Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 950
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242830, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278540

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.


Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Herbicides/toxicity , Aspergillus , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Organophosphonates , Fungi , Glycine/analogs & derivatives
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243332, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345537

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was aimed to manifest the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Salix alba L. against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and three fungal isolates from the air such as Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Two different serotypes of S. aureus and E. coli were used. The agar well-diffusion method results showed the dose-dependent response of plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains while some organisms were found resistant e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus and R. stolonifer. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded at 17.000±1.732 mm from 100 mg/mL of leaves methanolic extracts against S. pyogenes while the activity of most of the pathogens decreased after 24 h of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was reported at 11.833±1.0 mm against A. ornatus at 50 mg/mL after 48 h of the incubation period. These experimental findings endorse the use of S. alba in ethnopharmacological formulations and suggest the use of methanolic extracts of the said plant to develop drugs to control the proliferation of resistant disease causing pathogenic microbes.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo manifestar a atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos metanólicos de Salix alba L. contra sete patógenos bacterianos Gram-positivos e Gram-negativos. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) e Neisseria gonorrhoeae e três isolados de fungos do ar, como Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, e Rhizopus stolonifer. Dois sorotipos diferentes de S. aureus e E. coli foram usados. Os resultados do método de difusão em ágar mostraram a resposta dependente da dose de extratos de plantas contra cepas de bactérias e fungos, enquanto alguns organismos foram considerados resistentes, e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus e R. stolonifer. A maior atividade antibacteriana foi registrada em 17.000 ± 1.732 de 100 mg/mL de extratos metanólicos de folhas contra S. pyogenes, enquanto a atividade da maioria dos patógenos diminuiu após 24 h de incubação. A maior atividade antifúngica foi relatada em 11,833 ± 1,0 contra A. ornatus a 50 mg/mL após 48 h do período de incubação. Esses achados experimentais endossam o uso de S. alba em formulações etnofarmacológicas e sugerem o uso de extratos metanólicos da referida planta para o desenvolvimento de fármacos que controlem a proliferação de doenças resistentes que causam micróbios patogênicos.


Subject(s)
Salix , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus , Rhizopus , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methanol , Escherichia coli , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1073-1080, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153435

ABSTRACT

Abstract The bats usually inhabit shelters with favorable conditions for fungal proliferation, including pathogenic and opportunistic species. The fungal diversity present on bats is little known and the studies are scarce in Brazil, which only a work has been performed in Cerrado and Pantanal biomes. Therefore, the objective of this study was evaluating the occurrence of filamentous fungi on the rostral region of Molossus molossus in an Atlantic Forest remnant of Brazil. The bats were captured with mist nets installed outside a shelter located in the municipality of Treviso, (28°29'23"S and 49°31'23"W), south region of state Santa Catarina. With a swab sterile moistened in saline solution, samples from the rostral region were obtained from all captured M. molossus individuals. The samples were taken to the laboratory for analysis and isolation in different culture media, followed of identification of fungal through the microculture technique. In total, 15 individuals were captured, which five fungal genus and 19 taxa were identified. Among the taxa registered, Aspergillioides sp.2, (47%), Penicillium sp.1 (33%), Chrysonilia sp. (33%), Cladosporium sp. (27%) were classified as little constant. In terms of abundance, Penicillium sp.1 (34%), Aspergillioides sp.2 (21%) and Aspergillus sp.2 (11%) were the most abundant in the samples. The results showed the occurrence of high diversity fungal in the rostral region of M. molossus in the Atlantic Forest, which is higher than observed in others Brazilian biomes. Some fungal genera found may harbor pathogenic and opportunistic species that need to be identified for preventing potential disease well as for bat conservation projects.


Resumo Os morcegos comumente abrigam-se em locais com condições favoráveis para proliferação fúngica, incluindo espécies patogênicas e oportunistas. A diversidade fúngica presente nos morcegos é pouco conhecida e os estudos são escassos no Brasil, no qual apenas um trabalho tem sido realizado nos biomas do Cerrado e Pantanal. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de fungos filamentosos na região rostral de Molossus molossus em um remanescente da Mata Atlântica no sul do Brasil. Os morcegos foram capturados com redes-de-neblina instaladas na saída de um abrigo localizado no município de Treviso (28°29'23"S e 49°31'23"W), região sul do estado de Santa Catarina. Com um swab esterilizado e umedecido em solução salina, amostras da região rostral foram obtidas de todos os indivíduos de M. molossus capturados. As amostras foram levadas ao laboratório para análise e isolamento em diferentes meios de cultura, seguido de identificação taxonômica fúngica pela técnica de microcultivo. No total, 15 indivíduos foram capturados, nos quais 5 gêneros fúngicos e 19 taxa foram identificados. Dentre os taxa registrados foram classificados como pouco constante Aspergillioides sp.2, (47%), Penicillium sp.1 (33%), Chrysonilia sp. (33%), Cladosporium sp. (27%). Em termos de abundância, Penicillium sp.1 (34%), Aspergillioides sp.2 (21%) e Aspergillus sp.2 (11%) foram os mais abundantes nas amostras. Os resultados mostraram ocorrência de elevada riqueza de fungos na região rostral de M. molossus na Mata Atlântica, riqueza essa que é superior àquela observada para outros biomas brasileiros. Alguns gêneros fúngicos encontrados podem abrigar espécies patogênicas e oportunistas que precisam ser identificadas tanto para prevenir potenciais doenças, assim como, para os projetos de conservação dos morcegos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Chiroptera , Aspergillus , Brazil , Forests , Ecosystem
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1225-1236, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345275

