 0.014) than those of the patients who did not. The overall median survival was 7.1 months (95% confidence interval: 4.4-9.8 months). CONCLUSION: Even in patients with Child-Pugh class C, chemoembolization can be performed safely with a selective technique in selected cases with a small tumor burden.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic/adverse effects , Female , Hepatic Encephalopathy/etiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Liver Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Burden
6.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-9, 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential and invitro cytotoxicity studies of whole plant methanol extract of Rumex vesicarius L. Methanol extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw were assessed for its hepatoprotective potential against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by monitoring activity levels of SGOT (Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase), SGPT (Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase), ALP (Alkaline phosphatase), TP (Total protein), TB (Total bilirubin) and SOD (Superoxide dismutase), CAT (Catalase), MDA (Malondialdehyde). The cytotoxicity of the same extract on HepG2 cell lines were also assessed using MTT assay method at the concentration of 62.5, 125, 250, 500 µg/ml. RESULTS: Pretreatment of animals with whole plant methanol extracts of Rumex vesicarius L. significantly reduced the liver damage and the symptoms of liver injury by restoration of architecture of liver. The biochemical parameters in serum also improved in treated groups compared to the control and standard (silymarin) groups. Histopathological investigation further corroborated these biochemical observations. The cytotoxicity results indicated that the plant extract which were inhibitory to the proliferation of HepG2 cell line with IC50 value of 563.33 ± 0.8 Mg/ml were not cytotoxic and appears to be safe. CONCLUSIONS: Rumex vesicarius L. whole plant methanol extract exhibit hepatoprotective activity. However the cytotoxicity in HepG2 is inexplicable and warrants further study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Rumex/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Phytotherapy/methods , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Silymarin/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Tetrazolium Salts , Bilirubin/metabolism , Carbon Tetrachloride , Catalase/metabolism , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Methanol , Drinking/drug effects , Eating/drug effects , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Hep G2 Cells , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Formazans , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157090

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: General anaesthetics may induce apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic/necrotic markers M30 (caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18) and M65 (intact cytokeratin-18) have been used to identify early apoptosis in liver disease. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of propofol and sevoflurane anaesthesia on these markers and blood transaminase levels in female patients undergoing elective surgery. Methods: Sixty-seven women undergoing mastectomy or thyroidectomy under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated to the propofol or sevoflurane groups. Venous blood samples for measuring the apoptotic and necrotic markers M30 and M65 as well as for measuring the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) liver enzymes were collected before induction of anaesthesia, immediately after completion of surgery, and 24 and 48 h postoperatively. Results. The M30 values preoperatively and 0, 24 and 48 h postoperatively were 280±229, 300±244, 267±198 and 254±189 U/l in the propofol group and 237±95, 242±109, 231±94 and 234±127 U/l in the sevoflurane group, respectively. The M30 values did not differ within or between the groups. The M65 levels at the same time intervals were 470±262, 478±271, 456±339 and 485±273 in the propofol group and 427±226, 481±227, 389±158 and 404±144 U/l in the sevoflurane group, respectively. No significant changes were found in the M65 either within or between the propofol and the sevoflurane groups. The ALT and AST levels did not change at these time intervals. Interpretation & conclusions: Under the present study design propofol or sevoflurane anaesthesia did not induce apoptosis or affected the liver function as assessed by the M30, M65 markers and liver enzymes in patients undergoing mastectomy or thyroidectomy under general anaesthesia.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Anesthesia/methods , Apoptosis/drug effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Female , Humans , Keratin-18/blood , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Mastectomy/methods , Methyl Ethers/administration & dosage , Methyl Ethers/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Necrosis/chemically induced , Necrosis/enzymology , Necrosis/pathology , Peptide Fragments/blood , Propofol/administration & dosage , Propofol/adverse effects , Thyroidectomy/methods
8.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Jun; 51(3): 215-222
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154231

