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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1363-1368, July-Aug. 2020. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1131490

ABSTRACT

In this study we describe the epidemiology, clinical signs, and pathology of an outbreak of avian aspergillosis in alternative breeding in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Between the fifth and tenth day of life, 360 chicks from a flock of 4000 developed unspecific clinical signs and died. The birds were housed in a reused aviary litter, without previous treatment. In 11 six-day-old female ISA Brown chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus), necropsy revealed firm, yellowish-white, multinodular lesions extending from the pleura to the lung parenchyma. Histologically, a granulomatous, multifocal to coalescent pneumonia was observed. Granulomas were characterized by central necrosis, with heterophil and epithelioid macrophage infiltration and presence of countless Y-shaped intralesional septate hyphae morphologically compatible with Aspergillus spp. The diagnosis through isolation confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus. We highlight the importance of aspergillosis as a primary cause of diseases in the respiratory tract of young birds in alternative breeding. Measures to prevent aspergillosis mainly regarding the reuse of aviary litter are essential in poultry husbandry to prevent economic losses, reduce environmental contamination and mitigate the potential risk to public health.(AU)


Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos e patológicos de um surto de aspergilose aviária em criação alternativa na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. De um lote de 4000 pintainhas, entre o quinto e o 10º dia de vida, 360 aves apresentaram sinais clínicos inespecíficos e morreram. As aves foram alojadas em cama reutilizada do aviário, sem tratamento prévio. Na necropsia de 11 pintainhas (Gallus gallus domesticus), fêmeas, seis dias de idade da linhagem Isa Brown, foram observadas no pulmão lesões multinodulares, branco-amareladas e firmes, que se estendiam da pleura ao parênquima. Histologicamente foi observada pneumonia granulomatosa, multifocal a coalescente. Os granulomas eram caracterizados por necrose central, com infiltrado inflamatório de heterófilos, macrófagos, células epitelioides com presença de inúmeras hifas septadas intralesionais, semelhantes à letra "Y", morfologicamente compatíveis com Aspergillus spp. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelo isolamento de Aspergillus fumigatus. Alerta-se para a importância da aspergilose como causa primária de afecções no trato respiratório de aves jovens em criações alternativas. Medidas preventivas relacionadas ao manejo dessas aves são indispensáveis principalmente quanto à reutilização da cama dos aviários, a fim de evitar perdas econômicas, reduzir a contaminação ambiental e o potencial risco à saúde pública.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry/microbiology , Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Chickens/microbiology , Brazil
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 102-106, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1098449

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility testing is essential to inform the correct management of Aspergillus infections. In this study we present antifungal susceptibility profile of A. fumigatus isolates recovered from lungs of birds with and without aspergillosis. Fifty three isolates were tested for their antifungal susceptibility to voriconazole (VRC), itraconazole (ITZ), amphotericin (AMB) and caspofungin (CSP) using the M38-A2 broth microdilution reference method. Five isolates were resistant to more than one antifungal drug (CSP + AMB, VRC + ITZ and AMB + ITZ). Fifteen (28%) isolates with susceptible increased exposure (I) to ITZ were sensible to VRC. Resistance to AMB (>2µg/mL) was observed in only four isolates. Eleven (21%) A. fumigatus present resistance to ITZ (13%) and VRC (8%). Fungal isolation from respiratory samples has been regarded as being of limited usefulness in the ante mortem diagnosis of aspergillosis in birds. However, the results suggest that the detection and antifungal susceptibility profile may be helpful for monitoring of therapy for avian species and where antifungal resistance might be emerging and what conditions are associated to the event.(AU)


Os testes de suscetibilidade são essenciais para informar o correto manejo das infecções por Aspergillus. Neste estudo apresentamos o perfil antifúngico de isolados de A. fumigatus provenientes de pulmões de aves com e sem aspergilose. Cinqüenta e três isolados foram testados quanto à susceptibilidade antifúngica ao voriconazol (VRC), itraconazol (ITZ), anfotericina B (AMB) e caspofungina (CSP) pelo método de referência de microdiluição do caldo M38-A2. Cinco isolados foram resistentes a mais de um antifúngico (CSP + AMB, VRC + ITZ e AMB + ITZ). Quinze (28%) isolados suscetíveis - com exposição aumentada (I) ao ITZ foram sensíveis ao VRC. A resistência ao AMB (>2µg/mL) foi observada em apenas quatro isolados. Onze (21%) A. fumigatus apresentaram resistência a ITZ (13%) e VRC (8%). O isolamento de fungos de amostras respiratórias tem sido considerado de utilidade limitada no diagnóstico ante mortem de aspergilose em aves. No entanto, os resultados sugerem que a detecção e o perfil de suscetibilidade a antifúngicos podem ser úteis para o monitoramento da terapia de espécies aviárias, assim como a emergência da resistência antifúngica e quais condições podem estar associadas ao evento.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillosis/veterinary , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/drug effects , Chickens , Drug Resistance, Fungal/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(6): 512-516, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094521