ABSTRACT

As an essential trace element for animals, copper significantly contributes to the growth and health of animals. Compared to inorganic trace elements, organic trace elements are better supplements; notably, they are acquired through microbial transformation. Therefore, we screened for copper-enriched microorganisms from high copper content soil to obtain organic copper. Sodium diethyldithio carbamate trihydrate was applied as a chromogenic agent for determining micro amounts of intracellular copper through spectrophotometry. In total, 50 fungi were isolated after the successful application of the screening platform for copper-rich microbes. Following morphological and molecular biology analyses, the N-2 strain, identified as Aspergillus niger sp. demonstrated showed better copper enrichment potential than others. Notably, the strain tolerance to copper was nearly thrice that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, up to 1600mg/L. The content of the organic bound copper was 22.84mg Cu/g dry cell. Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) response surface method, we optimized the fermentation condition (inoculation amount, 13%; temperature, 28(C; pH, 5.0). Compared to the original strain results under the single factor fermentation condition, we reported an increase by 24.18% under the optimized conditions. Collectively, these findings provide a reference for uncovering new and low-cost organic copper additives.(AU)


Como elemento traço essencial para os animais, o cobre contribui significativamente para o crescimento e saúde dos animais. Comparado aos oligoelementos inorgânicos, os oligoelementos orgânicos são melhores suplementos; notavelmente, eles são adquiridos através de transformação microbiana. Portanto, nós selecionamos microorganismos enriquecidos com cobre de solos com alto teor de cobre para obter cobre orgânico. O carbamato de sódio diethyldithio trihidratado foi aplicado como agente cromogênico para a determinação de micro quantidades de cobre intracelular através da espectrofotometria. No total, 50 fungos foram isolados após a aplicação bem sucedida da plataforma de triagem para micróbios ricos em cobre. Após análises morfológicas e de biologia molecular, a cepa N-2, identificada como Aspergillus niger sp. demonstrou um melhor potencial de enriquecimento de cobre do que outras. Notavelmente, a tolerância da estirpe ao cobre foi quase três vezes maior que a da Saccharomyces cerevisiae, até 1600mg/L. O conteúdo de cobre ligado orgânico era de 22,84mg Cu/g de célula seca. Usando o método de superfície de resposta Central Composite Design (CCD), nós otimizamos a condição de fermentação (quantidade de inoculação, 13%; temperatura, 28C; pH, 5,0). Em comparação com os resultados da deformação original sob a condição de fermentação de fator único, relatamos um aumento de 24,18% sob as condições otimizadas. Coletivamente, estas descobertas fornecem uma referência para descobrir novos aditivos de cobre orgânico de baixo custo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Soil Analysis , Copper , Food Additives , Aspergillus , Soil Microbiology , Soil Treatment , Sus scrofa
6.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(2): 117-126, 20210630. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348662

ABSTRACT

El brote mundial del SARS-CoV-2, descrito a partir del 2019, provocó la pandemia de COVID-19, originando un riesgo para la salud de las personas, una amenaza a la vida y una emergencia de salud pública internacional, que hasta Julio del 2021 no se ha logrado controlar. La coinfección en estos pacientes, por virus, bacterias y hongos, aumenta la dificultad de diagnóstico, tratamiento y pronóstico de la enfermedad. Es importante profundizar los conocimientos sobre el virus SARS-CoV-2 y las coinfecciones que podrían presentarse, en particular, en pacientes con COVID-19 que presentan micosis. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es, determinar la importancia de las micosis, como enfermedad oportunista, en pacientes con COVID-19. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sistemática, en la base de datos "PubMed-NCBI". Se utilizaron las palabras claves: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19 and coinfection", "Mycosis", "Aspergillus spp.", "Candida spp.", "COVID-19 and Aspergillus spp.", "COVID-19 and Candida spp.". Del análisis de la bibliografía, se concluye la importancia de las micosis respiratorias, originadas por diversos hongos en pacientes con COVID-19. Hay poca información del manejo de estas, siendo necesario fortalecer la investigación de la coinfección, para así, mejorar los flujogramas de sospecha clínica, contribuyendo a diagnósticos, tratamientos precisos y fomentar la prevención frente a esta pandemia.


