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2.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 293-299, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131046

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La utilidad de la aspirina en la prevención primaria es todavía objeto de controversia. Los avances médicos y la variabilidad del riesgo cardiovascular podrían explicar la heterogeneidad de los estudios publicados, y las poblaciones de alto riesgo tendrían mayor beneficio. Objetivo: Analizar los efectos de la aspirina en pacientes sin antecedentes cardiovasculares y evaluar los resultados de acuerdo con el riesgo cardiovascular de las poblaciones. Métodos: Se incluyeron estudios que evaluaron el uso de la aspirina en comparación con placebo en la prevención primaria. Se analizó la combinación de muerte cardiovascular, infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM) y accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) isquémico. El punto final de seguridad fue la combinación de ACV hemorrágico y sangrado mayor. Se clasificaron los estudios en riesgo bajo y moderado/ alto, de acuerdo con el número de episodios en la rama de placebo. Resultados: Se evaluaron 13 estudios (n = 164,225), ocho de riesgo cardiovascular bajo (n = 118,455) y cinco de moderado/alto (n = 45,770). Se observó una reducción del punto final combinado en el grupo de aspirina (OR 0.90; IC 95%, 0.85-0.94), sin diferencias en mortalidad cardiovascular (OR 0.94; IC 95%, 0.86-1.04). No se identificaron diferencias entre los subgrupos de riesgo. Se reconocieron mayores complicaciones hemorrágicas en el grupo de aspirina (OR 1.45; IC 95%, 1.32-1.60), sin diferencias entre los subgrupos de riesgo. Conclusión: La aspirina se relacionó con una leve disminución de IAM y ACV isquémico en términos absolutos, sin diferencias en la mortalidad cardiovascular. Esto, junto con el aumento de las complicaciones hemorrágicas, se traduce en una ausencia de beneficio clínico neto. El riesgo cardiovascular basal de la población no modificó los resultados.


Abstract Background: The usefulness of aspirin in primary prevention continues to be the subject of debate. Medical advances and the variability of cardiovascular risk could explain the heterogeneity of the published studies. High risk populations would have greater benefit. Objective: Analyzing the effects of aspirin in patients without cardiovascular disease and evaluating the results according to the cardiovascular risk of the populations. Methods: Studies evaluating aspirin versus placebo in primary prevention were included. The primary endpoint was the combined cardiovascular death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ischemic stroke. The final safety point was the combination of hemorrhagic stroke and major bleeding. The studies were classified into low and moderate/high risk, according to the number of events in the placebo arm. Results: Thirteen studies were evaluated (n = 164,225), eight of low cardiovascular risk (n = 118,455) and five of moderate/high risk (n = 45,770). There was a reduction of the combined endpoint in the aspirin group (odds ratio [OR] 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-0.94), without differences in cardiovascular mortality (OR 0.94; 95% CI, 0.86-1.04). No differences were observed when comparing the risk subgroups. Greater hemorrhagic complications were observed in the aspirin group (OR 1.45; 95% CI, 1.32-1.60), without differences between the risk subgroups. Conclusion: Aspirin was associated with a slight decrease in AMI and ischemic stroke in absolute terms, with no differences in cardiovascular mortality. This accompanied by the increase in hemorrhagic complications, results in an absence of net clinical benefit. The baseline cardiovascular risk of the population did not affect the results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Primary Prevention/methods , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Aspirin/adverse effects , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control
3.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 35(4): e998, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093293

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Hace una década, en el Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología se comenzó la tratamiento de mujeres con pérdidas recurrentes de embarazos por trastornos de hipercoagulabilidad. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínicamente a estos neonatos e identificar los efectos adversos de la terapia tromboprofiláctica en los recién nacidos. Métodos: Se realizó estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal entre enero de 2014 y agosto de 2017, que incluyó 62 recién nacidos, hijos de madres con diagnóstico de trombofilia que utilizaron durante la gestación, régimen de tromboprofilaxis con heparinas de bajo peso molecular y aspirina. Todas las gestantes fueron evaluadas con sistematicidad en las consultas de Hemostasia y Obstetricia, del Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología y Hospital Enrique Cabrera, respectivamente. Resultados: La mayoría de los neonatos nacieron a término, con apgar normal y pesos superiores a 2 500 g. El 82,3 por ciento de las gestantes comenzaron la tromboprofilaxis con menos de 5 semanas de gestación. Hubo diferencias significativas cuando se compararon los pesos de los neonatos de las madres que comenzaron el tratamiento temprano con aquellas que lo iniciaron tardíamente. El tipo de trombofilia y la edad materna no influyeron en los pesos de los neonatos, pero aquellas gestantes con sintomatología más grave tuvieron hijos de menor peso que, aunque no fue significativo, requiere una observación. Ningún recién nacido presentó efectos secundarios a la terapia tromboprofiláctica. Conclusiones: Los neonatos nacidos de madres con trombofilia que iniciaron tromboprofilaxis de forma temprana no fueron diferentes a los recién nacidos de madres sin hipercoagulabilidad(AU)


Introduction: A decade ago, at the Institute of Hematology and Immunology, treatment of women with recurrent pregnancy losses due to hypercoagulability disorders began. Objective: Clinically characterize these infants and identify the adverse effects of thromboprophylactic therapy in newborns. Methods: A descriptive and transversal study was carried out between January 2014 and August 2017, which included 62 children of mothers with a diagnosis of thrombophilia who used during pregnancy, a thromboprophylaxis regimen with low molecular weight heparins and aspirin. All pregnant women were systematically evaluated in the Hemostasis and Obstetrics consultations of the Institute of Hematology and Immunology and Hospital Enrique Cabrera. Results: The majority of the neonates were born at term, with normal apgar and weights above 2,500 g. 82.3 percent of pregnant women started thromboprophylaxis with less than 5 weeks of gestational age. There were significant differences when the weights of the infants of the mothers who started the treatment early were compared with those who started it late. The type of thrombophilia and maternal age did not influence the weights of the neonates, but those cases with more severe symptoms had children of lower weight, which although it was not significant, requires observation. No newborn presented side effects to thromboprophylactic therapy. Conclusions: Infants born to mothers with thrombophilia who started thromboprophylaxis early were not different from those born to mothers without hypercoagulability(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Aspirin/adverse effects , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/adverse effects , Thrombophilia/therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Thrombophilia/complications
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(5): 349-355, oct. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976123

