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1.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 376-383, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985683

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics, pathological diagnosis and prognosis of diffuse midline glioma (DMG) with H3K27 alteration in adults. Methods: Twenty cases of H3K27-altered adult DMG diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University were enrolled from 2017 to 2022. All cases were evaluated by clinical and imaging presentations, HE, immunohistochemical staining and molecular genetics; and the relevant literature was reviewed. Results: The ratio of male to female was 1∶1, and the median age was 53 years (range from 25 to 74 years); the tumors were located in the brainstem (3/20, 15%) and non-brainstem (17/20, 85%; three in thoracolumbar spinal cord and one in pineal region). The clinical manifestations were non-specific, mostly dizziness, headache, blurred vision, memory loss, low back pain, limb sensation and/or movement disorders, etc. Microscopically, the tumors showed infiltrative growth, with WHO grade 2 (3 cases), grade 3 (12 cases), and grade 4 (5 cases). The tumors showed astrocytoma-like and oligdendroglioma-like, pilocytic astrocytoma-like and epithelioid-like patterns. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for GFAP, Olig2 and H3K27M, and H3K27me3 expression was variably lost. ATRX expression was lost in four cases, p53 was strongly positive in 11 cases. Ki-67 index was about 5%-70%. Molecular genetics showed p. k27m mutation in exon 1 of H3F3A gene in 20 cases; BRAF mutation in two cases: V600E and L597Q mutation in one case each. Follow up intervals ranged from 1 to 58 months, and the survival time for brainstem (6.0 months) and non-brainstem (30.4 months) tumors was significantly different (P<0.05). Conclusions: DMG with H3K27 alteration is uncommonly found in adults, mostly occurs in non-brainstem, and can present in adults of all ages. Owing to the wide histomorphologic features, mainly astrocytic differentiation, routine detection of H3K27me3 in midline glioma is recommended. Molecular testing should be performed on any suspected cases to avoid missed diagnosis. Concomitant BRAF L597Q mutation and PPM1D mutation are novel findings. The overall prognosis of this tumor is poor, with tumors located in the brainstem showing worse outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Histones/genetics , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/metabolism , Glioma/pathology , Astrocytoma/pathology , Mutation
2.
Medisan ; 26(3)jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1405810

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los tumores intramedulares son poco usuales y se generan dentro del tejido de la médula espinal, desplazando o invadiendo la materia blanca, los tractos y los cuerpos neuronales. Objetivo: Caracterizar a pacientes con tumores y seudotumores raquídeos intradurales intramedulares según variables clínicas, imagenológicas (resonancia magnética) e histopatológicas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo de 11 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico provisional de tumor o seudotumor raquídeo intramedular, confirmado por medio de la resonancia magnética, quienes fueron atendidos en el Departamento de Imagenología del Hospital General Docente Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso de Santiago de Cuba de enero de 2014 a igual mes de 2017, procedentes de los hospitales generales de esta provincia y de Guantánamo. Resultados: En la investigación primaron las féminas (63,6 %), sobre todo en las edades de 40 a 59 años (45,4 %), así como las manifestaciones clínicas de debilidad muscular (100,0 %) y dolor en la columna vertebral (81,8 %). De acuerdo a la intensidad de las señales obtenidas en la resonancia magnética, resultaron más frecuentes las imágenes heterogéneas, predominantemente en la zona dorsal. Asimismo, sobresalió la mielopatía compresiva dorsal (27,3 %) como diagnóstico clínico de sospecha, mientras que 54,5 % de los diagnósticos imagenológicos fueron confirmados histopatológicamente, con un mayor porcentaje en el caso de los astrocitomas (36,4). Conclusiones: La resonancia magnética es el método imagenológico de elección para la identificación de estos tumores, dado que ofrece una aproximación al diagnóstico definitivo, el cual es corroborado mediante el estudio anatomopatológico.


Introduction: The intramedullary tumors are not very usual and they are generated inside the tissue of the spinal cord, displacing or invading the white matter, tracts and neuronal bodies. Objective: To characterize patients with intradural intramedullary spinal canal tumors and seudotumors according to clinical, imaging (magnetic resonance) and histopatologic variables. Methods: An observational, descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study of 11 patients with clinical provisional diagnosis of intramedullary spinal canal tumor or seudotumor was carried out, confirmed by means of magnetic resonance who were assisted in the Imaging Department of Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba from January, 2014 to the same month in 2017, coming from the general hospitals of this province and Guantánamo. Results: In the investigation there was a prevalence of females (63.6 %), mainly in the ages of 40 to 59 (45.4 %), as well as the clinical signs of muscular weakness (100.0 %) and pain in the spine (81.8 %). According to the intensity of signs obtained in the magnetic resonance, the heterogeneous images were more frequent, predominantly in the dorsal area. Also, dorsal compressive myelopathy was notable (27.3 %) as clinical diagnosis of suspicion, while 54.5 % of the imaging diagnosis was histopathologically confirmed, with a higher percentage in the case of astrocytomas (36.4). Conclusions: The magnetic resonance is the radiological method of election for the identification of these tumors, since it offers an approach to the definitive diagnosis, which is corroborated by means of the pathologic study.


Subject(s)
Spinal Neoplasms , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Astrocytoma , Ependymoma
3.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 60(1): 124-129, mar. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388417

ABSTRACT

Resumen El presente caso es un ejemplo del síndrome de la mano inútil de Oppenheim secundario a un astrocitoma cervical alto. La pérdida sensorial propioceptiva y discriminativa suspendida con conservación de la termoalgesia y el tacto crudo en ambas extremidades superiores es secundaria al daño a la entrada de la raíz dorsal y al núcleo cuneiforme. La torpeza y las dificultades para una prensión precisa con la mano se deben al daño del núcleo proprioespinal en las astas dorsales a nivel C3-C4. Este núcleo integra influencias excitadoras descendentes del tracto corticoespinal e interneuronas inhibitorias controladas por los sistemas descendentes y las aferencias de las extremidades anteriores. Probablemente la pérdida de las aferentes cervicales propioceptivas inhibitorias sea la culpable de las dificultades para agarrar con las manos.


