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1.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(4): 400-403, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975604

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Otomycosis is a common problem in otolaryngology practice. However, we usually encounter some difficulties in its treatment because many patients show resistance to antifungal agents, and present high recurrence rate. Objectives To determine the fungal pathogens that cause otomycosis as well as their susceptibility to the commonly used antifungal agents. Additionally, to discover the main reasons for antifungal resistance. Methods We conducted an experimental descriptive study on 122 patients clinically diagnosed with otomycosis from April 2016 to April 2017. Aural discharge specimens were collected for direct microscopic examination and fungal culture. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against the commonly used antifungal drugs. We tested the isolated fungi for their enzymatic activity. Results Positive fungal infection was found in 102 samples. The most common fungal pathogens were Aspergillus and Candida species, with Aspergillus niger being the predominant isolate (51%). The antifungal susceptibility testing showed that mold isolates had the highest sensitivity to voriconazole (93.48%), while the highest resistance was to fluconazole (100%). For yeast, the highest sensitivity was to nystatin (88.24%), followed by amphotericin B (82.35%), and the highest resistance was to terbinafine (100%), followed by Itraconazole (94.12%). Filamentous fungi expressed a high enzymatic ability, making them more virulent. Conclusion The Aspergillus and Candida species are the most common fungal isolates in otomycosis. Voriconazole and Nystatin are the medications of choice for the treatment of otomycosis in our community. The high virulence of fungal pathogens is owed to their high enzymatic activity. Empirical use of antifungals should be discouraged.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Otomycosis/microbiology , Fungi/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Candida/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Epidemiology, Experimental , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Voriconazole/pharmacology , /pharmacology
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 19(6): 70-78, Nov. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840316

ABSTRACT

Background: Many buildings in Egypt e.g. museums, mosques and churches, do not possess controlled environments for minimizing the risks of damage of wooden artifacts due to the growth of fungi. Fungal damage usually appears as change in wood color, appearance of stains, and sometimes deformation of wooden surfaces. In this study we focused on the effect that some fungi exert on the properties of wooden artifacts and evaluated the effectiveness of different concentrations of chitosan on their protection against damage by mold fungi. Results: Samples were collected from different monuments and environments, and fungi growing on them were isolated and identified. The isolated Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus and /Aspergillus niger strains were used for the infestation of new pitch pine samples. The results revealed that the lightness of samples infected with any of the tested fungi decreased with increasing incubation times. XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity of incubated samples treated individually with the different concentrations of chitosan was lower than the crystallinity of infected samples. The crystallinity index measured by the first and the second method decreased after the first and second months but increased after the third and fourth months. This may due to the reducing of amorphous part by enzymes or acids produced by fungi in wooden samples. Conclusions: The growth of fungi on the treated wood samples decreased with increasing the concentration of chitosan. Hence, it was demonstrated that chitosan prevented fungal growth, and its use could be recommended for the protection of archeological wooden artifacts.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Chitosan/chemistry , Fungi/drug effects , Wood/microbiology , Archaeology , Aspergillus flavus/drug effects , Aspergillus flavus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/drug effects , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Chitosan/pharmacology , Crystallization , Penicillium chrysogenum/drug effects , Penicillium chrysogenum/isolation & purification , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(3): 381-383, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787301

ABSTRACT

Abstract: We describe the case of a 9-year-old boy with idiopathic bone marrow aplasia and severe neutropenia, who developed skin ulcers under cardiac monitoring electrodes. The diagnosis of primary cutaneous aspergillosis was made after the second biopsy and culture. Imaging investigation did not reveal internal fungal infection. The child was treated, but did not improve and died 3 months after admission. The report highlights and discusses the preventable risk of aspergillus skin infection in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Skin Ulcer/microbiology , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Anemia, Aplastic/immunology , Aspergillosis/complications , Aspergillosis/pathology , Skin Ulcer/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Hyphae/isolation & purification , Dermatomycoses/complications , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Electrodes/adverse effects , Anemia, Aplastic/complications , Necrosis , Neutropenia/complications
4.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 31(1): 19-27, jun. 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868808