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment. They are able to grow in water and many of them may be opportunistic pathogens. OBJECTIVE: The aims were to identify fungi in registered wells (RWs) and nonregistered wells (NRWs) that tap into groundwater; and to correlate the results from physicochemical assays on this water (free residual chlorine and pH) with the presence of fungi. DATA AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional quantitative study on groundwater wells in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: 52 samples of 500 ml of water were collected from RWs and 107 from NRWs. These were sent to a microbiology laboratory to identify any fungi that were present. In addition, free residual chlorine and pH were measured immediately after sample collection. Several statistical analysis tests were used. RESULTS: Fungal contamination was present in 78.8% of the samples from RWs and 81.3% from NRWs. Filamentous fungi were more prevalent than yeast in both types of wells. There was no significant difference in presence of fungi according to whether chloride and pH were within recommended levels in RWs; or according to whether pH was within recommended levels in NRWs. Furthermore, there was no statistical difference in the levels of fungal contamination between RWs and NRWs. CONCLUSION: Both RWs and NRWs are potential reservoirs for many types of fungi. Many of these may become opportunistic pathogens if they infect immunosuppressed individuals. Furthermore, this study confirms that fungi are able to grow even when chlorine and pH parameters are within the standards recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Microbiology , Drinking Water/microbiology , Water Wells , Fungi/isolation & purification , Penicillium/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Drinking Water/chemistry , Groundwater/microbiology , Brazil , Candida/isolation & purification , Chlorine/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 668-674, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951814

ABSTRACT

Abstract The virulence genes in invasive aspergillosis (IA) have not been analyzed adequately. The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of gpaB and sidA genes, which are important virulence genes in Aspergillus spp. from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. Direct examination and culture on Czapek Agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar media were performed for 600 BAL specimens isolated from patients with possible aspergillosis. A Galactomannan ELISA assay was also carried out. The expression levels of the gpaB and sidA genes in isolates were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). We identified 2 species, including Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) in 25 positive samples for invasive aspergillosis as validated using GM-ELISA. A. flavus is the main pathogen threatening transplant recipients and cancer patients worldwide. In this study, A. flavus had low levels of the gpaB gene expression compared to A. fumigatus (p = 0.006). The highest sidA expression was detected in transplant recipients (p = 0.05). There was no significant correlation between sidA expression and underlying disease (p = 0.15). The sidA and gpaB gene expression patterns may provide evidence that these virulence genes play important roles in the pathogenicity of Aspergillus isolates; however, there are several regulatory genes responsible for the unexpressed sidA and gpaB genes in the isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillus flavus/metabolism , Aspergillus flavus/pathogenicity , Aspergillus fumigatus/metabolism , Aspergillus fumigatus/pathogenicity , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Aspergillus flavus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus flavus/genetics , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Virulence
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 387-389, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041461

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Several factors can cause false-positive results in the galactomannan (GM) test; however, others remain unknown. Presently, the impact of airborne contamination by Aspergillus conidia during enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) remains uninvestigated. METHODS: We studied 12 A. fumigatus isolates. Fungal conidia were serially diluted and tested for GM detection using the Platelia® Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay (EIA). RESULTS: The conidia concentration required for an EIA-positive result was 4.8 × 103 (median). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to evaluate the impact of environmental contamination on the Platelia® Aspergillus EIA assay. Only massive contamination can interfere with GM optical readings, suggesting that environmental contamination does not cause false-positive test results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Spores, Fungal , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/adverse effects , False Positive Reactions , Mannans , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods
6.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 78(1): 36-42, mar. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902812