ABSTRACT

Alcoholism and obesity are strongly associated with several disorders including heart and liver diseases. This study evaluated the effects of rutin treatment in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats subjected to a combination of hypercaloric diet (HD) and chronic ethanol consumption. Rats were divided into three groups: Control: rats fed a standard diet and drinking water ad libitum; G1: rats fed the HD and receiving a solution of 10% (v/v) ethanol; and G2: rats fed the HD and ethanol solution, followed by injections of 50 mg/kg-1 rutin as treatment. After 53 days of HD and ethanol exposure, the rutin was administered every three days for nine days. At the end of the experimental period (95 days), biochemical analyses were carried out on sera, cardiac and hepatic tissues. Body weight gain and food consumption were reduced in both the G1 and G2 groups compared to control animals. Rutin effectively reduced the total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), VLDL, LDL-cholesterol and glucose levels, while it increased the HDL-cholesterol in the serum of G2 rats, compared to G1. Although rutin had no effect on total protein, albumin, uric acid and cretinine levels, it was able to restore serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) in animals fed HD and receiving ethanol. Glycogen stores were replenished in both hepatic and cardiac tissues after rutin treatment. Moreover, rutin consistently reduced hepatic levels of TG and TC and cardiac AST, ALT and CK activities. Thus, rutin treatment was effective in reducing the risk factors for cardiac and hepatic disease caused by both HD and chronic ethanol consumption.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , /metabolism , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Central Nervous System Depressants/toxicity , /metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , /adverse effects , Ethanol/toxicity , Glycemic Index/drug effects , Heart/drug effects , Heart/physiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Lipids/analysis , Liver/cytology , Liver/metabolism , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Rutin/pharmacology
9.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Apr; 51(2): 135-141
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154251

ABSTRACT

Ionizing radiation is known to induce multiple organ dysfunctions directly related to an increase of cellular oxidative stress, due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study was aimed to investigate the effect of septilin (an ayurvedic poly-herbal formulation containing the principal herbs, namely Commiphora wightii, Trinospora cordifolia, Rubia cardifolia, Emblica officinalis, Saussurea lappa and Glycyrrhiza glabra) against whole body γ-irradiation-induced oxidative damage in hepatic and brain tissues in rats. Administration of septilin for 5 days (100 mg/kg) prior to radiation resulted in a significant increase in both superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total glutathione (GSH) level in hepatic and brain tissues, while serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) was reduced by γ-irradiation. Also, septilin resulted in a significant decrease in NO(x), nitric oxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in hepatic and brain tissues and a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) and total cholesterol levels and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, as well as serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), compared to irradiated group. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that septilin exhibited potential antioxidant activity and showed radioprotective effect against γ-radiation by preventing oxidative stress and scavenging free radicals.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Brain/radiation effects , Gamma Rays/adverse effects , Glutathione/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Liver/radiation effects , Male , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/radiation effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , gamma-Glutamyltransferase
10.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 52(1): 43-46, Jan.-Feb. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-540316

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) has shown concern about the burden of tuberculosis in the developing countries. Even though rifampicin is an effective drug in the management of tuberculosis, it has been documented to have some toxic effects in humans. Therefore, this study intends to investigate the modulatory effect of vitamins C and E on the hepatotoxicity, sperm quality and brain toxicity of Rifampicin. Forty Wistar albino rats were used, 10 animals per group. Group 1 animals received 0.3 mL of distilled water, the Group 2 animals received the therapeutic dose of rifampicin, Group 3 animals received therapeutic doses of rifampicin plus vitamin E, while Group 4 received therapeutic doses of rifampicin and vitamin C. The administration was performed orally during three months; the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at the end of that period. Blood samples were collected and liver function and lipid profile was analyzed using fully automated clinical chemistry device. The liver, brain and reproductive organs underwent histopathological examination. Sperm samples were collected from the epididymis to achieve count and motility and morphological analysis. Results showed rifampicin alone to raise (p < 0.05) liver function enzymes (Aspartate amino transferase [AST], Serum alanine amino transferase [ALT] and Total Bilirubin) when compared with controls. While the vitamin E treated group showed remarkable protection, the vitamin C treated group showed questionable protection against the rifampicin induced liver damage. Sperm count results showed an important (p < 0.05) increase in the sperm quality in vitamin E and C treated groups. However, the vitamin E plus Rifampicin treated group showed increased lipid peroxidation. The histopathological findings revealed structural damages by rifampicin in liver, brain and epididymis while some remarkable architectural integrity was observed in the antioxidant-treated groups. It can be ...


