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1.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(3): e2134, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347515

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La aterosclerosis es la causa principal de enfermedad coronaria. Su presencia en la red vascular se manifiesta desde edades muy tempranas. Se asegura que está presente desde la vida intrauterina y se va haciendo cada vez mayor con el paso de los años, tanto por la acción del envejecimiento como por la presencia de otros factores que lo aceleran y perpetúan. La aterosclerosis subclínica es un término que debe ser usado para expresar que existe un grado de evidencia de lesión de la pared arterial sin expresión clínica. Objetivo: Identificar la presencia de aterosclerosis subclínica y su relación con factores de riesgo aterogénico. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de tipo transversal en trabajadores del Centro Internacional de Salud CIS La Pradera entre enero y diciembre de 2019. Resultados: Se detectó aterosclerosis subclínica en 129 pacientes (32,7 por ciento). Se asoció con la hipertensión, la diabetes mellitus, la dislipidemia y el hábito de fumar. Conclusiones: La enfermedad subclínica estuvo presente en los trabajadores de la salud, aparentemente sanos y jóvenes, que tuvieron al menos un factor de riesgo para la enfermedad aterosclerótica(AU)


Introduction: Atherosclerosis is the main cause of coronary disease. Its presence in the vascular network is shown from very early age. It is ensured that it is present from intrauterine life and becomes larger and larger over the years, both due to the action of aging and the presence of other factors that accelerate and perpetuate it. Subclinical atherosclerosis is a term that should be used to express that there is a degree of evidence of arterial wall injury without clinical appearance. Objective: To identify the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis and its relationship with atherogenic risk factors. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in workers of La Pradera International Health Center from January to December 2019. Results: Subclinical atherosclerosis was detected in 129 subjects (32.7 percent). It was associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and smoking. Conclusions: Subclinical disease was present in health workers, apparently healthy and young, who had at least one risk factor for atherosclerotic disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Revagog ; 3(3): 104-110, Jul-Sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1344331

ABSTRACT

El climaterio es una etapa fisiológica que permite al médico reconocer tempranamente los riesgos de patologías y la gran oportunidad de revertirlas. Este trabajo examinará la evidencia actual de la terapia hormonal en la prevención primaria de la enfermedad cardiovascular en mujeres, así como la importancia que igualmente tienen la indemnidad de los ovarios, el peso normal, el uso correcto de antibióticos, la preservación de la microbiota intestinal, las dietas antioxidantes, los estilos de vida saludables y el obligatorio abandono del hábito de fumar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Climacteric/physiology , Menopause/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Andropause/physiology , Estradiol/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Healthy Lifestyle
3.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(2): e2100, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280342

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El tabaquismo constituye uno de los problemas más graves de la salud pública a escala mundial, y se ha definido como la gran epidemia silenciosa del siglo XX. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia del tabaquismo y su relación con algunos factores de riesgo ateroscleróticos en la mujer de edad mediana. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal que incluyó 301 mujeres de 40 a 59 años pertenecientes al Policlínico Universitario 19 de abril. Se estudiaron variables clínicas relacionadas con el estilo de vida como la tensión arterial, el índice de masa corporal, la circunferencia de la cintura y el tabaquismo. Resultados: La frecuencia del tabaquismo fue elevada en este grupo de mujeres de edad mediana, con un 56,5 por ciento, y un promedio de comienzo a los 19,6 años de edad. Los factores de riesgo que predominaron fueron la hipertensión arterial y el exceso de peso, así como una elevada frecuencia de mujeres que fuman y son hipertensas. El 25,9 por ciento de las que fuman tenían asociados tres factores de riesgo. Conclusiones: El tabaquismo continúa siendo un problema de salud en la mujer de edad mediana, y se asocia a otros factores de riesgo como la hipertensión arterial y el exceso de peso. Disminuir su consumo es un reto para la salud pública en Cuba(AU)


Introduction: Tobacco smoking constitutes one of the most serious public health problems worldwide, and it has been defined as the great silent epidemic of the 20th century. Objective: To determine the frequency of tobacco smoking and its relationship with some atherosclerotic risk factors in middle-aged women. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out including 301 women aging 40 to 59 years old from April 19 University Polyclinic. Lifestyle-related clinical variables were studied such as blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and tobacco smoking. Results: The frequency of tobacco smoking was high in this group of middle-aged women (56.5 percent), and an average beginning at 19.6 years of age. The predominating risk factors were high blood pressure and overweight, we found that high frequency of women who smoke are hypertensive. 25.9 percent of those who smoke had three associated risk factors. Conclusions: Tobacco smoking continues to be a health problem in middle-aged women, and it is associated with other risk factors, such as high blood pressure and overweight. Reducing the tobacco smoking habit is a challenge for public health in Cuba(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Women's Health , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cuba
4.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 32(1): e1457, tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280207