ABSTRACT

Las amilasas (alfa-amilasa, EC 3.2.1.1 y glucoamilasa, EC 3.2.1.3) son enzimas extracelulares que hidrolizan el almidón en dextrinas hasta glucosa y tienen gran aplicación industrial, especialmente alimentaria; detergentes y en la producción de alcohol a partir de granos. El objetivo del trabajo es seleccionar un hongo filamentoso que presente alta producción de amilasas con características particulares para ser empleadas en biodetergentes. Se estudiaron los siguientes hongos: Penicillium expansum; P. digitatum; P. islandicum; Aspergillus clavatus; A. niger; A. ochraceus; A. fumigatus; A. flavus; A. oryzae; A. nidulans y Geotrichum candidum; Los ensayos se realizaron en un medio de hidrolizado de papa de descarte (variedad Spunta) suplementado con las siguientes sales: KH2 PO4 1,0; NaNO3 3,0; MgSO4 .7H2 O 0,5, a pH 4,0; se inoculó con 2 x106 conidios/mL y se incubaron a 25ºC en un agitador rotatorio a una velocidad de agitación de 250 rpm. Con los extractos enzimáticos parcialmente purificados con (NH4 )2 SO4 al 60 por ciento de saturación, se estudió el efecto del pH (2,5; 3,5; 4,0; 4,5; 5,0; 5,5; 6,0, 7,0 y 8,0) y la temperatura (20; 25; 30; 35 y 40ºC). Los resultados mostraron que la máxima producción de enzima (128 U/L) se obtuvo con Aspergillus niger, en las condiciones ensayadas, a las 48 h de incubación, con alto rendimiento de producto respecto a la biomasa (Yp/x= 18,3 U/g) y productividad volumétrica (Pdv=2,7 U/L). El análisis cualitativo de las enzimas del complejo amilolítico de A. niger mostró que las amilasas implicadas son alfa-amilasa y glucoamilasa y se caracterizaron por hidrolizar en un tiempo de 3 min. manchas mixtas de almidón y grasas de muestras textiles en un rango de pH 4,0 a 8,0 y de 20 a 40 ºC.


The amylases (alpha-amylase, EC 3.2.1.1 and glucoamylase, EC 3.2.1.3) are extracellular enzymes that hydrolyze starch into dextrins to glucose and have great application industrial, especially food, detergents and in the production of alcohol from grains. The objective of the study is to select a filamentous fungus that present high production of amylases showing attractive features to be used in biodetergentes. Were studied following fungus: Penicillium expansum; P. digitatum; P. islandicum; Aspergillus clavatus; A niger; A. ochraceus; A. fumigatus; A. flavus; A. oryzae; A. nidulans and Geotrichum candidum. The tests were conducted in the medium of hydrolyzed potato discard (variety Spunta) supplemented with the following sales: KH2 PO4 , 1.0; NaNO3 , 3.0 and MgSO4 .7H2 O, 0.5, to pH 4.0. Were inoculated with 2 x 106 conidia/ mL and incubated at 25 °C on a rotary Shaker at a speed of 250 rpm. With partially purified enzyme extracts with (NH4 )2 SO4 at 60 percent of saturation, we studied the effect of pH (2.5; 3.5; 4.0; 4.5; 5.0; 5.5; 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0) and temperature (20; 25; 30; 35, and 40 ° C). The results showed that the maximum production of enzyme (128 U/L) was obtained with Aspergillus niger, under the conditions tested, at 48 h of incubation, with high product formation rate with respect to biomass (Yp/x = 18.3 U/g) and volumetric productivity (Pdv = 2,7 U/ hL). The qualitative analysis of the enzymes of the complex amylolític of A. niger showed that involved amylases are α-amylase and glucoamylase and characterized by hydrolyze in 3 min spots mixed starch and fats of textile samples over a range of pH 4.0 to 8.0 and 20 to 40 ° C.