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La otomicosis en pacientes inmunosuprimidos esta caracterizada por ser bilateral y ser causada por candida. Pocos estudios comparan las características micológicas encontradas en la microscopía directa y el cultivo. Objetivo: Identificar las características clínicas y micológicas de la otomicosis en pacientes diabéticos. Material y método: Estudio transversal en centro hospitalario de segundo nivel. Criterios de inclusión: pacientes diabéticos con diagnóstico clínico de otomicosis. Intervención: la muestra se examinó directamente bajo el microscopio y se cultivó. Resultados: Se incluyeron 17 pacientes, 10 mujeres y 7 hombres con una edad media de 47,5 años. Los síntomas predominantes fueron hipoacusia en 91,4% (n =16), prurito en 82,4% (n =14), otorrea en 76,5% (n=13)y otalgia en 70,6% (n =12). Afección bilateral se encontró en 47,1% (n =8). Estudio directo al microscopio mostró levaduras en 94,1% (n =16) y 5,9% mostró aspergillus (n =1). Cándida fue el género más comúnmente encontrado en los cultivos y en el examen directo microscópico con 94,1% (n =16) y Candida albicans la especie más común con 88,2% (n =15). Conclusión: Candida albicans es el agente etiológico más común en pacientes diabéticos con otomicosis. Su presentación clínica más frecuente es hipoacusia, prurito y otorrea. El examen directo identificó adecuadamente a los géneros fúngicos.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Otomycosis in immunocompromised patients is characterize by its bilateral course and the predominant etiologic agent is Candida. Few studies compare the mycological features between microscopic direct exam and culture. Aim: To identify the clinical and mycological characteristics of otomycosis in diabetic patients. Material and method: Transversal study. Secondary care center. Inclusion criteria: diabetic patients with clinical diagnosis of otomycosis. Intervention: Direct examination under a microscope of the ear sample and culture. Results: We included 17 patients, 10 women, 7 men with a mean age of 47.5 years. Symptoms were hearing loss 94.1% (n = 16), pruritus 82.4% (n =14) otorrhoea 76.5% (n =13) and otalgia 70.6% (n =12). Bilateral involvement was found in 47.1% (n =8). Direct microscopic study found 94.1% of yeast (n =16) and 5.9% of Aspergillus (n =1). Candida was the most common fungal genus in culture and microscopic exam with 94.1% (n =16) of cases and Candida albicans was the most common species in 88.2% (n =15) cases. Conclusion: Candida albicans is the most common etiologic agent in diabetic patients with otomycosis. Main symptoms were hearing loss, itching and otorrhea. Direct exam correctly identified the fungal genus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Diabetes Complications/microbiology , Otomycosis/microbiology , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Seasons , Time Factors , Opportunistic Infections , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Clinical Evolution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Candida glabrata/isolation & purification , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Otomycosis/epidemiology
7.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(1): 30-36, Jan.-feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951621

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The in vitro susceptibility of 105 clinical and environmental strains of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus to antifungal drugs, such as amphotericin B, azoles, and echinocandins was evaluated by the broth microdilution method proposed by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Following the EUCAST-proposed breakpoints, 20% and 25% of the clinical and environmental isolates of A. fumigatus, respectively, were found to be resistant to itraconazole (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration, MIC > 2.0 mg/L). Voriconazole showed good activity against A. fumigatus and A. flavus strains, except for one clinical strain of A. fumigatus whose MIC was 4.0 mg/L. Posaconazole (≤0.25 mg/L) also showed appreciable activity against both species of Aspergillus, except for six A. fumigatus strains with relatively higher MICs (0.5 mg/L). The MICs for Amphotericin B ranged from 0.06 to 1.0 mg/L for A. fumigatus, but were much higher (0.5-8.0 mg/L) for A. flavus. Among the echinocandins, caspofungin showed a geometric mean of 0.078 and 0.113 against the clinical and environmental strains of A. flavus, respectively, but had elevated minimal effective concentrations (MECs) for seven of the A. fumigatus strains. Anidulafungin and micafungin exhibited considerable activity against both A. fumigatus and A. flavus isolates, except for one environmental isolate of A. fumigatus that showed an MEC of 1 mg/L to micafungin. Our study proposes that a detailed investigation of the antifungal susceptibility of the genus Aspergillus from different regions of Brazil is necessary for establishing a response profile against the different classes of antifungal agents used in the treatment of aspergillosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspergillus flavus/drug effects , Aspergillus fumigatus/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus flavus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Reference Values , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(7): 591-594, jul. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: lil-794766

