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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(4): 727-733, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285209

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A incidência de reestenose da artéria coronária após o implante de um stent não farmacológico é mais baixa que na angioplastia com balão; no entanto, ainda apresenta altas taxas. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar novos indicadores de risco para reestenose de stent usando ultrassonografia das carótidas que, em conjunto com indicadores já existentes, ajudariam na escolha do stent. Métodos: Realizamos um estudo prospectivo transversal incluindo 121 pacientes consecutivos com doença arterial coronariana que foram submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea com angiografia nos 12 meses anteriores. Após os casos de reestenose de stent serem identificados, os pacientes foram submetidos à ultrassonografia de carótidas para avaliar a espessura da camada íntima média e placas ateroscleróticas. Os dados foram analisados por regressão múltipla de Cox. O nível de significância foi p<0,05. Resultados: A idade mediana dos pacientes foi de 60 anos (1º quartil = 55, 3º quartil = 68), e 64,5% dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. A angiografia coronária mostrou que 57 pacientes (47,1%) apresentaram reestenose de stent. Cinquenta e cinco pacientes (45,5%) apresentaram placas ateroscleróticas ecolucentes nas artérias carótidas e 54,5% apresentaram placas ecogênicas ou nenhuma placa. Dos pacientes que apresentaram placas ecolucentes, 90,9% apresentaram reestenose do stent coronário, e daqueles com placas ecogênicas ou nenhuma placa, 10,6% apresentaram reestenose de stent. A presença de placas ecolucentes nas artérias carótidas aumentou o risco de reestenose de stent coronário em 8,21 vezes (RR=8,21;IC95%: 3,58-18,82; p<0,001). Conclusões: A presença de placas ateroscleróticas ecolucentes na artéria carótida constitui um preditor de risco de reestenose de stent coronário e deve ser considerada na escolha do tipo de stenta ser usado na angioplastia coronária.


Abstract Background: The incidence of restenosis of the coronary artery after a bare-metal stent implant has been lower than in simple balloon angioplasty; however, it still shows relatively high rates. Objective: The aim of this study was to find new risk indicators for in-stent restenosis using carotid ultrasonography, that, in addition to the already existing indicators, would help in decision-making for stent selection. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional prospective study including 121 consecutive patients with chronic coronary artery disease who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with repeat angiography in the previous 12 months. After all cases of in-stent restenosis were identified, patients underwent carotid ultrasonography to evaluate carotid intima-media thickness and atherosclerosis plaques. The data were analyzed by Cox multiple regression. The significance level was set a p<0.05. Results: Median age of patients was 60 years (1st quartile = 55, 3rd quartile = 68), and 64.5% of patients were male. Coronary angiography showed that 57 patients (47.1%) presented in-stent restenosis. Fifty-five patients (45.5%) had echolucent atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries and 54.5% had echogenic plaques or no plaques. Of patients with who had echolucent plaques, 90.9% presented coronary in-stent restenosis. Of those who had echogenic plaques or no plaques, 10.6% presented in-stent restenosis. The presence of echolucent plaques in carotid arteries increased the risk of coronary in-stent restenosis by 8.21 times (RR=8.21; 95%CI: 3.58-18.82; p<0.001). Conclusions: The presence of echolucent atherosclerotic plaques in carotid artery constitutes a risk predictor of coronary instent restenosis and should be considered in the selection of the type of stent to be used in coronary angioplasty.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronary Restenosis/etiology , Coronary Restenosis/diagnostic imaging , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Stents/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Coronary Angiography , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Middle Aged
2.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(4): 505-510, Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340635

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of altered ankle-brachial index (<0.9 or >1.3) in patients with type 1 diabetes and to compare it with the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis by carotid ultrasound. METHODS: Prospective, cross-sectional study in which 45 adults with type 1 diabetes were evaluated (age 34±10 years, 46.7% men). The data collected included anamnesis, clinical evaluation, calculation of the ankle-brachial index (relationship between systolic blood pressure in the ankle and brachial artery), and performance of carotid ultrasound. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients had ankle-brachial index >1.3 (66.7%) and no patient had ankle-brachial index <0.9. Carotid echocardiography was performed on 21 patients, 4 (19%) of whom had atherosclerosis. Age >35 years and ankle-brachial index >1.4 showed a good correlation with atherosclerosis (r=0.49, p=0.021; r=0.56, p=0.008, respectively). A model associating age >35 years and ankle-brachial index >1.4 showed an excellent relationship with atherosclerosis (r=0.59, p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that vascular calcification (ankle-brachial index >1.4) was frequent in this population with type 1 diabetes and associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. A model combining ankle-brachial index >1.4 and age >35 years showed an excellent correlation with atherosclerosis and can assist in clinical suspicion and optimize the request for additional tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ankle Brachial Index
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1560-1565, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134478

