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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe2): 99-103, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280097

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Generally speaking, the physiological index of the human body is in a relatively stable state, which refers to the function of various organ systems with the characteristics of high-tide period, low-tide period and critical period. However, for competitive athletes, it is necessary to maintain physiological activation in both training and competition. In view of this, this study will analyze the physiological arousal degree of aspirin and acetaminophen in order to provide a reference for athletes to take analgesic drugs. In this study, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), principal component analysis and factor analysis, were used to construct a scientific evaluation system of physiological arousal level, and the medication and non-medication status of 90 athletes were evaluated. The results showed that aspirin was better than acetaminophen in blood urea and serum creatine kinase, and the comprehensive score of some athletes was higher than 0.95. Aspirin is better in arousing athletes' physiology. The research results will provide scientific guidance for athletes to take antipyretic and analgesic drugs.


RESUMO Em termos gerais, o índice fisiológico do corpo humano encontra-se num estado relativamente estável, que se refere à função de vários sistemas de órgãos no corpo humano, com as características do período de altas, período de baixas e período crítico. No entanto, para atletas competitivos, é necessário manter a ativação fisiológica em treinamento e competição. Em vista disso, este estudo irá analisar o grau fisiológico de excitação de aspirina e acetaminofeno, a fim de fornecer referência para os atletas a tomar medicamentos analgésicos. Neste estudo, o Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), análise de componentes principal e análise de fatores foram usados para construir um sistema de avaliação científica de nível de excitação fisiológica, e o estado de medicação e de não medicação de 90 atletas foram avaliados. Os resultados mostraram que a aspirina foi melhor do que o acetaminofeno na ureia sanguínea e na creatina quinase sérica, e o escore abrangente de alguns atletas foi maior do que 0.95. A aspirina é melhor no despertar da fisiologia dos atletas. Os resultados da pesquisa fornecerão orientação científica para os atletas tomarem medicamentos antipiréticos e analgésicos.


RESUMEN En términos generales, el índice fisiológico del cuerpo humano se encuentra en un estado relativamente estable, que se refiere a la función de varios sistemas de órganos en el cuerpo humano, con las características del período de altas, período de bajas y período crítico. Mientras tanto, para atletas competitivos, es necesario mantener la activación fisiológica en entrenamiento y competición. En vista de eso, este estudio analizará el grado fisiológico de excitación de aspirina y acetaminofeno, a fin de proveer referencia para los atletas para tomar medicamentos analgésicos. En este estudio, el Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), análisis de componentes principal y análisis de fatores fueron usados para construir un sistema de evaluación científica de nivel de excitación fisiológica, y el estado de medicación y de no medicación de 90 atletas fueron evaluados. Los resultados mostraron que la aspirina fue mejor que el acetaminofeno en la urea sanguínea y en la creatina quinasa sérica, y el escore abarcador de algunos atletas fue mayor de 0.95. La aspirina es mejor en el despertar de la fisiología de los atletas. Los resultados de la investigación proveerán orientación científica para que los atletas tomen medicamentos antipiréticos y analgésicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Track and Field/physiology , Aspirin/pharmacology , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/pharmacology , Athletes , Acetaminophen/pharmacology
2.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2020. 76 p. il., graf., tab..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1150922

ABSTRACT

A destruição periodontal resulta principalmente da resposta inflamatória exacerbada do hospedeiro frente ao desafio bacteriano. Por isso, pesquisas envolvendo a modulação da resposta do hospedeiro têm sido desenvolvidas com o objetivo de facilitar a resolução da inflamação, bem como promover reparação tecidual e estabilidade periodontal. Recentemente, o uso de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados de ômega-3 (AGP Ω-3) e ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS) foi relacionado à produção de mediadores lipídicos mais bioativos e à melhores resultados clínicos no tratamento de periodontite crônica. Desse modo, pesquisas envolvendo modulação das respostas inflamatórias de portadores de periodontite agressiva (PAg) podem ser de grande valia. Assim, o objetivo dos presentes estudos clínicos controlados randomizados foi avaliar a utilização da suplementação de 900 mg AGP Ω-3 e 100 mg de AAS por 180 dias como adjuvantes ao tratamento de PAg generalizada (PAgG). (1) Selecionou-se 38 pacientes com PAgG os quais receberam debridamento subgengival associado a AGP Ω-3 e AAS (n=19) ou placebo (n=19). Ambos os grupos apresentaram diminuição (p<0,05) em todos os parâmetros clínicos avaliados, bem como em IL-1ß, sem diferença entre os tratamentos (p>0,05). O nível de TIMP-2 diminuiu significantemente no grupo controle, porém se manteve estável no grupo teste. Concluiu-se que a nova terapia proposta não trouxe benefícios clínicos no tratamento não-cirúrgico de PAgG. (2) Selecionou-se 34 pacientes com PAgG previamente submetidos à terapia básica que apresentavam bolsas residuais e foram submetidos à cirurgia de acesso para raspagem e alisamento radicular associado a AGP Ω-3 e AAS (n=17) ou placebo (n=17). Após 6 meses, ambos os grupos obtiveram diminuição na PS (p<0,05), porém somente o grupo teste obteve ganho no NIC na comparação intergrupo (p=0,02), assim como apresentou menor recessão gengival (p=0,03), diminuição da hipersensibilidade dentinária (p=0,01), menor consumo de analgésicos (p=0,02) e diminuição intragrupo de IL-10 (p<0,05). Concluiu-se que a nova terapia proposta trouxe benefícios clínicos no tratamento de bolsas residuais de pacientes com PAgG(AU)


Periodontal destruction results mainly from the exacerbated host inflammatory response to the bacterial challenge. For this reason, research involving the modulation of host response has been developed aiming to facilitate the resolution of inflammation, as well as to promote tissue repair and periodontal stability. Recently, the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Ω-3 PUFA) and low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was related to the production of enhanced lipidic mediators and to better clinical outcomes in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Thus, the aim of the present randomized controlled clinical trials was to evaluate the use of 900 mg Ω-3PUFA and 100 mg ASA for 180 days as adjuvants to the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP). (1) Thirty-eight GAgP patients were submitted to subgingival debridement associated with Ω-3 PUFA and ASA (n=19) or placebo (n=19). Both groups showed a statistically significant decrease (p<0.05) in all clinical parameters, as well as a decrease in IL-1ß, with no difference between treatments (p>0.05). The TIMP-2 level significantly decreased in the control group and remained stable in the test group. It was concluded that the proposed new therapy did not bring clinical benefits in the non-surgical treatment (NST) of GAgP. (2) Thirty-four GAgP patients previously submitted to NST with residual pockets were selected and underwent open flap debridement associated with Ω-3 PUFA 3 and ASA (n=17) or placebo (n=17). After 6 months, both therapies led to decreased PD (p>0.05), but only the test group had CAL gain in the intergroup comparison (p=0,02), as well as presented less gingival recession (p=0,03), decreased dentin hypersensitivity (p=0,01), lower consumption of analgesics (p=0,02) and significant intragroup reduction of IL-10 (p<0.05). It was concluded that the proposed new therapy brought clinical benefits in the surgical treatment of GAgP patient(AU)