The global outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, described as of 2019 whose expansion caused the COVID-19 pandemic, has created a risk to people's health, presenting itself as a threat to life and an international public health emergency, which to the date cannot be controlled. Coinfection in these patients, by viruses, bacteria and fungi, increases the difficulty of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the disease. It's important to deepen the knowledge about the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the co-infections that could occur, in particular, in patients with COVID-19 who present with mycosis. The objective of this bibliographic review is to determine the importance of mycosis, as an opportunistic disease, in patients affected by SARS-CoV-2. A systematic bibliographic review was carried out in the "PubMed-NCBI" database, using the keywords and / or headings: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19 and coinfection" ,"Mycosis", "Aspergillus spp.", "Candida spp." COVID-19 and Aspergillus spp.", "COVID-19 and Candida spp.". From the analysis of the literature, one can conclude the importance of respiratory mycoses, caused by various fungal pathogens in patients with COVID-19. The disease was described in 2019 and there is few a information on cases and their management, making it necessary to strengthen the investigation of coinfection in these patients, in order to improve the flow charts of clinical suspicion, contributing to diagnoses, accurate treatments and promoting prevention against to this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus , Candida , Coinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , Immune Tolerance
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10462, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153510

ABSTRACT

Infections caused by uncommon and resistant pathogens in unusual sites have been increasingly reported in medical literature. We describe four cases of rare cytological findings and clinical impact for patients. In the first case, Aspergillus sp and Pneumocystis jirovecii were observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage of a patient with severe systemic lupus. In the second and third cases, we describe the presence of Trichomonas sp and Strongyloides sp larvae in samples of pleural and peritoneal fluid, respectively. The fourth report is about a patient with a wrist subcutaneous nodule whose synovial aspiration and cytology revealed the presence of brown septate hyphae. The early identification of the infectious agent in the cytological examination was essential for the introduction and/or re-adaptation of therapy in the four cases described. Patients in this report were immunocompromised with severe comorbidities, conditions often associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Cytodiagnosis/methods , Pleural Effusion/parasitology , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis , Trichomonas/isolation & purification , Trichomonas Infections/diagnosis , Ascitic Fluid/parasitology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Fatal Outcome , Pneumocystis carinii/isolation & purification
8.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(2): e435, abr.-jun. 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138997

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las aspergilosis comprenden un amplio y heterogéneo grupo de enfermedades oportunistas causadas por hongos del género Aspergillus, considerados como una causa inusual de infección. Es la causa más frecuente de muerte por neumonía infecciosa e infección diseminada o respiratoria oportunista, en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Objetivos: Describir las características clínicas de un caso inusual de aspergilosis pulmonar. Caso clínico: Paciente de 56 años de edad con antecedentes personales de hepatopatía alcohólica, ingresado por episodios de expectoración con sangre y tos seca. Se realizaron estudios de laboratorio, imagenológicos y anatomopatológicos que condujeron al diagnóstico de micetoma por Aspergillus fumigatus, lo cual posibilitó indicar el tratamiento adecuado y realizar el seguimiento clínico. Conclusiones: La infección por Aspergillus fumigatus debe ser considerada por el médico de cabecera, debido a que su reporte constituye una herramienta para que pueda establecer una terapéutica temprana y adecuada, dada sus implicaciones pronósticas, su morbilidad y mortalidad en pacientes inmunodeprimidos(AU)


Introduction: Aspergillosis comprises a wide and heterogeneous group of opportunistic diseases caused by fungi of the Aspergillus genus, considered as an unusual cause of infection. It is the most frequent cause of death from infectious pneumonia and disseminated or opportunistic respiratory infection in immunocompromised patients. Objectives: Describe the clinical characteristics of an unusual case of pulmonary aspergillosis. Case report: 56-year-old patient with a personal history of alcoholic liver disease, admitted due to episodes of expectoration with blood and dry cough. Laboratory, imaging, and pathological studies were conducted that led to the diagnosis of mytoma by Aspergillus fumigatus, which made it possible to indicate the appropriate treatment and perform clinical follow-up. Conclusions: Aspergillus fumigatus infection should be considered by the attending physician, because his report constitutes a tool for him to establish an early and adequate therapy, given its prognostic implications and for its morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pneumonia , Aspergillus , Immunocompromised Host , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Mycetoma
9.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 41-46, Mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087698