The present case is an example of the useless hand syndrome of Oppenheim secondary to a high cervical astrocytoma. The suspended proprioceptive and discriminative sensory loss with conservation of thermoalgesia and crude touch in both upper extremities is secondary to damage to dorsal root entry and cuneate nucleus. The clumsiness and difficulties in precise grasping with the hand are due to damage of the propriospinal nucleus in the dorsal horns at C3-C4 level. This nucleus integrates descending excitatory influences from corticospinal tract and inhibitory interneurons controlled by descending systems and the forelimb afferents. Probably the loss of the inhibitory proprioceptive cervical afferents is the culprit of the difficulties in grasping by the hands.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Astrocytoma/complications , Spinal Neoplasms/complications , Stereognosis , Hand/physiopathology , Syndrome
4.
MedUNAB ; 24(3): 359-364, 202112.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353578

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico es una lesión glial de bajo grado de malignidad (grado II), puede presentar transformación maligna progresando a xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico anaplásico o glioblastoma multiforme, clasificados en grado III y IV, respectivamente, de acuerdo con la OMS. El glioblastoma epitelioide es un subtipo morfológico poco común del glioblastoma, de comportamiento agresivo, asociado a recurrencia temprana y compromiso leptomeníngeo. Presentación del caso. Se describe un reporte de caso de paciente femenina de 13 años con hallazgos de xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico anaplásico asociado a glioblastoma epitelioide, neoplasia poco frecuente que suele presentarse en la población pediátrica y en los adultos jóvenes. Discusión. El diagnóstico de glioblastoma epitelioide constituye un desafío, solo se han reportado unas pocas series pequeñas en la población adulta y pediátrica. Conclusión. Los hallazgos imagenológicos en las dos entidades son similares y comparten características histopatológicas e incluso algunos hallazgos moleculares superpuestos, lo cual dificulta su diferenciación, por lo que continúa siendo de gran controversia si se presentan conjuntamente o si el xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico anaplásico es un precursor del glioblastoma epitelioide.


Introduction. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma is a glial lesion with low grade of malignancy (grade II), it can present malignant transformation progressing to anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme, classified as grade III and IV, respectively, according to the WHO. Epithelioid glioblastoma is a rare morphological subtype of glioblastoma, with aggressive behavior, associated with early recurrence and leptomeningeal compromise. Case Presentation. Case report of a 13-year-old female patient with findings of anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma associated with epithelioid glioblastoma, a rare neoplasm that usually occurs in the pediatric population and in young adults. Discussion. The diagnosis of epithelioid glioblastoma is challenging, only a few small series have been reported in the adult and pediatric population. Conclusion. The imaging findings in the two entities are similar and share histopathological characteristics and even some overlapping molecular findings, which makes their differentiation difficult. For this reason, there is still a great controversy whether these entities are present continuously or whether the anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma is a precursor of epithelioid glioblastoma.


Introdução. O xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico é uma lesão glial de baixo grau de malignidade (grau II), pode apresentar transformação maligna progredindo para xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico anaplásico ou glioblastoma multiforme, classificados como grau III e IV, respectivamente, de acordo com a OMS. O glioblastoma epitelióide é um subtipo morfológico raro de glioblastoma, com comportamento agressivo, associado a recorrência precoce e envolvimento leptomeníngeo. Apresentação do caso. É descrito um relatório de caso de uma paciente feminina de 13 anos com achados de xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico anaplásico associado ao glioblastoma epitelióide, uma neoplasia rara que geralmente ocorre na população pediátrica e em adultos jovens. Discussão. O diagnóstico do glioblastoma epitélioide é desafiador, apenas algumas pequenas séries foram reportadas na população adulta e pediátrica. Conclusão. As descobertas imagiológicas nas duas entidades são semelhantes e compartilham características histopatológicas e, até mesmo, algumas descobertas moleculares sobrepostas, o que dificulta sua diferenciação, portanto permanece controverso se ocorrem juntas ou se o xantoastrocitoma pleomórfico anaplásico é um precursor do glioblastoma epitélioide.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Astrocytoma , Glioblastoma , Diagnosis, Differential , Glioma
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992, Impr.) ; 67(7): 975-978, July 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346932

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Gliomas are tumors originating from glial cells. Gliomas are the most common primary neoplasms of the central nervous system, with astrocytomas being the most prevalent glioma subtype. Progesterone regulates several reproductive processes, such as ovulation and sexual behavior, and influences neuronal excitability, learning, and the neoplastic proliferation of glial cells. Progesterone functions mainly by interacting with intracellular progesterone receptors to modify the expression of the genes involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and epidermal growth factor production. As not many studies on the hormone receptors in glial tumors have been reported, the objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of these proteins in astrocytomas and to determine whether their expression levels vary according to the tumor grade. METHODS: This was a retrospective study using glial tumor paraffin blocks obtained from the São Marcos Hospital Pathology Department archives. Forty cases were divided equally into two groups, based on histological types and the World Health Organization criteria (low- and high-grade tumors). Progesterone receptor expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The data were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman's correlation coefficient; results with p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the mean nuclear progesterone receptor expression of low-grade (0.1495) and high-grade (0.0937) astrocytomas (p=0.2). CONCLUSION: Progesterone receptors are present in both low- and high-grade gliomas; however, there is no significant difference in the levels of progesterone receptor expression between the tumor grades.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Astrocytoma , Brain Neoplasms , Progesterone , Receptors, Progesterone , Retrospective Studies
6.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 40(2): 186-189, 15/06/2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362256