ABSTRACT

Los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINEs) se encuentran entre los fármacos más utilizados en la práctica clínica. Actúan mediante el bloqueo de las enzimas ciclooxigenasas (COX), pero el grado de inhibición de COX-1 y COX-2 varía entre ellos. Se ha generalizado la clasificación entre COX-2 selectivos o coxibs, y los no selectivos o AINEs tradicionales. Tanto los efectos analgésico y antiinflamatorio como los efectos adversos cardiovasculares dependen de la inhibición de COX-2. Este trabajo revisa las evidencias disponibles del aumento del riesgo de eventos trombóticos tanto para los coxibs como para los AINEs tradicionales. El efecto protrombótico podría deberse a la inhibición de la COX-2 endotelial, con disminución de la prostaciclina y un incremento relativo de los niveles del tromboxano plaquetario. Los coxibs y el diclofenac, 150 mg/día, aumentarían el riesgo de eventos vasculares mayores en más de un tercio. El ibuprofeno 2400 mg/día aumentaría levemente el riesgo de eventos coronarios. El naproxeno 1000 mg/día no incrementaría el riesgo de eventos vasculares. Además, el ibuprofeno y el naproxeno tienen el potencial del disminuir el efecto cardioprotector de bajas dosis de aspirina. El naproxeno (≤ 1000 mg/día) y el ibuprofeno a bajas dosis (≤ 1200 mg/día) deberían considerarse los AINEs con el mejor perfil de seguridad cardiovascular. Las decisiones terapéuticas deben basarse en una adecuada evaluación del riesgo del paciente, utilizando los AINEs más seguros, a las menores dosis efectivas, por el menor tiempo posible que permita el control de los síntomas, restringiendo su utilización en enfermos con aumento del riesgo cardiovascular.


Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) are among the most commonly used drugs in clinical practice. They block cyclooxygenases (COX) enzymes, but the degree of inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 varies between them. In general, NSAIDs are classified in selective COX-2 or coxibs and non-selective or traditional NSAIDs. Both the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as the cardiovascular adverse effects, depend on the COX-2 inhibition. This paper reviews the available evidence of the increased risk of thrombotic events for both coxibs and traditional NSAID. The prothrombotic effect could be due to the inhibition of endothelial COX-2, with a decrease in production of prostacyclin and a relative increase in platelet thromboxane levels. Coxibs and diclofenac 150 mg/day seem to increase the risk of major vascular events by more than a third. Ibuprofen 2400 mg/day could slightly increase the risk of coronary events. Naproxen 1000 mg/day apparently does not increase the risk of vascular events. Besides ibuprofen and naproxen have the potential to decrease the cardioprotective effect of low doses of aspirin. Naproxen (≤ 1000 mg/day) and low doses of ibuprofen (≤ 1200 mg/day) are considered to have the most favorable thrombotic cardiovascular safety profiles of all NSAIDs. Therapeutic decisions should be based on an assessment of a person´s individual risk factors, using the safest NSAIDs, at the lowest effective doses, for the shortest duration necessary to control symptoms, restricting their use in patients with increased cardiovascular risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Aspirin/adverse effects , Ibuprofen/adverse effects , Naproxen/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Drug Interactions , Celecoxib/adverse effects
7.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(5): 339-346, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142140

ABSTRACT

Resumen De acuerdo a las guías actuales, aún es materia de debate el uso de anticoagulación en los primeros 3 meses en pacientes de bajo riesgo trombótico sometidos a cambio valvular aórtico con prótesis biológicas. En base a la evidencia actual, la aspirina a dosis bajas es razonable como alternativa a los antagonistas de la vitamina K (AVK) durante el posquirúrgico temprano en pacientes con prótesis biológicas en posición aórtica. Se comparó la incidencia de complicaciones trombóticas o hemorrágicas de acuerdo a la estrategia de terapia antitrombótica en los pacientes de bajo riesgo trombótico sometidos a cambio valvular aórtico con válvulas biológicas en el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. La hipótesis: la aspirina como monoterapia antitrombótica tiene un efecto benéfico comparado con los AVK. Se estudiaron los pacientes de bajo riesgo trombótico sometidos a cambio valvular aórtico con válvulas biológicas en el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Se incluyeron los pacientes operados del año 2011 al 2015. Se identificó en el seguimiento a un año la presencia de complicaciones trombóticas o hemorrágicas y si se manejaron con cualquiera de las siguientes: aspirina únicamente, AVK solo y la combinación aspirina más AVK. Se analizaron 231 pacientes. Solo se presentó una complicación hemorrágica en un paciente tratado con AVK. No hubo complicaciones trombóticas. No se presentaron complicaciones trombóticas en pacientes que no recibieron anticoagulación oral formal durante los primeros 3 meses posquirúrgicos, lo que indica que es seguro el uso de aspirina como monoterapia en estos pacientes de bajo riesgo trombótico.