A Organização Mundial da Saúde tem mostrado preocupação acerca da eclosão da tuberculose nos países em desenvolvimento. Embora a rifampicina seja droga efetiva para o controle da tuberculose têm sido documentados seus efeitos tóxicos em pacientes. Portanto este estudo tem a intenção de investigar o efeito modulador das vitaminas C e E na hepatotoxicidade, qualidade de esperma e a toxicidade cerebral da rifampicina. Quarenta ratos albinos da raça Wistar foram usados, 10 animais por grupo. O grupo 1 de animais recebeu 0,3 mL de água destilada. O grupo 2 recebeu a dose terapêutica de rifampicina. O grupo 3 recebeu doses terapêuticas de rifampicina mais vitamina E, enquanto o grupo 4 recebeu doses terapêuticas de rifampicina e vitamina C. A administração foi feita por via oral durante três meses; os animais foram sacrificados por deslocação cervical após este período. Amostras sanguíneas foram coletadas e função hepática e o perfil lipídico foram analisados usando aparelho automático de química clínica. O fígado, o cérebro e os órgãos reprodutivos foram submetidos a análise histopatológica. As amostras de esperma foram coletadas do epidídimo para contagem, motilidade e análise morfológica. Resultados revelaram que a rifampicina isoladamente aumenta (p < 0,05) os enzimas de função hepática (aspartato amino transferase {AST], alanino amino transferase sérica [ALT] e bilirrubina total) quando comparados com os controles. Embora o grupo tratado com vitamina E mostrasse marcada proteção, o grupo tratado com vitamina C mostrou proteção questionável contra a lesão hepática induzida pela rifampicina. Resultados da contagem espermática mostraram importante (p < 0,05) aumento na qualidade do esperma no grupo tratado com vitamina E e C. Entretanto, o grupo tratado com vitamina E e rifampicina mostrou aumento da peroxidação lipídica. Os achados histopatológicos revelaram danos estruturais pela rifampicina ao fígado, cérebro e epidídimo enquanto uma notável ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/toxicity , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Brain/drug effects , Rifampin/toxicity , Spermatozoa/drug effects , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/antagonists & inhibitors , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Rats, Wistar , Rifampin/antagonists & inhibitors , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility/drug effects , Vitamin E/pharmacology
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135828

ABSTRACT

Background & objective: Polyherbal formulations available with a wide range of indications like protective to liver, appetite and growth promoters, gastrointestinal and hepatic regulator, as treatment for hepatic dysfunction, for hepatic regeneration as well as liver stimulant and tonic. Despite the widespread use, there is a lack of scientifi c evidence on their effi cacy and safety. This study was undertaken to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of six commercially available formulations, namely Liv 52, Livergen, Livokin, Octogen, Stimuliv and Tefroliv in acute liver toxicity in mice model induced by paracetamol (PCM). Methods: Swiss albino mice of either sex were used, divided in 28 groups with six in each group. The dose of the polyherbal formulations was calculated from human dose (20 ml/day) using a standard conversion table. They were given as pretreatment (2.60 ml/kg/day) for 7 days by oral route twice a day prior to PCM administration. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering a single oral dose of PCM (500 mg/kg bw) on day 8. The study parameters were conducted on day 9. The biochemical parameters included liver enzyme levels alanine tranaminases (ALT), aspartate transaminases (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The pharmacological and pathological parameters were phenobarbitone sleeping time and macroscopic and microscopic changes of liver tissues respectively. Results: PCM toxicity signifi cantly increased ALT, AST and ALP (321.00 ± 87.93, 273.17 ± 45.68, 257.50 ± 17.64 IU/l vs normal control, 33.33 ± 0.61, 89.33 ± 9.50, 152.17 ± 11.40 IU/l respectively, P<0.05), prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time (from 277.50 ± 8.04 min to 335.83 ± 7.00 min, P<0.05). When PCM higher dose (1g/kg p.o. single dose) was used, the liver tissue, in macroscopic appearance, showed extensive necrosis associated with haemorrhages. Low dose (500 mg/kg p.o. single dose) showed punctate haemorrhagic necrosis of liver tissue. In the microscopic studies, PCM induced toxicity showed haemorrhages, fatty changes and necrosis. The pretreatment in low doses (2.6 ml/kg/day) with liquid formulations of Liv 52 and Livergen reversed the PCM induced liver toxicity. At higher doses (5.2 ml/ kg/day), all the six herbal formulations conclusively showed marked benefi cial effects in the studied pharmacological, biochemical and histological parameters. Interpretation & conclusion: The present fi ndings demonstrated the effi cacy of polyherbal liquid formulations at two dose levels in PCM induced hepatotoxicity in mice. However, it suggests that a dose adjustment may be necessary to optimize the effects in clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/toxicity , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Combinations , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Liver/drug effects , Materia Medica/pharmacology , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Mice , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
12.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2009 Feb; 46(1): 116-21
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-27230