ABSTRACT

The most common mixed glioma encountered in routine surgical practice is oligoastrocytoma (OA); however, its is currently considered a vanishing entity. The 2016 classification of the World Health Organization (WHO) discourages the diagnosis of tumors as mixed glioma. The recommendations are that diffuse gliomas, including those withmixed or ambiguous histological features, should be subjected tomolecular testing. Dual-genotype OAs are not yet a distinct entity or variant in the classification. We report a case ofmixed glioma: a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA)mixed with an oligodendroglioma. The immunohistochemistry (IHC) pattern of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) negativity with retained nuclear expression of the alpha-thalassemia x-linked intellectual disability syndrome (ATRX) protein, and 1p19q co-deletion negativity in both the components enabled its identification as a mixed glioma rather than a collision tumor. To the best of our knowledge, the case herein presented is the fourth case of PXA with oligodendroglioma. Out of the other three reported cases, only one was of a collision tumor with a dual genotype, and the other two showed similar molecular signatures in both components. The present article discusses the histological, immunohistochemical and molecular features of the aforementioned case.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Oligodendroglioma/surgery , Astrocytoma/surgery , Brain Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/surgery , Oligodendroglioma/pathology , Oligodendroglioma/diagnostic imaging , Astrocytoma/pathology , Temporal Lobe/surgery , Aconitate Hydratase/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 , Chromosome Deletion , Telomerase/genetics , Craniotomy/methods
7.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 85(1): 3-10, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155707

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Analizar características por resonancia magnética (RM) de gliomas IDH-mutados (grado II y III) en base a parámetros cualitativos, a fin de valorar el rendimiento del signo del mismatch T2-FLAIR y otras características morfológicas de los tumores, en predecir el estado del 1p/19q y su reproducibilidad interobservador. Métodos Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y analítico sobre una cohorte de 53 gliomas IDH-mutados (grado II y III) y molecularmente definidos respecto al 1p/19q, seleccionados a partir de la base de datos de la institución, durante el periodo 2014- 2019. Dos neuroradiólogos evaluaron características imagenológicas de forma independiente y enmascarada al diagnóstico: mismatch T2-FLAIR, localización tumoral, bordes, señal, infiltración cortical e inhomogeneidad en T2. Los casos discordantes fueron evaluados por un tercer neuroradiólogo de mayor experiencia. Resultados: Treinta de 53 (56,6%) gliomas fueron no codelecionados, y 23/53 (43,4%) codelecionados. El signo del mismatch T2-FLAIR fue positivo en 16/53 (30,18%) pacientes, 15/16 (93,75%) no codelecionados y 1/16 (6,25%) codelecionado (Exacto de Fisher p = <,0001). Los dos evaluadores demostraron una concordancia interobservador casi perfecta para ese signo, κ =,907 (95% CI, 0,781 a 1,0). La especificidad y el valor predictivo positivo del signo para predecir la ausencia de la codeleción fue de un 95,7% y un 93,8% respectivamente. Discusión: La reciente actualización en la clasificación de los gliomas los clasifica acorde a su perfil molecular. En los últimos años, varios investigadores han estudiado características morfológicas por RM de los tumores con la intención de predecir las características moleculares de los mismos. Conclusión: En nuestra población, el signo del mismatch T2-FLAIR es el único biomarcador radiológico que muestra asociación estadísticamente significativa en predecir la ausencia de codeleción en los gliomas IDH-mutados (grado II y III), con una alta especificidad y un alto valor predictivo positivo.


Abstract Objective: To analyze magnetic resonance (MR) characteristics of IDH-mutated gliomas (grades II/III) utilizing qualitative parameters with the goal of assessing the performance of the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign and other morphological characteristics of tumors in predicting the 1p/19q co-deletion status as well as inter-observer reproducibility. Methods: Retrospective and descriptive study analyzing a cohort of 53 IDH-mutated lower-grade (grades II/III) gliomas with known 1p/19q co-deletion status. Patients meeting selection criteria for this study were taken from our institutional data from 2014-2019. Two neuroradiologists assessed the following imaging characteristics independently, and blinded from the diagnosis: T2-FLAIR mismatch, tumor location, borders, signal characteristics, cortical infiltration and T2* inhomogeneity. In the event of discordant interpretations, a third senior neuroradiologist also evaluated the case. Results: 23 of the 53 (43.4%) gliomas demonstrated 1p/19q co-deletion and 30 of 53 (56.6%) did not. T2-FLAIR mismatch was positive in 16 of 53 cases (30.2%) with 15 of 16 (93.8%) demonstrating no co-deletion and 1/16 (6.25%) with co-deletion (Fisher's exact p = < .0001). The two readers showed an almost perfect interreader agreement for this sign κ = 0.907 (95% CI, 0.781 to 1.0). Specificity and positive predictive value of the sign to predict the absence of co-deletion was 95.7% and 93.8% respectively. Discussion: The recent update in classification of lower-grade gliomas segregates gliomas according to molecular profile. In the recent past, many researchers have studied MR morphologic characteristics of these tumors with the intention of predicting molecular features of said tumors Conclusion: In our patient population, T2-FLAIR mismatch sign is the only radiologic biomarker that shows statistically significant association with the absence of 1p/19q co-deletion in lower-grade gliomas, with high specificity and positive predictive value.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Biomarkers , Glioma/diagnostic imaging , Oligodendroglioma/diagnostic imaging , Astrocytoma/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Glioma/classification
8.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354573