Subject(s)
Amylases/analysis , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/enzymology , Fungi/enzymology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Detergents , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Starch , Temperature
5.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(3): 303-307, May.-June 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789486

ABSTRACT

Abstract Tinea capitis is generally considered as the most frequent fungal infection in childhood, as it accounts for approximately 92% of all mycosis in children. The epidemiology of this disease varies widely ranging from antropophillic, zoophilic, and geophillic dermatophytes, as the main causative agent in different geographic areas, depending on several additional factors. Nowadays, the etiology is considered to vary with age, as well with gender, and general health condition. The former reported extraordinary Tinea capitis case reports have been replaced by original articles and researches dealing with progressively changing patterns in etiology and clinical manifestation of the disease. This fact is indicative that under the umbrella of the well-known disease there are facts still hidden for future revelations. Herein, we present two rare cases of Tinea capitis in children, which totally differ from the recently established pattern, in their clinical presentation, as well as in the etiological aspect, as we discuss this potential new etiological pattern of the disease, focusing on our retrospective and clinical observation. Collected data suggest that pathogenic molds should be considered as a potential source of infection in some geographic regions, which require total rationalization of the former therapeutic conception, regarding the molds’ higher antimitotic resistance compared to dermatophytes. Molds-induced Tinea capitis should be also considered in clinically resistant and atypical cases, with further investigations of the antifungal susceptibility of the newest pathogens in the frame of the old disease. Further investigations are still needed to confirm or reject this proposal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Tinea Capitis/microbiology , Scalp/microbiology , Tinea Capitis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(1): 71-77, mar. 2016. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843148

ABSTRACT

Fungal hydrolysis of ellagitannins produces hexahydroxydiphenic acid, which is considered an intermediate molecule in ellagic acid release. Ellagic acid has important and desirable beneficial health properties. The aim of this work was to identify the effect of different sources of ellagitannins on the efficiency of ellagic acid release by Aspergillus niger. Three strains of A. niger (GH1, PSH and HT4) were assessed for ellagic acid release from different polyphenol sources: cranberry, creosote bush, and pomegranate used as substrate. Polyurethane foam was used as support for solid-state culture in column reactors. Ellagitannase activity was measured for each of the treatments. Ellagic acid was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. When pomegranate polyphenols were used, a maximum value of ellagic acid (350.21 mg/g) was reached with A. niger HT4 in solid-state culture. The highest amount of ellagitannase (5176.81 U/l) was obtained at 8 h of culture when cranberry polyphenols and strain A. niger PSH were used. Results demonstrated the effect of different polyphenol sources and A. niger strains on ellagic acid release. It was observed that the best source for releasing ellagic acid was pomegranate polyphenols and A. niger HT4 strain, which has the ability to degrade these compounds for obtaining a potent bioactive molecule such as ellagic acid.


La hidrólisis fúngica de los elagitaninos produce ácido hexahidroxidifénico, considerado como una molécula intermedia en la liberación de ácido elágico. El ácido elágico tiene importantes y deseables propiedades benéficas para la salud humana. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar el efecto de la fuente de elagitaninos sobre la eficiente liberación de ácido elágico por Aspergillus niger. La liberación de ácido elágico se realizó con tres cepas de A. niger (GH1, PSH y HT4) en presencia de diferentes fuentes de polifenoles (arándano, gobernadora y granada), usadas como sustrato. Se empleó espuma de poliuretano como soporte para el cultivo en estado sólido en reactores en columna. Se midió la actividad elagitanasa a cada uno de los tratamientos. El ácido elágico liberado se cuantificó por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Cuando se utilizaron los polifenoles de granada, se alcanzó un valor máximo de 350,21 mg/g de ácido elágico con A. niger HT4 en cultivo en estado sólido. La mayor actividad elagitanasa (5176.81 U/l) se obtuvo a 8 h de cultivo cuando se usaron los polifenoles de arándano como sustrato y A. niger PSH. Los resultados demostraron el efecto que tiene la fuente de polifenoles y la cepa de A. niger en la liberación de ácido elágico. Se observó que la mejor fuente para la liberación de ácido elágico fueron los polifenoles de granada y que la cepa A. niger HT4 posee la habilidad de degradar estos compuestos para la obtención de potentes moléculas bioactivas, como el ácido elágico.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Ellagic Acid/analysis , Polyphenols/analysis , Aspergillus niger/physiology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 903-910, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755814