ABSTRACT

Background: The main objective of this study was to isolate fungi associated with Anthopleura xanthogrammica and measure their antimicrobial and enzymatic activities. A total of 93 fungal strains associated with A. xanthogrammica were isolated in this study, of which 32 isolates were identified using both morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. The antibacterial activities of 32 fungal isolates were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Edwardsiella tarda, Vibrio harveyi, Fusarium oxysporum, and Pyricularia oryzae by agar diffusion assay. Extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activities of the fungal isolates were determined by agar diffusion assays. Enzyme activities were detected from clear halo size. Results: The isolated fungi belonged to 18 genera within 7 taxonomic orders of 1 phylum. The genera Aspergillaceae were the most diverse and common. The antimicrobial activities of 32 isolates were evaluated, and 19 (59.4%) of fungi isolate displayed unique antimicrobial activities. All fungal strains displayed at least one enzyme activity. The most common enzyme activities in the fungi isolates were amylase and protease, while the least common were pectinase and xylanase. Conclusions: This is first report on the sea anemone-derived fungi with antimicrobial and enzyme activities. Results indicated that sea anemone is a hot spot of fungal diversity and a rich resource of bioactive natural products.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Sea Anemones/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Phylogeny , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Aspergillus/enzymology , Aspergillus/genetics , Bacteria/drug effects , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Biodiversity , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/genetics , Amylases/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
10.
Article in English | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145981

ABSTRACT

La búsqueda de fuentes naturales para controlar los microorganismos es de interés en la producción de alimentos. Este estudio evaluó la composición química y la actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial de las hojas de Psidium cattleianum. El aceite esencial se extrajo por hidrodestilación y se identificó por GC-MS. La clase predominante de compuestos fueron los sesquiterpenos (47,6%) y los principales fueron trans-ß-cariofileno (14,7%), 1,8-cineol (11,7%) y É£-muuroleno (5,6%). Actividad antimicrobiana se realizó mediante la técnica de microdilución contra ocho hongos y ocho bacterias. Concentración inhibitoria mínima varió de 0,17 a 11,25 mg mL-1 para hongos y de 1,40 a 16,87 mg mL-1 para bacterias. Principales actividades fueron contra hongos Aspergillus fumigatus (ATCC 1022), Aspergillus ochraceus (ATCC 12066), Aspergillus versicolor (ATCC 11730) y Trichoderma viride (IAM 5061), y bacterias Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Bacillus cereus (clinical isolate) y Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) con potencial para prevenir enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos.


The search for natural sources to control microorganisms is of interest in food production. This study evaluated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Psidium cattleianum leaves. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, and identified by GC-MS. The predominant class of compounds was sesquiterpenes (47.6%) and the major compounds were trans-ß-caryophyllene (14.7%), 1,8-cineole (11.7%) and É£-muurolene (5.6%). The antimicrobial activity was carried out by microdillution technique against eight fungi and eight bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged from 0.17 to 11.25 mg mL-1 for fungi, and from 1.40 to 16.87 mg mL-1 for bacteria. The highest activities were against fungi Aspergillus fumigatus (ATCC 1022), Aspergillus ochraceus (ATCC 12066), Aspergillus versicolor (ATCC 11730), and Trichoderma viride (IAM 5061), and bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Bacillus cereus (clinical isolate), and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) with potential to prevent foodborne diseases.


Subject(s)
Psidium/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents , Aspergillus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Trichoderma , Aspergillus ochraceus , Plant Extracts
11.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190127, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132169

ABSTRACT

Abstract Bioprocess studies have been highlighted due to the importance of physiological processes and industrial applications of enzymes. The potential of peptidase production from Aspergillus section Flavi using different amino acids as a supplemental nitrogen source was investigated. A production profile revealed that amino acids had positive effects on peptidase production when compared to the control without amino acids. Optimal production (100 U/mL) was obtained with Arginine amino acid in 96 h of fermentation. Extracellular peptidase from Aspergillus section Flavi was identified in submerged bioprocesses by in situ activity. Biochemical studies revealed that the maximum activities of the enzyme extract were obtained at pH 6.5 and a temperature of 55°C. The inhibition by EDTA and PMSF suggests the presence of more than one peptidase while the Ni2+ and Cu2+ had a negative influence on the enzyme activity. When the crude extract was reversibly immobilized on ionic supports, DEAE-Agarose and MANAE-Agarose the derivative showed different profiles of thermal and pH stabilities. Hence, this study revealed the basic properties and biochemical characteristics that allowed the production improvement of this class of enzyme. Moreover, with known properties stabilization and immobilization process is required to further explore its biotechnological capacities.


Subject(s)
Peptide Hydrolases/biosynthesis , Aspergillus/enzymology , Amino Acids/administration & dosage , Arginine , Sepharose , Enzyme Inhibitors
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190024, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132186

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pigments produced by submerged fermentation of three filamentous fungi isolated from Brazilian caves, namely Aspergillus keveii, Penicillium flavigenum, and Epicoccum nigrum, were submitted to spray drying in presence of the adjuvants maltodextrin, modified starch or gum arabic. Yellow fine powders with low moisture content and water activity, and high color retention (> 70%) were successfully generated with a high product recovery ratio (> 50%), independently of the adjuvant used. The dried products have enhanced stability and potential to might be used as a natural colorant in food and pharmaceutical applications.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pigments, Biological/biosynthesis , Starch/biosynthesis , Fungi/metabolism , Gum Arabic , Maltose/biosynthesis , Aspergillus , Brazil , Caves/microbiology , Fungi/classification , Maltose/analogs & derivatives , Models, Theoretical
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200401, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136888