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Os gliomas representam 80% dos tumores do sistema nervoso central. A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) adicionou, em 2016, critérios moleculares na classificação dos gliomas. A fisiopatologia e os fatores de risco desses tumores ainda não são totalmente conhecidos. Objetivo: Realizar uma análise retrospectiva dos laudos anatomopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos de gliomas. Método: Estudo transversal, retrospectivo e descritivo, a partir de exames anatomopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos realizados entre janeiro de 2014 e dezembro de 2018 em um laboratório de anatomia patológica na cidade de Maringá-PR. Dos 234 laudos relacionados com o termo glioma, 204 foram selecionados para este estudo. Resultados: Foram encontrados tumores astrocitários, ependimários e oligodendrogliais, sendo que os astrocitomas corresponderam à maioria (86,8% dos casos encontrados). A média de idade ao diagnóstico foi de 51,8 anos e houve maior prevalência desses tumores no sexo masculino. Também foram analisadas mutações detectáveis por imuno-histoquímica como p53 (mutada em 66,7% dos testados), isocitrato desidrogenase (IDH) (28,6% mutados), X-linked alpha-thalassemia mental retardation (ATRX) (21,0%) e marcadores diagnósticos como o epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) positivo em todos os ependimomas analisados. Conclusão: É inegável a necessidade de novas pesquisas sobre os gliomas tanto no campo epidemiológico, tendo em vista a nova classificação, quanto no escopo fisiopatológico e clínico, com o objetivo de melhorar o entendimento sobre a patologia e o tratamento dos pacientes


Introduction: Gliomas represent 80% of the central nervous system tumors. World Health Organization (WHO) has added, in 2016, molecular features to the classification of gliomas. The pathophysiology and risk factors of these tumors are not yet fully understood. Objective: Perform a retrospective analysis of immunohistochemical and anatomopathological reports of gliomas. Method: Cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study carried out from anatomopathological and immunohistochemical exams made between January 2014 and December 2018 in a pathological anatomy laboratory in the city of Maringá-PR. Of the 234 reports related to the term glioma, 204 were selected for this study. Results: Astrocytic, ependymal and oligodendroglial tumors were found, with astrocytomas accounting for the majority (86.8% of the cases found). Mean age at diagnosis was 51.8 years and the prevalence was higher in men. Furthermore, immunohistochemically detectable mutations were analyzed, such as p53 (mutated in 66.7% of those tested), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) (28.6% mutated), X-linked alpha-thalassemia mental retardation (ATRX) (21.0%) and diagnostic markers such as positive epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) in all analyzed ependymomas. Conclusion: The necessity of further researches on gliomas is undeniable , both epidemiologically considering the new classification and within the clinical and pathophysiological scope in order to improve the understanding of the pathology and the treatment for the patients


Introducción: Los gliomas representan 80% de los tumores del sistema nervioso central. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) agregó, en 2016, criterios moleculares sobre como clasificar los gliomas. La fisiopatología y los factores de riesgo de estos tumores aún no se comprenden completamente. Objetivo: Realizar un análisis retrospectivo de informes inmunohistoquímicos y anatomopatológicos de gliomas. Método: Estudio transversal, retrospectivo y descriptivo con base em pruebas anatomopatológicas e inmunohistoquímicas realizadas entre enero de 2014 y diciembre de 2018 en un laboratorio de anatomía patológica de la ciudad de Maringá-PR. De los 234 informes relacionados con el término glioma, se seleccionaron 204 para este estudio. Resultados: Se encontraron tumores astrocíticos, ependimarios y oligodendrogliales, siendo los astrocitomas la mayoría (86,8% de los casos encontrados). La edad media al diagnóstico fue de 51,8 años y hubo una mayor prevalencia de estos tumores en el sexo masculino. También se analizaron mutaciones detectables inmunohistoquímicamente, como p53 (mutado en 66,7% de los analizados), isocitrato desidrogenase(IDH) (28,6% mutado), X-linked alpha-thalassemia mental retardation (ATRX) (21,0%) y marcadores de diagnóstico como epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) positivo en todos los ependimomas analizados. Conclusión: Es innegable la necesidad de profundizaren las investigaciones sobre los gliomas, tanto en el campo epidemiológico, ante la nueva clasificación, como en el ámbito fisiopatológico y clínico, con el objetivo de mejorar el conocimiento sobre la patología y el tratamiento de los pacientes


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Astrocytoma , Immunohistochemistry , Molecular Epidemiology , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Glioma/classification , Glioma/immunology
9.
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 32(2): 5568-5562, jun. 2021. imag
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427519

ABSTRACT

El astrocitoma pilocítico (AP) es el tumor más común del sistema nervioso central (SNC) en la población pediátrica. Es considerado un glioma circunscrito debido a su curso benigno. Aparece como una lesión bien determinada, típicamente quística, con un nódulo mural hiperintenso. Tiene una lenta tasa de crecimiento y baja celularidad. El AP se origina principalmente en el cerebelo, la vía óptica y la región hipotalámica/quiasmática. Se presenta un caso inusual de diseminación de un AP de fosa posterior al canal espinal en una adolescente de 16 años.


Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common Central Nervous System (CNS) tumor in the pediatric population. It is regarded as a Circumscribed Glioma, due to its benign course. PA is a well-circumscribed, typically cystic lesion with a hyper-intense mural nodule. It shows a slow rate of growth and low cellularity. PA arises mostly in the cerebellum, optic pathway and hypothalamic/chiasmatic region. We report an unusual case of PA dissemination from the posterior fossa to the spinal canal in a 16 year old teenager.


Subject(s)
Astrocytoma , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis
10.
Med. lab ; 25(4): 709-719, 2021. ilus, Tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370842

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Los gliomas son las neoplasias malignas primarias más frecuentes del sistema nervioso central, asociadas con una mortalidad y morbilidad elevadas. Las mutaciones en los genes IDH1 e IDH2 de la enzima isocitrato deshidrogenasa (IDH) son clave en la tumorogénesis, y son consideradas un factor pronóstico importante en estas neoplasias. En este estudio se buscó determinar la presencia de mutaciones de los genes IDH1 e IDH2 en pacientes con diagnóstico de glioma difuso en diferentes grados, y su correlación con la sobrevida. Metodología. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y retrospectivo. La población de estudio fueron pacientes entre los 18 y 45 años con diagnóstico de glioma difuso grado II, III y IV, atendidos en el Hospital San Vicente Fundación de Medellín, entre 2012 y 2017, en quienes se realizó un análisis de mutaciones en los genes IDH1 e IDH2 por secuenciación Sanger y tinción de inmunohistoquímica. Resultados. Se incluyeron 14 pacientes con edad promedio de 37 años, 57% de sexo masculino. Glioblastoma fue la neoplasia más frecuente, diagnosticada en el 42,9% de casos. Por inmunohistoquímica, 10 de los 14 (71,4%) pacientes presentaron mutación de la enzima IDH1, en tanto que 1 de los 11 (9%) pacientes en quienes se logró la secuenciación del gen IDH2, mostró mutación. En general, el 78,6% presentó mutaciones de la enzima IDH, con promedio de sobrevida de 48 meses. Conclusión. Estos hallazgos sugieren que los gliomas son un grupo heterogéneo de tumores, con gran variabilidad genética que impacta en su pronóstico y comportamiento


Introduction. Gliomas are the most common primary malignancies of the central nervous system, associated with high mortality and morbidity. Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) enzyme IDH1 and IDH2 genes, are key in tumorigenesis, and are considered an important prognostic factor in these neoplasms. This study aimed to determine the presence of IDH1 and IDH2 gene mutations in patients diagnosed with diffuse glioma in different degrees, and their correlation with survival. Methodology. A descriptive, prospective and retrospective study was conducted. The study population consisted of patients between the ages of 18 and 45 with a diagnosis of grade II, III and IV diffuse glioma, treated at the Hospital San Vicente Fundación in Medellín, between 2012 and 2017, in whom an analysis of IDH1 and IDH2 gene mutations was performed by Sanger sequencing and immunohistochemical staining. Results. Fourteen patients with a mean age of 37 years were included, 57% were male. Glioblastoma was the most frequent neoplasm, diagnosed in 42.9% of the cases. By immunohistochemistry, 10 of the 14 (71.4%) patients had a mutation of the IDH1 enzyme, while 1 of the 11 (9%) patients in whom IDH2 gene sequencing was achieved showed a mutation. In general, 78.6% had IDH enzyme mutations, with an average survival of 48 months. Conclusion. These findings suggest that gliomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors, withgreat genetic variability that impacts their prognosis and behavior


Subject(s)
Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Oligodendroglioma , Astrocytoma , Immunohistochemistry , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Mutation
11.
Philippine Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 32-36, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-961160

ABSTRACT

@#Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma is a rare tumor that occurs in the walls of the lateral ventricles, foramen of Monro, and less frequently, in the third ventricle. It is one of the intracranial lesions found in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) ─ a rare multisystem genetic disease. We present a rare case of an adult Filipino with cutaneous signs of TSC, who initially presented with signs of increased intracranial pressure. The patient underwent right frontal craniotomy, endoport-assisted excision of the tumor with insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. Histopathology was consistent with a subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma WHO grade 1. The general status of the patient improved thereafter – there was the relief of headache and improvement in vision and gross hearing. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma is a rare tumor of the central nervous system especially in adults, whose diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological, and histological, and immunohistochemical stains. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass near the foramen of Monro. Given the hereditary nature of the disease, genetic counseling is essential when encountering patients with this condition.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Tuberous Sclerosis
12.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 77(6): 303-311, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142480

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Astrocytomas are cancer tumors of the central nervous system and represent the most common type of solid tumors during human childhood. In 2016, the World Health Organization established a molecular classification system to regroup tumor entities to achieve a more accurate diagnosis and a better clinical decision-making and selection of treatment in patients with these types of tumors. Methods: We evaluated a genotyping assay for rapid and cost-effective mutation detection in astrocytomas using TaqMan probes in an asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Results: Four diffuse astrocytomas (Grade II), three anaplastic astrocytomas (Grade III), and four glioblastomas (Grade IV) were sequenced, and all of them displayed the wild-type (WT) sequence. We tried to set up this melting analysis for the genotyping of pediatric astrocytomas by identifying the specific melting temperatures of the TaqMan probes due to the presence of the WT sequences in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) and H3.3 histone A genes (H3F3A). We used an IDH1-TaqMan probe to identify the WT status of IDH1 in two different WT deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) templates (pilocytic and diffuse astrocytoma) and obtained four melting temperature values ranged from 65.6 to 92.2°C. Furthermore, only four out of 29 reactions displayed amplification of the DNA template. Sanger sequencing was faster and more reliable to detect the gene status in all the sequenced samples. Conclusions: We conclude that conventional Sanger sequencing remains the gold standard for the genotyping of pediatric astrocytomas.


Resumen Introducción: Los astrocitomas son un tipo de cáncer que afecta al sistema nervioso central y representan el tumor sólido más común durante la infancia. En el año 2016, la Organización Mundial de la Salud estableció un sistema de clasificación molecular para reagrupar tumores con identidades genéticas similares y lograr un diagnóstico más preciso, lo que lleva a tomar las decisiones clínicas idóneas al elegir el tratamiento de pacientes con este tipo de tumores. Métodos: Se evaluó un protocolo que involucra el uso de sondas TaqMan en un ensayo de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa asimétrica para la detección de mutaciones en astrocitomas. Se secuenciaron cuatro astrocitomas difusos (Grado II), tres astrocitomas anaplásicos (Grado III) y cuatro glioblastomas (Grado IV). Se intentó establecer las condiciones del análisis para la genotipificación de los astrocitomas pediátricos mediante la identificación de las temperaturas de disociación específicas de las sondas TaqMan producidas por la prescencia de las secuancias WT en los genes isocitrato deshidrogenasa 1 y 2 (IDH1, IDH2) y H3.3 histona A (H3F3A). Resultados: Los astrocitomas mostraron la secuencia wild type (WT) (silvestre) de los genes. Se utilizó una sonda TaqMan IDH1 para identificar el estado de este gen en dos templados WT de DNA (astrocitoma pilocítico y difuso) y se obtuvieron cuatro valores de temperatura de disociación (65.6-92.2 °C). Solo cuatro de las 29 reacciones mostraron amplificación de DNA. La secuenciación de Sanger fue más rápida y confiable para detectar el estado de los genes en todas las muestras. Conclusiones: La secuenciación de Sanger sigue siendo la técnica más práctica para la genotipificación de astrocitomas pediátricos.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Astrocytoma , Brain Neoplasms , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Genotyping Techniques , Astrocytoma/diagnosis , Astrocytoma/genetics , Brain Neoplasms/diagnosis , Histones , DNA Probes , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Transition Temperature , Glioma , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Mutation
13.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(4): 276-277, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137971

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cerebellar astrocytoma (low-grade glioma) is the most frequent tumor of the Central Nervous System in pediatric age, corresponding to 10-20% of brain tumors, having its maximum incidence at 5 years. Brain tumors are the second cause of death at this age, behind leukemias. Its most frequent clinic is headache with vomiting which can worsen in the morning and awaken the patient at night. The most frequent ophthalmological clinic is papilledema and involvement of the cranial nerve VI. In our case we present an atypical presentation (cranial IV), in which a quick derivation favored a better prognosis.


Resumo O astrocitoma cerebelar (glioma de baixo grau) é o tumor mais frequente do Sistema Nervoso Central em idade pediátrica, correspondendo a 10-20% dos tumores cerebrais, tendo sua incidência máxima em 5 anos. Os tumores cerebrais são a segunda causa de morte nesta idade, atrás das leucemias. Sua clínica mais frequente é a cefaleia com vômitos que podem piorar pela manhã e despertar o paciente à noite. A clínica oftalmológica mais frequente é o papiledema e o envolvimento do nervo craniano VI. Em nosso caso apresentamos uma apresentação atípica (IV craniana), em que uma derivação rápida favoreceu um melhor prognóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Astrocytoma/diagnostic imaging , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Papilledema/physiopathology , Glioma/diagnostic imaging , Headache/physiopathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
14.
Salud pública Méx ; 62(3): 255-261, May.-Jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377311

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar distribución, localización y cambios de la frecuencia de tumores astrocíticos (TA) en un instituto mexicano de neurología. Material y métodos: Se revisaron los registros institucionales de TA de cinco décadas. Se compararon las relaciones TA/egresos quirúrgicos (EQ) y TA/total de tumores del sistema nervioso central (TSNC) de 1995 a 2014. Resultados: Se analizaron 2 287 TA (1 356 en hombres y 931 en mujeres). El glioma más común fue el glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), que estuvo presente en adultos jóvenes con una frecuencia mayor a la reportada en otros estudios. La relación TA/EQ y TA/TNSC fue similar entre 1995 y 2014. Conclusiones: En general, la frecuencia de TA atendidos en el Instituto es similar a la reportada internacionalmente. No obstante, los casos de TA en el subgrupo de adultos jóvenes con GBM son más frecuentes (40%) que las incidencias reportadas en otros estudios (menores al 5%). No se encontró variación significativa en la frecuencia de TA durante las últimas dos décadas.


Abstract: Objective: To determine distribution, localization and frequency variations of astrocytic tumors (AT) in a Mexican Institute of neurology. Materials and methods: Institutional registries of AT from five decades were analyzed. AT/Surgical discharges (SD) and AT/Central Nervous System Tumors (CNST) from 1995 to 2014 were compared. Results: Two thousand two hundred and eighty-seven AT (1 356 men and 931 women) were analyzed. The most common glioma was glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), found in young adults with a higher frequency to that reported in other studies. Relation of AT/SD, as well as, relation of AT/CNST was similar between 1995 and 2014. Conclusions: In general, the frequency of AT attended at the Institute is similar to that found worldwide, being only higher the number of GBM in younger adults. There was not significant variation in the frequency of AT during the time studied.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Astrocytoma/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/epidemiology , Astrocytoma/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Central Nervous System Neoplasms/pathology , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Glioblastoma/pathology , Glioblastoma/epidemiology , Academies and Institutes/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasm Grading , Mexico/epidemiology , Neurology/statistics & numerical data
15.
Rev. colomb. radiol ; 31(3): 5379-5388, sept. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1343647

ABSTRACT

La población pediátrica es, de lejos, la más afectada por las lesiones del cuarto (IV) ventrículo. La gran mayoría presentan un patrón radiológico similar; actualmente, con las secuencias de difusión, espectroscopia y mapas de ADC, se puede inferir la compatibilidad de los hallazgos visualizados con alguna de las patologías que se revisarán en el presente trabajo


The pediatric population is by far the most affected by lesions of the fourth (IV) ventricle. The vast majority present a similar radiological pattern, for which today, with the diffusion sequences, spectroscopy and ADC maps, it can be inferred that the visualized findings are more likely compatible with some of the pathologies that we will review later