ABSTRACT

Nineteen fungi and seven yeast strains were isolated from sugarcane bagasse piles from an alcohol plant located at Brazilian Cerrado and identified up to species level on the basis of the gene sequencing of 5.8S-ITS and 26S ribosomal DNA regions. Four species were identified: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and the isolates were screened for the production of key enzymes in the saccharification of lignocellulosic material. Among them, three strains were selected as good producers of hemicellulolitic enzymes: A. niger (SBCM3), A. sydowii (SBCM7) and A. fumigatus (SBC4). The best β-xylosidase producer was A. niger SBCM3 strain. This crude enzyme presented optimal activity at pH 3.5 and 55 °C (141 U/g). For β-glucosidase and xylanase the best producer was A. fumigatus SBC4 strain, whose enzymes presented maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 3.5 (54 U/g) and 4.0 (573 U/g), respectively. All these crude enzymes presented stability around pH 3.0–8.0 and up to 60 °C, which can be very useful in industrial processes that work at high temperatures and low pHs. These enzymes also exhibited moderate tolerance to ethanol and the sugars glucose and xylose. These similar characteristics among these fungal crude enzymes suggest that they can be used synergistically in cocktails in future studies of biomass conversion with potential application in several biotechnological sectors.

.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/enzymology , Aspergillus niger/enzymology , Cellulose/metabolism , /metabolism , Kluyveromyces/enzymology , Saccharum/microbiology , Xylosidases/metabolism , beta-Glucosidase/metabolism , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/metabolism , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/metabolism , Base Sequence , Biomass , Brazil , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Intergenic/genetics , Fermentation , Kluyveromyces/isolation & purification , Kluyveromyces/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Molecular Typing , Mycological Typing Techniques , RNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 707-713, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755820

ABSTRACT

In an effort to develop alternate techniques to recover metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), this research evaluated the bioleaching efficiency of gold (Au), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) by two strains of Aspergillus niger in the presence of gold-plated finger integrated circuits found in computer motherboards (GFICMs) and cellular phone printed circuit boards (PCBs). These three metals were analyzed for their commercial value and their diverse applications in the industry. Au-bioleaching ranged from 42 to 1% for Aspergillus niger strain MXPE6; with the combination of Aspergillus niger MXPE6 + Aspergillus niger MX7, the Au-bioleaching was 87 and 28% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. In contrast, the bioleaching of Cu by Aspergillus niger MXPE6 was 24 and 5%; using the combination of both strains, the values were 0.2 and 29% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. Fungal Ni-leaching was only found for PCBs, but with no significant differences among treatments. Improvement of the metal recovery efficiency by means of fungal metabolism is also discussed.

.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus niger/metabolism , Cell Phone , Computers , Copper/metabolism , Electronic Waste , Gold/metabolism , Nickel/metabolism , Polychlorinated Biphenyls/metabolism , Aspergillus niger/enzymology , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Bioreactors/microbiology , Waste Management/methods
9.
Rev. patol. trop ; 44(1): 13-19, 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-758561