Abstract According to current guidelines, in patients without additional risk factors who have undergone aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis, anticoagulation in the first 3 months after surgery is still a matter of debate. According to current evidence, aspirin in low doses is a reasonable alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKA). A comparison is made between the incidence of thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications in patients with low thrombotic risk who underwent aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis in the National Institute of Cardiology of Ignacio Chávez of Mexico. The hypothesis: aspirin as monotherapy has a beneficial effect compared to VKA. The studied patients were the low thrombotic risk patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis in the National Institute of Cardiology of Ignacio Chávez of Mexico from 2011 to 2015. The groups studied were: aspirin only, VKA only, and the combination of VKA plus aspirin. The patients were retrospectively followed-up for 12 months, and the thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications were documented. Of the 231 patients included in the study, only one patient in the VKA only group presented with a haemorrhagic complication. No thrombotic complications were observed. In the present study no thrombotic complications were observed in patients who did not receive anticoagulation in the first 3 months after an aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis after a follow up period of 12 months. This suggests that the use of aspirin only is safe during this period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Aortic Valve/surgery , Thrombosis/etiology , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Bioprosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Aspirin/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Mexico , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
8.
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(3): 291-299, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959386

ABSTRACT

Resumen El uso de fármacos antiagregantes plaquetarios para prevención primaria y secundaria de eventos cardiovasculares es una práctica común en clínica. La terapia antiagregante plaquetaria disminuye significativamente la incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares, incluyendo infarto agudo al miocardio y accidente cerebro-vascular. Cada vez es más frecuente enfrentarse a pacientes en terapia antiagregante plaquetaria que serán sometidos a algún procedimiento quirúrgico, por tanto es fundamental conocer el manejo perioperatorio de estos fármacos, para disminuir los riesgos y complicaciones asociados a la suspensión o mantención de estas drogas en el período perioperatorio. Los antiagregantes plaquetarios de mayor uso en Chile son la aspirina y las tienopiridinas, siendo el clopidogrel el fármaco más utilizado en este grupo. El enfrentamiento perioperatorio de estos fármacos está supeditado al riesgo trombótico individual de cada paciente y al riesgo hemorrágico de cada cirugía. En cirugías no cardiacas, se sugiere mantener la aspirina, excepto en pacientes con bajo-moderado riesgo trombótico que serán sometidos a cirugías con alto riesgo de sangrado, en los cuales se recomienda suspenderla 5-7 días previo a la intervención quirúrgica. El clopidogrel se sugiere suspenderlo 5 días antes de la cirugía, excepto en pacientes con alto riesgo trombótico que se someterán a procedimientos quirúrgicos con riesgo hemorrágico bajo-moderado. En cirugías de revascularización miocárdica, se recomienda mantener aspirina y suspender clopidogrel 5 días antes del procedimiento. En relación al reinicio postquirúrgico de estos fármacos, se sugiere reanudar aspirina 6 h posterior a la cirugía y clopidogrel durante las primeras 24 h postoperatorias, asegurando previamente una adecuada hemostasia quirúrgica.


The use of antiplatelet drugs for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease events is a common clinical practice. Antiplatelet therapy significantly decreases the incidence of cardiovascular disease events, including acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident. It is increasingly common to face patients on antiplatelet therapy who will undergo some surgical procedure, so it is essential to know the perioperative management of these drugs, to reduce the risks and complications associated with the suspension or maintenance of these therapies in the perioperative period. The most common antiplatelet agents used in Chile are acetylsalicylic acid and thienopyridines, of which clopidogrel is the most frequent one. The perioperative management of these drugs has to be based on the individual thrombotic risk of each patient and the risk of hemorrhage of each surgery. In noncardiac surgeries, it is suggested to maintain acetylsalicylic acid, except in patients with low to moderate thrombotic risk who will undergo surgeries with a high risk of bleeding, in which case it is recommended to suspend it 5 to 7 days before surgery. Clopidogrel is suggested to be discontinued 5 days before surgery, except in patients with high thrombotic risk who will undergo surgical procedures with low to moderate risk of hemorrhage. In myocardial revascularization surgeries, it is recommended to maintain acetylsalicylic acid and to suspend clopidogrel 5 days before the procedure. Once assuring adequate surgical hemostasis, it is suggested to reinitiate acetylsalicylic acid 6 hours after surgery and to reinitiate clopidogrel during the first 24 postoperative hours.


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Perioperative Care/methods , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Aspirin/adverse effects , Risk Assessment , Postoperative Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Withholding Treatment , Thienopyridines/administration & dosage , Thienopyridines/adverse effects , Clopidogrel/administration & dosage , Clopidogrel/adverse effects
9.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 36(3): 200-208, dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899587