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Periodontal Pocket/complications , Aggressive Periodontitis/diagnosis , Aspirin/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/immunology
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 357-363, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038556

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: High platelet reactivity (HPR) during therapy with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is a poor prognostic factor in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The prevalence of HPR during ACS is greater than that reported in stable diseases. However, it is unclear whether this prevalence of HPR is a transient phenomenon or a characteristic of this high-risk population. Objective: The main objective is to compare the effects of ASA on platelet function in the initial and late phases of ACS in a single population. Secondary objectives are: correlation between the tests between themselves and the relationship between the tests and the variation of the inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6). Methods: Seventy patients with non-ST segment elevation (NSTE) ACS in use of 100-200 mg of ASA per day for at least 7 days were prospectively studied. Platelet function was assessed in the first 48 hours and subsequently after 3 months using four methods: VerifyNow™ (VFN), whole blood platelet aggregation (WBPA) with arachidonic acid (AA) and collagen as agonists, and platelet function analyzer (PFA). The level of statistical significance considered was < 0.05. Results: According to the more specific methods (WBPA with AA and VFN), the incidence of HPR was significantly higher in the early phase than in the late phase: WBPA with AA: 31% versus 13%, p = 0.015; VFN: 32% versus 16%, p = 0.049. The other methods tested, which were less specific for ASA, did not show significant differences between phases. The correlation between the methods was weak or moderate (r ranging from 0.3 to 0.5, p < 0.05), and there were no significant associations between HPR and inflammatory markers. Conclusion: The prevalence of HPR during AAS therapy, assessed by specific methods for cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), is higher during the acute phase than in the late phase of NSTE ACS.


Resumo Fundamento: A alta atividade plaquetária (AAP) durante a terapia com ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS) é fator de mau prognóstico nas síndromes coronarianas agudas (SCA). A prevalência de AAP durante a SCA é maior do que a relatada na doença estável. No entanto, não está claro se esta prevalência de AAP é um fenômeno transitório ou característica dessa população de alto risco. Objetivo: O objetivo principal é comparar, em uma mesma população, os efeitos do AAS sobre a função plaquetária nas fases inicial e tardia da SCA. Os objetivos secundários são: correlação entre os testes entre si e a relação entre os testes e a variação dos marcadores inflamatórios (proteína C reativa e interleucina-6). Métodos: Foram estudados prospectivamente 70 pacientes com SCA sem elevação de ST (SCSST) em uso de 100 a 200 mg de AAS por dia por pelo menos 7 dias. A função plaquetária foi avaliada nas primeiras 48 horas e 3 meses após por quatro métodos: VerifyNow™ (VFN), agregometria de sangue total (AST) com ácido araquidônico (AA) e colágeno como agonistas, e analisador de função plaquetária (PFA). O nível de significância estatístico considerado foi < 0,05. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 65 ±9,7 anos e 54% da população eram do sexo feminino. De acordo com os métodos mais específicos (AST com AA e VFN), a incidência de AAP foi significativamente maior na fase inicial, em relação à tardia: AST com AA 31% versus 13%, p = 0,015; VFN 32% versus 16%, p = 0,049. Os outros métodos testados, menos específicos para o AAS, não mostraram diferenças significativas entre as fases. A correlação entre os métodos foi fraca ou moderada (r variando de 0,3 a 0,5, p < 0,05), e não houve associações significativas entre AAP e marcadores inflamatórios. Conclusão: A prevalência de AAP durante a terapia com AAS, avaliada por métodos específicos para cicloxigenase 1 (COX-1), é maior durante a fase aguda do que na tardia da SCASST.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Platelet Function Tests , Blood Platelet Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Aspirin/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 739-743, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002287

ABSTRACT

La preeclampsia (PE) es un trastorno hipertensivo inducido por el embarazo donde se reduce la presión de la perfusión uterina. Investigaciones avalan el uso de dosis baja de aspirina (DBAAS) y su utilidad en la prevención de PE en gestantes con factores de riesgo. Sus beneficios en modelos animales sometidos a esta reduccción no están determinados. El objetivo de la investigación fue analizar la presión arterial sistémica y los hallazgos morfológicos a nivel renal en fetos de ratas con reducción de la presión de perfusión uterina (RPPU) expuestas a DBAAS en comparación a las no expuestas. Se conformaron cuatro grupos de ratas hembras preñadas Sprague Dawley (n=5). A los 14,5 días post-concepción (dpc), vía quirúrgica se indujo RPPU, ligando arterias uterinas, conformándose el grupo RPPU y el grupo RPPU+DBAAS al que se le administró 5 mg/kg/día de aspirina vía oral. El grupo control lo conformaron las no operadas y el grupo DBAAS se le administró aspirina en igual dosis desde el 14,5 dpc. A los 18,5 dpc, previo a la eutansia se midió la presión arterial sistémica con pletismógrafo caudal Insight v2.11 y se extrajeron los fetos. Se midió la longitud céfalo-caudal (LCC), se procesaron y tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina, describiéndose cortes histológicos transversales a nivel renal. Se determinó que en la presión arterial media, hubo diferencias significativas entre el grupo RPPU y RPPU+DBAAS (p<0,05). El tamaño de los fetos fue menor en el grupo RPPU (p<0,0001), donde 1 feto presentó hernia umbilical congénita. La cuantificación de vesículas renales también fue menor (p<0,005). En conclusión, la administración de DBAAS disminuye los efectos inducidos por la RPPU en cuanto al tamaño fetal, morfología renal y malformaciones congénitas como hernia umbilical. En cuanto a la presión arterial sistémica, tendría efectos sólo en presión arterial media.


