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Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 407-413, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889247


Abstract Fungal infections have become a concern for health professionals, and the emergence of resistant strains has been reported for all known classes of antifungal drugs. Among the fungi causing disease, we highlight those that belong to the genus Aspergillus. For these reasons, the search for new antifungals is important. This study examines the effects of a coumarin derivative, 4-acetatecoumarin (Cou-UMB16) both alone and together with antifungal drugs, and its mode of action against Aspergillus spp. Cou-UMB16 was tested to evaluate its effects on mycelia growth, and germination of Aspergillus spp. fungal conidia. We investigated its possible action on cell walls, on the cell membrane, and also the capacity of this coumarin derivative to enhance the activity of antifungal drugs. Our results suggest that Cou-UMB16 inhibits Aspergillus spp. virulence factors (mycelia growth and germination of conidia) and affects the structure of the fungal cell wall. When applying Cou-UMB16 in combination with azoles, both synergistic and additive effects were observed. This study concludes that Cou-UMB16 inhibits mycelial growth and spore germination, and that the activity is due to its action on the fungal cell wall, and that Cou-UMB16 could act as an antifungal modifier.

Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/drug effects , Coumarins/isolation & purification , Coumarins/pharmacology , Drug Synergism , Aspergillus/growth & development , Azoles/pharmacology , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Wall/drug effects , Hyphae/drug effects , Hyphae/growth & development , Spores, Fungal/drug effects , Spores, Fungal/growth & development
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 229-235, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974342


ABSTRACT Gallesia integrifolia (Phytolaccaceae) is native to Brazil and has a strong alliaceous odor. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical composition of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and evaluate fungicidal activity against the main food-borne diseases and food spoilage fungi. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and identified by GC-MS. From 35 identified compounds, 68% belonged to the organosulfur class. The major compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (15.49%), 2,8-dithianonane (52.63%) and lenthionine (14.69%). The utilized fungi were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium ochrochloron, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, and Trichoderma viride. Minimal fungicidal concentration for the essential oil varied from 0.02 to 0.18 mg/mL and bifonazole and ketoconazole controls ranged from 0.20 to 3.50 mg/mL. The lower concentration of the essential oil was able to control P. ochrochloron, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus and T. viride. This study shows a high fungicidal activity of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and can support future applications by reducing the use of synthetic fungicides.

Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Penicillium/growth & development , Penicillium/drug effects , Aspergillus/growth & development , Aspergillus/drug effects , Plant Oils/chemistry , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fruit/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 80-85, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842812


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an important complication in immunocompromised individuals, particularly neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies. In this study, we aimed to verify the epidemiology and diagnosis of IFIs in patients with hematologic problems at a tertiary hospital in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. METHODS: Data from 117 patients, involving 19 cases of IFIs, were collected. The collected data included diagnosis methods, demographics, clinical characteristics, and in vitro susceptibility to different antifungal agents. Among the 19 cases, 12 were classified as proven IFI and 7 as probable invasive aspergillosis with detection of galactomannan in blood and presence of lung infiltrates in radiographic images. Logistic regression analysis showed that the proven and probable IFIs were associated with increased risk of death. Statistical analysis demonstrated that age, sex, and underlying disease were not independently associated with risk of death in IFI patients. RESULTS: Most bloodstream isolates of Candida spp. exhibited low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to all antifungal agents tested. Voriconazole and amphotericin had the lowest MICs for Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp., but Fusarium spp. showed the least susceptibility to all antifungals tested. Amphotericin B, fluconazole, and itraconazole were found to be inactive in vitro against Acremonium kiliense; but this fungus was sensitive to voriconazole. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high number of IFI cases, with crude mortality rate of 6%, we could conclude that IFIs remain a common infection in patients with hematological malignancies and underdiagnosed ante mortem. Thus, IFIs should be monitored closely.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Invasive Fungal Infections/microbiology , Hematologic Diseases/microbiology , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus/drug effects , Acremonium/isolation & purification , Acremonium/drug effects , Candida/isolation & purification , Candida/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Sensitivity and Specificity , Immunocompromised Host , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Fusarium/drug effects , Mannans/blood , Middle Aged , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
Oman Medical Journal. 2017; 32 (1): 41-46
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-185724