Subject(s)
Medulloblastoma , Astrocytoma , Hemangioblastoma , Ependymoma
16.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 15(2): 37-42, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361898

ABSTRACT

El desarrollo tecnológico y científico en salud de los últimos años ha permitido mejoras en el diagnóstico y mayor eficacia en el tratamiento de pacientes con tumores cerebrales, generado un aumento no solo en la supervivencia, sino también una mayor demanda de los servicios de neuropsicología y rehabilitación, debido a las alteraciones cognitivas asociadas y dificultades en cuanto a la funcionalidad e independencia, disminuyendo significativamente la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. La presente investigación documenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 43 años, remitido al servicio de neuropsicología tras la resección de oligoastrocitoma frontal derecho, en la evaluación neuropsicológica se evidenció alteraciones en funciones ejecutivas, fluidez de lenguaje discursivo y dificultad en habilidades instrumentales. La investigación se realizó bajo el diseño cuasi experimental de caso único, donde se aplicó en repetidas ocasiones a lo largo del tratamiento el Inventario de Adaptabilidad Mayo-Portland (MPAI-4) para determinar las dificultades funcionales del paciente. El objetivo de la rehabilitación neuropsicológica se centró en implementar estrategias de autoinstrucciones y automonitoreo, que pudieran ser aplicadas en contextos cotidianos y en intereses específicos del paciente. Los resultados indican que el proceso de rehabilitación neuropsicológica demostró tener un efecto positivo en la funcionalidad del paciente y las estrategias aprendidas pueden ser trasladadas a su vida cotidiana


The technological and scientific development on health in recent years has allowed improvements in diagnosis and treatment on brain tumor patients, have increase not only their survivor rate but also their need of neuropsychology and rehabilitation services due to cognitive alterations associated and the subsequent struggling with independence and functionality that reduces significantly their life quality. The present research documents the case of a male patient, 43 years old, referred to the service after resection of right frontal oligoastrocytoma, in the neuropsychologic evaluation evidenced executive functions, discursive language fluency alterations and difficulties in instrumental skills. The research was carried out under the quasi experimental design of a single case where there will be applied repeatedly during the course of treatment the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) to identify functional difficulties on the patient. The objective of the neuropsychological rehabilitation focuses on implementing self-instruction and self-observance strategies in order to apply them on an ordinary context and the patient's specific areas of interest. The results indicate that the neuropsychological rehabilitation treatment has shown a positive effect on the patient's functionality and an improvement on his ability to apply the learned strategies to his day to day life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Oligodendroglioma/rehabilitation , Astrocytoma/rehabilitation , Brain Neoplasms/rehabilitation , Executive Function/physiology , Neurological Rehabilitation/methods , Frontal Lobe
17.
Rev. cuba. med ; 58(4): e507, oct.-dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1139034

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Nimotuzumab es una inmunoglobina de isotipo IgG1, obtenido por tecnología de ADN recombinante. La expectativa de vida de niños con tumores cerebrales recurrentes, refractarios a tratamientos a la cirugía, la radioterapia y la quimioterapia es de un mes aproximadamente. Con este tratamiento la supervivencia alcanza 44,5 meses. Objetivos: Presentar el caso clínico de un paciente con diagnóstico de Astrocitoma anaplásico que recibió tratamiento oncoespecífico concurrente con Nimotuzumab. Presentación de caso: Se realizó la descripción del diagnóstico, tratamiento y evolución de un paciente de 31 años de edad que fue diagnosticado con una neoplasia del sistema nervioso central. (Astrocitoma anaplásico). Recibió la combinación terapéutica de cirugía, radioterapia y anticuerpos monoclonales, lográndose una sobrevida de 39 meses. Conclusiones: La adición del anticuerpo monoclonal al tratamiento estándar de los tumores cerebrales aumentó la sobrevida del paciente, convirtiéndose en una alternativa terapéutica segura, ventajosa y factible como parte del tratamiento convencional en las condiciones asistenciales(AU)


Introduction: Nimotuzumab is an IgG1 isotype immunoglobin, obtained by recombinant DNA technology. Life expectancy is approximately one month in children with recurrent brain tumors, refractory to treatments to surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Survival reaches 44.5 months when using Nimotuzumab. Objectives: To report the clinical case of a patient diagnosed with anaplastic astrocytoma who received concurrent oncospecific treatment with Nimotuzumab. Case report: This paper describes the diagnosis, treatment and evolution of a 31-year-old male patient with neoplasm of the central nervous system (Anaplastic astrocytoma). He received the therapeutic combination of surgery, radiotherapy and monoclonal antibodies, achieving a survival of 39 months. Conclusions: The adding the monoclonal antibody to the standard treatment of brain tumors increased patient survival, making it a safe, advantageous and feasible therapeutic alternative as part of conventional treatment in healthcare conditions(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Astrocytoma/surgery , Astrocytoma/diagnosis , Astrocytoma/therapy , Central Nervous System , Reference Drugs , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis
18.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(4): 115-127, dic. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099709