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus species are considered opportunistic fungi of increasing clinical importance. Informationregarding extrapulmonary involvement is scarce. The aim of this study was to isolate the differentspecies of Aspergillus from patients with rhinosinusitis. A retrospective study was conducted ina university hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil (1986–2014). For mycological diagnoses, paranasaltissue obtained at surgery was subjected to histopathology examination and sent for fungal cultures.Of the 54 samples analyzed, 32 were diagnosed positive by culture. The underlying causes ofimmunodeficiency were: six with transplantation (three bone marrow,two lung, one kidney) andtwo with hematological disease (one bone marrow neoplasia and two leukemia). In the presentstudy, the clinical manifestations of rhinosinusitis aspergillosis were: 20 allergic reactions, 20fungus balls, and 14 acute invasive cases. The species isolated from the 54 samples were: Aspergillusfumigatus (n=14); A. flavus (n=6); A. niger (n=2); A. terreus (n=1); A. fischeri (n=1); and Aspergillussp., (n=3). Two concomitant species of Aspergillus were observed in two patients: A. fumigatus andA. flavus; and A. fumigatus and A. niger. In four patients, Aspergillus was associated with other fungi. These were: A. flavus and Fusarium, A. fumigatus and Rhyzopus, A. flavus and Mucorales, and Aspergillus sp. and Mucorales. The most common species of Aspergillus that were responsiblefor paranasal sinus infections were A. fumigatus, A. flavus, and A. niger...


Espécies de Aspergillus são considerados fungos oportunistas de crescente importância clínica.Informações sobre o envolvimento extrapulmonar é escassa. O objetivo deste estudo foi isolaras diferentes espécies de Aspergillus em pacientes com rinossinusite. Um estudo retrospectivofoi realizado em um hospital universitário em Porto Alegre, Brasil (1986-2014). Para diagnósticomicológico, tecido paranasais obtido no momento da cirurgia foi submetido a exame histopatológicoe encaminhados para cultivos de fungos. Das 54 amostras analisadas, 32 foram diagnosticados pelocultivo positivo. As causas subjacentes da imunodeficiência foram: seis com transplante (medulaóssea, três, pulmão, dois; rim, um) e dois com doenças hematológicas (neoplasia osso estreito,um; leucemia, duas). No presente estudo, as manifestações clínicas de rinossinusite aspergilarforam: alérgica, 20; bolas fúngica, 20; e aguda invasiva, 14. As espécies fúngicas isoladas foram:Aspergillus fumigatus, 14; A. flavus, seis; A. niger, dois; A. terreus, um; A. fischeri, um; e Aspergillussp., três. Duas espécies de Aspergillus concomitantes foram observadas em dois pacientes: A.fumigatus e A. flavus; e A. fumigatus e A. niger. Em quatro pacientes, Aspergillus foi associado comoutros fungos: A. flavus e Fusarium, um; A. fumigatus e Rhyzopus, um; A. flavus e Mucorales, um; eAspergillus sp. e Mucorales, um. Os isolados mais comuns de Aspergillus que são responsáveis porinfecções dos seios paranasais são A. fumigatus, A. flavus e A. niger...


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspergillosis , Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary , Aspergillus flavus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1459-1467, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741301

ABSTRACT

Plant cell wall is mainly composed by cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The heterogeneous structure and composition of the hemicellulose are key impediments to its depolymerization and subsequent use in fermentation processes. Thus, this study aimed to perform a screening of thermophilic and thermotolerant filamentous fungi collected from different regions of the São Paulo state, and analyze the production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase at different temperatures. These enzymes are important to cell wall degradation and synthesis of end products as xylose and arabinose, respectively, which are significant sugars to fermentation and ethanol production. A total of 12 fungal species were analyzed and 9 of them grew at 45 ºC, suggesting a thermophilic or thermotolerant character. Additionally Aspergillus thermomutatus anamorph of Neosartorya and A. parasiticus grew at 50 ºC. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus thermomutatus were the filamentous fungi with the most expressive production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase, respectively. In general for most of the tested microorganisms, β-xylosidase and arabinanase activities from mycelial extract (intracellular form) were higher in cultures grown at high temperatures (35-40 ºC), while the correspondent extracellular activities were favorably secreted from cultures at 30 ºC. This study contributes to catalogue isolated fungi of the state of São Paulo, and these findings could be promising sources for thermophilic and thermotolerant microorganisms, which are industrially important due to their enzymes.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus niger/enzymology , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Glycoside Hydrolases/analysis , Neosartorya/enzymology , Neosartorya/isolation & purification , Xylosidases/analysis , Aspergillus niger/growth & development , Aspergillus niger/radiation effects , Brazil , Mass Screening , Neosartorya/growth & development , Neosartorya/radiation effects , Temperature
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 1055-1063, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727038