ABSTRACT

Abstract We present postmortem evidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in a patient with severe COVID-19. Autopsies of COVID-19 confirmed cases were performed. The patient died despite antimicrobials, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor support. Histopathology and peripheral blood galactomannan antigen testing confirmed IPA. Aspergillus penicillioides infection was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing and BLAST analysis. Further reports are needed to assess the occurrence and frequency of IPA in SARS-CoV-2 infections, and how they interact clinically.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/pathology , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aspergillus/genetics , Autopsy , Fatal Outcome , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pandemics , Lung/microbiology
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 555-563, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complicated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) has increased in the last two decades. The mechanism underpinning susceptibility to and high mortality of COPD complicated with IPA is unclear, and the role of T helper cells 17 (Th17 cells) in the compound disease remains unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the function of Th17 cells in COPD combined with IPA.@*METHODS@#COPD, IPA, and COPD+IPA mouse models were established in male wild type C57/BL6 mice. The amounts of Th17 cells and retinoic acid-related orphan receptors γt (RORγt) were tested by flow cytometry. Then, serum interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the control, COPD, IPA and COPD+IPA groups. In addition, COPD+IPA was induced in IL-17 knockout (KO) mice, for determining the role of Th17 cells in COPD+IPA.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the COPD group, the COPD+IPA group showed higher amounts of blood RORγt ([35.09 ± 16.12]% vs. [17.92 ± 4.91]%, P = 0.02) and serum IL-17 (17.96 ± 9.59 pg/mL vs. 8.05 ± 4.44 pg/mL, P = 0.02), but blood ([5.18 ± 1.09]% vs. [4.15 ± 0.87]%, P = 0.28) and lung levels of Th17 cells ([1.98 ± 0.83]% vs. [2.03 ± 0.98]%, P = 0.91), lung levels of RORγt ([9.58 ± 6.93]% vs. [9.63 ± 5.98]%, P = 0.49) and serum IL-23 (51.55 ± 27.82 pg/mL vs. 68.70 ± 15.20 pg/mL, P = 0.15) showed no significant differences. Compared with the IPA group, the COPD+IPA group displayed lower amounts of blood ([5.18 ± 1.09]% vs. [9.21 ± 3.56]%, P = 0.01) and lung Th17 cells ([1.98 ± 0.83]% vs. [6.29 ± 1.11]%, P = 0.01) and serum IL-23 (51.55 ± 27.82 pg/mL vs. 154.90 ± 64.60 pg/mL, P = 0.01) and IL-17 (17.96 ± 9.59 pg/mL vs. 39.81 ± 22.37 pg/mL, P = 0.02), while comparable blood ([35.09 ± 16.12]% vs. [29.86 ± 15.42]%, P = 0.25) and lung levels of RORγt ([9.58 ± 6.93]% vs. [15.10 ± 2.95]%, P = 0.18) were found in these two groups. Finally, Aspergillus load in IL-17 KO COPD+IPA mice was almost 2 times that of COPD+IPA mice (1,851,687.69 ± 944,480.43 vs. 892,958.10 ± 686,808.80, t = 2.32, P = 0.02).@*CONCLUSION@#These findings indicate that Th17 cells might be involved in the pathogenesis of COPD combined with IPA, with IL-17 likely playing an antifungal role.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aspergillus , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Lung , Male , Mice , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Th17 Cells
15.
Infectio ; 23(3): 213-214, July-Sept. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1002152

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance is a major public health problem and a principal threat to contemporary medicine. A fundamental principle of controlling antimicrobial resistance are antimicrobial drug stewardship programs, which seeks to preserve the future effectiveness of antimicrobials and improve patient outcome; thus, the selection of the optimal antimicrobial drug regimen, dose, route of administration, and duration of therapy are key to limit inappropriate antimicrobial usage and avoiding unnecessary prescribing, including discontinuing antibiotic therapy if it is not required. However, within the context of stewardship programs, insufficient attention has been given to fungal infections. Furthermore, the importance of the accurate and timely diagnosis of fungal infections in overwhelming antimicrobial resistance has been absent from policy discussions. On the other hand, all serious fungal infections need appropriate antifungal therapy for successful patient outcome. Only a few classes of antifungal drugs are available, so the emergence of resistance to single drug classes and now multidrug resistance threatens the appropriate patient management. Azole resistance among Candida and Aspergillus species is one of the greatest challenges to clinical success, followed by echinocandin and multidrug resistance among some Candida species, especially Candida glabrata. Recently, Candida auris, a cryptic species uncommon in most hospitals around the world, including Colombia, has appeared as an emerging species and a global threat capable of developing resistance to multiple antifungals and with great potential for nosocomial transmission.