ABSTRACT

La neurofibromatosis (NF) comprende un grupo de enfermedades genéticas de herencia autosómica dominante, que se clasifican de la siguiente manera: neurofibromatosis tipo 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis tipo 2 (NF2) y schwannomatosis (también conocida como neurofibromatosis tipo 3). Esta última es una enfermedad muy infrecuente, con una prevalencia aproximada de 1/126 000 personas, por lo que solo profundizaremos las dos primeras. La NF1, también conocida como la enfermedad de Von Recklinghausen, es la más frecuente de las tres y afecta principalmente la piel y el sistema nervioso periférico. Se caracteriza por la presencia de máculas "café con leche", pecas axilares o inguinales, nódulos de Lisch (hamartomas en el iris) y neurofibromas (tumores de la vaina de nervios periféricos). Otras manifestaciones menos frecuentes, aunque de mayor gravedad, incluyen gliomas del nervio óptico, meningiomas, neurofibromas malignos, escoliosis y displasia de la tibia. Su diagnóstico se suele realizar al nacimiento o durante los primeros años de vida, y se estima que un 50% de quienes la padecen presenta dificultades cognitivas. No hay datos concluyentes sobre la mortalidad en los pacientes con NF1, aunque se sabe que la expectativa de vida es menor que en la población general. La NF2 tiene una prevalencia considerablemente menor que la NF1 y su inicio es más tardío, afectando principalmente a adultos jóvenes. La presentación clínica típica se caracteriza por acúfenos, hipoacusia y ataxia en contexto de la presencia de schwannomas vestibulares bilaterales. Otros hallazgos menos frecuentes incluyen schwannomas de nervios periféricos, meningiomas, ependimomas o astrocitomas. La esperanza de vida es de unos 36 años, con una supervivencia media desde el momento del diagnóstico de 15 años. (AU)


Neurofibromatosis (NF) includes a group of genetic diseases with an autosomal-dominant inheritance pattern, and they are classified as follows: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and Schwannomatosis (also known as neurofibromatosis type 3). This last one is a very rare disease, with an approximate prevalence of 1/126000, so we will only deepen in the first two. NF1, also known as von Recklinghausen disease, is the most frequent, and mainly affects the skin and peripheral nervous system. Its typical manifestations are the presence of café-au-lait macules, axillary or inguinal freckles, Lisch nodules (hamartomas in the iris) and neurofibromas (peripheral nerve sheath tumors). Less frequent manifestations, although more serious, include optic nerve gliomas, meningiomas, malignant neurofibromas, scoliosis and tibial dysplasia. The diagnosis is usually made at birth or during the first years of life, and approximately 50% of patients present cognitive difficulties. There is no conclusive data on mortality in patients with NF1, although it is known that life expectancy is lower than in general population. NF2 has a considerably lower prevalence than NF1, and its onset is later in life, mainly affecting young adults. Its typical clinical presentation is characterized by tinnitus, hearing loss and ataxia in the context in the presence of bilateral vestibular schwannomas. Less frequent findings include peripheral nerve schwannomas, meningiomas, ependymomas or astrocytomas. Life expectancy is about 36 years old, with a median survival from the moment of diagnosis of 15 years. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Adult , Young Adult , Neurofibromatosis 2/etiology , Neurofibromatosis 1/etiology , Neurofibromatoses/classification , Astrocytoma/physiopathology , Ataxia , Scoliosis/physiopathology , Tibia/abnormalities , Tinnitus , Bone Diseases, Developmental/physiopathology , Neuroma, Acoustic/complications , Life Expectancy , Neurofibromatosis 2/epidemiology , Neurofibromatosis 1/physiopathology , Neurofibromatosis 1/mortality , Neurofibromatosis 1/epidemiology , Neurofibromatoses/diagnosis , Optic Nerve Glioma/physiopathology , Ependymoma/physiopathology , Hearing Loss , Iris Diseases/physiopathology , Melanosis/physiopathology , Meningioma/physiopathology , Neurilemmoma/etiology , Neurilemmoma/physiopathology , Neurofibroma/physiopathology , Neurofibroma/pathology
19.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 439-446, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286540

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Gliomas are neoplasms with high recurrence and mortality. Due to the difficulty to apply the World Health Organization (2016) classification, developing countries continue to use histological evaluation to diagnose and classify these neoplasms. Objective: To develop a semi-quantitative scale to numerically grade gliomas by its morphological characteristics. Method: A cohort of patients with gliomas was assessed and followed for 36 months. Tumor tissue sections were analyzed and graded, including aspects such as cell line, cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, mitosis, endothelial hyperplasia, hypoxic changes, apoptotic bodies, necrosis, hemorrhage and proliferation index. Results: 58 cases were analyzed. Low-grade gliomas median score was 12 points (9 and 13.5 for percentiles 25 and 75, respectively), whereas for high-grade gliomas it was 17 points (16 and 20.5 for percentiles 25 and 75, respectively) (p < 0.0001). Thirty-six-month survival of patients with low (13/17) and high grade gliomas (6/41) was also significantly different (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The semi-quantitative morphological scale allows an objective evaluation of gliomas, with an adequate correlation between the score, tumor grade and survival time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Glioma/pathology , Oligodendroglioma/mortality , Oligodendroglioma/pathology , Astrocytoma/mortality , Astrocytoma/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/classification , Brain Neoplasms/mortality , Survival Analysis , Cohort Studies , Glioblastoma/mortality , Glioblastoma/pathology , Ependymoma/mortality , Ependymoma/pathology , Neoplasm Grading , Glioma/classification
20.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 38(2): 128-136, 15/06/2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362595

ABSTRACT

Oligodendrogliomas are infiltrative tumors of the central nervous systemconsidered to be morphologically stable and to offer a better prognosis. Here, we describe the case of a 36- year-old man with an initial diagnosis of oligodendroglioma, World Health Organization (WHO) grade II, who presented transformation to a sarcomatous form, while maintaining the oligodendroglial component as well as the genetic characteristics of the initial tumor without having undergone any complementary treatments previously. Despite the favorable genetic characteristics, the tumor presented poor response to complementary treatments, and rapid progression, including spinal metastasis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Oligodendroglioma/pathology , Oligodendroglioma/therapy , Oligodendroglioma/diagnostic imaging , Astrocytoma/rehabilitation , Sarcoma/complications , Prognosis , Brain Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnostic imaging
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