ABSTRACT

Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus niger/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Biotransformation , Coloring Agents/metabolism , Phanerochaete/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Aniline Compounds/metabolism , Aspergillus niger/growth & development , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Industrial Waste , Phanerochaete/growth & development , Phanerochaete/isolation & purification , Rosaniline Dyes/metabolism , Temperature
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 373-377, Apr.-June 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723091

ABSTRACT

Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse).


Subject(s)
Aspergillus niger/growth & development , Aspergillus niger/metabolism , Molasses , Saccharum/metabolism , Waste Products , beta-Fructofuranosidase/isolation & purification , beta-Fructofuranosidase/metabolism , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Cuba , Carbohydrates/analysis , Fermentation , Mexico , Nitrogen/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163079

ABSTRACT

Aim: To study the presence of indoor mycoflora in A/c Buses to know the commuters risk of exposure to fungal spores. Place and Duration: Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus (CMBT), Koyambedu, Chennai, India. Study was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012. Methodology: Airborne fungi from 50 A/c buses were studied using Reuter Centrifugal Sampler (Biotest, Germany), fungi from the surfaces of air vents through swab sample and bus seats by rubbing sterile petridishes on the seats. Sabourauds Dextrose Agar (SDA) was used for the isolation of fungi from different buses. The collected data were statistically analyzed. Results: A total of 38 species classified in 21 genera were recorded. Among which, Zygomycetes was represented by 4 species, Ascomycetes and Coelomycetes by single species each and the remaining belongs to Hyphomycetes. The genus, Aspergillus was represented by maximum number of species (11 species) followed by Penicillium (5 species). A total average of 713 CFU/m3 of air was recorded within the buses. Aspergillus niger was the first dominant fungi in the order of dominance followed by Chrysonilia sitophila, Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus flavus in that order. From the surface of bus seats, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer and A. japonicus were recorded as dominant. However, different mycofloral composition was recorded from air vents. Cladosporium chlorocephalum and Curvularia lunata dominated the surface of air vents. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the presence of potential fungal species which pose exposure risk to the immune compromised commuters.


Subject(s)
Air Conditioning , Air Microbiology , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Centrifugation/methods , Environmental Exposure , Fungi/isolation & purification , Humans , Motor Vehicles , Prevalence , Risk
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163043

ABSTRACT

Aims: Glucose oxidase is an enzyme with large scale applications in various industries. It is also used in several diagnostic kits which makes it medically important as well. Our aim was to isolate indigenous glucose oxidase hyper producing strain of Aspergillus niger from different soil samples of Punjab, Pakistan. Study Design: An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, GC University, Lahore from March 2011 to July 2012. Methodology: Two hundred and seventy nine fungal strains were isolated from soil of different localities of Punjab. Isolates were screened for glucose oxidase production using submerged fermentation. Glucose oxidase hyper producer isolate was identified using morphological and molecular techniques i.e. 18S rDNA. DNA was isolated and amplified using PCR. Gene sequencing was done and homology analysis was studied. Rate of glucose oxidase production was also analysed. Results: Glucose oxidase hyper producing isolate was identified as A. niger A247 strain. This strain gave best reproducible results (145.22 ±0.034 U/g of cell mass) after 72 hrs of fermentation at 30ºC and at a medium pH of 7.2. Conclusion: Our results indicate the natural ability of A. niger to produce Glucose oxidase in large quantity instead of using genetic manipulation techniques.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus niger/chemistry , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , DNA/isolation & purification , Glucose Oxidase/biosynthesis , Pakistan , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Soil/microbiology , Soil Microbiology
15.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-5, 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The whitish tender leaves of Palmyrah are used for making handicrafts. The problem with these articles is discolouration with time and become more brittle due to fungal attack. This could be prevented by some protective coating. Instead of expensive and harmful chemicals we decided to test natural plant essential oils to control fungal attack. Palmyrah leaf article decay fungi were isolated from two different sites of Jaffna peninsula. In this investigation Antifungal Activity of different plant essential oils from neem (Azadirachta indica), castor (Ricinus communis), citronella (Cymbopogon sp) and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) obtained from local market have been evaluated against isolated fungi. For screening of Antifungal activity, tests and controls were set to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Percentage of Growth Inhibition. RESULTS: Morphologically three different types of Palmyrah leaf decay fungi were isolated and characterized asAspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. Neem and castor oils have recorded no significant (0.05 > P) antifungal activity while citronella and camphor oils showed significantly different antifungal activity compared with control. Camphor oil and Citronella oil showed 100, 58.13% of average growth inhibition for A. niger. 96.38, 51.32% for A.flavus and 84.99, 72.76% forPenicillium sp respectively. Camphor oil showed highest percentage of growth inhibition at lowest minimum inhibitory concentration compared with citronella oil. Camphor oil was found to be highly antifungal and most effective against A niger, and A. flavus, compared with Penicillium sp and gave 100 percentage of growth inhibitions at 5, 1 and 15 ml/dl minimum inhibitory concentration respectively. CONCLUSION: Significantly higher broad-spectrum of antifungal activity was observed in camphor oil than other tested oils because it showed highest percentage of growth inhibition at lowest inhibitory concentration. Therefore it could be used for the development of new environmental friendly antifungal agent for the preservation of leafy handicrafts. Further formulation, field experiments are necessary to achieve this target.


Subject(s)
Penicillium/drug effects , Aspergillus/drug effects , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Arecaceae/microbiology , Growth Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Penicillium/isolation & purification , Penicillium/growth & development , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus/growth & development , Aspergillus flavus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus flavus/growth & development , Aspergillus flavus/drug effects , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/growth & development , Aspergillus niger/drug effects , Ricinus/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Cinnamomum camphora/chemistry , Azadirachta/chemistry , Cymbopogon/chemistry
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20002

ABSTRACT

Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Cockroaches/microbiology , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Nigeria , Sanitation , Trichuris/isolation & purification
17.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 45(2): 110-3, jun. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1171783

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the present work were to investigate the isolation frequency of genus Aspergillus in canchada yerba mate (YMCH) and elaborated yerba mate (YME) (Ilex paraguariensis) and the proportion of section Nigri isolates, as well as to determine ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus species section Nigri. Three hundred twenty eight Aspergillus strains from 20 samples of YMCH and 1306 Aspergillus strains from 36 samples of YME were isolated; of the total, 279 from the first group of strains and 1215 from the latter group, belonged to section Nigri. For the detection of ochratoxin A production, the strains were cultivated on Czapeck yeast extract agar and the toxin was detected by thin layer chromatography under UV light. Uniserate species predominance was observed in the 1494 strains of Aspergillus section Nigri obtained (Aspergillus japonicus var. japonicus and Aspergillus japonicus var. aculeatus), whereas none of the strains analysed showed ochratoxin A production in vitro at the detection level of the methodology employed.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/metabolism , Ilex paraguariensis/microbiology , Ochratoxins/biosynthesis , Argentina
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147337

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a 26-year-old male who underwent lobectomy for life-threatening haemoptysis due to aspergilloma in an old tuberculosis left upper lobe cavity who presented with recurrence of haemoptysis four years after the surgery. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy revealed Aspergillus colonisation in the ectatic residual bronchus which is an uncommon complication of lobectomy. The patient was successfully managed with antifungal agents.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Bronchi/microbiology , Hemoptysis/etiology , Humans , Male , Pneumonectomy , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/surgery , Time Factors
19.
Bol. micol. (Valparaiso En linea) ; 27(1): 18-23, jul. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-679649

ABSTRACT

A partir de jarabe de fructosa se aislaron e identificaron microorganismos productores de invertasa. Aspergillus niger IB56 fue el que produjo mayor concentración de la enzima con actividad transferasa (5,6U/ml). Se estudió la producción de fructooligosacáridos (FOS) a diferentes pH (3,0; 4,0; 4,5; 5,0 y 5,5); temperaturas (20, 25, 30 y 40 ºC), concentración de sacarosa (150; 300 y 450 g/l) y tiempos de incubación (60; 90 y 120 min.). La máxima producción de FOS (105 g/l) se obtuvo con una concentración de sacarosa de 300 g/l; a pH 5,0; temperatura 20ºC y a los 60 min de incubación. La enzima invertasa posee especificidad para producir FOS como 1-cestosa y nistosa, prebióticos de importancia en la industria farmacéutica porque tienen efectos benéficos sobre la salud y estimulan la flora microbiana del intestino humano y animal como Lactobacillus y Bifidobacterium.


Several microorganisms that produce invertase were isolated from fructose syrup and identified. Aspergillus nigerIB56 was the one that produced the greatest concentration of the enzyme with transferase activity (5.6 U/ml). We studied the production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) at different pH (3.0, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0 and 5.5), temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 40ºC), sucrose concentrations (150, 300 and 450 g/l) and incubation times (60, 90 and 120 min.). Maximum FOS production (105 g/l) was obtained with a sucrose concentration of 300 g/l, pH 5.0, at 20 ºC after 60 min of incubation. The enzyme invertase specifically produces FOSsuch as 1-kestose and nistose, which are important prebioticsin the pharmaceutical industry because they have beneficial health effects and stimulate the intestinal microbial flora such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in humans and animals.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/growth & development , Aspergillus niger/enzymology , Fructose , Fungi , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Oligosaccharides , Prebiotics , Sucrose , Temperature
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(2): 467-475, Apr.-June 2012. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-644460

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus niger F7 isolated from soil was found to be the potent producer of cellulase and xylanase. The residue of forest species Toona ciliata, Celtris australis, Cedrus deodara and Pinus roxburghii was selected as substrate for biodegradation study due to its easy availability and wide use in industry. It was subjected to alkali (sodium hydroxide) treatment for enhancing its degradation. Biodegradation of forest waste by hydrolytic enzymes (cellulase and xylanase) secreted by A. niger under solid state fermentation (SSF) was explored. SSF of pretreated forest biomass was found to be superior over untreated forest biomass. Highest extracellular enzyme activity of 2201±23.91 U/g by A. niger was shown in pretreated C. australis wood resulting in 6.72±0.20 percent hydrolysis and 6.99±0.23 biodegradation index (BI). The lowest BI of 1.40±0.08 was observed in untreated saw dust of C. deodara having the least enzyme activity of 238±1.36 U/g of dry matter. Biodegradation of forest biomass under SSF was increased many folds when moistening agent i.e. tap water had been replaced with modified basal salt media (BSM). In BSM mediated degradation of forest waste with A. niger, extracellular enzyme activity was increased up to 4089±67.11 U/g of dry matter in turn resulting in higher BI of 15.4±0.41 and percent hydrolysis of 19.38±0.81 in pretreated C. australis wood. A. niger exhibited higher enzyme activity on pretreated biomass when moistened with modified BSM in this study. Statistically a positive correlation has been drawn between these three factors i.e. enzyme activity, BI and percent hydrolysis of forest biomass thus proving their direct relationship with each other.


Subject(s)
Arid Zone , Aspergillus niger/enzymology , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Biomass , Cellulases/analysis , Cellulases/isolation & purification , Xylans/analysis , Xylans/isolation & purification , Biodegradation, Environmental , Enzyme Activation , Hydrolysis , Methods , Soil
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