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La terapia antiagregante dual (TAD) con aspirina más clopidogrel o ticagrelor es fundamental para prevenir trombosis de stent y nuevos eventos cardiovasculares (CV) en pacientes sometidos a angioplastía coronaria (AC). Sin embargo, TAD se asocia a un riesgo aumentado de hemorragias, en particular cuando su uso se prolonga. Recientemente se han creado puntajes (DAPT, PRECISE-DAPT) que buscan estimar el riesgo de sangrado en pacientes con TAD por tiempo prolongado, los que quisimos evaluar en nuestra población. Métodos: Se utilizó la base de datos prospectiva de Prevención Cardiovascular del Hospital Clínico U. Católica, seleccionando pacientes sometidos a AC el año 2015. Se realizó una encuesta telefónica estandarizada para identificar episodios de sangrado definidos según clasificación ISTH, tiempo de uso de TAD y nuevos eventos CV. Se calcularon los puntajes DAPT y PRECISE-DAPT. Se usó pruebas de t de Student, test exacto de Fisher y curva ROC, según correspondiese, considerando significativa una p<0,05. Resultados: Se incluyeron 227 pacientes (edad 64,2±12,3 años, 22,5% mujeres), de los cuales el 69,6% eran hipertensos, 28,6% diabéticos, 26,9% fumadores y 5,3% insuficientes renales crónicos. En el 63% de los pacientes la AC fue por síndrome coronario agudo, se implantaron 1,4±0,7 stents/paciente y el 37% de los pacientes recibió sólo stents metálicos. Al momento de la encuesta, el seguimiento fue de 26±3 meses. Se registró un tiempo promedio de duración de TAD de 12,6±7,4 meses, con 99,1% de los pacientes recibiendo aspirina, 93,4% clopidogrel, 6,6% ticagrelor y 9,3% anticoagulantes orales. Hubo 35 (15,4%) nuevos eventos CV (revascularización 14, infarto 12, accidente cerebrovascular 2 y muerte 7) y 31 (13,6%) episodios de sangrados (criterio ISTH). De acuerdo con el criterio TIMI de sangrado se registraron 5 (2,2%) episodios graves, 9 (3,9%) leves y 17 (7,4%) menores. En 10 (4,4%) pacientes se modificó la TAD debido al sangrado. PRECISE-DAPT se asoció de manera significativa a los episodios de sangrado (p<0,01); tener un puntaje de alto riesgo (>25) aumentó más de 3 veces el riesgo de sangrado (OR 3,1 IC 1,4-7,1, p<0,01) y una curva ROC estableció que en la población estudiada el mejor punto de corte fue de 18 puntos (C-statistic 0,69) (Figuras 1A y B). El uso de TACO aumentó el riesgo (OR 3,4 IC 1,2-9,5, p=0,02). Si bien miden distintos parámetros, los puntajes de riesgo DAPT y PRECISE-DAPT se correlacionaron significativamente en nuestra cohorte (p<0,01). Conclusiones: En esta cohorte de la vida real se demuestra que la ocurrencia de sangramientos es un evento frecuente en pacientes con TAD, similar a la tasa de nuevos eventos CV, y por tanto debe ser un factor relevante a considerar al momento de la AC y la selección de la TAD. El puntaje PRECISE-DAPT es una herramienta útil para predecir sangrados, aunque nuestros resultados sugieren que en población chilena los valores de corte pueden ser algo menores que lo previamente publicado .


Abstracts: Background: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) with aspirin plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor is essential for the prevention of stent thrombosis and new cardiovascular events in patients undergoing PCI. However, DAT is associated with an increased risk of bleeding, more so when it is used for prolonged time periods. Scores (DAPT, PRECISE-DAPT) developed to predict bleeding risk were evaluated in this study. Method: The prospective Cardiovascular Prevention database at Catholic University Hospital was used to select patients who underwent PCI followed by DAT during 2015. By phone contact information on bleeding episodes - according to the ISTH classification -, new cardiovascular events and DAT duration were collected. DAPT and PRECISE- DAPT scores were calculated. Student's t test, Fisher exact test and ROC analysis were used. Significance was established at p< 0.05. Results: 277 patients were included (age 64.2±12.3 y-o, 22.5% women). Hypertension was present in 66.9%, diabetes in 28.6%, smoking habit in 26.9% and renal failure in 5.3%. The indication for PCI was acute coronary syndrome in 63%, 1.4±0.7 stents per patient were implanted and 37% of patients received bare metal stents exclusively. Follow-up extended for 26±3 months. DAT was active for 12.6±7.4 months and 9.3% of patients received oral anticoagulant therapy. There were 35 (15.4%) new cardiovascular events (14 revascularizations, 12 myocardial infarctions, 2 CVA and 7 deaths). Conversely, there were 31 (13.6%) bleeding episodes. According to the TIMI classification, bleeding episodes were severe in 2.2%, mild in 3.9% and minor in 7.4%. In 4% of patients DAT was modified due to bleeding. PRECISE-DAPT score was significantly associated to bleeding episodes (p<0.01). A high score (>25) was associated with a 3-fold risk of bleeding (OR 3.1, CI 1.4-7.1 (p<0.01). Through ROC analysis the best PRECISE-DAPT cutting point in this cohort was 18 (C=0.69). The use of oral anticoagulation increased bleeding risk (OR 3.4 CI 1.2 - 9.5, p=0.02). DAPT and PRECISE-DAPT were significantly correlated (p<0.01). Conclusion: Bleeding is a frequent complication of DAT, similar to the risk of new cardiovascular events. PRECISE-DAPT score is useful to estimate the risk of bleeding, although this study suggests that in the studied population the cutting point may be somewhat lower than previously published.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/methods , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Aspirin/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , ROC Curve , Follow-Up Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Clopidogrel/adverse effects , Ticagrelor/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/epidemiology
10.
Lima; s.n; ago. 2016.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-848556