Objectives: Aloe barbadensis miller or Aloe vera has been used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times with antifungal activity known to be amongst its medicinal properties. We conducted a pilot study to determine the antifungal properties of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf extract on otomycosis species including Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans

Methods: This laboratory-controlled prospective study was conducted at the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Extracts of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf was prepared in ethanol and solutions via the Soxhlet extraction method. Sabouraud dextrose agar cultured with the two fungal isolates were inoculated with the five different concentrations of each extract [50 g/mL, 25 g/mL, 12.5 g/mL, 6.25 g/mL, and 3.125 g/mL] using the well-diffusion method. Zone of inhibition was measured followed by minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]

Results: For A. niger, a zone of inhibition for alcohol and aqueous extract was seen for all concentrations except 3.125 g/mL. There was no zone of inhibition for both alcohol and aqueous extracts of Aloe vera leaf for C. albicans. The MIC values of aqueous and alcohol extracts were 5.1 g/mL and 4.4 g/mL for A. niger and since no zone of inhibition was obtained for C. albicans the MIC was not determined

Conclusions: The antifungal effect of alcohol extracts of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf is better than the aqueous extract for A. niger [p < 0.001]. Malaysian Aloe vera has a significant antifungal effect towards A. niger

Aloe , Plant Leaves , Phytotherapy , Candida albicans/drug effects , Aspergillus/drug effects , Antifungal Agents , In Vitro Techniques
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1269-1277, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769645


Abstract A thermohalophilic fungus, Aspergillus terreus AUMC 10138, isolated from the Wadi El-Natrun soda lakes in northern Egypt was exposed successively to gamma and UV-radiation (physical mutagens) and ethyl methan-sulfonate (EMS; chemical mutagen) to enhance alkaline cellulase production under solid state fermentation (SSF) conditions. The effects of different carbon sources, initial moisture, incubation temperature, initial pH, incubation period, inoculum levels and different concentrations of NaCl on production of alkaline filter paper activity (FPase), carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and β-glucosidase by the wild-type and mutant strains of A. terreus were evaluated under SSF. The optimum conditions for maximum production of FPase, CMCase and β-glucosidase were found to be the corn stover: moisture ratio of 1:3(w/v), temperature 45 °C, pH range, 9.0–11.0, and fermentation for 4, 4 and 7 day, respectively. Inoculum levels of 30% for β-glucosidase and 40% for FPase, CMCase gave the higher cellulase production by the wild-type and mutant strains, respectively. Higher production of all three enzymes was obtained at a 5% NaCl. Under the optimized conditions, the mutant strain A. terreus M-17 produced FPase (729 U/g), CMCase (1,783 U/g), and β-glucosidase (342 U/g), which is, 1.85, 1.97 and 2.31-fold higher than the wild-type strain. Our results confirmed that mutant strain M-17 could be a promising alkaline cellulase enzyme producer employing lignocellulosics especially corn stover.

Aspergillus/enzymology , Aspergillus/metabolism , Cellulases/metabolism , Mutagenesis , Zea mays/metabolism , Aspergillus/drug effects , Aspergillus/radiation effects , Culture Media/chemistry , Egypt , Ethyl Methanesulfonate , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lakes/microbiology , Microbiological Techniques , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Temperature , Ultraviolet Rays
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 937-941, July-Sept. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755825


In this study, we evaluated the effect of low and high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., Phenanthrene, Pyrene and Benzo[a]pyrene, on the radial growth and morphology of the PAH-degrading fungal strains Aspergillus nomius H7 and Trichoderma asperellum H15. The presence of PAHs in solid medium produced significant detrimental effects on the radial growth of A. nomius H7 at 4,000 and 6,000 mg L−1 and changes in mycelium pigmentation, abundance and sporulation ability at 1,000–6,000 mg L−1. In contrast, the radial growth of T. asperellum H15 was not affected at any of the doses tested, although sporulation was observed only up to 4,000 mg L−1 and as with the H7 strain, some visible changes in sporulation patterns and mycelium pigmentation were observed. Our results suggest that fungal strains exposed to high doses of PAHs significantly vary in their growth rates and sporulation characteristics in response to the physiological and defense mechanisms that affect both pigment production and conidiation processes. This finding is relevant for obtaining a better understanding of fungal adaptation in PAH-polluted environments and for developing and implementing adequate strategies for the remediation of contaminated soils.