ABSTRACT

Próximo a la acreditación del proceso docente, y con la particularidad de contar con un claustro de profesores de diferentes instituciones, el Centro de Investigaciones y Referencias de Aterosclerosis de La Habana evaluó su producción científica. La presente investigación se propuso caracterizar la producción científica de los profesores de la Maestría en Investigación en Aterosclerosis de las tres últimas ediciones en el período 2014-2018. Para esto, se realizó un estudio bibliométrico, descriptivo y retrospectivo. Se empleó el Google Académico y la sección de libros de Infomed para acceder a las publicaciones de los profesores. Se evaluó la actividad de la producción científica, la colaboración lograda y el impacto alcanzado. Se encontraron 326 publicaciones. El año 2015 fue el más productivo y los artículos de revistas resultaron el tipo de documento más publicado. Un total de 13 docentes fueron los grandes productores. De los trabajos publicados, 2/3 se encontraron en 57 revistas diferentes. El 84 por ciento de los artículos fue escrito por más de un autor; en el 20 por ciento participaron alumnos y profesores; el 42 por ciento fue liderado por nuestro claustro y el 49 por ciento fue citado por parte del resto de la comunidad científica. Un único trabajo se valoró de excelencia. El índice de inmediatez fue de 0,2 y el índice h fue 16. Se conformaron 16 índices bibliográficos. La producción científica del claustro resulta ser amplia, algo dispersa, abarcadora de los temas de la Maestría, la cual está caracterizada por la disminución de las publicaciones, la no declaración de la institución y la falta de uniformidad de los nombres de los autores. El impacto está presente en pocas publicaciones. Se evidencia la capacidad del claustro para publicar, básicamente en revistas de alto impacto. Se revela la colaboración existente entre los autores(AU)


Soon to receive accreditation of its teaching process, and with the distinguishing feature of gathering professors from various institutions, the Center for Atherosclerosis Research and Reference in Havana has carried out an evaluation of its scientific production. The purpose of the evaluation was to characterize the scientific production of professors from the Atherosclerosis Research Master's Degree program in its last three editions (2014-2018). To achieve such an end, a retrospective descriptive bibliometric study was conducted. Use was made of Google Scholar and the Infomed book section to access the publications contributed by professors. The evaluation covered scientific production, collaboration obtained and impact achieved. A total 326 publications were found. The year 2015 was the most productive, and journal papers were the most commonly published document type. A total 13 teachers were the most prolific authors. Of the papers published, 2/3 were found in 57 different journals. 84 percent of the papers were written by more than one author, students and teachers participated in 20 percent, 42 percent were headed by members of our faculty, and 49 percent were cited by part of the rest of the scientific community. A single paper was ranked as excellent. Immediacy index was 0.2, whereas h index was 16. Sixteen bibliographic indices were formed. Scientific production by the faculty was found to be abundant, somewhat dispersed, covering the topics in the master's degree program, which is characterized by a reduction in the number of publications, the non-declaration of the institution and the non-uniformity in authors' names. Impact is present in few publications. Evidence was found of the faculty's capacity to publish, basically in high-impact journals. The collaboration existing between authors was also revealed(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomedical Research , Education, Medical, Graduate , Scientific and Technical Publications , Atherosclerosis , Faculty, Medical , Periodicals as Topic , Bibliometrics , Retrospective Studies , Cuba
5.
Cienc. Salud (St. Domingo) ; 5(2): [27-44], Ene-Abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291437

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el inicio de la prediabetes en edades pediá-tricas se ha convertido en un problema cada vez más frecuente, donde la obesidad juega un papel relevante. Los pacientes con prediabetes en la infancia presentan una alta prevalencia de señales aterogénicas tempranas (SAT), las cuales constituyen factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular, esto conduce a una alteración precoz de la función endotelial. Objetivo: determinar la asociación entre las SAT detectadas y la aterosclerosis subclínica en niños y adolescentes con diagnóstico reciente de prediabetes. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal con 31 niños y adolescentes entre 5 y 18 años de edad con diagnóstico reciente de prediabetes, atendidos en el Instituto de Endocrinología de Cuba, durante noviembre 2015 a noviembre 2016. Las principales variables estudiadas fueron: edad, sexo, antecedentes patológicos familiares y personales, presencia de obesidad abdominal, tensión arterial, lipidograma, resistencia a la insulina, disfunción endo-telial (DE) y grosor íntima media carotideo (GIMC). Resultados: predominaron los adolescentes, el sexo masculino, los antecedentes familiares de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y personales de obesidad. La obesidad abdominal, tensión arterial normal, lipidograma normal y resistencia insulínica caracterizaron a los pacientes. Se detectó DE en el 19,3 % de los pacientes y GIMC aumentado en el 58 %. En los pacientes con DE y GIMC aumentado, predominó la obesidad abdominal y la resistencia a la insulina. Conclusiones: desde el momento del diagnóstico de la prediabetes puede existir aterosclerosis subclínica en niños y adolescentes que presentan varias SAT asociadas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Prediabetic State , Atherosclerosis , Humans , Body Mass Index , Child , Adolescent , Cuba , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Obesity
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878704

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the research status,hotspots,and frontiers of atherosclerosis genomics from 2010 to 2019.Methods CiteSpace software was used to conduct data statistics and visual analysis on countries,institutions,authors,journals,co-cited papers,and keywords of the related papers published in the Web of Science from 2010 to 2019.Results A total of 1021 papers in English were included,and the annual number of publications generally showed an upward trend.The knowledge base in the research of atherosclerosis mostly focused on the genetic risk sites and biomarkers for coronary artery diseases such as coronary heart disease,myocardial infarction,and dyslipidemia.The related journals mainly involved the fields of molecular biology,biology,genetics,immunology,medicine,pharmacy,and clinical medicine.The latest research in atherosclerosis concentrated on genome-wide association study,DNA methylation,microRNA,messenger RNA and so on.The research frontiers involved long noncoding RNA,DNA methylation,and immune metabolism.Conclusion The studies in atherosclerotic genomics have gradually increased.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/genetics , Bibliometrics , Biomarkers , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genomics , Humans
7.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 69-81, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878237