Preeclampsia (PE) is a hypertensive disorder induced by pregnancy where there is a reduction in the uterine perfusion pressure. Research supports the use of low dose aspirin (LDAAS) and its usefulness in the prevention of PE in pregnant women with risk factors. Their benefits in animal models subject to RUPP are not determined. The objective of the investigation was to analyze the systemic blood pressure and the morphological findings at renal level in fetuses of rats with reduction of uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) exposed to LDAAS compared to those not exposed. Four groups of pregnant female rats Sprague Dawley (n=5) were formed. At 14.5 days post-conception (dpc), surgical RUPP was induced, ligating uterine arteries, with the RUPP group and RUPP+LDAAS group being given 5 mg/kg/day of aspirin orally. The control group was made up of those not operated and the LDAAS group was administered aspirin in the same dose from 14.5 dpc. A 18.5 dpc, prior to euthanasia systemic blood pressure was measured with flow plethysmograph Insight v2.11 and fetuses were extracted. The cephalo-caudal length (CCL) was measured, processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, describing transverse histological sections at the kidney level. It was determined that in the mean arterial pressure, there were significant differences between the group RUPP and RUPP+LDAAS (p <0.05). The size of the fetuses was lower in the RUPP group (p <0.0001), where one fetus presented congenital umbilical hernia. The quantification of renal vesicles was also lower (p <0.005). In conclusion, the administration of LDAAS decreases the effects induced by RUPP in terms of fetal size, renal morphology and congenital malformations such as umbilical hernia. Regarding the systemic blood pressure, effects would only mean arterial pressure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/drug therapy , Perfusion , Regional Blood Flow , Uterus/blood supply , Aspirin/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Fetus , Arterial Pressure/drug effects
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 48-53, 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990003

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Los niveles de VEGF y su unión a sus receptores son etapas claves en la regulación de la angiogénesis. El ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS), ampliamente utilizado en tratamiento post infarto al miocardio ha mostrado poseer un efecto antiangiogénico en modelos tumorales. Este efecto potencialmente contraproducente requiere ser estudiado en miocardio. El objetivo del presente trabajo es cuantificar el efecto de AAS y de ácido salicílico (AS) sobre la vascularización en membrana alantocoriónica (MAC) y sobre los niveles de VEGF-A y VEGFR2 en miocardio de embriones de pollo. Para ello, treinta fetos de pollo White Leghorn fueron instilados a los 10 días de gestación con 60 µL de DMSO 0,1 % (control) o conteniendo además 0,3 µmol de AAS o AS. A las 48 horas se realizó procesamiento histológico de MAC para recuento de vasos sanguíneos y de tejido cardíaco para cuantificar VEGF-A y VEGFR2 por inmunohistoquímica. La inmunorreactividad fue cuantificada mediante Image J. Tanto AAS como AS disminuyeron la densidad microvascular de MAC. En miocardio, AAS aunque no AS, disminuyó la concentración de VEGFR2. No hubo efecto sobre VEGF-A. En nuestro modelo experimental, fetos de pollo a los 10 días de gestación también se observó el efecto inhibidor de AAS sobre la angiogénesis en MAC. La disminución de VEGFR2 en cardiomiocitos sugiere que AAS también afecta la angiogénesis en miocardio sano, modificando la disponibilidad del receptor a VEGF. Estos hallazgos nos permiten postular que AAS podría interferir con la regeneración de tejido, en situaciones como post infarto al miocardio.


SUMMARY: The VEGF levels and its binding to its receptors are key stages in the regulation of angiogenesis. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), widely used in post-myocardial infarction treatment, has been shown to have an anti-angiogenic effect in tumor models. This potentially counterproductive effect requires to be studied in myocardium. The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of ASA and salicylic acid (SA) on the vascularization in chick allantochorionic membrane (CAM) and on the levels of VEGF-A and VEGFR2 in myocardium of chicken embryos. Thirty White Leghorn chicken fetuses were instilled at 10 days of gestation with 60 mL of 0.1 % DMSO (control) or also containing 0.3 mmol of ASA or SA. After 48 hours, CAM histological processing was performed to count blood vessels and heart tissue to quantify VEGFA and VEGFR2 by immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactivity was quantified by Image J. Both ASA and SA decreased CAM microvascular density. In myocardium, AAS, although not SA, decreased the concentration of VEGFR2. There was no effect on VEGF-A. In our experimental model, chicken fetuses at 10 days of gestation, the inhibitory effect of ASA on angiogenesis in CAM were also observed. The decrease in VEGFR2 in cardiomyocytes suggests that ASA also affects angiogenesis in healthy myocardium, modifying the availability of the receptor to VEGF. These findings allow us to postulate that ASA could interfere with tissue regeneration, when it is required, as post myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chick Embryo , Aspirin/pharmacology , Salicylic Acid/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/drug effects , Heart/drug effects , Immunohistochemistry , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
6.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 24(6): 418-421, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977843

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze fibrous scar tissue inhibition capacity with the use of losartan, hydrocortisone and acetylsalicylic acid. METHOD: The sample consisted of 120 male heterogeneic Wistar rats with a muscle laceration model. The rats were divided into four groups of 30 animals each: control group, losartan group, ASA group and hydrocortisone group. The animals were anesthetized and a 2.5 cm longitudinal incision was made in the left thoracolumbar paravertebral region. The muscles were subjected to a Grade III lesion caused by applying Kelly hemostatic forceps for 60 seconds, followed by sectioning with scissors. The skin was sutured with 3-0 nylon monofilament thread. The animals were placed in individual cages with plenty of food and water. The losartan group received losartan diluted in water at a dose of 0.1 mg/mL (10 mg/kg/day), the ASA Group received a 3 mg/mL ASA solution (300 mg/kg/day), and the hydrocortisone group received a 0.2 mg/mL hydrocortisone solution (20 mg/kg/day). RESULTS: The control, losartan, hydrocortisone and aspirin groups had a fibrotic area of 0.95 ± 0.35 mm, 0.55 ± 0.34 mm, 0.93 ± 0.33 mm, and 0.66 ± 0.36 mm, respectively. We observed a significantly smaller fibrotic area in the losartan group compared to the control (p=0.01) and hydrocortisone (p=0.01) groups. There were no significant differences among the other groups. CONCLUSION: The healing of striated skeletal muscle produced less fibrous scar tissue when exposed to losartan in comparison to the control group or the hydrocortisone group. Level of Evidence I; Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.