ABSTRACT

Aspergillosis is one of the main causes of mortality in birds. The pulmonary system is most frequently affected, with lesions observed in the air sacs and lungs of a wide variety of bird species. The aim of this study was to confirm by molecular methods the identification and the genetic diversity of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates of lung's samples from healthy broilers (Galus galus domesticus). Forty-four (9.5%) isolates of lung's samples were confirmed as A. fumigatus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) multiplex (amplification of ß-tub and rodA gene fragments). Microsatellite typing for A. fumigatus was used to analyse all avian isolates. Among them, 40 genotypes (90.9%) were observed only one time. The results showed a high variability and multiple genotypes of de A. fumigatus collected from lung's samples of broilers.(AU)


Aspergilose é uma das principais causas de mortalidade em aves. O sistema pulmonar de uma grande variedade de espécies de aves é o mais frequentemente afetado, com lesões nos sacos aéreos e pulmões. Objetivou-se confirmar por métodos moleculares a identificação e a diversidade genética de Aspergillus fumigatus isolados de amostras pulmonares de frangos de corte sadios (Galus galus domesticus). Quarenta e quatro (9,5%) isolados foram confirmados como A. fumigatus através de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) multiplex (amplificação de fragmentos dos genes ß-tub e rodA). Todos isolados foram tipificados, sendo quarenta (90,9%) observados apenas uma vez. Os resultados mostram uma alta variabilidade e múltiplos genótipos de A. fumigatus obtidos de amostras pulmonares de frangos, de corte.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Chickens/microbiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/veterinary , Genotyping Techniques/veterinary , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(1): 75-78, feb. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-776963

ABSTRACT

Postsurgical aspergillosis occurs primarily in immunocompetent patients whose main predisposing factor is the loss of skin and mucosal integrity during surgery. Local infection tends to be destructive and refractory to treatment and relapses are common. It is important to consider aspergillosis in the differential diagnosis of slowly progressive and destructive surgical site infections with negative bacterial cultures. We present the case of a child who developed Aspergillus fumigatus mediastinitis months after heart surgery.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Male , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Mediastinitis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/etiology , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Immunocompromised Host , Mediastinitis/microbiology , Postoperative Complications
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 903-910, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755814

ABSTRACT

Nineteen fungi and seven yeast strains were isolated from sugarcane bagasse piles from an alcohol plant located at Brazilian Cerrado and identified up to species level on the basis of the gene sequencing of 5.8S-ITS and 26S ribosomal DNA regions. Four species were identified: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and the isolates were screened for the production of key enzymes in the saccharification of lignocellulosic material. Among them, three strains were selected as good producers of hemicellulolitic enzymes: A. niger (SBCM3), A. sydowii (SBCM7) and A. fumigatus (SBC4). The best β-xylosidase producer was A. niger SBCM3 strain. This crude enzyme presented optimal activity at pH 3.5 and 55 °C (141 U/g). For β-glucosidase and xylanase the best producer was A. fumigatus SBC4 strain, whose enzymes presented maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 3.5 (54 U/g) and 4.0 (573 U/g), respectively. All these crude enzymes presented stability around pH 3.0–8.0 and up to 60 °C, which can be very useful in industrial processes that work at high temperatures and low pHs. These enzymes also exhibited moderate tolerance to ethanol and the sugars glucose and xylose. These similar characteristics among these fungal crude enzymes suggest that they can be used synergistically in cocktails in future studies of biomass conversion with potential application in several biotechnological sectors.

.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/enzymology , Aspergillus niger/enzymology , Cellulose/metabolism , /metabolism , Kluyveromyces/enzymology , Saccharum/microbiology , Xylosidases/metabolism , beta-Glucosidase/metabolism , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/metabolism , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/metabolism , Base Sequence , Biomass , Brazil , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Intergenic/genetics , Fermentation , Kluyveromyces/isolation & purification , Kluyveromyces/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Molecular Typing , Mycological Typing Techniques , RNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
13.
Rev. patol. trop ; 44(1): 13-19, 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-758561