ABSTRACT

Phospholipids are important components of biomembrane and lipoproteins. Phospholipids can be oxidized by free radicals/nonradicals and enzymes to form oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs), which can lead to further generation of oxidation products with different biological activities. Clinical evidence shows that OxPLs are constantly generated and transformed during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and accumulated at the lesion sites. OxPLs are highly heterogeneous mixtures that can influence the progress of atherosclerosis through a variety of related receptors or signaling pathways. This review summarizes the process of phospholipid oxidation, the related products, the interaction of OxPLs with endothelial cells, monocytes/macrophages, smooth muscle cells, platelets and lipoproteins involved in the pathological process of atherosclerosis, and the progress of the researches using OxPLs as a target to inhibit atherosclerosis in recent years.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Oxidation-Reduction , Phospholipids
8.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 42-50, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878234

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to evaluate the role of short-chain fatty acid butyrate acid on intestinal morphology and function, and atherosclerotic plaque formation in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE


Subject(s)
Animals , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Butyrates/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Plaque, Atherosclerotic
9.
São Paulo; s.n; HSPM; 2021.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SMS-SP, HSPM-Producao, SMS-SP | ID: biblio-1348056

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A medida do complexo médio-intimal (CMI) realizada através de um exame ultrassonográfico é um marcador precoce da aterosclerose e pode refletir o aumento do risco cardiovascular futuro quando espessado. Existe acentuada dificuldade de reconhecimento dos indivíduos que não apresentam sintomas da doença aterosclerótica, mas que estão em risco de desenvolve-la, principalmente nos pacientes jovens em que as alterações precoces já podem estar em desenvolvimento. Foram estudados 51 pacientes entre 15 e 35 anos de idade sem doença aterosclerótica manifesta, através de questionário sobre fatores de risco, histórico familiar e exame ultrassonográfico das artérias carótidas bilateralmente com o objetivo de correlacionar a espessura do complexo médio-intimal com os fatores de riscos que porventura estavam presentes. As medidas do CMI encontradas variaram entre 0,5 e 0,8mm (média geral 0,631 mm) não demonstrado diferença significativa entre os lados direito e esquerdo. Dos pacientes analisados 23 são do sexo feminino (45,1%) e 28 do masculino (54,9%) comparando os valores do CMI direito (0,63 mm) e esquerdo (0,62 mm) em ambos os sexos, foi significativamente maior no sexo masculino para ambos os lados (direito: p=0,0005; esquerdo p=0,0004). O tabagismo foi o principal fator de risco cardiovascular relevante associado aos maiores valores do CMI no estudo (média de 0,7357; p<0,0001). Não houveram correlações da medida do CMI com as doenças cardiovasculares encontradas no histórico familiar da população em estudo. Palavras-chave: Aterosclerose, Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea, Tabagismo


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tobacco Use Disorder , Atherosclerosis , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880338

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have revealed an inverse association between height and cardiovascular disease. However, the background mechanism of this association has not yet been clarified. Height has also been reported to be positively associated with cancer. Therefore, well-known cardiovascular risk factors, such as increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, are not the best explanations for this inverse association because these risk factors are also related to cancer. However, impaired blood flow is the main pathological problem in cardiovascular disease, while glowing feeding vessels (angiogenesis) are the main characteristic of cancer pathologies. Therefore, endothelial maintenance activity, especially for the productivity of hematopoietic stem cells such as CD34-positive cells, could be associated with the height of an individual because this cell contributes not only to the progression of atherosclerosis but also to the development of angiogenesis. In addition, recent studies have also revealed a close connection between bone marrow activity and endothelial maintenance; bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells contribute towards endothelial maintenance. Since the absolute volume of bone marrow is positively associated with height, height could influence endothelial maintenance activity. Based on these hypotheses, we performed several studies. The aim of this review is not only to discuss the association between height and bone marrow activity, but also to describe the potential mechanism underlying endothelial maintenance. In addition, this review also aims to explain some of the reasons that implicate hypertension as a major risk factor for stroke among the Japanese population. The review also aims to clarify the anthropological reasons behind the high risk of atherosclerosis progression in Japanese individuals with acquired genetic characteristics.


Subject(s)
Aged , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Body Height/physiology , Bone Marrow/physiology , Disease Progression , Endothelium/physiology , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Stroke/physiopathology
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e9764, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153532

ABSTRACT

Naringenin (NAR) is a major flavanone in citrus fruits that has multiple pharmacological attributes such as anticancer and antiatherogenic. This study aims to investigate the mechanism of NAR in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis (AS) in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. A HFD-induced AS ApoE-/- mouse model was established. The mice were treated with HFD, different doses of NAR and simvastatin (Simv). After drug treatment, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined. The expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was detected using qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The plaque area of the aorta of AS mice was determined using oil red O staining. Western blot analysis was applied to measure the levels of autophagy-related proteins [protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B), beclin 1, and p62]. The TC, TG, LDL-C, TNF-α, ALT, and MDA levels were significantly increased while the HDL-C, SOD, and GSH-Px levels were decreased in the HFD-induced AS ApoE-/- mice. NAR treatment reversed the expression of the above indicators in mice. After they were treated with different doses of NAR, the LC3B and beclin 1 levels were improved while the p62 protein level was decreased. This study suggested that NAR could promote cell autophagy to improve HFD-induced AS in ApoE-/- mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Flavanones/pharmacology , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Autophagy
12.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(2): 59-64, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283550

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El hipotiroidismo subclínico (HSC) se define bioquímicamente por una elevación en la concentración sérica de la hormona estimulante de la tiroides (TSH), con niveles normales de tiroxina libre (T4L). La asociación entre el HSC y el daño cardiovascular ha sido un tema controversial. OBJETIVO: determinar la asociación entre el HSC y el desarrollo de la enfermedad cardiovascular mediante la cuantificación de la proteína C reactiva ultrasensible PCR-us y la determinación de lípidos circulantes asociados a la enfermedad cardiovascular y la ateroesclerosis. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo, correlacional de corte transversal realizado en el Hospital IESS de Riobamba, Ecuador en el periodo comprendido desde enero a diciembre de 2019. Se estudiaron 70 individuos (40 pacientes con HSC y 30 controles) con edades entre 18 y 75 años. Se realizaron las historias clínicas y el examen físico a cada paciente y la toma de las muestras sanguíneas para determinar la concentración sérica de los siguientes parámetros bioquímicos y hormonales: colesterol total, triglicéridos, HDL colesterol y LDL colesterol, TSH, T4L y PCR-us. RESULTADOS: Se encontró un incremento significativo en la concentración de colesterol total (p<0.0001), LDL colesterol (p<0.01) y PCR-us (p<0.0001) en los pacientes con HSC vs los controles. Se observó una correlación positiva (p<0.0001; r=0.9148) entre la TSH y la PCR-us en los pacientes con HSC. CONCLUSIÓN: los pacientes con HSC experimentan una elevación en los niveles séricos de PCR-us la cual está correlacionada con un incremento en la concentración sérica de TSH. Estos parámetros asociados a un aumento del colesterol total y de la LDL colesterol sugieren un estado inflamatorio de bajo grado que podría estar asociado con el desarrollo de aterosclerosis y daño cardiovascular.


INTRODUCTION: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined biochemically by an elevation in serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration, with normal levels of free thyroxine (T4L). The association between SH and cardiovascular damage has been a controversial issue. OBJECTIVE: to determine the association between SH and the development of cardiovascular disease through the quantification of the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-PCR) and the determination of circulating lipids associated to cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. METHODS: Observational, correlational cross-sectional study with patients captured in the internal medicine office as well as those attending screening activities at the IESS Hospital in Riobamba- Ecuador, in the period from January to December 2019. Seventy individuals (40 patients with SH and 30 controls) between the ages of 18 and 75 years were studied. Each patient's medical history and physical examination were performed, and blood samples were taken to determine the serum concentration of the following biochemical and hormonal parameters: total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, TSH, T4L and hs-PCR. RESULTS: A significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol (p<0.0001), LDL cholesterol (p<0.01) and hs-PCR (p<0.0001) was found in patients with SH vs. controls. A positive correlation (p<0.0001; r=0.9148) was observed between TSH and hs-PCR in patients with SH. CONCLUSION: patients with SH experience an elevation in serum hs-PCR levels which is correlated with an increase in serum TSH concentration. These parameters associated with an increase in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol suggest a low-grade inflammatory state that may be associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular damage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Hypothyroidism/blood , Thyrotropin/blood , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador , Atherosclerosis , Hypothyroidism/complications , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
13.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(2): 65-73, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283551

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las dislipidemias favorecen la formación precoz de placas ateroscleróticas, aumentando el riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECVs). La Actividad Física (AF) es un factor protector de ECVs, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la asociación entre AF medida objetivamente y dislipidemias en población pediátrica. METODOLOGÍA: La AF fue evaluada en 159 niños (9-13 años) de la Región de La Araucanía a través de acelerometría (ActiGraph GT3X+). Por este medio se estimó el porcentaje de AF moderada a vigorosa (AFMV) y el de conducta sedentaria (CS). Sujetos con ≥60 min de AFMV se consideraron físicamente activos según recomendación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Individuos con %CS>75° percentil fueron considerados sedentarios. El perfil lipídico fue determinado usando métodos convencionales. Fueron calculados índices de aterogenicidad TG/cHDL e índice de aterogenicidad del plasma (IAP). RESULTADOS: 37,1% presentó dislipidemia, 8% hipercolesterolemia, 19,5% hipertrigliceridemia, 6,3% cLDL elevado y 25,2% cHDL disminuido. Solo un 9,4% fueron considerados físicamente activos de acuerdo a la recomendación de la OMS. En los sujetos físicamente activos no hubo caso de dislipidemias (p= 0,032) y tampoco bajos niveles de cHDL (p= 0,013). El %AFMV estaba reducido en sujetos con cHDL bajo y se correlacionó positivamente con HDL-c (r= 0,157, p=0,048). Además, el %AFMV se correlacionó con menores valores de TG/cHDL (r= -0,193, p=0,015) e IAP (r= -0,214, p=0,006). Si bien el comportamiento sedentario no estuvo asociado con riesgo de dislipidemias, el %CS se correlacionó positivamente con niveles de glucosa (r= 0,159, p=0,044) y HOMA-IR (r= 0,178, p=0,037) y negativamente con Quicki (r= -0,160, p=0,044). CONCLUSIONES: Los hallazgos sugieren que la AF se correlaciona a menor frecuencia de dislipidemias y la práctica de AFMV aumentaría los valores de HDL-c y reduciría los índices aterogénicos, por lo que promoverla puede significar disminuir el riesgo de ECVs en nuestra población. Además, la CS se relaciona con un aumento en valores de glucosa e índices de resistencia insulínica en escolares de la Región de La Araucanía.


Dyslipidemias cause early formation of atherosclerotic plaque, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Physical Activity (PA) is a protective factor against CVDs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between objectively measured PA with dyslipidemias in a pediatric population. METHOD: The PA was evaluated in 159 children (9-13 years old) from Región de La Araucanía using accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X +). The percentage of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were estimated. Subjects with ≥60 min of MVPA were considered physically active according to the recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO). Individuals with %SB >75th percentile were sedentary. The lipid profile was determined using conventional methods. TG/HDL-C ratio and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) were calculated. RESULTS: 37.1% presented dyslipidemia, 8% hypercholesterolemia, 19.5% hypertriglyceridemia, 6.3% elevated LDL-C and 25.2% decreased HDL-C. Only 9.4% were physically active according to the WHO recommendation. In physically active subjects where no cases of dyslipidemias (p =0.032) and no low HDL-C (p = 0.013). The %MVPA was reduced in subjects with low HDL-C and positively correlated with HDL-c (r = 0.157, p = 0.048). In addition, %MVPA was correlated with lower TG / HDL-C values (r = -0.193, p = 0.015) and AIP (r = -0.214, p = 0.006). SB was not associated with risk of dyslipidemia, % SB was positively correlated with glucose levels (r = 0.159, p = 0.044) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.178, p = 0.037) and negatively with Quicki (r = -0.160, p = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that PA is it correlates to a lower frequency of dyslipidemia and the practice of MVPA would increase HDL-c values and reduce atherogenic index, promoting it may been reducing the risk of CVDs in our population. In addition, the SB is related to an increase in glucose values and insulin resistance index in schoolchildren in Región de La Araucanía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Exercise , Dyslipidemias/blood , Students , Triglycerides/blood , Body Weight , Insulin Resistance , Chile , Anthropometry , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Primary and Secondary , Atherosclerosis/blood , Sedentary Behavior , Accelerometry , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Homeostasis , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(11): e11371, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339452

ABSTRACT

Dietary factors may influence the process of atherosclerosis and coronary artery calcification (CAC). This study assessed CAC and its association with dietary intake in asymptomatic men. We evaluated 150 asymptomatic men with mean age of 58.2±5.3 years. The dietary intake was assessed by the Food Consumption Register method. CAC was measured through multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and assessed in accordance with the Agatston score. Modified Poisson regression model was used to estimate the effects of intake of different nutrients that are prevalent in moderate/severe CAC, adjusted for calorie intake and CAC risk factors by means of prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals [95%CI]. An association was found between the intake of some nutrients and moderate/severe CAC. Lower carbohydrate intake (P=0.021) and higher lipid intake (P=0.006) were associated with moderate/severe CAC. After adjustment, the nutrients associated with the prevalence of moderate/severe CAC were carbohydrates (P=0.040), lipids (P=0.005), and saturated fatty acids (SFA) (P=0.013). A 1% increase in lipids and SFA intake caused an increase of 4% [95%CI: 1-7%] and 8% [95%CI: 2-14%] in the prevalence of moderate/severe CAC, respectively. A 1% increase of carbohydrate intake led to a 2% decrease in the likelihood of moderate/severe CAC [95%CI: 1-4%]. These conclusions showed that the higher intake of total lipids and SFA was associated with higher CAC scores, whereas higher carbohydrate intake was associated with lower CAC scores in asymptomatic men.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Atherosclerosis , Vascular Calcification/epidemiology , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Eating , Multidetector Computed Tomography
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(8): e10807, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249324

ABSTRACT

Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are currently considered a central pivotal player in pathogenesis and development of atherosclerotic lesions. As consequence of vascular injury, SMCs migrate from the tunica media into the tunica intima layers where they contribute to neointimal formation by converting into foam cells and producing pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. We targeted the replacement of neointimal SMCs by using the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) therapy in experimentally induced atherosclerosis in an attempt to improve the atherosclerotic lesion and its concomitant complications. Rats were divided into 4 groups (n=20). Control group: rats kept on a standard chow diet; atherosclerotic group: rats received the atherogenic diet; stem cells-treated group: rats were injected with CD34+ stem cells (6×106 cells in 0.5 mL PBS in rat tail vein) and maintained on the atherogenic diet; and resveratrol-treated group: rats were supplemented orally with resveratrol at a dose level 3 mg/kg per day and the atherogenic diet. After 12 weeks, rats were euthanized, blood samples were collected for separation of serum, and abdominal aortas were excised for further biochemical, molecular, and histopathological investigations. We used resveratrol, the well-established anti-atherosclerotic drug, as a benchmark to assess the efficacy of stem cell therapy. MSCs treatment revealed significant amelioration in both histopathological and biochemical patterns as evidenced by decreased foam cells formation, ICAM-1, VCAM, M-CSF, iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α. We concluded that MSCs therapy significantly replaced the neointimal SMCs and decreased adhesion molecules as well as the oxidative and inflammatory markers in atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Atherosclerosis/therapy , Cell Adhesion , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy
16.
São Paulo; s.n; 2021. 147 p.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352373

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. Cardiovascular risk prediction is incomplete and new markers may help in the early identification of atherosclerosis. Brazilian epidemiological data in women are scarce. Objectives: To review the impact of menopause and diabetes on lipids, lipoprotein subfractions and cardiovascular risk; evaluate cardiometabolic risk in women from the ELSA-Brasil, as well as associations of blood biomarkers [lipoprotein subfractions, insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)] and structural changes of atherosclerosis [presence of calcium in the coronary arteries (CAC)] according to age and menopausal status. Methods: Cross-sectional baseline analyzes of 2,258 female participants from the São Paulo site of the ELSA-Brasil, stratified by age and menopausal status, with specific sample and eligibility criteria for each paper. Descriptive statistics, between-group comparisons and multiple regression were performed according to the nature and distribution of the variables for each paper. Results: Paper 1: Literature revision enabled conclusions regarding the association of menopause and diabetes with a worse lipid profile, including hypertriglyceridemia, lower levels of HDL-c and HDL2-c, higher levels of HDL3-c and small dense LDL-c. Postmenopausal diabetic women consist of the highest cardiovascular risk level. Paper 2: Comparing pre- and postmenopausal women categorized according to time since menopause [menopausal duration <2 years, 2-5.9 years, 6-9.9 years or ≥ 10 years (n=1916)], postmenopausal women had a worse lipid and lipoprotein subfraction profile and duration of menopause <2 years was independently associated with remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (TRL-c) [7.21 mg/dL (95% CI 3.5910.84)] and smaller denser VLDL3-c [2.43 mg/dL (95%CI 1.023.83)], but no associations of menopausal categories with HDL-c or LDL-c subfractions were found, when taking premenopausal women as reference. Paper 3: Comparing premenopausal ≤ or >45 years and postmenopausal women (n=2047), postmenopausal ones had the worst cardiometabolic risk profile. CAC>0 was found to be associated with TRL-c and dense LDL-c, but not with BCAA levels nor HOMA-IR. Postmenopausal women were about twice as likely to have CAC>0 than younger premenopausal ones [OR 2.37 (95%CI 1.17-4.81)]. Discussion: Our findings suggest that natural menopause is associated with changes in lipoprotein fractions and subfractions (especially in the first 2 years post-menopause) and with calcium deposition in the coronary arteries independently of age and other risk factors, but not with BCAA nor HOMA-IR. Deep investigation on lipid profile and other biomarkers in women approaching to menopause is needed in order to identify cardiovascular risk, prevent cardiovascular outcomes and provide better health conditions.


Introdução: A doença cardiovascular se constitui na principal causa de morbimortalidade em mulheres globalmente. A predição de evento cardiovascular é incompleta e novos marcadores de risco cardiometabólico podem auxiliar na identificação precoce da aterosclerose. Dados epidemiológicos brasileiros no sexo feminino são mais escassos. Objetivos: Revisar o impacto da menopausa e diabetes nas lipoproteínas, subfrações e risco cardiovascular; avaliar o perfil de risco cardiometabólico de mulheres do ELSA-Brasil, bem como associações de marcadores sanguíneos [subfrações de lipoproteínas circulantes, índice de resistência à insulina (HOMA-IR) e aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada (BCAA)] e estruturais [cálcio nas artérias coronárias (CAC)] de aterosclerose segundo sua idade e estado menopausal. Métodos: Análise transversal de dados basais de 2258 mulheres acompanhadas no centro de São Paulo do ELSA-Brasil, estratificadas por idade e estado menopausal, respeitando características amostrais estabelecidas para cada artigo. Estatística descritiva, testes de comparação entre grupos e análises de regressão múltipla foram realizadas conforme natureza e distribuição das variáveis para cada artigo. Resultados: Artigo 1: A revisão da literatura permitiu concluir sobre a associação de menopausa e diabetes com pior perfil lipídico, consistindo de hipertrigliceridemia, baixos níveis de HDL-c e HDL2-c e elevados de HDL3-c e LDL-c pequena e densa. Mulheres menopausadas com diabetes apresentam o maior risco cardiovascular. Artigo 2: Comparando-se mulheres pré-menopausadas com as menopausadas, categorizadas segundo tempo de menopausa [duração <2 anos; 2-5,9 anos; 6-9,9 anos e ≥ 10 anos (n=1916)], aquelas na pós-menopausa apresentaram perfil de lipoproteínas e suas subfrações mais aterogênico e a duração da menopausa <2 anos associou-se independentemente com remanescentes de lipoproteínas ricas em triglicérides (TRL-c) [7,21 mg/dL (IC95% 3,5910,84)] e com a partícula pequena e densa de VLDL3-c [2,43 mg/dL (IC95% 1,023,83)], mas não foram encontradas associações de categorias de menopausa com as subfrações de HDL-c ou LDL-c, considerando-se as pré-menopausadas como referência. Artigo 3: Comparando mulheres pré-menopausadas com idade ≤ ou >45 anos e as menopausadas (n=2047), pior perfil de risco cardiometabólico foi encontrado em mulheres na pós- menopausa. Observou-se associação entre CAC>0 com TRL-c e LDL-c densa, mas não com HOMA-IR e BCAA. Mulheres menopausadas tiveram cerca de 2 vezes mais chance de apresentar CAC>0 quando comparadas com mulheres mais jovens na pré-menopausa [OR 2,37 (IC95% 1,17-4,81)]. Discussão: Nossos achados sugerem que a menopausa natural está associada a alterações no perfil lipídico tradicional e subfrações (especialmente nos primeiros 2 anos pós-menopausa) e ao depósito de cálcio nas artérias coronárias independentemente da idade e de outros fatores de risco, mas não com BCAA e HOMA-IR. Investigação aprofundada do perfil lipídico e outros marcadores de risco cardiovascular em mulheres que se aproximam da menopausa pode melhorar a identificação de risco, prevenção de desfechos cardiovasculares e proporcionar melhores condições de saúde.


Subject(s)
Women , Menopause , Biomarkers , Atherosclerosis , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Amino Acids, Branched-Chain , Lipoproteins , Women's Health
17.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eRC5521, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154093

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Sophisticated imaging systems have helped to redefine the clinical presentation of acute macular neuroretinopathy and have markedly enhanced diagnostic sensitivity. The proposed mechanism of paracentral acute middle maculopathy is related to ischemia at the level of the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexi. This is a case report of a patient who developed an acute macular neuroretinopathy after an uneventful angioplasty with stents in the coronary artery.


RESUMO Sistemas de imagem sofisticados ajudaram a redefinir a apresentação clínica da neurorretinopatia macular aguda e têm sensibilidade diagnóstica marcadamente aumentada. A maculopatia média aguda paracentral tem sido relacionada à isquemia ao nível dos plexos capilares superficial e profundo da retina. Este é um relato de caso de paciente que desenvolveu uma neurorretinopatia macular aguda após uma cirurgia de angioplastia com stents da artéria coronária sem complicações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Stents/adverse effects , Angioplasty/adverse effects , Coronary Vessels/surgery , Atherosclerosis/surgery , Fluorescein Angiography , Acute Disease , Tomography, Optical Coherence , White Dot Syndromes/etiology , White Dot Syndromes/diagnostic imaging , Macular Degeneration , Middle Aged
18.
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 27(6): 630-636, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1289283

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Encontrar una relación entre los niveles de proteína C reactiva (PCR) y fibrinógeno, y la extensión de la aterosclerosis en el síndrome coronario agudo. Métodos: Estudio observacional prospectivo, en el que se incluyeron 873 pacientes con síndrome coronario atendidos en un hospital entre 2016 y 2018. Se analizaron niveles de PCR y fibrinógeno, marcadores metabólicos y extensión de la aterosclerosis coronaria. Resultados: No se halló correlación positiva entre los niveles de PCR y fibrinógeno y los marcadores metabólicos, así como tampoco con enfermedad de uno, dos y tres vasos (p 0,829; p 0,810). Conclusiones: Los niveles sanguíneos de PCR y fibrinógeno se relacionan con la tasa de eventos cardiovasculares, pero no se ha podido demostrar que exista relación entre estos y la severidad de la aterosclerosis coronaria.


Abstract Objective: To determine whether there is a relationship between C - reactive protein and fibrinogen levels and the extent of atherosclerosis in acute coronary syndrome. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted that include 873 patients with coronary syndrome treated in a hospital between the years 2016 and 2018. An analysis was made that included C - reactive protein and fibrinogen levels, metabolic markers, extent of coronary atherosclerosis. Results: No positive correlation was found between the C - reactive protein and fibrinogen levels and the metabolic markers, nor with one, two, or three vessel disease (P=.829; P=.810). Conclusions: Although blood C-Reactive Protein and fibrinogen levels are associated with the rate of cardiovascular events, this study was unable to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between these and the severity of the coronary atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , C-Reactive Protein , Fibrinogen , Coronary Vessels , Atherosclerosis
19.
Rev. cuba. med ; 59(4): e1633, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144501

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La aterosclerosis subclínica es predictora de eventos vasculares futuros y es diagnosticada por imágenes y biomarcadores sin que existan manifestaciones clínicas. Objetivo: Identificar los factores pronósticos asociados con la aterosclerosis subclínica en pacientes dislipidémicos. Método: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte en el Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras en 1028 pacientes en el periodo de 2016 al 2019. Resultados: La existencia de placa de ateroma fue de 26,9 por ciento. Existieron diferencias significativas relacionadas al tabaquismo (30,0 por ciento vs 23,7 por ciento). En las variables lipídicas, el promedio de los valores de la LDLc fue superior en los pacientes con placa de ateroma y la relación CT/LDL fue mayor en los que no tienen esta alteración. La frecuencia de engrosamiento del complejo íntima-media mayor de 1,0 mm fue de 37,1 por ciento. Existieron diferencias significativas relacionadas al tabaquismo (30,4 por ciento vs 22,4 por ciento) y la presencia de HTA (56,7 por ciento vs 48,8 por ciento ) en las variables lipídicas el promedio de los valores de la HDLc fue superior en los pacientes sin aumento del grosor del complejo íntima-media y la elevación CT/HDL fue mayor en los que presentan dicha alteración. Conclusiones: Los factores que influyen de manera independiente en la probabilidad de formación de las placas de ateroma son la LDLc (elevada), la edad, los triglicéridos y el sexo masculino y los que influyen en la probabilidad para el engrosamiento del complejo íntima-media son la HDLc (baja), el tabaquismo, y la hipertensión arterial(AU)