La resistencia a los antimicrobianos es un importante problema de salud pública y una de las principales amenazas para la medicina contemporánea. Un principio fundamental del control de la resistencia a los antimicrobianos son los programas de administración de medicamentos antimicrobianos, que buscan preservar la eficacia futura de los antimicrobianos y mejorar el resultado de los pacientes; por lo tanto, la selección del régimen óptimo de medicamentos antimicrobianos, la dosis, la vía de administración y la duración de la terapia son clave para limitar el uso inapropiado de antimicrobianos y evitar la prescripción innecesaria, incluyendo la interrupción de la terapia antibiótica si no es necesaria. Sin embargo, en el contexto de los programas de administración, no se ha prestado suficiente atención a las infecciones fúngicas. Además, la importancia del diagnóstico preciso y oportuno de las infecciones fúngicas en la abrumadora resistencia a los antimicrobianos ha estado ausente de los debates políticos. Por otra parte, todas las infecciones fúngicas graves necesitan un tratamiento antifúngico adecuado para que el paciente tenga éxito. Sólo se dispone de unas pocas clases de fármacos antifúngicos, por lo que la aparición de la resistencia a clases de fármacos individuales y ahora la resistencia a múltiples fármacos amenaza el tratamiento adecuado de los pacientes. La resistencia a los azoles entre las especies de Candida y Aspergillus es uno de los mayores retos para el éxito clínico, seguido de la resistencia a las equinocandinas y a los múltiples fármacos entre algunas especies de Candida, especialmente Candida glabrata. Recientemente, Candida auris, una especie críptica poco común en la mayoría de los hospitales del mundo, incluyendo Colombia, ha aparecido como una especie emergente y una amenaza global capaz de desarrollar resistencia a múltiples antifúngicos y con gran potencial de transmisión nosocomial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics , Candida , Antifungal Agents , Aspergillus , Effectiveness , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Echinocandins
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 169-173, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989440

ABSTRACT

Abstract Even today, an effective diagnostic test for aspergillosis in penguins is unknown, being the gold standard post-mortem examinations. The fungal antigen galactomannan (GM) has been used as a biomarker of disease in humans and is detected by the Platelia Aspergillus EIA (BioRad)®, a commercial kit based on the sandwich ELISA technique. It is standardized for use in neutropenic patients, however studies have demonstrated its usefulness also possible for birds. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Platelia Aspergillus EIA® test (BioRad-US) in the diagnosis of aspergillosis in Magellanic penguins, determining sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for different cut-off points. Were included in the study, blood serum samples (n = 29) Magellanic penguins in captivity that died by aspergillosis. Detection of GM was performed following manufacturer's instructions and the GM index was obtained by dividing the average value of OD of the duplicate of the clinical sample by duplicate OD of the average value of the cut-off sample provided by the kit. Through information database results were obtained for the presence of anti-Aspergillus fumigatus antibodies detected by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) for all serum samples. Results were analyzed using chi-square test and Kruskal-Wallis from SPSS 20.0, IBM®. ROC curve was obtained and from this, rates of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were also calculated based on four different cutoff points (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0). The serum GM index did not differ between animals of the case and control group (pkw =0.097). In determining the ROC curve for serum GM detection the value of area under the curve was 0.635. From the values ​​determined by the coordinate of the curve, four different cut points (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) were analyzed, resulting in sensitivity rates ranging from 86.2 to 34.5% % and specificity between 87% and 26.1%. By comparing the serum GM index in group case as the presence or absence of antibodies detected by AGID was found p=0.503. The detection of GM the Platelia Aspergillus EIA® test seems is not be useful for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in naturally infected penguins.