OBJETIVO: Analisar a capacidade de inibição de formação de tecido cicatricial fibroso com losartana, hidrocortisona e AAS. MÉTODOS: A amostra consistiu em 120 ratos Wistar heterogênicos machos com modelo de laceração muscular. Os ratos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de 30 animais: grupo controle, grupo losartana, grupo AAS e grupo hidrocortisona. Os animais foram anestesiados e submetidos a uma incisão em sentido longitudinal de 2,5 cm de extensão na região paravertebral toracolombar esquerda, e os músculos sofreram uma lesão grau III com pinça hemostática de Kelly durante 60 segundos e posterior secção com tesoura. A pele foi suturada com nylon monofilamentar 3-0. Os animais foram colocados em gaiolas individuais, com água e alimento à vontade. O grupo losartana recebeu losartana diluída em água na dose de 0,1 mg/ml (10 mg/kg/dia), o grupo AAS recebeu solução de AAS 3 mg/ml (300 mg/kg/dia), o grupo hidrocortisona recebeu solução de hidrocortisona 0,2 mg/ml (20 mg/kg/ dia). RESULTADOS: Os grupos controle, losartana, hidrocortisona e AAS apresentaram área fibrótica de0,95 ± 0,35 mm, 0,55 ± 0,34 mm, 0,93 ± 0,33 mm, 0,66 ± 0,36 mm, respectivamente. Observou-se área fibrótica significativamente menor do grupo losartana em comparação com o grupo controle (p = 0,01) e hidrocortisona (p = 0,01). Nos demais grupos não houve diferença significativa. CONCLUSÃO: A cicatrização do músculo estriado esquelético produziu menos tecido cicatricial fibroso quando exposto à losartana do que quando comparado com o grupo controle ou o grupo hidrocortisona. Nível de Evidência I; Estudo duplo-cego randomizado controlado por placebo.


OBJETIVO: Analizar la capacidad de inhibición de formación de tejido cicatricial fibroso con losartán, hidrocortisona y AAS (ácido acetilsalicílico). MÉTODOS: La muestra consistió en 120 ratas Wistar heterogéneas machos con modelo de laceración muscular. Las ratas fueron distribuidas en cuatro grupos de 30 animales: grupo control; grupo losartán; grupo AAS y grupo hidrocortisona. Los animales fueron anestesiados y sometidos a una incisión longitudinal de 2,5 cm de extensión en la región paravertebral toracolumbar izquierda y los músculos sufrieron una lesión de grado III con pinza hemostática de Kelly durante 60 segundos y posterior sección con tijera. La piel se suturó con monofilamento de nylon 3-0. Los animales fueron dispuestos en jaulas individuales con abundante comida y agua. El grupo losartán recibió losartán diluido en agua a una dosis de 0,1 mg/ml (10 mg/kg/día), el grupo AAS recibió solución de AAS de 3 mg/ml (dosis 300 mg/kg/día), el grupo hidrocortisona recibió solución hidrocortisona de 0,2 mg/ml (20 mg/kg/día). RESULTADOS: Los grupos control, losartán, hidrocortisona y AAS mostraron área fibrótica de 0,95 ± 0,35 mm, 0,55 ± 0,34 mm, 0,93 ± 0,33 mm, 0,66 ± 0,36 mm, respectivamente. Se observó área fibrótica significativamente menor del grupo losartán en comparación con el grupo control (p = 0,01) e hidrocortisona (p = 0,01). En los demás grupos no hubo diferencias significativas. CONCLUSIÓN: La cicatrización del músculo estriado esquelético produjo menos tejido cicatricial fibroso cuando fue expuesto a losartán que cuando fue comparado con el grupo control o el grupo hidrocortisona. Nivel de Evidencia I; Estudio doble ciego aleatorio controlado por placebo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Regeneration/drug effects , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Losartan/administration & dosage , Losartan/pharmacology , Fibrosis/drug therapy , Hydrocortisone/administration & dosage , Hydrocortisone/pharmacology , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Aspirin/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Recovery of Function , Animal Experimentation
7.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 105(2): 70-77, jun. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-908058

ABSTRACT

El temor a desarrollar un sangrado excesivo lleva a los especialistas a suspender el tratamiento con antiagregantes plaquetarios -de rutina en pacientes con patología cardíaca isquémica, fibrilación atrial y stents coronarios, entre otros- antes de un procedimiento quirúrgico. La interrupción pone en riesgo la vida del paciente, pues estas terapias se utilizan para la prevención de accidentes trombóticos. Este trabajo se propuso realizar una revisión bibliográfica de los pacientes en terapia con antiagregantes plaquetarios sometidos a procedimientos quirúrgicos odontológicos. Labúsqueda se efectuó por medio del portal PubMed a partir de palabras clave como exodontia, aspirin, antiplatelet therapy y clopidogrel. Se incluyeron aquellos artículos que hacen referencia a la indicación y el manejo de la terapia con antiagregantes plaquetarios –en monoterapia o terapia dual– antes deuna cirugía dentoalveolar. El riesgo de sangrado intraoperatorio es ciertamente mayoren los pacientes en terapia con antiagregantes plaquetarios. Sin embargo, el sangrado posoperatorio no lo es, puespuede ser controlado satisfactoriamente con medidas locales. Además, la prevención del peligro de sangrado no compensael riesgo de tromboembolismo que implica la suspensión dela terapia.Los procedimientos quirúrgicos en pacientes con antiagregantes plaquetarios pueden llevarse a cabo de forma segura,sin alteración o modificación de la terapia, siempre y cuando se tomen las medidas pertinentes de hemostasia, y mientras sean realizados por un profesional con la experiencia necesaria. De todas formas, se aconseja consultar al médico especialista antes de interrumpir cualquier terapia.