Aspergillus/growth & development , Benzo(a)pyrene/pharmacology , Mycelium/drug effects , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/pharmacology , Pyrenes/pharmacology , Spores, Fungal/drug effects , Trichoderma/growth & development , Aspergillus/drug effects , Aspergillus/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants , Trichoderma/drug effects , Trichoderma/metabolism
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(supl.19): 57-64, Sept. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762051


SUMMARYDuring recent decades, antifungal susceptibility testing has become standardized and nowadays has the same role of the antibacterial susceptibility testing in microbiology laboratories. American and European standards have been developed, as well as equivalent commercial systems which are more appropriate for clinical laboratories. The detection of resistant strains by means of these systems has allowed the study and understanding of the molecular basis and the mechanisms of resistance of fungal species to antifungal agents. In addition, many studies on the correlation of in vitro results with the outcome of patients have been performed, reaching the conclusion that infections caused by resistant strains have worse outcome than those caused by susceptible fungal isolates. These studies have allowed the development of interpretative breakpoints for Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., the most frequent agents of fungal infections in the world. In summary, antifungal susceptibility tests have become essential tools to guide the treatment of fungal diseases, to know the local and global disease epidemiology, and to identify resistance to antifungals.

RESUMONas últimas décadas, os testes de suscetibilidade a antifúngicos foram padronizados e, atualmente, servem tal como os testes de suscetibilidade a antibacterianos em laboratórios de microbiologia. Métodos de referência norte americanos e europeus foram desenvolvidos, assim como os equivalentes sistemas comerciais, estes últimos mais apropriados a laboratórios clínicos. A detecção de cepas resistentes por meio de tais sistemas permitiu o estudo e a compreensão das bases moleculares dos mecanismos de resistência de espécies fúngicas a fármacos antifúngicos. Além disso, foram realizados muitos estudos sobre a correlação de resultados obtidos in vitro com o desfecho clínico de pacientes permitindo a conclusão de que infecções por cepas resistentes têm pior evolução em relação às causadas por cepas sensíveis. Os estudos permitiram o estabelecimento de pontos de corte interpretativos (interpretative breakpoints development) para Candida spp. e Aspergillus spp., os agentes etiológicos mais frequentes de infecções fúngicas em todo o mundo. Em resumo, os testes de suscetibilidade representam uma ferramenta essencial para a orientação do tratamento de doenças fúngicas, para o conhecimento da epidemiologia local e global, bem como para a identificação de resistência a antifúngicos.

Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/drug effects , Candida/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Aspergillus/classification , Candida/classification , Drug Resistance, Fungal
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76934


BACKGROUND: We investigated the species distribution and amphotericin B (AMB) susceptibility of Korean clinical Aspergillus isolates by using two Etests and the CLSI broth microdilution method. METHODS: A total of 136 Aspergillus isolates obtained from 11 university hospitals were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and beta-tubulin genomic regions. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AMB were determined in Etests using Mueller-Hinton agar (Etest-MH) and RPMI agar (Etest-RPG), and categorical agreement with the CLSI method was assessed by using epidemiological cutoff values. RESULTS: ITS sequencing identified the following six Aspergillus species complexes: Aspergillus fumigatus (42.6% of the isolates), A. niger (23.5%), A. flavus (17.6%), A. terreus (11.0%), A. versicolor (4.4%), and A. ustus (0.7%). Cryptic species identifiable by beta-tubulin sequencing accounted for 25.7% (35/136) of the isolates. Of all 136 isolates, 36 (26.5%) had AMB MICs of > or =2 microg/mL by the CLSI method. The categorical agreement of Etest-RPG with the CLSI method was 98% for the A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. versicolor complexes, 87% for the A. terreus complex, and 37.5% for the A. flavus complex. That of Etest-MH was < or =75% for the A. niger, A. flavus, A. terreus, and A. versicolor complexes but was higher for the A. fumigatus complex (98.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Aspergillus species other than A. fumigatus constitute about 60% of clinical Aspergillus isolates, and reduced AMB susceptibility is common among clinical isolates of Aspergillus in Korea. Molecular identification and AMB susceptibility testing by Etest-RPG may be useful for characterizing Aspergillus isolates of clinical relevance.

Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/drug effects , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , Hospitals , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycoses/diagnosis , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tubulin/genetics
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 313-321, 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709491


Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration) in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 2² full factorial planning (ANOVA) and on a 2³ factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC.

Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Aspergillus/metabolism , Aspergillus/drug effects , Aspergillus/growth & development , Candida albicans/drug effects , Culture Media/chemistry , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Fermentation , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-9, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710935


BACKGROUND: Current study has been designed to evaluate the chemical composition of essential and fixed oils from stem and leaves of Perovskia abrotanoides and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of these oils. RESULTS: GC-MS analysis of essential oil identified 19 compounds with (E)-9-dodecenal being the major component in stem and hexadecanoic acid in leaves. In contrast, GC-MS analysis of fixed oil showed 40 constituents with α-amyrin the major component in stem and α-copaene in leaves. The antioxidant activity showed the highest value of 76.7% in essential oil from leaves in comparison with fixed oil from stem (45.9%) through inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The antimicrobial assay tested on different microorganisms (e.g. E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, Nitrospira, S. epidermis, A. niger, A. flavus and C. albicans) showed the higher inhibition zone at essential oil from leaves (15.2 mm on B. cereus) as compared to fixed oil from stem (8.34 mm onS. aureus) and leaves (11.2 mm on S. aureus). CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed the fact that essential oil analyzed from Perovskia abrotanoides stem and leaves could be a promising source of natural products with potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as compared to fixed oil.

Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Stems/chemistry , Alkanes/analysis , Alkanes/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Aspergillus/drug effects , Bacillus cereus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methyl Ethers/analysis , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oleanolic Acid/analysis , Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology , Palmitic Acid/analysis , Palmitic Acid/pharmacology , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/analysis , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Plant Oils/chemistry , Reducing Agents/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Stearic Acids/analysis , Stearic Acids/pharmacology
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-12, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950732


BACKGROUND: This study was subjected to investigate different pharmacological properties of ethanol extract ofSolena amplexicaulis root. RESULTS: The extract contains flavonoid, alkaloid, saponin and steroid compounds. The extract exhibited excellent antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging activity. The extract also showed potent activity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The LC50 value was found to 44.677 µg/ml. The extract showed better anti-bacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria. In antifungal assay, the maximum 79.31% of anti-mycotic activity was observed against Aspergillus ochraceus while minimum 44.2% against Rhizopus oryzae. MIC value ranged between 1500 - 3000 µg/ml. The extract was found moderately toxic with a 24-hr LD50 value of 81.47 mg/kg in Swiss albino mice. The degree of inhibition by the ethanolic extract of the root was found less than that of standard analgesic drug diclofenac sodium. The extract also showed moderate anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity and anti-diabetic property. Reducing power of the extract was comparable with standard ascorbic acid. Moderate in vitro thrombolytic activity, lipid peroxidation inhibition property, metal chelating ability and stress-protective activity was also observed. CONCLUSION: Ethanol extract of Solena amplexicaulis root can be valuable for treatment of different diseases.

Animals , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Cucurbitaceae/chemistry , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Artemia/drug effects , Aspergillus/drug effects , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , Shigella/drug effects , Bacillus/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Reducing Agents/pharmacology , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Lethal Dose 50 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-5, 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950731