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: El presente dictamen expone la evaluación de tecnología sanitaria de la eficaica y seguridad de Ticagrelor como monoterapia de primera línea en pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo, intervención percutànea e intolerancia a la aspirina. Aspectos Generales: El síndroem coronario agudo (SCA) es una condición en la que se manifestan síntomas de isquemia cardíaca aguda y tiene forma variadas de presentatación. Los síndromes coronarios agudos como infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IAMCEST), infarto de miocardio sin elevación sin elevación ST (IAMSEST) y la angina inestable compaten una fisiopatologia común: la rotura o erosión de una placa de ateroma con trombosis intracoronaria superpuesta (aterotrombosis). Tecnología Sanitaria de Interés: Dentro de los tratamientos farmacológicos para el síndrome coronario agudo se Ticagrelor: un derivado pirimidínico antiplaquetario oral de nueva generación, el cual se une reversiblemente al receptor adenosino difosfato P2Y inhibiendo así la activación y agregación plaquetaria. Tiene un mecanismo de iniciación, acción y finalización más rápido que su similar Clopidogrel y es considerado un tratamiento de primera línea en algunos países del primer mundo. METODOLOGÍA: Estrategia de Búsqueda: Se realizó una estrategia de búsqueda de la evidencia científica con respecto a ticagrelor como monoterapia línea en pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo intervención percutánea e intolerancia a la aspirina. Para la búsqueda primaria se revisó la información disponible por entes reguladoras y normaltivas como la Food Adminstration (FDA), y la Dirección General de Medicamentos y Drogas (DIGEMID). Posteriomente se buscaron Guías de Práctica Clínica a través de los metabuscadores: Translating Research into Practice (TRIPDABATASE) National Library of Medicine (Pubmed-Medline), The National Guideline of Clearinghouse, y Health Systems Evidence. Finalmente, se realizó una búsqueda dentro de la información generada por grupos internacionales que realizan revisiones sistemáticas, evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias y guías de práctica clínica, tales como The Cochrane Library, The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), The Canadian Agengy for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH), The Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC), que a su vez fue complementada con una búsqueda en www.clinicaltrials.gov y www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu para indentificar estudios primarios en elaboración o que no hayan sido publicados aún. Se realizó además una búsqueda manual con una estrategia de "bola de nieve" mediante la revisión de listas de referencias de las guías, evaluaciones de tecnologías, estudios primarios y revisiones narrativas seleccionados. RESULTADOS: Sinopsis de la Evidencia: Se realizó la búsqueda y revisión de la evidencia científica actual para la evaluación de la eficacia y seguridad de ticagrelor como monoterapia de primera línea en pacientes con síndrome coronoario agudo, intervención percutánea e intolerancia a la aspirina. CONCLUSIONES: La pregunta PICO de interés se centra en presentear evidencia que evalúe directamente el uso de ticagrelor como monoterapia de primera línea en pacientes con contraindicación al uso de aspirina además de poseer riesgo de desarrollar trombosis de stent debido a intervención percutánea. En la actualidad, el petitorio de Essalud cuenta con la terapia estándar de tratamiento para síndrome coronario agudo clopidogrel en combinación con aspirina, terapia que es empleada como primera alternativa de elcción para el manejo de pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo. Ticargrelo requiere demostrar un beneficio clínico considerablemente superior como monoterapia para el paciente no cubierto por clopidogrel. No se encontró evidencia directa que responda a la pregunta PICO de interés. Especificamente, se encontraron guías de práctica clínica para el manejo general de SCA, sin embargo ninguna menciona recomendaciones para el manejo de los casos de alergia a la aspirina o del cambio de la terpia combinada a una monoterapia en el tratamiento de SCA. En el balance riesgo-beneficio de ticagrelor, el benefício clínico mínimo que la terapia con ticagrelor (2% anual) habla de un beneficio neto muy modesto frente a clopidogrel, lo que añadido a los riesgos de eventos adversos, la adherencia a la terapia, y la diferencia de costo 56 veces mayor, no permite establecer que las ganancias atribuibles al ticagrelor son de relativo significativo clínico desde la perspectiva del paciente como lo son disminución de mortalidad por causas vasculares, prevenir la necesidad de revascularización, evitar la rehospitalización y mejorar la calidad de vida. Esto limita seriamente la posibilidad de recomendar el uso de este medicamento sobretodo en el contexto en el que se cuenta aún con una alternativa de similar eficacia en el Petitorio Farmacológico de Essalud. El Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación-IETSI, no aprueba el uso Ticagrelor como monoterapia de primera línea en pacientes con síndroem coronario agudo, intervención percutánea e intolerancia a la aspirina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenosine/administration & dosage , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Aspirin/adverse effects , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Treatment Outcome , Cost-Benefit Analysis
11.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 82(3): 263-268, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785827

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) consists of a classic tetrad: moderate/severe asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and intolerance to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Clinical control with drugs, surgery, and desensitization are treatment options. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of aspirin desensitization in patients with AERD. METHODS: Periodic symptom assessment and endoscopy in patients with AERD undergoing surgery who were desensitized. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were desensitized. Eight patients completed the desensitization and were followed for a minimum of a one-year period (mean 3.1 years). These patients showed improvement in all symptoms. Moreover, surgical reassessment was not indicated in any of these patients and there was a decrease in costs with medication and procedures. Eight patients did not complete desensitization, mainly due to procedure intolerance and uncontrolled asthma, whereas another patient was lost to follow-up. CONCLUSION: Aspirin desensitization, when tolerated, was effective in patients with AERD and with poor clinical/surgical response.


Resumo Introdução: A doença respiratória exacerbada por aspirina é composta pela tétrade clássica: asma moderada/grave, rinossinusite crônica, pólipos nasais e intolerância à aspirina ou outro anti-inflamatório não esteroide. Controle clínico com medicamentos, cirurgias e dessensibilização são opções de tratamento. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia e tolerabilidade da dessensibilização à aspirina em pacientes com doença exacerbada por aspirina. Método: Avaliação periódica dos sintomas e exame endoscópico em pacientes com doença respiratória exacerbada por aspirina submetidos à cirurgia e dessensibilizados. Resultados: Dezessete pacientes foram dessensibilizados, dos quais oito pacientes completaram a dessensibilização e foram acompanhados pelo tempo mínimo de 1 ano (média de 3,1 anos). Todos referiram melhora de todos os sintomas; não houve nenhuma indicação de reabordagem cirúrgica, e houve redução de gastos com medicações e procedimentos. Outros oito pacientes não completaram a dessensibilização, principalmente por intolerância ao procedimento e descontrole da asma, enquanto outro paciente perdeu o seguimento. Conclusão: A dessensibilização à aspirina, quando tolerada, mostrou-se eficaz nos pacientes com doença respiratória exacerbada por aspirina com resposta clínica/cirúrgica insatisfatória.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Sinusitis/therapy , Rhinitis/therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Nasal Polyps/therapy , Desensitization, Immunologic , Asthma, Aspirin-Induced/therapy , Sinusitis/chemically induced , Sinusitis/immunology , Rhinitis/chemically induced , Rhinitis/immunology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/immunology , Aspirin/adverse effects , Aspirin/immunology , Nasal Polyps/chemically induced , Nasal Polyps/immunology , Chronic Disease , Treatment Outcome , Asthma, Aspirin-Induced/immunology
12.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 36(2): 129-134, abr.-jun.2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-790245