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus species are considered opportunistic fungi of increasing clinical importance. Informationregarding extrapulmonary involvement is scarce. The aim of this study was to isolate the differentspecies of Aspergillus from patients with rhinosinusitis. A retrospective study was conducted ina university hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil (1986–2014). For mycological diagnoses, paranasaltissue obtained at surgery was subjected to histopathology examination and sent for fungal cultures.Of the 54 samples analyzed, 32 were diagnosed positive by culture. The underlying causes ofimmunodeficiency were: six with transplantation (three bone marrow,two lung, one kidney) andtwo with hematological disease (one bone marrow neoplasia and two leukemia). In the presentstudy, the clinical manifestations of rhinosinusitis aspergillosis were: 20 allergic reactions, 20fungus balls, and 14 acute invasive cases. The species isolated from the 54 samples were: Aspergillusfumigatus (n=14); A. flavus (n=6); A. niger (n=2); A. terreus (n=1); A. fischeri (n=1); and Aspergillussp., (n=3). Two concomitant species of Aspergillus were observed in two patients: A. fumigatus andA. flavus; and A. fumigatus and A. niger. In four patients, Aspergillus was associated with other fungi. These were: A. flavus and Fusarium, A. fumigatus and Rhyzopus, A. flavus and Mucorales, and Aspergillus sp. and Mucorales. The most common species of Aspergillus that were responsiblefor paranasal sinus infections were A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger...


Espécies de Aspergillus são considerados fungos oportunistas de crescente importância clínica.Informações sobre o envolvimento extrapulmonar é escassa. O objetivo deste estudo foi isolaras diferentes espécies de Aspergillus em pacientes com rinossinusite. Um estudo retrospectivofoi realizado em um hospital universitário em Porto Alegre, Brasil (1986-2014). Para diagnósticomicológico, tecido paranasais obtido no momento da cirurgia foi submetido a exame histopatológicoe encaminhados para cultivos de fungos. Das 54 amostras analisadas, 32 foram diagnosticados pelocultivo positivo. As causas subjacentes da imunodeficiência foram: seis com transplante (medulaóssea, três, pulmão, dois; rim, um) e dois com doenças hematológicas (neoplasia osso estreito,um; leucemia, duas). No presente estudo, as manifestações clínicas de rinossinusite aspergilarforam: alérgica, 20; bolas fúngica, 20; e aguda invasiva, 14. As espécies fúngicas isoladas foram:Aspergillus fumigatus, 14; A. flavus, seis; A. niger, dois; A. terreus, um; A. fischeri, um; e Aspergillussp., três. Duas espécies de Aspergillus concomitantes foram observadas em dois pacientes: A.fumigatus e A. flavus; e A. fumigatus e A. niger. Em quatro pacientes, Aspergillus foi associado comoutros fungos: A. flavus e Fusarium, um; A. fumigatus e Rhyzopus, um; A. flavus e Mucorales, um; eAspergillus sp. e Mucorales, um. Os isolados mais comuns de Aspergillus que são responsáveis porinfecções dos seios paranasais são A. fumigatus, A. flavus e A. niger...


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspergillosis , Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary , Aspergillus flavus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification
15.
Neumol. pediátr ; 8(1): 34-38, 2013. ilus, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-701688

ABSTRACT

A 8-year-old girl, born and resident of Guárico state, was referred to our Department because of a history of recurrent pneumonia and a history of deceased sister by unspecified lung disease. At the age of 4 years she had suffered several episodes of pneumonia requiring hospitalization. These episodes were no-responsive to antibiotic therapy and treatment for tuberculosis. Subsequently, At the age of 8 years she was hospitalized again for an episode of left lower lobe pneumonia that did not improve. Studies were performed to rule out pulmonary pathology disease: Cystic Fibrosis was discarded and also Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Serology for HIV and Fungi were negative. Because serological studies were inconclusive, a videobronchoscopy plus Bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissue biopsy were performed, which reported bronchitis and chronic granulomatous and caseous necrosis. Special stains were observed that suggest fungus infection. Primary immunodeficiency was suspected in the patient, because the presence of recurrent pneumonia of different etiologies. The presence of the granuloma observed by the videobronchoscopy. A positive culture for Histoplasma and Aspergillus fungi, and the result of the oxidative capacity test, where the deficiency was observed in the microbicidal activity of macrophages. They were strong evidence that corroborated the immunodeficiency called Chronic Granulomatous Disease.