Introduction: Subclinical atherosclerosis is a predictor of future vascular events and is diagnosed by imaging and biomarkers without any clinical manifestations. Objective: To identify the prognostic factors that are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in dyslipidemic patients. Method: A cohort study was carried out at the Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital in 1028 patients in the period from 2016 to 2019. Results: The existence of atheroma plaque was 26.9 percent. There were significant differences related to smoking (30.0 percent vs 23.7 percent). In the lipid variables, the average of the LDLc values ​​is higher in patients with atheroma plaque and the CT/LDL ratio is higher in those without this alteration. Regarding the frequency of thickening of the intima-media complex greater than 1.0 mm, it was 37.1 percent. There were significant differences related to smoking (30.4 percent vs 22.4 percent) and the presence of HTA (56.7 percent vs 48.8 percent in the lipid variables, the average of the HDLc values ​​is higher in the patients without an increase in the thickness of the intima-media complex and the CT/HDL elevation is greater in those with said alteration. Conclusions: The factors that independently influence the probability of atheroma plaque formation are LDLc (elevated), age, triglycerides and male sex, and those that influence the probability of thickening of the intima-media complex. They are HDLc (low), smoking, and high blood pressure(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prognosis , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Dyslipidemias/complications , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/prevention & control , Cohort Studies
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1560-1565, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134478

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Aunque la radiografía panorámica no es una prueba de diagnóstico inicial para detectar la aterosclerosis carotídea, no podemos ignorar su valor al ver estas lesiones como hallazgos incidentales que pueden ser grandes aliados en el diagnóstico temprano y la prevención de eventos vasculares graves. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la prevalencia de calcificaciones en la bifurcación de la arteria carótida en las radiografías panorámicas de rutina como principio diagnóstico, así como su relación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en individuos brasileños. Se analizaron 449 exámenes de radiografía panorámica de la base de datos del Departamento de Radiología de la Facultad de Odontología de Piracicaba, UNICAMP, São Paulo, Brasil. Después de obtener mediciones de la presión arterial e información sobre el tabaquismo y las enfermedades sistémicas, fue buscado en la radiografía panorámica la presencia o ausencia de la masa radiopaca en las regiones de las vértebras cervicales C3-C4. En el caso de una imagen sugestiva de ateroma, se realizó una radiografía anteroposterior para confirmar el diagnóstico. Aplicamos la prueba estadística de Chi-cuadrado con distribución normal y muestras independientes y aleatorias con un intervalo de confianza del 95 %. La confirmación de calcificaciones carotideas se produjo en el 8,5 % de la población de estudio (38 casos). No encontramos ninguna relación entre la presencia de calcificaciones con el tabaquismo, con el sexo o con datos previos de antecedentes familiares. Sin embargo 49,1 % de los casos estaban por encima de sesenta años y tenía asociación significativa con la hipertensión (P = 0,006). El mayor riesgo se presenta en pacientes ancianos hipertensos y, por lo tanto, hacemos hincapié en la importancia de una observación minuciosa de las radiografías panorámicas en la búsqueda de cualquier alteración de la anatomía normal y si es así, proceder con la derivación lo antes posible para un diagnóstico concluyente por parte de un especialista, pudiendo así ayudar en la prevención de episodios vasculares graves.


SUMMARY: Although panoramic radiography is not an initial diagnostic test for detecting carotid atherosclerosis, we cannot ignore its value in viewing these lesions as incidental findings that can be great allies in early diagnosis and prevention of serious vascular events. The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of calcifications in the bifurcation of the carotid artery on routine panoramic radiographs as a diagnostic principle, as well as its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilians. We analyzed 449 panoramic radiography exams from the database of the Department of Radiology of the Faculty of Dentistry of Piracicaba, UNICAMP, São Paulo, Brazil. After obtaining blood pressure measurements and information on smoking and systemic diseases, the researcher observed on the panoramic radiograph, the presence or absence of the radiopaque mass in the regions of the cervical vertebrae C3-C4. In the case of a suggestive image of atheroma, an anteroposterior radiography was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The Chi-square test of normal distribution for independent and random samples with a 95 % confidence interval was applied to the data. Confirmation of carotid calcifications occurred in 8.5 % of the study population (38 cases). We did not find any relationship between the presence of calcifications with smoking, sex or previous family history. However, 49.1 % of cases occurred above sixty years old and there was a significant relationship with hypertension (P = 0.006). The greatest risk was presented in elderly and hypertensive patients, so we highlight the importance of a thorough observation by the dentist of panoramic radiographs to detect any alteration of the normal anatomy and in the positive case, proceed with the referral as soon as possible for a conclusive diagnosis by a specialist, being able to thus assist in the prevention of severe vascular episodes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Carotid Arteries/pathology , Carotid Artery Diseases/epidemiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brazil/epidemiology , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Panoramic , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery Diseases/complications , Chi-Square Distribution , Confidence Intervals , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension
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