ABSTRACT

La aspirina es uno de los medicamentos más utilizados en el mundo, con una amplia variedad de indicaciones terapéuticas. Desde sus indicaciones originales como analgésico y antiinflamatorio, son sus propiedades como antiagregante plaquetario la que la han convertido en el medicamento más empleado para prevenir enfermedades cardiovasculares. Sin embargo, es un medicamento con efectos adversos y toxicidad especialmente gastrointestinal. Objetivos: El objetivo de identificar los motivos de uso de aspirina, los hallazgos endoscópicos de gastropatía por aspirina y los riesgos relativos de presentar lesiones mucosas gastroduodenales, en una muestra de pacientes adultos en una institución de referencia particular. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de casos y controles, entre enero 1 y junio 31 de 2014, con pacientes con endoscopias digestivas altas en el centro médico Endocentro Bogotá D.C. se seleccionaron personas con consumo de aspirina a dosis de 500 mg/ día o menores, por más de seis meses previos al examen endoscópico. Resultados: Se enrolaron 602 pacientes, 534 (88%) mujeres y 168 (12%) hombres, con un rango de edad 17 a 92 años y con edad promedio de 51,8 años. Los usuarios de aspirina lo formaron 107 pacientes, 59 (55%) mujeres y 48 (45%) hombres con rango de edad de 23 a 85 años y edad promedio de 58 años. Se encontraron los siguientes riesgos relativos, para erosiones gastroduodenales RR= 4,0 (95%IC 3,87-8,37), úlcera gástrica RR=2,4 (95%I 1,3-9,0), úlcera duodenal RR=2,8 (95%IC 1,3-7,0), cualquier tipo de lesión gastroduodenal RR=5,5 (95%IC 4,1-7,2), usuarios de aspirina sin indicación alguna el riesgo de presentar alguna lesión mucosa RR=2,0 (95%IC 1,4-3,0)...


Aspirin is one of the most used drugs around the Word, it has wide therapeutic indications. From its original indications, as analgesic and anti-inflammatory and due to its platelet antiaggregate properties, this drug has become in the most employed medicine to prevent cardiovascular disease. Never the less, it is a drug with adverse effects and gastrointestinal toxicity indeed. Objectives: To identify the reasons of using aspirin, endoscopic findings on gastropathy caused by ASA and the relative risk of developing mucosal lesions. This based on a sample of adult patients in a chosen particular institution. Materials and methods: Prospective study of cases and controls, from January 1 to June 31, 2014, with patients with high digestive endoscopy. In the medical center Endocentro Bogotá D.C. it was selected the people with aspirin consumption on 500 mg per day dose or less taken for more than six months prior the endoscopy. Results: We selected 602 patients, 534 (88%) were women and 168 (12%) were men, with an age range from 17 to 92 years and with an average of 51.8 years. 107 patients were the aspirin users, 59 (55%) were women and 48 (45%) were men, with an range from 23 to 85 years and with an average of 58 years. The follow relative risks were found: gastroduodenal erosions RR=4.9 (95%IC 3.87-8.37), gastric ulcer RR=2.4 (95%IC 1.3-9.0), duodenal ulcer RR=2.8 (95%IC 1.3-7.0) any kind of gastrointestinal injury RR=5.5 (95%IC 4.1-7.2) aspirin users without any indication to the risk of develop any mucosa injury RR=2.0 (95%IC 1.4-3.0)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspirin/adverse effects , Stomach Diseases , Wounds and Injuries , Stomach Ulcer , Colombia , Prospective Studies , Case-Control Studies
14.
Rev. cuba. farm ; 49(3)jul.-set. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-779731

ABSTRACT

Introduction: D-002, a mixture of beeswax alcohols, has been effective in osteoarthritis models and for reducing osteoarthritis symptoms. Unlike the classic anti-inflammatory drugs, D-002 elicits gastroprotective rather than gastrotoxic effects. Lyprinol, used for ameliorating inflammation and arthritic symptoms, improves gastrointestinal dysfunction symptoms in osteoarthritis subjects. Both D-002 and Lyprinol inhibit cyclooxygenase and 5?lipoxygenase activities, and have been similarly effective for reducing inflammation experimentally. Objective: to compare the effects of D-002 and Lyprinol on gastric mucosa of normal and experimentally-induced ulcer rats. Methods: ulcer indexes were measured in normal rats and in rats with ethanol or pylorus ligation-induced ulcers, in which gastric volume and mucus secretion were also measured. Normal rats were randomized into a vehicle control, one acetic salicylic acid (150 mg/kg), three D-002, three Lyprinol groups; rats with ethanol-ulcers into a vehicle control, three D-002 and three Lyprinol-treated groups; and the experiment on pylorus ligation included a negative control and eight pylorus-ligated groups: one vehicle control, three D-002, three Lyprinol, one omeprazole 10 mg/kg. In all cases, D-002 and Lyprinol (50, 200 and 400 mg/kg) were given orally. Results: unlike D-002 and Lyprinol (50-400 mg/kg), acetic salicylic acid increased ulcer indexes and the incidence of ulcers versus the vehicle control. Single oral doses of D-002 (50-400 mg/kg) or Lyprinol (200 and 400 mg/kg) decreased significantly (p<0.01) and in a similar way ulcer indexes versus the ethanol-positive control. D-002 and Lyprinol (50-400 mg/kg) lowered significantly (p<0.01) and comparably ulcer indexes in rats with pylorus ligation versus the positive controls. D-002 (200 and 400 mg/kg) decreased gastric volume and increased gastric mucus secretion versus the positive control whereas only Lyprinol 400 mg/kg increased the gastric mucus secretion but without modifying the gastric volume. Omeprazole significantly reduced ulcer index (p<0.05) and gastric volume (p< 0.01), with no change in mucus secretion. Conclusion: D-002 and Lyprinol did not show gastrotoxic effects and similar efficacy in protecting against ethanol and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulceration in rats(AU)