Resumo Ainda hoje, um teste diagnóstico eficaz para aspergilose em pinguins não é conhecido, sendo o padrão-ouro os exames post-mortem. O antígeno fúngico galactomanana (GM) tem sido utilizado como biomarcador da doença em humanos, sendo detectado pelo Platelia Aspergillus EIA (BioRad)®, um kit comercial que se baseia na técnica ELISA sanduíche. É padronizado para utilização em pacientes neutropênicos, no entanto estudos tem demonstrado sua possível utilidade também para aves.O objetivo de nosso estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do teste Platelia Aspergillus EIA® (BioRad-US) no diagnóstico da aspergilose em pinguins-de-Magalhães, determinando sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos positivos e negativos em diferentes pontos de corte. Foram incluídas no estudo, amostras de soro sanguíneo (n=29) de pinguins-de-Magalhães em cativeiro que vieram a óbito por aspergilose. A detecção de GM foi realizada seguindo instruções do fabricante e o índice de GM foi obtido dividindo o valor da média da DO da duplicata da amostra clínica pelo valor da média da DO da duplicata da amostra de cut-off fornecida pelo kit. Através de informações em banco de dados foram obtidos resultados sobre a presença de anticorpos anti-Aspergillus fumigatus, detectada por Imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA) em todas as amostras séricas. Os resultados foram analisados utilizando-se teste de qui-quadrado e Kruskal-Wallis a partir do programa estatístico SPSS 20.0, IBM®. Curva ROC foi obtida e a partir desta, taxas de sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivo positivo e negativo foram igualmente calculados considerando quatro diferentes pontos de corte (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 e 2.0). O índice de GM sérica não diferiu entre os animais do grupo caso e controle (pKW = 0.097). Na determinação da curva ROC para detecção de GM sérica o valor da área sobre a curva foi de 0.635. A partir dos valores determinados pelas coordenadas da curva, quatro diferentes pontos de corte (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 e 2.0) foram analisados, resultando em taxas de sensibilidade variando de 86.2% a 34.5%, e de especificidade entre 87% e 26.1%. Ao comparar o índice de GM sérica nos animais do grupo caso quanto a presença ou não de anticorpos detectados pela IDGA foi encontrado p=0.503. A detecção de GM pelo teste Platelia Aspergillus EIA® não parece ser útil para o diagnóstico da aspergilose em pinguins naturalmente infectados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/veterinary , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Spheniscidae/microbiology , Biomarkers/analysis , Mannans/analysis
18.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(1): 66-70, mar. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041816

ABSTRACT

Los ambientes internos son un hábitat protector importante, donde el hombre reside o trabaja la mayor parte de su tiempo. Muchos de estos ambientes carecen de buena ventilación, lo que influye en la composición de sus comunidades microbianas y, en especial, de la fúngica. El objetivo de este estudio es comunicar la presencia de Aspergillus de la sección Candidi en ambientes internos de la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile, y destacar su rol ecológico y su importancia en micología médica. Se efectuó la clasificación morfofisiológica y molecular de dichos aislamientos. Se realizó un muestreo no volumétrico ambiental en agar papa glucosado (PDA) mediante la exposición de 2 placas en 10 diferentes ambientes internos para seleccionar las especies de Aspergillus. Se efectuaron subcultivos en agar Czapek con extracto de levadura (CYA), agar extracto de malta (MEA) y agar creatina sacarosa (CREA) solo para las especies de esporas blancas, para su identificación morfofisiológica y posteriormente molecular. De 20 muestras analizadas, en solo una se aisló un miembro de Aspergillus perteneciente a la sección Candidi. Sobre la base de sus características morfológicas y moleculares, se clasificó a este aislamiento como Aspergillus tritici Mehrotra & Basu. Se describe su ecología y se discute su importancia médica.


Indoor environments provide important protective habitats for humans, who live or work in them most of the time. Many of these environments lack ventilation, which affects the composition of microbial communities, especially that of the fungal community. The aim of this study is to report the isolation of Aspergillus section Candidi from indoor environments of the School of Medicine at Universidad de Valparaiso, Chile, and identification through morpho-physiological and molecular approaches. Their ecological and clinical features were highlighted. An environmental non-volumetric sampling was performed on PDA medium; 2 petri dishes were exposed in 10 different places to select the Aspergillus samples. Subcultures were performed on agar Czapek with yeast extract (CYA), malt extract agar (MEA) and creatin sacarose agar (CREA) media only for the morpho-physiological and later the molecular identification of white spore species. Of the 20 samples analyzed, one Aspergillus belonging to Candidi section was isolated. Based on its morphology and molecular features, it was classified as Aspergillus tritici Mehrotra & Basu. Its ecology and medical relevance are reviewed and discussed.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Environmental Monitoring , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Ecosystem , Environment
19.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(1): 2-5, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973875