Escolar femenino de 8 años de edad, natural y procedente del Estado Guárico, con antecedente de hospitalizaciones por neumonías recurrente desde los 4, recibió antibioticoterapia endovenosa y cumplió tratamiento antifímico en dos oportunidades, persistiendo con sintomatología respiratoria. A los 8 años precisó nueva hospitalización por diagnóstico de neumonía del lóbulo inferior izquierdo. Por no presentar mejoría y antecedente de hermana fallecida por patología pulmonar no precisada fue referida a nuestro centro. Se realizaron estudios por patología pulmonar crónica: se descartó Fibrosis Quística y Tuberculosis Pulmonar. Serología para HIV y Hongos Negativa. Por no ser concluyentes los estudios serológicos se realizó Videobroncoscopia más lavado y biopsia, la cual reportó bronquitis crónica granulomatosa y necrosis caseosa. Coloraciones especiales: hongos intracitoplasmáticos sugestivos de Histoplasma Sp. y en el cultivo presentó crecimiento de Aspergillus fumigatus. Ante la presencia de paciente con neumonía recurrente por diferentes etiologías se sospechó la presencia de Inmunodeficiencia Primaria, planteando en base al reporte de la videobroncoscopia de granuloma y la confirmación de Infección por Histoplasma y Aspergillus una Enfermedad Granulomatosa Crónica que fue documentada al medir la deficiencia en la actividad microbicida dependiente de oxigeno evaluada a través del Test de Capacidad Oxidativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/complications , Granulomatous Disease, Chronic/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/complications , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/drug therapy , Fatal Outcome , Pneumonia/etiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(1): 235-243, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676919

ABSTRACT

Enzyme production varies in different fermentation systems. Enzyme expression in different fermentation systems yields important information for improving our understanding of enzymatic production induction. Comparative studies between solid-state fermentation (SSF) using agro-industrial waste wheat bran and submerged fermentation (SmF) using synthetic media were carried out to determinate the best parameters for peptidase production by the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Fresen. Variables tested include: the concentration of carbon and protein nitrogen sources, the size of the inoculum, the pH of the media, temperature, and the length of the fermentation process. The best peptidase production during SSF was obtained after 96 hours using wheat bran at 30 ºC with an inoculum of 1 x 10(6) spores and yielded 1500 active units (UµmL). The best peptidase production using SmF was obtained after periods of 72 and 96 hours of fermentation in media containing 0.5% and 0.25% of casein, respectively, at a pH of 6.0 and at 30 ºC and yielded 40 UµmL. We also found examples of catabolite repression of peptidase production under SmF conditions. Biochemical characterization of the peptidases produced by both fermentative processes showed optimum activity at pH 8.0 and 50 ºC, and also showed that their proteolytic activity is modulated by surfactants. The enzymatic inhibition profile using phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) in SmF and SSF indicated that both fermentative processes produced a serine peptidase. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of the ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelating agent on the peptidase produced by SmF indicated that this fermentative process also produced a metallopeptidase.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/enzymology , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Azotobacter/enzymology , Azotobacter/isolation & purification , Fermentation , Metalloexopeptidases/analysis , Metalloexopeptidases/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/analysis , Serine/analysis , Enzyme Activation , Methods , Reference Parameters , Methods
17.
J. bras. pneumol ; 38(1): 125-132, jan.-fev. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-617036

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Relatar os casos de 6 pacientes com bola fúngica (BF) na cavidade pleural por Aspergillus fumigatus. MÉTODOS: Entre 1980 e 2009, foram diagnosticados 391 pacientes com BF aspergilar no Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (RS). O diagnóstico de BF na cavidade pleural foi definido com exames de imagem demonstrando derrame e espessamento pleural com nível líquido; exame micológico direto demonstrando hifas septadas, consistentes com Aspergillus sp.; e cultura positiva para A. fumigatus no espécime cirúrgico da cavidade pleural. RESULTADOS: Dos 391 pacientes estudados, 6 (2 por cento) preencheram os critérios diagnósticos estabelecidos. A média de idade desses 6 pacientes foi de 48 anos (variação, 29-66 anos), e 5 (83 por cento) eram do sexo masculino. As queixas mais frequentes dos pacientes foram tosse, expectoração e hemoptise. Quatro (67 por cento) dos pacientes tinham tuberculose curada. Todos os pacientes realizaram remoção cirúrgica da colonização fúngica, e houve infusão intrapleural com anfotericina B em 4; e 2 pacientes receberam tratamento antifúngico sistêmico v.o. Cinco pacientes melhoraram clinicamente, e um foi a óbito após a cirurgia. CONCLUSÕES: Em pacientes adultos com história de doença pulmonar cavitária ou fístula pleural, deve-se realizar uma investigação criteriosa levando em consideração a infecção fúngica, principalmente BF pulmonar. Portanto, a exploração laboratorial torna-se mais eficiente em relação aos recursos disponíveis para elucidação diagnóstica.