Introducción: el D‒002, una mezcla de alcoholes de la cera de abejas, efectivo en modelos de osteoartritis y para reducir los síntomas de la misma. A diferencia de los medicamentos antiinflamatorios clásicos el D‒002 produce efectos gastroprotectores más que efectos gastrotóxicos. El Lyprinol, usado para disminuir la inflamación y los síntomas artríticos, mejora los síntomas de disfunción gastrointestinal en sujetos con dicha enfermedad. D‒002 y Lyprinol inhiben las actividades de cyclooxigenasa y 5‒lipooxigenasa, y son similarmente efectivos para reducir la inflamación en modelos experimentales. Objetivo: comparar los efectos del D‒002 y el Lyprinol sobre la mucosa gástrica de ratas normales y de ratas con úlcera gástrica inducida experimentalmente. Métodos: se determinó el índice de úlcera en ratas normales y en ratas con úlceras gástricas inducidas por etanol e inducidas por ligadura de píloro, en las cuales se midió el volumen gástrico y la secreción de mucus. Las ratas normales se distribuyeron en un grupo control (vehículo), uno con ácido acetil salicílico (150 mg/kg), tres con D‒002 y tres con Lyprinol; las ratas con úlcera inducida por etanol en un grupo control (vehículo), tres con D‒002 y tres con Lyprinol; y el experimento con ligadura de píloro en un grupo control (vehículo), tres D‒002, tres Lyprinol y uno con omeprazol (10 mg/kg). En todos los casos, el D‒002 y el Lyprinol (50, 200 y 400 mg/kg) se administraron por vía oral. Resultados: el ácido acetil salicílico, no el D‒002 ni el Lyprinol (50‒400 mg/kg), incrementó el índice de úlceras y la incidencia de úlceras comparadas con el grupo control. Dosis orales únicas de D‒002 (50‒400 mg/kg) o Lyprinol (200 y 400 mg/kg) redujeron significativa (p<0,01) y similarmente el índice de úlceras comparado con el grupo control positivo con úlceras por etanol. El D‒002 y el Lyprinol (50‒400 mg/kg) redujeron significativamente (p<0,01) y comparablemente el índice de úlceras en ratas con ligadura de píloro comparado con el grupo control positivo. El D‒002 (200 y 400 mg/kg) redujo el volumen gástrico e incrementó la secreción de mucus gástrico respecto al grupo control positivo; mientras solo el Lyprinol 400 mg/kg aumentó la secreción de mucus gástrico pero sin modificar el volumen gástrico. El omeprazol redujo significativamente el índice de úlcera (p<0,05) y el volumen gástrico (p<0,01), sin modificar la secreción de mucus. Conclusiones: el D‒002 y el Lyprinol no presentaron efectos gastrotóxicos, y protegieron con eficacia similar de las úlceras gástricas inducidas por etanol y por ligadura del píloro en ratas(AU)


Subject(s)
Rats , Stomach Ulcer/complications , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/adverse effects , Ethanol/toxicity
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146130

ABSTRACT

Thyroid antibodies are frequently observed in urticaria patients, but their roles in urticaria are not clearly elucidated. We investigated the role of serum specific IgE to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in patients with aspirin intolerant acute urticaria (AIAU) and aspirin intolerant chronic urticaria (AICU). We recruited 59 AIAU and 96 AICU patients with 69 normal controls (NC). Serum specific IgE to TPO was measured by manual direct ELISA, and CD203c expressions on basophil with additions of TPO were measured to prove a direct role of TPO in effector cells. The prevalences of serum specific IgE to TPO were significantly higher in AIAU (15.2%) and AICU groups (7.5%) compared to NC (0%, P=0.018: P=0.013, respectively). Flow cytometry showed CD203c induction in a dose dependent manner with serial additions of TPO in some AIAU and AICU patients having high specific IgE to TPO. Our findings show that the prevalence of serum specific IgE to TPO was significantly higher in both AIAU and AICU patients than in NC. It is suggested that specific IgE to TPO play a pathogenic role in AIAU and AICU.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Aspirin/adverse effects , Autoantibodies/immunology , Basophils/drug effects , Humans , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Iodide Peroxidase/blood , Urticaria/chemically induced
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 727-733, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We evaluated the long-term outcome and clinical course of patients of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal injury by performing capsule endoscopy (CE). METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted using data collected from the CE nationwide database registry, which has been established since 2002. RESULTS: A total of 140 patients (87 males; mean age, 60.6+/-14.8 years) from the CE nationwide database registry (n=2,885) were diagnosed with NSAID-induced small intestinal injury and enrolled in our study. Forty-nine patients (35.0%) presented with a history of aspirin use and an additional 49 (35.0%) were taking NSAIDs without aspirin. The most prominent findings after performing CE were multiple ulcerations (n=82, 58.6%) and erosions or aphthae (n=32, 22.9%). During the follow-up period (mean, 15.9+/-19.0 months; range, 0 to 106 months), NSAID-induced small intestinal injury only recurred in six patients (4.3%). Older age and hypertension were positive predictive factors for recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the recurrence of NSAID-induced small bowel injury was not frequent in the presence of conservative treatment. Therefore, the initial diagnosis using CE and the medication history are important.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Aspirin/adverse effects , Capsule Endoscopy , Female , Humans , Intestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Intestine, Small/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Recurrence , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Ulcer/chemically induced
17.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 24(3): 9-20, jul.-set.2014.
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: lil-763793

ABSTRACT

A complicação mais séria da fibrilação atrial é o tromboembolismo sistêmico e oacidente vascular cerebral, sem dúvida, a condição mais grave. Fatores inerentesao próprio átrio (dilatação atrial, perda da função contrátil e lesão do endocárdioatrial), mas também alterações na coagulação sanguínea são as principais causasda trombose atrial. Doenças como a hipertensão arterial, diabetes mellitus, síndromesclínicas como a insuficiência cardíaca, além da idade avançada (acimados 75 anos) identificam os pacientes de maior risco para essa complicação tãograve. Essas informações fazem parte de um escore de risco para identificarpacientes mais propensos ao acidente vascular cerebral e utilizado na práticaclínica para tornar menos empírica a indicação da anticoagulação preventiva.A varfarina, o anticoagulante mais antigo e regularmente prescrito para essacondição, trouxe um benefício extraordinário para os pacientes de alto risco,reduzindo as taxas de tromboembolismo em 64%. Entretanto, o tratamentocom este fármaco traz alguns inconvenientes, como a necessidade de ajustesperiódicos da dose, a determinação frequente do estado de anticoagulação(avaliação do INR), interação com alimentos e outros medicamentos queacabam desestimulando seu uso diário, com a consequente perda da aderênciaao tratamento. Para contornar essa situação, a aspirina é muitas vezes prescrita;entretanto, seus efeitos e segurança, ao contrário do que se pensa, são apenasdiscretos. Nos últimos anos, os novos anticoagulantes, inibidores do fator XA(rivaroxabana e apixabana) e o bloqueador direto da trombina (dabigatrana)vêm sendo utilizados para melhorar essa situação, com a função primordial defacilitar o tratamento e aumentar o grau de proteção aos pacientes pela maioraderência ao tratamento.


The most serious complication of atrial fibrillation is systemic thromboembolismand stroke, undoubtedly the most severe condition. Factorsinherent to the atrium (atrial dilatation, loss of contractile function andatrial endocardial injury) but also changes in blood coagulation are themain causes of atrial thrombosis. Diseases such as hypertension, diabetesmellitus, clinical syndromes such as heart failure in addition to advancedage (above 75 years) identify patients at higher risk for this seriouscomplication. These data are part of a risk score to identify patients morelikely to stroke and used in clinical practice to become less empirical theindication of preventive anticoagulation. Warfarin, the oldest and regularlyprescribed anticoagulant for this condition, brought an extraordinarybenefit for high-risk patients, reducing rates of thromboembolism in 64%.However, treatment with this drug has some drawbacks such as the needfor periodic dose adjustments, frequent determination of the state ofanticoagulation (INR evaluation), interaction with food and other drugsthat end up discouraging its daily use, with consequent loss of adherenceto treatment. To work around this situation aspirin is often prescribedbut its effects and safety, contrary to popular belief, are only slight. Inrecent years the new anticoagulants, factor XA inhibitors (rivaroxabanand apixabana) and direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran) have been usedto improve this situation, with the primary function to facilitate treatmentand increase the degree of protection to patients by greater adherence totreatment. The great advantages of these agents are therapeutic efficacyat least similar to or greater than warfarin, lower rates of intracranial andsystemic bleeding and the rapid onset of action, which ensures a promptanticoagulation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Stroke/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Aspirin/adverse effects , Comorbidity , Risk Factors
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23616

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic hemostasis is the first-line treatment for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Although several factors are known to be risk factors for rebleeding, little is known about the use of antithrombotics. We tried to verify whether the use of antithrombotics affects rebleeding rate after a successful endoscopic hemostasis for peptic ulcer disease (PUD). UGIB patients who underwent successful endoscopic hemostasis were included. Rebleeding was diagnosed when the previously treated lesion bled again within 30 days of the initial episode. Of 522 UGIB patients with PUD, rebleeding occurred in 93 patients (17.8%). The rate of rebleeding was higher with aspirin medication (P=0.006) and after a long endoscopic hemostasis (P<0.001). Of all significant variables, procedure time longer than 13.5 min was related to the rate of rebleeding (OR, 2.899; 95% CI, 1.768-4.754; P<0.001) on the logistic regression analysis. The rate of rebleeding after endoscopic hemostasis for PUD is higher in the patients after a long endoscopic hemostasis. Endoscopic hemostasis longer than 13.5 min is related to rebleeding after a successful endoscopic hemostasis for PUD.


Subject(s)
Antithrombins/therapeutic use , Aspirin/adverse effects , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hemostasis, Endoscopic/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptic Ulcer/surgery , Recurrence , Upper Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology
20.
Rev. bras. cardiol. (Impr.) ; 26(3): 221-230, mai.-jun. 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-704391

ABSTRACT

A aterotrombose é uma doença do sistema circulatório cujas manifestações clínicas mais significativas (infarto do miocárdio e acidente vascular encefálico) representam atualmente as principais causas de mortalidade, com expectativa de que sua incidência aumente nos próximos anos. O uso clínico de antiagregantes plaquetários encontra-se firmemente consolidado como terapia de escolha na prevenção primária e secundária de eventos clínicos relacionados à aterotrombose. A presente revisão tem como objetivo realizar uma descrição dos aspectos gerais da aterotrombose e dos principais fármacos antiagregantes plaquetários, com uma descrição breve de seus aspectos farmacodinâmicos e farmacocinéticos.


Atherothrombosis is a circulatory system disease whose most significant clinical manifestations (myocardial infarction and stroke) are today the leading causes of death worldwide, expected to increase over the coming years. The clinical use of antiplatelet agents is firmly established as the therapy of choice in primary and secondary prevention of clinical events related to atherothrombosis. This review offers a description of the general aspects of atherothrombosis and the main antiplatelet drugs,with a brief outline of their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic aspects.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Risk Factors , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Aspirin/adverse effects
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