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine whether a correlation exists between pathogenic species and clinical findings, disease severity, and visual outcome in patients with keratitis and fungal growth in microbiological culture. Methods: A retrospective study of patients with fungal growth in the microbiological culture of corneal scrapings. Patients were treated at an ophthalmologic reference center in Southeastern Brazil from January 1992 to October 2015. Results: Medical records of 181 patients (131 males and 50 females) with a mean age of 47 ± 18 years were analyzed. The three most common etiologies were Fusarium sp. (38.7%), Aspergillus sp. (15%), and Candida sp. (13.2%). Among these, Fusarium sp. was the most frequent in patients aged £50 years (p=0.002) and in those with a recent history of a foreign body and/or ocular trauma (p=0.01). Candida sp. was the most frequent etiology in patients aged >50 years (p=0.002), in those with postoperative ocular surgery (p=0.002); in those with a previous ocular pathology (p=0.0007); and in immunodepressed patients (p=0.0004). Conclusion: Fusarium sp. was predominant in patients aged £50 years and those with a recent history of foreign body and/or ocular trauma, whereas Candida sp. was predominant in older adults, in those with a postoperative ocular surgery, in those with a previous ocular pathology, and in immunodepressed patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar se existe uma correlação entre espécies patogênicas e achados clínicos, gravidade da doença e resultado visual em pacientes com ceratite e crescimento de fungos em cultura microbiológica. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de pacientes com crescimento de fungos na cultura microbiológica de raspado de córnea. Os pacientes foram tratados em um centro de referência oftalmológica no Sudeste do Brasil de janeiro de 1992 a outubro de 2015. Resultados: Foram analisados registros médicos de 181 pacientes (131 homens e 50 mulheres) com idade média de 47 ± 18 anos. As três etiologias mais comuns foram Fusarium sp. (38,7%), Aspergillus sp. (15%) e Candida sp. (13,2%). Entre estas, Fusarium sp. foi a mais frequente em pacientes com idade £50 anos (p=0,002) e naqueles com história recente de corpo estranho e/ou trauma ocular (p=0,01). Candida sp. foi a etiologia mais frequente em pacientes com idade >50 anos (p=0,002), naqueles com cirurgia ocular pós-operatória (p=0,002); naqueles com patologia ocular prévia (p=0,0007); e em pacientes imunodeprimidos (p=0,0004). Conclusão: Fusarium sp. foi predominante em pacientes com idade £50 anos e naqueles com história recente de corpo estranho e/ou trauma ocular; enquanto Candida sp. foi predominante em adultos mais velhos, naqueles com cirurgia ocular pós-operatória, naqueles com patologia ocular prévia e em pacientes imunodeprimidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/pathology , Corneal Ulcer/microbiology , Corneal Ulcer/pathology , Aspergillus/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Candida/pathogenicity , Visual Acuity , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Corneal Ulcer/drug therapy , Eye Foreign Bodies/microbiology , Eye Foreign Bodies/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Corneal Injuries/microbiology , Corneal Injuries/pathology , Fusarium/pathogenicity , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 204-210, jan.-fev. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-989355

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus e A. niger são os mais importantes agentes etiológicos da aspergilose, relevante micose aviária, com tratamento ineficaz e altas taxas de mortalidade. Em vista da importância da aspergilose, da necessidade de prospectar novos fármacos e do potencial terapêutico do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare L. (OEO), o orégano, objetivou-se avaliar a sensibilidade in vitro de isolados clínicos de Aspergillus spp. em relação ao OEO. O óleo foi obtido por hidrodestilação em Clevenger, e a análise química realizada por cromatografia de massa (GC/MS). Observaram-se 15 diferentes compostos ativos, sendo 4-terpineol, hidrato de sabinene e timol os majoritários. Nos testes de microdiluição em caldo (Reference..., 2008), todos os isolados (n= 23) foram sensíveis ao OEO: A. fumigatus teve CIM entre 28,125mg/mL (0,1875%) e 450mg/mL (3,0%), A. flavus entre 112,5mg/mL (0,75%) e 450mg/mL, e A. niger 112,5mg/mL. CFM variou de 112,5mg/mL a 450mg/mL nos isolados de A. fumigatus, de 225mg/mL (1,5%) a 450mg/mL em A. flavus, e foi de 450mg/mL em A. niger. CIM e CFM foram idênticos em 6/14 isolados, o que demonstra que o óleo com a mesma concentração pode ter capacidade fungistática e fungicida. CIM 90 correspondeu à CIM máxima. Os resultados demonstram a atividade anti-Aspergillus do OEO, com CIM 90 de 450mg/mL (3%).(AU)


Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus and A. niger are the most important etiological agents of aspergillosis, a relevant avian mycosis, with innefective treatment and high mortality rates. Due the importance of aspergillosis, the necessity of prospection of new drugs and the therapeutic potential of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare L. (OEO), popularly known as oregano, aims to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of Aspergillus spp. opposing to OEO. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation in Clevenger, and the chemical analysis performed by mass chromatography (GC/MS). 15 different active compounds were observed, being 4-terpineol (18.4%), sabinene hydrate (15.6%) and thymol (13.6%), the majority components. In the in vitro susceptibility test, all strains showed sensitivity to OEO, MIC of Aspergillus fumigatus ranged from 28,125mg/mL (0,1875%) to 450mg/mL (3,0%), A. flavus 112,5mg/mL (0,75%) to 450mg/mL, and A. niger 112,5mg/mL. MFC ranged from 112,5mg/mL to 450mg/mL in the A. fumigatus isolates, 225mg/mL (1,5%) to 450mg/mL in A. flavus, and 450mg/mL for A. niger. The MIC and FMC values were identical in 6/14 of the isolated subjects, demonstrating that the oil with the same concentration can have fungistatic and fungicidal capacity. The results demonstrates anti-Aspergillus activities of OEO with CIM90 de 450mg/mL (3%).(AU)


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/enzymology , Oils, Volatile/chemical synthesis , Origanum/analysis , Noxae
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL