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Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 675-682, July-Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951801


Abstract Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic saprobe fungus that accounts for 90% of cases of pulmonary aspergillosis in immunosuppressed patients and is known for its angiotropism. When it reaches the respiratory tract, A. fumigatus interacts with structural components and blood vessels of the lungs, such as elastin. To understand the effect of this structural component, we examined the effect of elastin on the production and development of the biofilm of A. fumigatus. In RPMI containing 10 mg/mL of elastin, a significant increase (absorbance p < 0.0001; dry weight p < 0.0001) in the production of biofilm was observed in comparison to when RPMI was used alone, reaching a maximum growth of 18.8 mg (dry weight) of biofilm in 72 h. In addition, elastin stimulates the production (p = 0.0042) of extracellular matrix (ECM) and decreases (p = 0.005) the hydrophobicity during the development of the biofilm. These results suggest that elastin plays an important role in the growth of A. fumigatus and that it participates in the formation of thick biofilm.

Humans , Aspergillosis/metabolism , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillus fumigatus/physiology , Elastin/metabolism , Biofilms , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Aspergillus fumigatus/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 668-674, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951814


Abstract The virulence genes in invasive aspergillosis (IA) have not been analyzed adequately. The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of gpaB and sidA genes, which are important virulence genes in Aspergillus spp. from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. Direct examination and culture on Czapek Agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar media were performed for 600 BAL specimens isolated from patients with possible aspergillosis. A Galactomannan ELISA assay was also carried out. The expression levels of the gpaB and sidA genes in isolates were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). We identified 2 species, including Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) in 25 positive samples for invasive aspergillosis as validated using GM-ELISA. A. flavus is the main pathogen threatening transplant recipients and cancer patients worldwide. In this study, A. flavus had low levels of the gpaB gene expression compared to A. fumigatus (p = 0.006). The highest sidA expression was detected in transplant recipients (p = 0.05). There was no significant correlation between sidA expression and underlying disease (p = 0.15). The sidA and gpaB gene expression patterns may provide evidence that these virulence genes play important roles in the pathogenicity of Aspergillus isolates; however, there are several regulatory genes responsible for the unexpressed sidA and gpaB genes in the isolates.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillus flavus/metabolism , Aspergillus flavus/pathogenicity , Aspergillus fumigatus/metabolism , Aspergillus fumigatus/pathogenicity , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Aspergillus flavus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus flavus/genetics , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Virulence
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(3): 381-383, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787301


Abstract: We describe the case of a 9-year-old boy with idiopathic bone marrow aplasia and severe neutropenia, who developed skin ulcers under cardiac monitoring electrodes. The diagnosis of primary cutaneous aspergillosis was made after the second biopsy and culture. Imaging investigation did not reveal internal fungal infection. The child was treated, but did not improve and died 3 months after admission. The report highlights and discusses the preventable risk of aspergillus skin infection in immunocompromised patients.

Humans , Male , Child , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Skin Ulcer/microbiology , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Anemia, Aplastic/immunology , Aspergillosis/complications , Aspergillosis/pathology , Skin Ulcer/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Hyphae/isolation & purification , Dermatomycoses/complications , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Electrodes/adverse effects , Anemia, Aplastic/complications , Necrosis , Neutropenia/complications
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 81(5): 527-532, Sept.-Oct. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766287


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Diseases of the maxillary sinus have been associated with dental roots near the maxillary sinus that have undergone endodontic treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of filamentous fungi in patients with dental roots near the maxillary sinus who had apical periodontitis treated endodontically, and to alert practitioners that this could be a possible avenue of contamination of the sinus in patients who develop maxillary sinus infection. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 60 palatal roots of the first maxillary molars near the maxillary sinus, that underwent endodontic treatment for apical periodontitis. After removal of the filling material, dentin shavings were collected and placed in test tubes containing Sabouraud dextrose agar and chloramphenicol. The phenotype was determined by macroscopic and microscopic examination of the colonies. For polymerase chain reaction, the primers ITS-5 and ITS-4 were used. The sequences obtained were compared with those deposited at GenBank using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool program. RESULTS: Filamentous fungi were isolated from 6 of 60 canals (10%):Aspergillus niger (6.7%), Aspergillus versicolor (1.6%), and Aspergillus fumigatus(1.6%). CONCLUSION: Root canals near the maxillary sinus with endodontic treatment and apical periodontitis may exhibit positive cultures for filamentous fungi. Interested professionals should be alert, because these microorganisms have pathogenic characteristics that can cause disease of odontogenic origin in the maxillary sinus.