The fear of developing an excessive bleeding leads thespecialists to discontinue the treatment with antiplatelet drugsbefore a surgical procedure increasing the risk of thromboembolicevents in patients. These therapies are used routinely forthe prevention of thrombotic events in patients with ischemicheart disease, atrial fibrillation and coronary stents, amongothers.The aim was to review the literature about the case ofpatients under antiplatelet therapy in need of surgical dentalprocedures. The following search terms were used in PubMed:exodontia, aspirin, antiplatelet therapy, clopidogrel. Articlesthat made a reference to the indication and management ofboth mono and dual antiplatelet therapy in patients who areundergoing dentoalveolar surgery were included.The risk of intraoperative bleeding is certainly greater forpatients on therapy with antiplatelet agents. However this isnot due to postoperative bleeding that can be satisfactorilycontrolled with local measures and this increased risk is notworth the risk of thromboembolism which the interruption ofthe therapy involves.Surgical procedures in patients receiving antiplateletagents can be safely carried out without alteration or modification of the therapy. It is important to implementappropriate hemostasis measures and the procedures haveto be conducted by a dentist with adequate experience inthis type of cases. Similarly, it is advisable to consult aphysician to decide if therapy discontinuation is appropriate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Care for Chronically Ill/methods , Myocardial Ischemia/complications , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Tooth Extraction/standards , Aspirin/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Dipyridamole/therapeutic use , Hemostatics/standards , Oral Hemorrhage/prevention & control
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(1): e5660, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839238

ABSTRACT

Clopidogrel and aspirin are the most commonly used medications worldwide for dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, clopidogrel hyporesponsiveness related to gene polymorphisms is a concern. Populations with higher degrees of genetic admixture may have increased prevalence of clopidogrel hyporesponsiveness. To assess this, we genotyped CYP2C19, ABCB1, and PON1 in 187 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Race was self-defined by patients. We also performed light transmission aggregometry with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid during dual antiplatelet therapy. We found a significant difference for presence of the CYP2C19*2 polymorphism between white and non-white patients. Although 7% of patients had platelet resistance to clopidogrel, this did not correlate with any of the tested genetic polymorphisms. We did not find platelet resistance to aspirin in this cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with PON1 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms had higher light transmission after ADP aggregometry than patients with native alleles. There was no preponderance of any race in patients with higher light transmission aggregometry. In brief, PON1 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms were associated with lower clopidogrel responsiveness in this sample. Despite differences in CYP2C19 polymorphisms across white and non-white patients, genetic admixture by itself was not able to identify clopidogrel hyporesponsiveness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aspirin/pharmacology , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ticlopidine/analogs & derivatives , Alleles , Aryldialkylphosphatase/genetics , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B/genetics , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19/genetics , Drug Therapy, Combination , Genotype , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Polymorphism, Genetic , Prospective Studies , Ticlopidine/pharmacology
9.
In. Kalil Filho, Roberto; Fuster, Valetim; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva de. Medicina cardiovascular reduzindo o impacto das doenças / Cardiovascular medicine reducing the impact of diseases. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2016. p.545-569.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971555
10.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 35(2): 127-132, 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-796798

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS) es ampliamente utilizado en el manejo de patología cardiovascular. En modelos "in vitro" el AAS restringe la angiogénesis, atribuyéndose este efecto al bloqueo de ciclooxigenasa-1, manteniendo íntegra la zona adhe-rente endotelial, citotoxicidad directa y otras vías de señalización. Hipótesis: El AAS en concentración terapéutica antiplaquetaria utilizada en humanos ejerce un efecto antiangiogénico en modelo de membrana alantocorió-nica de pollo (MAC). Objetivo: Comparar la capacidad antiangiogénica del AAS en distintas concentraciones en MAC utilizando como punto de comparación la angiogénesis fisiológica de la MAC. Método: Se incubaron 46 huevos fecundados de gallinas White Leghorn, en cámara temperada a 37°C, provenientes del Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile. Mediante procedimiento descrito por Ribatti (2006), se instiló sobre filtro de metilcelulosa 10uL de Dimetilsulfóxido al 0.1% + m199, sin fármaco al control, asociado a AAS y ácido salicílico (AS) a los grupos de estudio en concentraciones 2mM y 5 mM. Posteriormente se fijó y analizó la muestra en forma ciega. Resultados: El promedio de vasos del control fue 21.8. Para el grupo AAS 2mM y 5mM fue 11.3 y 10, siendo para el grupo AS 2mM y 5mM 15.6 y 12.4. El análisis estadístico mediante ANOVA y t-Student muestra que todos los grupos que recibieron fármacos tuvieron una disminución significativa en el numero de vasos sanguíneos en relación al grupo control. No hubo diferencias significativas entre ambo grupos de AAS. El AS demostró tener mayor potencia antiangiogénica dosis dependiente. Discusión: En este estudio se demuestra que el AAS ejerce un efecto antiangiogénico en concentración terapéutica en condiciones fisiológicas de un modelo "in vivo".


Background: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used in the treatment of various cardiovascular disorders. In vitro, AAS decreases angiogenesis, through cyclo-oxigenase-1 blockade while keeping active the adherent endothelial zone, direct toxicity and other signaling pathways. Hypothesis: AAS at therapeutic anti plaquetary doses exerts an anti-angiogenic effect in the alanto choronic chicken membrane (ACM) Method: 46 fertilized eggs form White Leghorn hens were incubated at 37oC. 10 uL of 0.1% Dimethyl sulfoxide +Ml 19 with no drug were used as control, while experimental groups received ASA and Salicylic acid (SA), 2mM. After fixation, samples were analyzed in a blind fashion Results: The mean number of vessels was 21.8 for controls, 11.3 and 10 for ASA 2mM and ASA 5mM, respectively. Corresponding values for SA 2 and SA 5mM were 15.6 and 12.4, respectively. Thus, a statistically significant (ANOVA and Student's t) decrease in the number of vessels was observed in both ASA groups. SA showed had a greater potential for anti-angiogenesis in a dose dependent way. Conclusion: This study shows that ASA in therapeutic concentrations has an anti-angiogenic effect in a physiologic model in vivo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chick Embryo , Aspirin/pharmacology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Chorioallantoic Membrane , Chickens
11.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2016. 134 p. graf, ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-881509