BACKGROUND: The whitish tender leaves of Palmyrah are used for making handicrafts. The problem with these articles is discolouration with time and become more brittle due to fungal attack. This could be prevented by some protective coating. Instead of expensive and harmful chemicals we decided to test natural plant essential oils to control fungal attack. Palmyrah leaf article decay fungi were isolated from two different sites of Jaffna peninsula. In this investigation Antifungal Activity of different plant essential oils from neem (Azadirachta indica), castor (Ricinus communis), citronella (Cymbopogon sp) and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) obtained from local market have been evaluated against isolated fungi. For screening of Antifungal activity, tests and controls were set to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Percentage of Growth Inhibition. RESULTS: Morphologically three different types of Palmyrah leaf decay fungi were isolated and characterized asAspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. Neem and castor oils have recorded no significant (0.05 > P) antifungal activity while citronella and camphor oils showed significantly different antifungal activity compared with control. Camphor oil and Citronella oil showed 100, 58.13% of average growth inhibition for A. niger. 96.38, 51.32% for A.flavus and 84.99, 72.76% forPenicillium sp respectively. Camphor oil showed highest percentage of growth inhibition at lowest minimum inhibitory concentration compared with citronella oil. Camphor oil was found to be highly antifungal and most effective against A niger, and A. flavus, compared with Penicillium sp and gave 100 percentage of growth inhibitions at 5, 1 and 15 ml/dl minimum inhibitory concentration respectively. CONCLUSION: Significantly higher broad-spectrum of antifungal activity was observed in camphor oil than other tested oils because it showed highest percentage of growth inhibition at lowest inhibitory concentration. Therefore it could be used for the development of new environmental friendly antifungal agent for the preservation of leafy handicrafts. Further formulation, field experiments are necessary to achieve this target.

Penicillium/drug effects , Aspergillus/drug effects , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Arecaceae/microbiology , Growth Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Penicillium/isolation & purification , Penicillium/growth & development , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus/growth & development , Aspergillus flavus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus flavus/growth & development , Aspergillus flavus/drug effects , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/growth & development , Aspergillus niger/drug effects , Ricinus/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Cinnamomum camphora/chemistry , Azadirachta/chemistry , Cymbopogon/chemistry
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 649-655, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688596


This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) essential oil (EO) on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus) ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1), aflatoxinB2 (AFB2), aflatoxinG1 (AFG1), aflatoxinG2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin total (AFTotal) production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm) on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm) nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity.

Aflatoxins/biosynthesis , Antifungal Agents/metabolism , Aspergillus/drug effects , Biosynthetic Pathways/drug effects , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Aspergillus/genetics , Aspergillus/growth & development , Aspergillus/metabolism , Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Gene Expression Profiling , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012; 25 (3): 565-569
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-144406


Aerva javanica and Paeonia emodi plants extracts were studied for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli [NCTC 10418], Klebsiella pneumoniae [ATCC 700603], Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis [NCTC 11047] and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus [MRSA] [NCTC 13143] and antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani. Extracts were obtained by using methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fraction. The extracts of Paeonia emodi and Aerva javanica showed significant antibacterial activity but only Salmonella typhi was resistant to Aerva javanica. Moreover, the antifungal activity of Aerva javanica was very poor but the fractions of Paeonia emodi showed sufficient inhibition against fungal strains

Paeonia , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Aspergillus/drug effects
Rev. chil. infectol ; 28(6): 529-536, dic. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-612151


The echinocandins, caspofugin, micafungin, and anidulafungin, are lipopeptides that inhibit fungal growth by binding to β - (1.3) d glucan synthase. This enzyme is responsible for the formation of the peptidoglycan cell wall, and it is essential in fungi such as Candida spp, but less important in the case of Aspergillus and Fusarium species. We review the history, pharmacology and clinical trials that have showed clinical efficacy similar to amphotericin B for the management of fungal infections such as candidemia, invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis, even in cases refractory to initial treatment. These drugs have less toxicity and discontinuation is uncommonly required. Despite similar spectrum and tolerability, there are several pharmacological differences. Only a few clinical trials compare the clinical efficacy between them and their clinical application cannot be generalized. However, the echinocandins have demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with invasive candidiasis and in others forms of systemic mycoses.