RESUMO Introdução: Doenças do seio maxilar têm sido associadas à raízes com tratamento endodôntico próximas ao seio maxilar. Objetivo: Investigar a presença de fungos filamentosos em raízes com tratamento endodôntico e lesão periapical, próximas ao seio maxilar, alertando para uma possível contaminação do seio maxilar por via odontogênica. Método: Estudo transversal em sessenta raízes palatinas de primeiros molares superiores próximas ao seio maxilar, com tratamento endodôntico e lesão periapical. Após remoção do material obturador, raspas de dentina foram coletadas e inseridas em tubos de ensaio contendo Agar Sabouraud Dextrose e Clorafenicol. O fenótipo foi determinado pela análise macroscópica e microscópica das colônias. Para o PCR utilizou-se iniciadores ITS-5 e ITS-4. As sequencias obtidas foram comparadas as disponíveis no GenBank utilizando Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. Resultados: Fungos filamentosos foram isolados de 6 dos 60 canais (10%):Aspergillus niger (6,7%), Aspergillus versicolor (1,6%) e Aspergillus fumigatus(1,6%). Conclusão: Raízes próximas ao seio maxilar com tratamento endodôntico e lesão periapical, podem apresentar cultura positiva para fungos filamentosos. Profissionais afins devem estar alerta, pois este micro-organismo possuem características de patogenicidade podendo causar doenças no seio maxilar de origem odontogênica.

Humans , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Maxillary Diseases/microbiology , Maxillary Sinus/microbiology , Periapical Periodontitis/microbiology , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Maxillary Diseases/diagnosis , Periapical Periodontitis/diagnosis
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 503-507, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723106


In this study we attempted to modify the PCR-RFLP method using restriction enzyme MwoI for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species. Our subjects included nine standard Aspergillus species and 205 Aspergillus isolates of approved hospital acquired infections and hospital indoor sources. First of all, Aspergillus isolates were identified in the level of species by using morphologic method. A twenty four hours culture was performed for each isolates to harvest Aspergillus mycelia and then genomic DNA was extracted using Phenol-Chloroform method. PCR-RFLP using single restriction enzyme MwoI was performed in ITS regions of rDNA gene. The electrophoresis data were analyzed and compared with those of morphologic identifications. Total of 205 Aspergillus isolates included 153 (75%) environmental and 52 (25%) clinical isolates. A. flavus was the most frequently isolate in our study (55%), followed by A. niger 65(31.7%), A. fumigatus 18(8.7%), A. nidulans and A. parasiticus 2(1% each). MwoI enabled us to discriminate eight medically important Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus as the most common isolated species. PCR-RFLP method using the restriction enzyme MwoI is a rapid and reliable test for identification of at least the most medically important Aspergillus species.

Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillus/classification , Aspergillus/genetics , Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific , Molecular Typing/methods , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Time Factors
J. bras. pneumol ; 38(1): 125-132, jan.-fev. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-617036


OBJETIVO: Relatar os casos de 6 pacientes com bola fúngica (BF) na cavidade pleural por Aspergillus fumigatus. MÉTODOS: Entre 1980 e 2009, foram diagnosticados 391 pacientes com BF aspergilar no Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (RS). O diagnóstico de BF na cavidade pleural foi definido com exames de imagem demonstrando derrame e espessamento pleural com nível líquido; exame micológico direto demonstrando hifas septadas, consistentes com Aspergillus sp.; e cultura positiva para A. fumigatus no espécime cirúrgico da cavidade pleural. RESULTADOS: Dos 391 pacientes estudados, 6 (2 por cento) preencheram os critérios diagnósticos estabelecidos. A média de idade desses 6 pacientes foi de 48 anos (variação, 29-66 anos), e 5 (83 por cento) eram do sexo masculino. As queixas mais frequentes dos pacientes foram tosse, expectoração e hemoptise. Quatro (67 por cento) dos pacientes tinham tuberculose curada. Todos os pacientes realizaram remoção cirúrgica da colonização fúngica, e houve infusão intrapleural com anfotericina B em 4; e 2 pacientes receberam tratamento antifúngico sistêmico v.o. Cinco pacientes melhoraram clinicamente, e um foi a óbito após a cirurgia. CONCLUSÕES: Em pacientes adultos com história de doença pulmonar cavitária ou fístula pleural, deve-se realizar uma investigação criteriosa levando em consideração a infecção fúngica, principalmente BF pulmonar. Portanto, a exploração laboratorial torna-se mais eficiente em relação aos recursos disponíveis para elucidação diagnóstica.

OBJECTIVE: To report the cases of 6 patients with fungus ball caused by Aspergillus fumigatus (aspergilloma) in the pleural cavity. METHODS: Between 1980 and 2009, 391 patients were diagnosed with aspergilloma at the Santa Casa Hospital Complex in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The diagnosis of aspergilloma in the pleural cavity was made through imaging tests revealing effusion and pleural thickening with air-fluid level; direct mycological examination revealing septate hyphae, consistent with Aspergillus sp.; and positive culture for A. fumigatus in the surgical specimen from the pleural cavity. RESULTS: Of the 391 patients studied, 6 (2 percent) met the established diagnostic criteria. The mean age of those 6 patients was 48 years (range, 29-66 years), and 5 (83 percent) were male. The most common complaints were cough, expectoration, and hemoptysis. Four patients (67 percent) had a history of tuberculosis that had been clinically cured. All of the patients were submitted to surgical removal of the aspergilloma, followed by intrapleural instillation of amphotericin B, in 4; and 2 received systemic antifungal treatment p.o. There was clinical improvement in 5 patients, and 1 died after the surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In adult patients with a history of cavitary lung disease or pleural fistula, a careful investigation should be carried out and fungal infection, especially aspergilloma, should be taken into consideration. In such cases, laboratory testing represents the most efficient use of the resources available to elucidate the diagnosis.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aspergillosis , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Lung Diseases, Fungal , Pleural Cavity/microbiology , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Pleural Cavity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Jan-Mar; 30(1): 106-108
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143907


A bladder infection of Aspergillus with no evidence of dissemination is rare. We present a case of Aspergillus infection with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder without any evidence of systemic involvement. A 65-year-old male diabetic whose main complaints were intermittent painful haematuria and nocturia had undergone nephroureterectomy a year and a half back for transitional cell carcinoma of right renal pelvis. Cystoscopy revealed bladder mucosa having fixed broad tumour with encrustation and bleeding on touch at the right vesico-ureteric junction. The histopathologic diagnosis was a high-grade transitional carcinoma with Aspergillus infection. Fungal culture of urine obtained after bladder wash yielded Aspergillus fumigatus.

Aged , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillosis/pathology , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/complications , Cystitis/diagnosis , Cystitis/microbiology , Cystitis/pathology , Cystoscopy , Histocytochemistry , Humans , Male , Urinary Bladder/microbiology , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/complications
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2011 Sept; 59(5): 373-377
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136208


Purpose: To study the susceptibilities of Aspergillus species against amphotericin B in infectious keratitis and to find out if drug resistance had any association with the molecular characteristics of the fungi. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty Aspergillus isolates from the corneal scrapings of patients with keratitis were tested for susceptibilities to amphotericin B by broth microdilution method. These included Aspergillus flavus (64 isolates), A. fumigatus (43) and A. niger (53). Fungal DNA was extracted by glass bead vertexing technique. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was standardized and used to amplify the 28S rRNA gene. Single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) of the PCR product was performed by the standard protocol. Results: Of the 160 isolates, 84 (52.5%) showed low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (≤ 1.56 μg/ml) and were designated as amphotercin B-sensitive. Similarly, 76 (47.5%) had high MICs (≥ 3.12 μg/ml) and were categorized as amphotericin B-resistant. MIC50 and MIC90 values ranged between 3.12-6.25 μg/ml and 3.12-12.5 μg/ml respectively. A. flavus and A. niger showed higher MIC50 and MIC90 values than A. fumigatus. The SSCP pattern exhibited three extra bands (150 bp, 200 bp and 250 bp each) in addition to the 260 bp amplicon. Strains (lanes 1 and 7) lacking the 150 bp band showed low MIC values (≤ 1.56 μg/ml). Conclusion: A. niger and A. flavus isolates had higher MICs compared to A. fumigatus, suggesting a high index of suspicion for amphotericin B resistance. PCR-SSCP was a good molecular tool to characterize Aspergillus phenotypes in fungal keratitis.

Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillus/drug effects , Aspergillus/genetics , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Cornea/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Keratitis/diagnosis , Keratitis/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational , RNA, Fungal/analysis
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2011 Jan-Mar 54(1): 112-116
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-141928


Background: Invasive fungal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised populations. Aims: To evaluate the susceptibility pattern of our isolates against amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole and to compare the antifungal activities of these agents with each other against the Aspergillus species tested. Settings and Design: A prospective study was designed to include clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus species. Materials and Methods: 420 sputum samples, 70 bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, 160 oral washings, and 47 environmental samples were collected. Direct microscopy by potassium hydroxide and lactophenol cotton blue mounts followed by culture on Sabourad`s dextrose agar (SDA) was done. Susceptibility testing was performed by the broth microdilution technique as per Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute standards (M-38A). Additionally, all the isolates were also tested by the colorimetric microdilution technique using Alamar Blue dye. Statistical Analysis: It was done by the Chi-square test and Z-test using SPSS statistical software version 12.0. Results and Conclusion: Twenty-seven isolates (47.3%) were recovered from patients with chronic bronchial asthma followed by fibrocavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in 9 (15.7%), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in 6 cases (10.5%), bronchiectasis in 3 (5.2%), bronchogenic carcinoma in 5 (8.7%) and those receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer 7 (12.2%). Thirteen environmental isolates were also included in the study. The most common isolate was A. fumigatus 28 (40%), followed by A. niger 22 (31%), A. flavus 13 (19%), and A. terreus 7(10%). All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole. Among the three agents tested, voriconazole exhibited lowest MICs (≤1 μg/ml) against all Aspergillus species.

Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillus/classification , Aspergillus/drug effects , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Culture Media/chemistry , Environmental Microbiology , Humans , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy , Mouth/microbiology , Mycology/methods , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Sputum/microbiology , Triazoles/pharmacology
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 51(6): 345-348, Oct.-Dec. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539455


Aspergillus is a phagocyte opportunistic fungus that causes aspergillosis, an unusual disease in patients with AIDS. Six cases of fungal ball in patients with AIDS are reported here. In this group, all patients had hemoptysis and tuberculosis as the underlying lung disease. The diagnosis of pulmonary fungus ball was based on the clinical and radiographic feature, combined with serological and mycological evidence of Aspergillus fumigatus.

Os fungos filamentosos são oportunistas de fagócitos, motivo pelo qual aspergilose é incomum em pacientes com Aids. A apresentação clínica depende do estado imune, tamanho do inóculo fúngico e doença de base. São relatados neste trabalho seis casos de bola fúngica em pacientes com Aids. Neste grupo, todos tiveram tuberculose como doença de base e hemoptise foi o principal sintoma. O diagnóstico da bola fúngica foi através da apresentação clínica, achados radiológicos combinados com imunodifusão radial dupla, exame micológico direto e cultivo do material do trato respiratório, sendo A. fumigatus o agente isolado

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
Indian J Med Sci ; 2009 June; 63(6) 253-256
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145415


In this report, we describe a patient with drug-induced liver failure who developed endogenous endophthalmitis after liver transplantation. Our patient's clinical course was so fulminant that the eye was lost in less than 1 month, without any response to therapy. Recognition of this infection is important because many patients die of disseminated Aspergillus infection, which may be detected early with bedside funduscopic examination by an ophthalmologist. Probably if the patient had referred to us earlier, it may have been possible to save the eye.

Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillosis/surgery , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Ceftazidime/therapeutic use , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Endophthalmitis/surgery , Eye/microbiology , Eye/pathology , Eye/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Immunosuppression/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation/methods , Male , Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures , Ophthalmoscopy , Transplantation, Homologous/adverse effects , Transplantation, Homologous/methods , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Young Adult
J. bras. pneumol ; 35(5): 480-483, maio 2009. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-517074


Pulmonary cavitation is rather uncommon in patients with sarcoidosis, and aspergilloma is even more uncommon in such cases. Here, we present the case of a 63-year-old female patient with cavitary lung disease who had been under treatment for TB for 9 months. A diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis was established based on the fiberoptic bronchoscopy finding of noncaseating granuloma. Treatment with corticosteroids led to a dramatic improvement in symptoms. While under treatment for sarcoidosis, the patient developed an aspergilloma. She presented immediate skin test reactivity to Aspergillus fumigatus, as well as positivity for A. fumigatus serum precipitins. This is the first reported case of aspergilloma formation in a patient with cavitary sarcoidosis in India.

A cavitação pulmonar é rara em pacientes com sarcoidose, e o aspergiloma é ainda mais raro nestes casos. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente de 63 anos com doença pulmonar cavitária em tratamento para a TB por 9 meses. Estabeleceu-se o diagnóstico de sarcoidose pulmonar com base nos achados de granuloma não-caseoso na fibrobroncoscopia. Houve grande melhora dos sintomas com o tratamento com corticosteroides. A paciente desenvolveu um aspergiloma durante o tratamento para a sarcoidose. Houve reação imediata ao teste cutâneo para Aspergillus fumigatus, assim como resultado positivo para precipitinas de A. fumigatus no soro. Este é o primeiro caso relatado de formação de aspergiloma em um paciente com sarcoidose com cavitação na Índia.

Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/complications , Aspergillus fumigatus/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Precipitins/blood , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
Bol. micol ; 23: 1-7, dic. 2008. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-585726


El presente trabajo tiene la finalidad de exponer un caso clínico de un niño inmunosuprimido con antecedentes de hospitalización previa, a los 6 años de edad con múltiples síntomas y signos (poliadenopatías, desnutrición, sepsis en cavidad bucal y foco pulmonar, además de pancitopenia). Permaneció en terapia intermedia durante 38 días, cumpliendo varios esquemas antibióticos sin buena respuesta a los mismos. Fue derivado al Hospital Ricardo Gutiérrez (Buenos Aires) desconociéndose la terapéutica seguida en esa oportunidad. Cinco años después (2007) es ingresado nuevamente a nuestro hospital por cuadro de epistaxis cefaléa, compromiso del estado general y neutropenia febril, por lo que se inicia tratamiento antibiótico, además de estudio con mielograma confirmándose el diagnóstico de leucemia linfocítica aguda. Cinco días después de su ingreso expulsa espontáneamente, desde las fosas nasales material granulomatoso el cual fue enviado a estudio micológico (examen directo y cultivo), detectándose alta presencia de Aspergillus parasiticus en ambos exámenes, lo cual fue ratificado por histopatología como una aspergilosis sinusal no invasiva. El paciente fue remitido a la Sala de Inmunodeprimidos donde recibió tratamiento intravenoso con 350 mg/día de anfotericina B-complejo lipídico y terapia específica para LLA. Presentó una evolución tórpida y al 12º día el paciente falleció por su mal estado general y progresión terminal de su enfermedad de base.

This present paper is meant to reveal the clinical case of an immunesuppressed boy having been previously in a hospital, when he was 6, showing multiple symptoms and signs (polyadenopaties, malnutrition, buccal sepsis and pulmonary focus, in addition to pancitopia). He stayed under intermediate therapy for 38 day being submitted to varied antibiotic schemes, though yielding no satisfactory responses to them. Later on he was derived to the Hospital Ricardo Gutiérrez (Buenos Aires), yet therapeutics used at that place being unknown. Five years later (2007), he is admitted again in our hospital because of cephalea epistaxis, a compromised health condition and fevered neutropenia, so he is given an antibiotic treatment in addition to a mielographic studyyet it is confirmed the diagnosis of an acute lymphocytic leukemia. Five days after his admittance, he discharges granulomatous matter from his nasal cavities which was sent for a mycological study. Direct exam and culture, detecting high presence of Aspergillus parasiticus on both exams which was ratified by histopathology as a non invasive sinusal aspergillosis. The patient was sent to the Immunedepressed Ward where he received intravenous treatment with 350mg/day anfotericina Blipidic complex and a specific therapy for LLA. He had a torpid evolution and on the 12nd day the patient died as a result of his very bad health condition as well as the terminal progression of his base disease.

Humans , Male , Child , Aspergillosis/classification , Aspergillosis/complications , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillosis/mortality , Aspergillosis/therapy , Immune System Diseases , Sinusitis/etiology , Sinusitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/parasitology
Bol. micol ; 23: 43-47, dic. 2008. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-585732


En los últimos años la incidencia por infecciones de hongos del genero Aspergillus han aumentado de forma significativa como consecuencia del incremento de pacientes con estados de inmunodepresión, fundamentalmente por la alta incidencia de SIDA y por el mayor empleo de tratamientos inmunosupresores. Las aspergilosis son infecciones infrecuentes en el sistema nervioso central, constituyendo el 4 por ciento de las enfermedades invasoras, tratándose de una entidad grave, con un pobre pronóstico (mortalidad mayor del 95 por ciento). Se presenta un caso clínico de un paciente masculino de 48 años, con miocardiopatia dilatada terminal que fue sometido a transplante cardiaco, tratamiento inmunosupresor y profilaxis antimicrobiana. Después de su alta (23 días post cirugía), regresa con compromiso del sensorio y focalidad neurológica, por lo que se practica RNM que evidenció lesión microangiopatica, con edema y realce periférico anular. Cultivos microbiológicos negativos y LCR dentro de lo normal. Posteriormente (10 días después del ingreso) empeora su condición neurológica e imagenológica, por lo que se realizó biopsia estereotáxica obteniéndose exámenes directos negativos e histología sin evidencia de microorganismos, sin embargo, en los cultivos se obtuvo Aspergillus fumigatus. Se inició tratamiento con Voriconazol con buena respuesta inicial, pero posteriormente empeora su condición neurológica y general, con signos y síntomas de rechazo del transplante cardiaco, falleciendo a los 62 días postransplante.

In recent years the incidence of fungal infections of the genera Aspergillus have increased significantly as a result of the increase in patients with immunocompromised states, primarily by the high incidence of AIDS and the increased use of immunosuppressive treatments. The aspergillosis infections are rare in the central nervous system, constituting 4 por ciento of invasive disease, in the case of a serious entity with a poor prognosis (mortality greater than 95 por ciento). We report a case of a 48-year-old male patient with terminal dilated cardiomyopathy underwent heart transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy and antimicrobial prophylaxis. After his high (23 days post-surgery), is back with commitment and focal neurologic consciousness, so that is practiced MRI showed microangiopathic injury, edema and peripheral enhancement cancel. Microbiological cultures and negative CSF within normal. Later (10 days after admission) her neurological condition worsened and imagery, so stereotactic biopsy was obtained and histology tests negative without direct evidence of microorganisms, however the culture was positive to Aspergillus fumigatus. Voriconazole treatment started with good initial response, but later his condition worsened neurological and general signs and symptoms of heart transplant rejection, died 62 days postranplantation.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/history , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillosis/mortality , Aspergillosis/therapy , Immunosuppression , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mycoses , Central Nervous System/pathology
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 12(5): 385-389, Oct. 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-505351


Invasive aspergillosis (IA) currently is an important cause of mortality in subjects undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) and is also an important cause of opportunistic respiratory and disseminated infections in other types of immunocompromised patients. We examined the medical records of 24 cases of proven and probable invasive aspergillosis (IA) at the Hospital de Clinicas of the Federal University of Parana, Brazil, from January 1996 to October 2006. During this period occurred a mean of 2.2 cases per year or 3.0 cases per 100 HSTC transplants. There was a significant relationship between structural changes in the bone marrow transplant (BMT) Unit and the occurrence of IA cases (p=0.034, relative risk (RR) = 2.47). Approximately 83 percent of the patients died due to invasive fungal infection within 60 days of follow up. Some factors tended to be associated with mortality, but these associations were not significant. These included corticosteroid use, neutropenia (<100 cells/mm³) at diagnosis, patients that needed to change antifungal therapy because of toxicity of the initial first-line regimen and disseminated disease. These factors should be monitored in BMT units to help prevent IA. Physicians should be aware of the risk factors for developing invasive fungal infections and try to reduce or eliminate them. However, once this invasive disease begins, appropriate diagnostic and treatment measures must be implemented as soon as possible in order to prevent the high mortality rates associated with this condition.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Aspergillosis/mortality , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/mortality , Immunocompromised Host , Aspergillosis/immunology , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
Annals of Saudi Medicine. 2008; 28 (1): 17-21
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-99483


Allergic fungal sinusitis [AFS] is a relatively newly recognized entity consisting of a pansinusitis with allergic mucinous infiltrates in all involved sinuses. Historically mistaken for a paranasal sinus tumor, AFS is believed to be an allergic reaction to aerolized environmental fungi, usually of dematiaceous and Aspergillus species, in an immunocompetent host. We determined the occurrence of AFS in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis [CRS] to identify accurate preoperative parameters for AFS, as well as to identify the common fungi causing AFS in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 406 cases of CRS undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery from 2001 to 2005. Data regarding patient demographics, presenting symptoms, ENT examination, laboratory and radiological features, histopathological features and fungal culture was collected and analyzed. Fungal cultures were positive in 69 [16.9%] cases of CRS. Based on radiological features, histopathologic findings and culture results, AFS was diagnosed in 59 [14.5%] cases. Nasal polyposis was present in 56 [94.9%] cases; multiple sinuses were affected in all cases. Aspergillus species was the commonest causative fungal pathogen, being isolated in 40 [67.8%] cases, whereas dematiaceous fungi were isolated in 19 [32.2%] cases. AFS has been an underdiagnosed clinical entity. Only increased awareness among physicians of fungal involvement will increase accuracy of diagnosis

Humans , Male , Female , Aspergillus , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Hypersensitivity/microbiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Retrospective Studies
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 69(3): 395-397, maio-jun. 2006. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-433805


Endoftalmite por Aspergillus é geralmente relacionada à disseminação local ou sistêmica do agente em indivíduos imunocomprometidos. Os autores relatam um caso raro de glaucoma bilateral grave secundário a uma infecção intra-ocular por Aspergillus niger, na ausência de qualquer foco detectável de aspergilose em paciente HIV-positivo. Foram afastados sinais e antecedentes de uso de drogas injetáveis e o agente foi isolado após inoculação em animais experimentais. Este caso demonstra que a endoftalmite por Aspergillus deve ser considerada em pacientes HIV-positivos não-usuários de drogas injetáveis, mesmo na ausência de aspergilose sistêmica.

Humans , Female , Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Glaucoma/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Glaucoma/surgery , Severity of Illness Index