ABSTRACT

A terapia antiagregante é comumente indicada na prevenção e tratamento de doenças cardiovasculares. A dupla antiagregação com clopidrogrel e ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS) tem sido frequentemente adotada em pacientes com Doença Arterial Coronariana (DAC), mas apresenta ineficácia em uma parcela significativa da população com genótipo de respondedores. Essa falha terapêutica nos leva a questionar se outros mecanismos moleculares podem estar influenciando na resposta a esses fármacos. Recentes estudos sugerem que pequenas sequências de RNA não codificantes denominadas microRNAs (miRNAs) podem estar fortemente relacionadas com resposta ao tratamento fármaco-terapêutico, controlando as proteínas envolvidas na farmacocinética e farmacodinâmica. Entretanto, os principais miRNAs que atuam na dinâmica da resposta medicamentosa ainda não foram bem definidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o perfil de miRNAs no sangue total periférico, procurando melhor esclarecer os mecanismos envolvidos na resposta aos antiagregantes plaquetários AAS e clopidogrel. Para isso, selecionou-se pacientes com DAC, os quais apresentavam diferentes respostas à dupla terapia de antiagregação determinadas pelo teste de agregação plaquetária. Baseados nos fenótipos, os perfis de expressão de miRNAs foram comparados entre os valores da taxa de agregação categorizados em tercis (T) de resposta. O grupo T1 foi constituído de pacientes respondedores, o T2 de respondedores intermediários e o T3 de não respondedores. Os perfis de miRNAs foram obtidos após sequenciamento de última geração e os dados obtidos foram analisados pelo pacote Deseq2. Os resultados mostraram 18 miRNAs diferentemente expressos entre os dois tercis extremos. Dentre esses miRNAs, 10 deles apresentaram importantes alvos relacionados com vias de ativação e agregação plaquetária quando analisados pelo software Ingenuity®. Dos 10 miRNAs, 4 deles, os quais apresentaram-se menos expressos no sequenciamento, demonstraram os mesmos perfis de expressão quando analisados pela reação em cadeia pela polimerase quantitativa (qPCR): hsa-miR-423-3p, hsa-miR-744-5p, hsa-miR- 30a-5p e hsa-let-7g-5p. A partir das análises de predição de alvos, pôde-se observar que os quatro miRNAs, quando menos expressos simultaneamente, predizem ativação da agregação plaquetária. Além disso, os miRNAs hsa-miR- 423-5p, hsa-miR-744-5p e hsa-let-7g-5p mostraram correlação com o perfil lipídico dos pacientes que, por sua vez, apresentou influência nos valores de agregação compreendidos no T3 de resposta a ambos os medicamentos. Sendo assim, conclui-se que maiores taxas de agregação plaquetária podem estar indiretamente relacionadas com os padrões de expressão de hsa-miR- 423-3p, hsa-miR-744-5p e hsa-let-7g-5p. Sugere-se que a avaliação do perfil de expressão destes 3 miRNAs no sangue periférico de pacientes com DAC possa predizer resposta terapêutica inadequada ao AAS e ao clopidogrel


The antiplatelet therapy is often indicated for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has often been adopted in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), but it has been ineffective in a significant portion of the population with genotype of responders. This fact leads us to question whether other molecular mechanisms may be influencing the response to these drugs. Recent studies suggest that small non-coding RNA sequences known as microRNAs (miRNAs) may be closely related to response to drug-therapeutic treatment, controlling proteins involved in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of miRNAs in whole blood, looking to better clarify mechanisms involved in ASA and clopidogrel response. For this purpose, we selected CAD patients who showed different responses to dual antiplatelet therapy determined by aggregation test. Based on the phenotypes, the miRNA expression profiles were compared between the platelet aggregation values categorized into tertiles (T) of response. The T1 group consisted of responding patients, the T2 consisted of intermediate responders and the T3 consisted of non-responders. The miRNA profiles were obtained after next-generation sequencing and data were analyzed by Deseq2 package. Results showed that 18 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two extreme tertiles. By Ingenuity® software prediction analysis, 10 miRNAs showed important targets related with activation and aggregation of blood platelets. Of the 10 miRNAs, 4 of them, which were down-expressed on sequencing, showed the same fold-regulation when expression profiles were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR): hsa-miR-423-3p, hsa-miR-744-5p, hsa-miR-30a-5p and has-hsa- let-7g-5p. By target prediction analysis, it was observed that, when the four miRNAs are simultaneously down-expressed, they predict activation of platelet aggregation. Furthermore, hsa-miR-423-5p, hsa-miR-744-5p, and hsa-let-7g-5p showed correlation with the lipid profile of patients which, in turn, demonstrated influence in aggregation values reaching T3 of response to both drugs. Therefore, we concluded that increased platelet aggregation rates may be indirectly related to the expression profiles of hsa-miR-423-3p, hsa-miR-744-5p and hsa-let-7g-5p. It is suggested that the evaluation of the expression profile of these three miRNAs in the peripheral blood of patients with CAD may predict inadequate therapeutic response to aspirin and clopidogrel


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspirin/pharmacology , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , MicroRNAs/analysis , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Biological Specimen Banks/statistics & numerical data , Gene Library , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110767

ABSTRACT

The protective effect of aspirin during exposure to heat stress in broiler chickens was investigated. We assayed pathological damage, expression and distribution of Hsp90 protein and hsp90 mRNA expression in chicken heart tissues after oral administration of aspirin following exposure to high temperature for varying times. Heat stress induced increases in plasma aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities while causing severe heart damage, which was characterized by granular and vacuolar degeneration, nuclear shrinkage and even myocardium fragmentation in cardiac muscle fibers. After aspirin administration, myocardial cells showed fewer pathological lesions than broilers treated with heat alone. A high positive Hsp90 signal was always detected in the nuclei of myocardial cells from broilers treated with aspirin, while in myocardial cells treated with heat alone, Hsp90 in the nuclei decreased, as did that in the cytoplasm. Aspirin induced rapid and significant synthesis of Hsp90 before and at the initial phase of heat stress, and significant expression of hsp90 mRNA was stimulated throughout the experiment when compared with cells exposed to heat stress alone. Thus, specific pre-induction of Hsp90 in cardiovascular tissue was useful for resisting heat stress damage because it produced stable damage-related enzymes and fewer pathologic changes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Aspirin/pharmacology , Cell Nucleus/genetics , Chickens , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Hot Temperature , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Stress, Physiological/drug effects
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1379-1383, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741290

ABSTRACT

Candida albicans is an opportunistic dimorphic fungus that inhabits various host mucosal sites. It can cause both superficial and serious systemic disease. Conversion from the yeast to the hyphal form has been associated with increased virulence and mucosal invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium diclofenac and aspirin on germs tube formation of different Candida albicans strains. Prostaglandins may play an important role in fungal colonization. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are inhibitors of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes. These drugs specifically block the biosynthesis of mammalian prostaglandins by inhibiting one or both of cyclooxygenase isoenzymes. In tests for germ tube formation sodium diclofenac reduced the filamentation to the 12.5%- 5.1%. In the presence of aspirin the filamentation was reduced up to 85-45% depending on the tested strain. Our results suggest that cyclooxygenase-depending synthesis of fungal prostaglandins is important for morphogenesis and fungal virulence. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase isoensymes (aspirin and diclofenac) are effective in decreasing germ tube formation of Candida albicans.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candida albicans/growth & development , Hyphae/drug effects , Hyphae/growth & development , Aspirin/pharmacology , Candida albicans/cytology , Diclofenac/pharmacology , Hyphae/cytology
14.
IPMJ-Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2014; 13 (3): 434-441
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-149010