Las equinocandinas -caspofugina, micafungina y ani-dulafungina- son lipopéptidos que inhiben el crecimiento fúngico al unirse a la β-(1,3) d glucano sintetasa, enzima esencial para la síntesis en la pared celular de hongos como Candida spp, y menos importante en el caso de especies de Aspergillus y Fusarium. Se revisa la historia, farmacología y los diferentes ensayos clínicos que han evidenciado similar eficacia clínica a la de anfotericina B para el manejo de infecciones micóticas como candidemia, candidiasis invasora y aspergilosis, inclusive en casos refractarios al manejo inicial. Estos medicamentos tienen menor toxicidad y en pocos casos hay necesidad de retiro del tratamiento. Dado su espectro y tolerabilidad similar, su farmacología permite diferenciarlas. Se dispone de información limitada de estudios clínicos que las comparen entre ellas, limitando la extrapolación de la información a todo el grupo. Sin embargo, presentan eficacia clínica comprobada en pacientes con varias micosis invasoras.

Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/drug effects , Candida/drug effects , Echinocandins/pharmacology , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Aspergillus/classification , Clinical Trials as Topic , Candida/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2011 Sept; 59(5): 373-377
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-136208


Purpose: To study the susceptibilities of Aspergillus species against amphotericin B in infectious keratitis and to find out if drug resistance had any association with the molecular characteristics of the fungi. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty Aspergillus isolates from the corneal scrapings of patients with keratitis were tested for susceptibilities to amphotericin B by broth microdilution method. These included Aspergillus flavus (64 isolates), A. fumigatus (43) and A. niger (53). Fungal DNA was extracted by glass bead vertexing technique. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was standardized and used to amplify the 28S rRNA gene. Single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) of the PCR product was performed by the standard protocol. Results: Of the 160 isolates, 84 (52.5%) showed low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (≤ 1.56 μg/ml) and were designated as amphotercin B-sensitive. Similarly, 76 (47.5%) had high MICs (≥ 3.12 μg/ml) and were categorized as amphotericin B-resistant. MIC50 and MIC90 values ranged between 3.12-6.25 μg/ml and 3.12-12.5 μg/ml respectively. A. flavus and A. niger showed higher MIC50 and MIC90 values than A. fumigatus. The SSCP pattern exhibited three extra bands (150 bp, 200 bp and 250 bp each) in addition to the 260 bp amplicon. Strains (lanes 1 and 7) lacking the 150 bp band showed low MIC values (≤ 1.56 μg/ml). Conclusion: A. niger and A. flavus isolates had higher MICs compared to A. fumigatus, suggesting a high index of suspicion for amphotericin B resistance. PCR-SSCP was a good molecular tool to characterize Aspergillus phenotypes in fungal keratitis.

Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillus/drug effects , Aspergillus/genetics , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Cornea/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Keratitis/diagnosis , Keratitis/microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational , RNA, Fungal/analysis
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2011 Jan-Mar 54(1): 112-116
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-141928


Background: Invasive fungal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised populations. Aims: To evaluate the susceptibility pattern of our isolates against amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole and to compare the antifungal activities of these agents with each other against the Aspergillus species tested. Settings and Design: A prospective study was designed to include clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus species. Materials and Methods: 420 sputum samples, 70 bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, 160 oral washings, and 47 environmental samples were collected. Direct microscopy by potassium hydroxide and lactophenol cotton blue mounts followed by culture on Sabourad`s dextrose agar (SDA) was done. Susceptibility testing was performed by the broth microdilution technique as per Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute standards (M-38A). Additionally, all the isolates were also tested by the colorimetric microdilution technique using Alamar Blue dye. Statistical Analysis: It was done by the Chi-square test and Z-test using SPSS statistical software version 12.0. Results and Conclusion: Twenty-seven isolates (47.3%) were recovered from patients with chronic bronchial asthma followed by fibrocavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in 9 (15.7%), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in 6 cases (10.5%), bronchiectasis in 3 (5.2%), bronchogenic carcinoma in 5 (8.7%) and those receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer 7 (12.2%). Thirteen environmental isolates were also included in the study. The most common isolate was A. fumigatus 28 (40%), followed by A. niger 22 (31%), A. flavus 13 (19%), and A. terreus 7(10%). All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole. Among the three agents tested, voriconazole exhibited lowest MICs (≤1 μg/ml) against all Aspergillus species.

Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillosis/microbiology , Aspergillus/classification , Aspergillus/drug effects , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Culture Media/chemistry , Environmental Microbiology , Humans , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Microscopy , Mouth/microbiology , Mycology/methods , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Sputum/microbiology , Triazoles/pharmacology
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2010; 9 (36): 66-71
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-143748


Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal disease caused by different species of aspergillus. Clinical manifestation and severity of disease related to physiological conditions of host, involved organs and aspergillus species. Cinnamomum zeylanicum is an evergreen tree 10-15 meter length and belongs to Lauraceae family. It grows in Srilanka. Its essential oil has antimicrobial activity. Study of Antifungal activity of this essential oil against clinical isolates of aspergillus and determination of MIC. Broth microdilution method was used in this research .Essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum was extracted by means of Clevenger apparatus then its MICs on clinical isolates of Aspergillus were calculated by broth microdilution method. Number of samples was twenty seven. MICs are: eight isolates: 1.18 micro g/ml, six isolates: 0.59 micro g/ml, four isolates: 0.29 micro g/ml, five isolates: 0.14 micro g/ml and four isolates: 0.07 micro g/ml. In view of the fact that Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil was effective against all isolates in this research, we recommend the investigation of its antifungal properties Invivo

Plant Oils , Oils, Volatile , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Aspergillosis/therapy , Antifungal Agents , Lauraceae , Aspergillus/drug effects
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(6): 878-884, Sept. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-529558


Two essential oils of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenacea), the carvone and citral chemotypes and 15 of their compounds were evaluated to determine cytotoxicity and antifungal activity. Cytotoxicity assays for both the citral and carvone chemotypes were carried out with tetrazolium-dye, which showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect against HeLa cells. Interestingly, this effect on the evaluated cells (HeLa and the non-tumoural cell line, Vero) was lower than that of commercial citral alone. Commercial citral showed the highest cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus strains following the standard protocols, Antifungal Susceptibility Testing Subcommittee of the European Committee on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing and CLSI M38-A. Results demonstrated that the most active essential oil was the citral chemotype, with geometric means-minimal inhibitory concentration (GM-MIC) values of 78.7 and 270.8 μg/mL for A. fumigatus and C. krusei, respectively. Commercial citral showed an antifungal activity similar to that of the citral chemotype (GM-MIC values of 62.5 μg/mL for A. fumigatus and 39.7 μg/mL for C. krusei). Although the citronellal and geraniol were found in lower concentrations in the citral chemotype, they had significant antifungal activity, with GM-MIC values of 49.6 μg/mL for C. krusei and 176.8 μg/mL for A. fumigatus.

Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/drug effects , Candida/drug effects , Lippia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Monoterpenes/isolation & purification , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Oils/chemistry , Plant Oils/pharmacology
Professional Medical Journal-Quarterly [The]. 2009; 16 (3): 419-423
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-100123


To determine the efficacy of tincture mertheolate in otomycosis. An experimental study. Department of ENT Aliama Iqbal Medical College/ Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. From Dec. 2007 to April 2008. A total of 60 patients of symptomatic otomycosis were investigated prospectively. Aural swabs were collected on first, 7[th] and 14[th] day and examined, by direct microscopy of external auditory canal and culture for fungi. Of these 60 patients found to be having pure fungal infection were taken up for mycological and therapeutic study. Fungi belonging to Aspergiilus were isolated in 57 [95%] patients of which Aspergillus niger was the commonest isolated in 34[56.6%] patients followed by Aspergillus flavus in 21[35%] and Aspergillus fumigates in 2[3.33]. Candida species in 2 [3.3%] and Mucor in 1 [1.6%] of patients. The patients were of all age groups but majority were between 21 and 30 years and the male to female ratio was equal. No patient had fungal infection elsewhere in the body. The patients were called for regular follow-up for three weeks. In 30 cases tincture mertheolate was applied as topical antifungal agent after cleaning the external auditory canal, in 17 patient's clotrimazole and in rest of the 13 patients miconazole was used. On 7[th] day, only 8 [13.3%] patients grew fungi in culture. They became symptom free on 14[th] day and no fungal material could be seen on otoscopy, direct microscopy or culture. Tincture mertheolate was found to be most effective in these patients

Humans , Male , Female , Aspergillus/drug effects , Canidae/drug effects , Mucor/drug effects , Clotrimazole , Miconazole , Otitis/drug therapy