OBJECTIVE: To report the cases of 6 patients with fungus ball caused by Aspergillus fumigatus (aspergilloma) in the pleural cavity. METHODS: Between 1980 and 2009, 391 patients were diagnosed with aspergilloma at the Santa Casa Hospital Complex in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The diagnosis of aspergilloma in the pleural cavity was made through imaging tests revealing effusion and pleural thickening with air-fluid level; direct mycological examination revealing septate hyphae, consistent with Aspergillus sp.; and positive culture for A. fumigatus in the surgical specimen from the pleural cavity. RESULTS: Of the 391 patients studied, 6 (2 percent) met the established diagnostic criteria. The mean age of those 6 patients was 48 years (range, 29-66 years), and 5 (83 percent) were male. The most common complaints were cough, expectoration, and hemoptysis. Four patients (67 percent) had a history of tuberculosis that had been clinically cured. All of the patients were submitted to surgical removal of the aspergilloma, followed by intrapleural instillation of amphotericin B, in 4; and 2 received systemic antifungal treatment p.o. There was clinical improvement in 5 patients, and 1 died after the surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In adult patients with a history of cavitary lung disease or pleural fistula, a careful investigation should be carried out and fungal infection, especially aspergilloma, should be taken into consideration. In such cases, laboratory testing represents the most efficient use of the resources available to elucidate the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aspergillosis , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Lung Diseases, Fungal , Pleural Cavity/microbiology , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Pleural Cavity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Jan-Mar; 30(1): 106-108
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143907

ABSTRACT

A bladder infection of Aspergillus with no evidence of dissemination is rare. We present a case of Aspergillus infection with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder without any evidence of systemic involvement. A 65-year-old male diabetic whose main complaints were intermittent painful haematuria and nocturia had undergone nephroureterectomy a year and a half back for transitional cell carcinoma of right renal pelvis. Cystoscopy revealed bladder mucosa having fixed broad tumour with encrustation and bleeding on touch at the right vesico-ureteric junction. The histopathologic diagnosis was a high-grade transitional carcinoma with Aspergillus infection. Fungal culture of urine obtained after bladder wash yielded Aspergillus fumigatus.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillosis/pathology , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Carcinoma, Transitional Cell/complications , Cystitis/diagnosis , Cystitis/microbiology , Cystitis/pathology , Cystoscopy , Histocytochemistry , Humans , Male , Urinary Bladder/microbiology , Urinary Bladder/pathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/complications
19.
Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis [The]. 2012; 61 (4): 243-246
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-160123

ABSTRACT

The sensitization and exposure to fungal allergens have been reported to be associated with asthma. The importance of Aspergillus fumigatus [AF] sensitization and colonization of the airways in patients with asthma is unclear. To clarify the effect of sensitization and airways colonization of AF on lung function and airways inflammation in asthma. We studied 66 patients with asthma. Patients were classified into two groups according to AF sensitization: [1] AF-sensitized [immediate cutaneous reactivity >3 mm]; and [2] AFnonsensitized. A positive sputum culture for AF confirmed airways colonization by AF. Routine spirometry was performed for all patients. Airways inflammation was assessed by sputum differential inflammatory cell count. Asthma duration was significantly longer in AF-sensitized asthmatics. Significantly higher rates of positive AF-culture were detected in sputum from AF-sensitized asthmatics [63%] in comparison to AF-nonsensitized asthmatics [31%]. FEV1 and FEV1/FVC were more reduced in AF-sensitized asthmatics in comparison to AF-nonsensitized asthmatics. Sputum neutrophils count was significantly higher in AF-sensitized asthmatics in comparison to AF-nonsensitized asthmatics. Sputum eosinophils did not differ between AF-sensitized and AF-nonsensitized asthma groups, concordant with peripheral blood eosinophils, which did not differ significantly between groups. Multilinear regression analysis predicting FEV1% showed that AF sensitization and sputum neutrophil count were the most important predictors of FEV1 [p= 0.016 for both], followed by positive sputum culture for AF and sputum eosinophil count [p= 0.024 and 0.046 respectively]. [p = 0.105]. AF detection in sputum is associated with AF-sensitization, neutrophilic airway inflammation, and reduced lung function. This supports the concept that development of fixed airflow obstruction in asthma is consequent upon the damaging effects of airway colonization with AF


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Asthma/microbiology , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/immunology , Respiratory Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Sputum/microbiology
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