ABSTRACT

Alcohol consumption is implicated in the genesis of a spectrum of liver abnormalities, which are associated with a number of factors. In the present study, time-dependent effects of ethanol on cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-gamma, VEGF-A and TGF-beta1) in serum, and blood oxidative stress parameters such as reduced glutathione content, TBARS level and activities of GPx, GR, GST, catalase and SOD in 8-10 weeks-old male BALB/c mice have been investigated. Ethanol administered @ 1.6 g/kg body wt/day significantly increased the activities of liver marker enzymes AST, ALT and ALP. Serum nitrite levels and haemolysate TBARS level also increased, while total antioxidant status in serum and GSH content in whole blood hemolysate decreased from 4th week onwards of exposure. In spite of the increased serum nitrite level and GST activity in the haemolysate, albumin level in serum, GPx and GR activities in haemolysate decreased after 12 weeks of exposure. Chronic ethanol treatment did not show any effect on IL-2, but IL-4 level was reduced and other cytokines such as IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta1 and VEGF-A levels were increased significantly after 12 weeks. The study indicates a relationship between free radical generation and immune response, and suggests that ethanol-induced liver damage is associated with oxidative stress and immunological alterations in a time-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Cytokines/blood , Ethanol/pharmacology , Glutathione/blood , Glutathione Peroxidase/blood , Glutathione Reductase/blood , Glutathione Transferase/blood , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitrites/blood , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/metabolism , Time Factors
13.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 46(6): 448-454, 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-539467

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo estabelece valores de referência dos teores séricos de proteínas totais, albumina, AST e GGT em ovinos da raça santa Inês e avalia a interferência de fatores sexuais e etários sobre estas variáveis. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 161 ovelhas. O resultado encontrado para os valores padrões séricos foram 5,86 +0,96 g/dL para proteínas totais, 2,33+0,43 g/dL para albumina, 63,25+27,52 U/L para AST e 28,45+14,53 U/L para GGT. A análise dos resultados permite afirmar que os valores referentes à concentração sérica de albumina e à atividade sérica de AST sofrem influência de fatores sexuais e etários, e os valores referentes à atividade sérica de GGT sofrem influência somente de fatores etários. Não foram encontradas influências dos fatores sexuais e etários para os outros parâmetros estudados.


This work establishes reference values for serum protein and albumin and serum activities of AST and GGT of Santa Inês sheep and evaluates the sexual and age influence on these values. Blood samples were collected from 161 clinically healthy sheep. The results allowed to establish the following reference values 5,86 + 0,96 g/dL (P>0,05)for serum protein, 2,33+0,43 g/dL (P>0,05) for albumin, 63,25+27,52 U/L (P>0,05) for AST and 28,45+14,53 U/L (P>0,05)for GGT. The result’s analysis also allowed concluding that age and sex influence on albumin serum concentrations and AST serum activity and that GGT serum activity suffer age influence


Subject(s)
Animals , Serum Albumin/analysis , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/metabolism , Age Factors , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Sex Factors , Sheep , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/blood
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 40(1): 18-24, jan.-fev. 2007. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-449163

ABSTRACT

Para avaliar resultados do tratamento da hepatite B crônica com lamivudina, 100mg ou 150mg diários, foram acompanhados 34 pacientes em um serviço em Cuiabá, Mato Grosso. Entre os 34, 21 (62 por cento), eram cirróticos e 24 (70 por cento) HBeAg positivos. Genótipo viral foi determinado em 18, sendo predominante o genótipo A (12). O acompanhamento teve mediana de 27 meses (7 a 64). Do total, 23 (67 por cento) apresentaram resposta bioquímica entre dois e 24 meses de tratamento. Dos 24 pacientes com positividade para o HBeAg, 13 (54 por cento) apresentaram negativação do HBeAg durante o acompanhamento. Entre os anti-HBe positivos, 70 por cento tiveram normalização das aminotransferases. Quatorze (41 por cento) não apresentaram resposta bioquímica ou sorológica de início ou apresentaram breakthrough. Em seis dos que não responderam, foram encontradas as mutações L180M e M204V. Quatro pacientes faleceram após pelo menos 21 meses de lamivudina e três cirróticos desenvolveram hepatocarcinoma após 24 meses. A partir do terceiro ano surgiram complicações, como hepatocarcinoma ou hemorragia digestiva. Os presentes achados sugerem que resposta precoce ao tratamento com lamivudina pode estar associada a um melhor controle da hepatite B crônica.


To assess the results from lamivudine treatment (100 mg or 150 mg) for chronic hepatitis B, 34 patients were followed at a clinic in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Central Brazil. Among them, 21 (62 percent) had liver cirrhosis and 24 (70 percent) were HBeAg-positive. The viral genotype was determined for 18 patients, among whom genotype A was the most prevalent (12). The median follow-up was 27 months (range from 7 to 64 months). Among the total, 23 (67 percent) presented a biochemical response after 2 to 24 months of treatment. Among the 24 HBeAg-positive subjects, 13 (54 percent) became HBeAg-negative during the follow-up. Among the anti-HBe-positive patients, 70 percent obtained normalization of aminotransferase levels. Fourteen (41 percent) did not present any initial biochemical or serological response or presented breakthrough. The L180M and M204V mutations were found in six of the non-responders. Four patients died after at least 21 months of lamivudine and three patients with liver cirrhosis developed liver cancer after 24 months. From the third year onwards, complications such as digestive system hemorrhage or liver cancer started to emerge. The present findings suggest that an early response to lamivudine treatment may be associated with better control over chronic hepatitis B.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B e Antigens/immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Follow-Up Studies , Genotype , Hepatitis B, Chronic/enzymology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/immunology , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
15.
J Environ Biol ; 2006 Jul; 27(3): 567-70
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113540

ABSTRACT

The activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) of different tissues of fingerlings of Labeo rohita under the influence of two effluents has been studied. The alanine aminotransferase activity was increased over the control in different exposed periods of tannery and distillery effluent treatments. The alanine aminotransferase in the liver showed increased activity at different periods than that of the muscle, kidney, gill and brain (p < 0.001) (60.09%) over the control during the 40 days exposure in both the effluents treatments. The increased activity of alanine aminotransferase was highly significant (p > 0.001) in all the tissue in tannery and distillery effluents treatments. Similarly aspartate aminotransferase activity was increased over the control in all the treated tissues from 10 to 40 days exposure. But this increase, was not significant in the muscle tissue in distillery and tannery treatements after 10 days exposure. From 10 to 40 days, the activity was increased but a maxmum elevation was observed during 40 days, where the elevation was more in the liver, which was followed by muscle, kidney, gill, brain (brain < gill < kidney < muscle < liver).


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Carps , Tanning , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2006 Mar; 44(3): 209-15
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62980

ABSTRACT

Isoproterenol (ISPH) induced myocardial infarction was confirmed by disturbances in serum and heart tissue marker enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phospho kinase (CPK), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), increased level of lipid peroxidation and histopathological changes in the heart of ISPH administered rats. Pretreatment with mangiferin (10 mg/100 g body weight) for 28 days was found to ameliorate the effect of ISPH-induced pathological changes, reduced the lipid peroxide formation and retained the myocardial marker enzyme activities at near normal level. The above results indicate the cardioprotective effect of mangiferin against ISPH-induced myocardial infarction in rats.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Isoproterenol/pharmacology , Male , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Xanthones/pharmacology
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-46648

ABSTRACT

Patients suffering from Alcoholic Liver Diseases (ALD) are often diagnosed by spectrum of physical manifestations and laboratories abnormalities. Among biochemical abnormalities De Ritis Ratio (AST/ALT ratio) is more sensitive during any phase of the disease. This ratio is based on common tests of liver function test and can be investigated in any laboratory and is more relevant in countries like Nepal where alcohol abuse is a major cause of liver disease. Clinically diagnosed 103 ALD cases and 73 healthy controls were enrolled for the study. Selected parameters of liver function tests were analyzed by Vitalab Selectra-2 autoanalyser using Merck diagnostic kits and statistically analyzed by student "t" test. The De Ritis ratio was calculated from serum AST and ALT values and was found 2. 30:1 in patients compared to of 1.10:1 in control group. AST and ALT value showed mild to moderate elevation as it was 124.80 +/- 86.24 IU/L and 54.21 +/- 39.72 IU/L in patients compared to 35.00 +/- 23.49 IU/L and 31.48 +/- 17.79 IU/L in controls. The increase in AST and ALT level in patients was statistically significant (p < 0.001) and (p < 0.01) respectively. > or = - Glutamyl Transferase showed 425.26 +/- 36.40 IU in alcoholics compared to 70.55 +/- 27.35 IU/L in controls, a significant increase observed (p<0.001) However Alkaline Phosphatase activity was observed within normal limit. Serum Total Protein (TPR) and Albumin (ALB) showed 6.86 +/- 1.01 g/dl and 2.71 +/- 0.78 g/dl in patients with Albumin: Globulin ratio of 0.61:1 compared to 7.51 +/- 1.74 g/dl and 4.03 +/- 0.61 g/dl in controls with the ration of 1.15:1, a significant decrease in albumin (p < 0.001) without alteration of Total Protein in patients. Total and Direct bilirubin showed 2.32 +/- 1.10 mg/dl and 1.26 +/- 0.88 mg/dl in alcoholics higher than the control of 1.06 +/- 0.60 mg/dl 0.38 +/- 0.31 mg/dl (p<0.001). Diagnosis of ALD is straight forward with history-and compatible clinical features but alcoholic's denial and under estimation of alcohol abuse becomes an obstacle in confirmation. A mild to moderate disproportionate elevation of AST than ALT activity making De Ritis Ratio > 2:1, supported by reversal of Albumin/globulin ratio facilitates the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Albumins , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Biomarkers , Case-Control Studies , Clinical Enzyme Tests , Female , Globulins , Humans , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/diagnosis , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged
18.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2005 Dec; 42(6): 345-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-27399

ABSTRACT

The activities of malate-aspartate shuttle enzymes viz., cytosolic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (c- and m-AsAT) and malate dehydrogenase (c- and m-MDH) were measured in liver and kidney of ad libitum (AL) and dietary-restricted (DR) mice and also on triiodothyronine (T3) treatment. The results show that the activity (U/mg protein) of c-AsAT is increased significantly in liver and the activities of c-MDH and m-AsAT are increased significantly in kidney during DR. On T3 treatment, the activities of both the isoenzymes (c- and m-) of MDH and AsAT are increased significantly in the liver of AL- and DR-fed mice. In the kidney, m-MDH showed no effect by T3 treatment, however, c-MDH increased significantly in both AL- and DR-fed mice. In contrast, m-AsAT is increased significantly in the kidney in AL-fed mice, but was not affected in DR-fed animals. In vitro reconstitution of malate-aspartate shuttle showed a higher activity in the liver and kidney of DR-fed mice, as compared to AL-fed ones and also in the T3-treated mice, compared to untreated ones. These findings suggest that malate-aspartate shuttle enzymes are differentially regulated during DR in mice, in order to adapt to the metabolic need of liver and kidney. T3 potentially regulates the shuttle enzymes, albeit to a varying degree in the liver and kidney of AL- and DR-fed mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Aspartic Acid/metabolism , Caloric Restriction , Cytosol/drug effects , Diet , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Malate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Malates/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mitochondria, Liver/drug effects , Triiodothyronine/pharmacology
19.
J Environ Biol ; 2005 Jun; 26(2 Suppl): 341-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113634

ABSTRACT

Freshwater fishes, Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala were exposed to sublethal concentration of the pesticide chlorpyrifos an organophosphate pesticide. Biochemical changes in total glycogen, total proteins, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine amino transferase (ALAT) and aspartate amino transferase (AAT) and nucleic acids, Deoxy and ribose, were estimated in the tissues of fishes exposed to the toxicant chlorpyrifos technical grade. The decrease in total glycogen and proteins over control and increase in selected enzymes, LDH, AAT, ALAT, DNA and RNA values were observed in the three fishes exposed to the toxicant.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Animals , Aquaculture , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Chlorpyrifos/toxicity , Cyprinidae/metabolism , Glycogen/metabolism , Insecticides/toxicity , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Nucleic Acids/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25771

ABSTRACT

Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a rare and potentially fatal complication of rheumatic disorders in children. We describe a 13-month-old boy in whom MAS developed as a complication of systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (S-JRA). He suffered from fever and generalized rash followed by multiple joints swelling for four months before admission. Physical examination revealed cervical lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory findings were: abnormal liver enzymes, increased triglyceride and ferritin levels, coagulopathies resembling disseminated intravascular coagulation, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Hyperplasia of hemophagocytic macrophages was remarkable in his bone marrow. Methylprednisolone and cyclosporin therapy resulted in clinical and laboratory improvements. This is the third case of MAS associated with S-JRA in Koreans, and the first one, in which hemophagocytic macrophages were proven in bone marrow.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Antigens, CD/blood , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/blood , Arthritis, Juvenile/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Blood Cell Count , Hepatomegaly/etiology , Humans , Infant , Liver/enzymology , Macrophage Activation , Male , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , Splenomegaly/etiology , Syndrome , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/metabolism
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