ABSTRACT

Preeclampsia [PE]is a potentially life-threatening hypertensive disorder affecting 2-7% of all pregnancies, It is a leading cause of maternal mortality ,and associated with high perinatal mortality and morbidity, including intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR] and prematurity. A daily low dose of aspirin [60-80 mg /day] may use for prevention and treatment of PE and fetal growth retardation in pregnant women at risk. To assess the influence of aspirin therapy on the histology of placenta from mothers with PE and to correlate the findings with those from pre -eclamptic mothers but not using aspirin during their pregnancy and with placenta from normal Pregnancies. This study was carried out on one hundred twenty pregnant women, thirty five with uncomplicated pregnancy and eighty five mothers with PE, fifty of these hypertensive women on aspirin therapy since first trimester. It was found that mothers with pre- eclampsia either take aspirin or not had relatively smaller, irregular placentae. Histological features of vascular insufficiency like thrombosis, cytotrophoblastic cellular proliferation, fibrin plaque formation etc. were present in more or less similar amount in both groups of hypertensive placentae. Babies of such mothers were mostly small for date. Despite the little improvement in outcomes of the aspirin treated pregnancy, histologic evidence of placental pathology persisted in the majority of women with PE. so aspirin therapy is not effective in preventing and treatment PE


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aspirin/pharmacology , Pregnancy , Hypertension , Prospective Studies
15.
Annals Abbassi Shaheed Hospital and Karachi Medical and Dental College. 2014; 19 (1): 37-40
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-168075

ABSTRACT

To determine the Lisinopril and Aspirin interaction through their concurrent effect on bleeding in adult male rabbits. Twenty four healthy adult male rabbits were used. Bleeding time of each animal was determined by Duke's Method. They were divided randomly in three groups containing equal number of animals into Control, Aspirin, Lisinopril and Combination groups. After oral administration of the drug[s], the bleeding time of the animals was again determined by same method. Prolongation of bleeding time was significant [p<0.05] in Aspirin and combination groups but insignificant [p>0.05] in Lisinopril group after 1 hour. It was significant [p<0.05] in Aspirin and Lisinopril groups but insignificant [p>0.05] in Combination group after 24 hours. This change was observed after 48 hours too. Concurrent use of Lisinopril reduces the effect of Aspirin on Bleeding after a certain time period


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Aspirin/pharmacology , Hemorrhage , Bleeding Time , Drug Interactions , Rabbits
16.
Rev. med. interna ; 17(Suppl 1): s12-s17, nov. 2013. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-836237

ABSTRACT

La población mundial >60 años es el grupo etario de más rápido crecimiento, la cual vivirá mayoritariamente en países menos desarrollados, como Guatemala. Las Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (ECV) son la principal causa de muerte de este grupo a nivel mundial y en nuestro país. La estrategia preventiva es el mejor camino para luchar con éxito contra el impacto de las ECV. Son importantes, los cambios en el estilo de vida, actividad física regular, dieta mediterránea, medidas de prevención de la cardiopatía coronaria y del accidente Cerebrovascular, además del control de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular de manera especial Hipertensión Arterial y Diabetes Mellitus, así como utilización de aspirina y estatinas. Se debería implementar más ampliamente la Prevención cardiovascular en el adulto mayor, con el fin de contribuir a mejorar la calidad de vida de este segmento creciente de población.


World population >60 years old, it is the group with fastest growing, which will live mostly in developingcountries like Guatemala. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among this groupworldwide as our country. The preventive strategy is the best way to successfully combat the impact of CVD.There are important things to do, like, changes in lifestyle, regular physical activity, Mediterranean diet,prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke, as well, as control of cardiovascular risk factors, especiallyHypertension and Diabetes Mellitus and use of aspirin and statins. Should be implemented more widely thecardiovascular prevention in the elderly, in order to help improve the quality of life for this growing segment ofthe population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspirin/pharmacology , Exercise , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hypertension/complications , Life Style
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223715

ABSTRACT

Here, we report that B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) is a novel target molecule of aspirin in breast cancer cells. Aspirin influenced the formation of a complex by Bcl-2 and FKBP38 and induced the nuclear translocation of Bcl-2 and its phosphorylation. These events inhibited cancer cell proliferation and subsequently enhanced MCF-7 breast cancer cell apoptosis. Bcl-2 knockdown using small interfering RNA (siRNA) delayed apoptotic cell death, which correlated with increased proliferation following aspirin exposure. In contrast, Bcl-2 overexpression enhanced the onset of aspirin-induced apoptosis, which was also associated with a significant increase in Bcl-2 phosphorylation in the nucleus. Therefore, this study may provide novel insight into the molecular mechanism of aspirin, particularly its anticancer effects in Bcl-2- and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/drug effects , Apoptosis , Aspirin/pharmacology , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Phosphorylation , Protein Binding , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/genetics , Tacrolimus Binding Proteins/metabolism
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213998

ABSTRACT

T-helper (Th)17 cell responses are important for the development of neutrophilic inflammatory disease. Recently, we found that acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) inhibited Th17 airway inflammation in an asthma mouse model induced by sensitization with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-containing allergens. To investigate the mechanism(s) of the inhibitory effect of ASA on the development of Th17 airway inflammation, a neutrophilic asthma mouse model was generated by intranasal sensitization with LPS plus ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with OVA alone. Immunologic parameters and airway inflammation were evaluated 6 and 48 h after the last OVA challenge. ASA inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-17 from lung T cells as well as in vitro Th17 polarization induced by IL-6. Additionally, ASA, but not salicylic acid, suppressed Th17 airway inflammation, which was associated with decreased expression of acetyl-STAT3 (downstream signaling of IL-6) in the lung. Moreover, the production of IL-6 from inflammatory cells, induced by IL-17, was abolished by treatment with ASA, whereas that induced by LPS was not. Altogether, ASA, likely via its acetyl moiety, inhibits Th17 airway inflammation by blockade of IL-6 and IL-17 positive feedback.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aspirin/pharmacology , Cell Polarity/drug effects , Feedback, Physiological/drug effects , Interferon-gamma/deficiency , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Th17 Cells/drug effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/pharmacology
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 99(6): 1135-1141, dez. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-662372

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: A dupla terapia antiagregante plaquetária com ácido acetilsalicílico e clopidogrel é pedra angular do tratamento de pacientes submetidos a angioplastia com implante de stents coronarianos. Todavia, parte desses pacientes, a despeito do uso de aspirina e clopidogrel, não se encontram eficazmente antiagregados, fenômeno conhecido como resistência aos antiagregantes plaquetários. A sua prevalência, assim como as condições a ela relacionadas são desconhecidas em nosso meio. OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de resistência ao clopidogrel, assim como as variáveis a ela relacionadas. MÉTODOS: Pacientes admitidos para angioplastia eletiva em uso crônico de aspirina e clopidogrel entre janeiro de 2007 e janeiro de 2010. Uma hora após o procedimento, foi medida a agregação plaquetária utilizando a agregometria óptica com difosfato de adenosina 5 µmoles/l como agonista. Nesse momento, em um coorte transversal, determinou-se a prevalência de resistência ao clopidogrel, definida com um valor de agregação plaquetária > 43% e um modelo de regressão logística às variáveis a ela relacionadas. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 205 pacientes (66,4 ± 11anos, 61,5% masculino). A prevalência de resistência ao clopidogrel foi 38,5% (IC95% 31,9 - 45,2%). O valor da glicemia (OR = 1,014 IC95% 1,004 - 1,023), infarto do miocárdio prévio (OR = 2,320 IC95% 1,1103 - 4,892) e a resposta terapêutica à aspirina (OR = 1,057 IC95% 1,017 - 1,099) foram as variavéis de associação independente à resistência ao clopidogrel. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de resistência ao clopidogrel foi alta. Glicemia, infarto agudo do miocárdio prévio e a resposta ao ácido acetilsalicílico foram variáveis a ela relacionadas. A melhor compreensão desse fenômeno se faz necessária frente às novas propostas de antiagregantes plaquetários.


BACKGROUND: The dual antiplatelet therapy with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel is the cornerstone of treatment for patients undergoing angioplasty with coronary stent implantation. However, some of these patients, despite the use of aspirin and clopidogrel, are not effectively anti-aggregated, a phenomenon known as resistance to antiplatelet agents. Its prevalence, as well as the conditions associated with it, is unknown in our country. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of clopidogrel resistance, as well as variables associated with it. METHODS: Patients admitted for elective angioplasty in chronic use of ASA and clopidogrel between January 2007 and January 2010 were studied. One hour after the procedure, platelet aggregation was measured using optical aggregometry with adenosine diphosphate 5 mmoles / l as agonist. At that moment, in a cross-sectional cohort, we determined the prevalence of clopidogrel resistance, defined as the value of platelet aggregation > 43% and a logistic regression model to the variables associated with it. RESULTS: A total of 205 patients were analyzed (66.4 ± 11 years, 61.5% males). The prevalence of clopidogrel resistance was 38.5% (95% CI: 31.9 - 45.2%). Blood glucose (OR = 1.014; 95%CI: 1.004 - 1.023), previous myocardial infarction (OR = 2.320; 95%CI: 1.1103 - 4.892) and therapeutic response to ASA (OR = 1.057; 95%CI: 1.017 - 1.099) were the variables independently associated with clopidogrel resistance. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of clopidogrel resistance was high. Glycemia, acute myocardial infarction and response to ASA were variables associated with it. A better understanding of this phenomenon is necessary considering the new antiplatelet aggregant agents.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Drug Resistance , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Stents , Ticlopidine/analogs & derivatives , Aspirin/pharmacology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ticlopidine/pharmacology
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 27(11): 795-801, Nov. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-654247

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of aspirin 10% and 20% on mesenteric lymph nodes of rabbits as basis for its use on lymph nodes metastases. METHODS: A total of 20 lymph nodes from 20 rabbits (randomized in four groups) were evaluated. Aspirin solutions 10% (groups A and C) and 20% (groups B and D) were injected into mesenteric lymph nodes of healthy rabbits and had its gross and histological effects evaluated at 24 hours (groups A and B) and at seven days (groups C and D). RESULTS: In the groups A and B evaluated at 24 hours it was observed extensive necrosis and hemorrhage, a significant increase in apoptosis throughout the lymph node with medullary sinuses enlargement and an increase in germinal centers. In the groups C and D evaluated at seven days of solution injection there was also an increase in apoptosis with higher elevation of histiocytes and a significant decrease of necrosis and an increase of giant cells was noticed causing a foreign body chronic inflammation. In all comparisons, there were no differences between the concentrations used (10 and 20%). CONCLUSIONS: The injection of aspirin on lymph nodes caused necrosis and an increase of apoptosis after 24 hours and after seven days of treatment there was regeneration of the lymph nodes, with intense decrease of necrosis and a great elevation of apoptosis. These experimental results support future clinical studies on application of aspirin in the treatment of lymphatic metastases, since the increase of apoptosis is one of the pillars of cancer therapy.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do ácido acetilsalicílico a 10% e 20% em linfonodos mesentéricos de coelhos para posterior embasamento e uso em metástases linfonodais. MÉTODOS: Um total de 20 linfonodos de 20 coelhos (divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos) foi avaliado. As soluções de aspirina a 10% (grupos A e C) e 20% (grupos B e D) foram injetadas em linfonodos mesentéricos de coelhos sadios e seus efeitos macroscópicos e histológicos foram avaliados em 24 horas (grupos A e B) e em sete dias (grupos C e D). RESULTADOS: Nos grupos avaliados em 24 horas (A e B) foi verificada intensa necrose e hemorragia, aumento importante de apoptose em todo o linfonodo, com alargamento dos seios medulares e aumento dos centros germinativos. Nos grupos avaliados em sete dias (C e D) também houve aumento da apoptose, com maior elevação de histiócitos e diminuição importante da necrose; a hemorragia foi ausente e aumento de células gigantes foi visualizado, conferindo processo inflamatório crônico do tipo corpo estranho. Não houve diferença entre as concentrações utilizadas (10 e 20%) em nenhuma das comparações. CONCLUSÕES: A injeção de aspirina em linfonodos causou necrose e um aumento de apoptose após 24 horas e após sete dias de tratamento, houve regeneração dos gânglios linfáticos, com diminuição intensa de necrose e grande aumento de apoptose. Uma vez que o aumento de apoptose é um dos pilares dos tratamentos antineoplásicos, estes resultados experimentais embasam eventual aplicação clínica da aspirina no tratamento de metástases linfonodais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Aspirin/pharmacology , Lymph Nodes/drug effects , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/physiology , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor/methods , Germinal Center/drug effects , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Mesentery , Necrosis/chemically induced , Random Allocation , Time Factors
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