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Aunque la radiografía panorámica no es una prueba de diagnóstico inicial para detectar la aterosclerosis carotídea, no podemos ignorar su valor al ver estas lesiones como hallazgos incidentales que pueden ser grandes aliados en el diagnóstico temprano y la prevención de eventos vasculares graves. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la prevalencia de calcificaciones en la bifurcación de la arteria carótida en las radiografías panorámicas de rutina como principio diagnóstico, así como su relación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en individuos brasileños. Se analizaron 449 exámenes de radiografía panorámica de la base de datos del Departamento de Radiología de la Facultad de Odontología de Piracicaba, UNICAMP, São Paulo, Brasil. Después de obtener mediciones de la presión arterial e información sobre el tabaquismo y las enfermedades sistémicas, fue buscado en la radiografía panorámica la presencia o ausencia de la masa radiopaca en las regiones de las vértebras cervicales C3-C4. En el caso de una imagen sugestiva de ateroma, se realizó una radiografía anteroposterior para confirmar el diagnóstico. Aplicamos la prueba estadística de Chi-cuadrado con distribución normal y muestras independientes y aleatorias con un intervalo de confianza del 95 %. La confirmación de calcificaciones carotideas se produjo en el 8,5 % de la población de estudio (38 casos). No encontramos ninguna relación entre la presencia de calcificaciones con el tabaquismo, con el sexo o con datos previos de antecedentes familiares. Sin embargo 49,1 % de los casos estaban por encima de sesenta años y tenía asociación significativa con la hipertensión (P = 0,006). El mayor riesgo se presenta en pacientes ancianos hipertensos y, por lo tanto, hacemos hincapié en la importancia de una observación minuciosa de las radiografías panorámicas en la búsqueda de cualquier alteración de la anatomía normal y si es así, proceder con la derivación lo antes posible para un diagnóstico concluyente por parte de un especialista, pudiendo así ayudar en la prevención de episodios vasculares graves.


SUMMARY: Although panoramic radiography is not an initial diagnostic test for detecting carotid atherosclerosis, we cannot ignore its value in viewing these lesions as incidental findings that can be great allies in early diagnosis and prevention of serious vascular events. The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of calcifications in the bifurcation of the carotid artery on routine panoramic radiographs as a diagnostic principle, as well as its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilians. We analyzed 449 panoramic radiography exams from the database of the Department of Radiology of the Faculty of Dentistry of Piracicaba, UNICAMP, São Paulo, Brazil. After obtaining blood pressure measurements and information on smoking and systemic diseases, the researcher observed on the panoramic radiograph, the presence or absence of the radiopaque mass in the regions of the cervical vertebrae C3-C4. In the case of a suggestive image of atheroma, an anteroposterior radiography was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The Chi-square test of normal distribution for independent and random samples with a 95 % confidence interval was applied to the data. Confirmation of carotid calcifications occurred in 8.5 % of the study population (38 cases). We did not find any relationship between the presence of calcifications with smoking, sex or previous family history. However, 49.1 % of cases occurred above sixty years old and there was a significant relationship with hypertension (P = 0.006). The greatest risk was presented in elderly and hypertensive patients, so we highlight the importance of a thorough observation by the dentist of panoramic radiographs to detect any alteration of the normal anatomy and in the positive case, proceed with the referral as soon as possible for a conclusive diagnosis by a specialist, being able to thus assist in the prevention of severe vascular episodes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Carotid Arteries/pathology , Carotid Artery Diseases/epidemiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brazil/epidemiology , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Panoramic , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery Diseases/complications , Chi-Square Distribution , Confidence Intervals , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension
4.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 33(4): eabc78, 20200000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146295

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: O processo de urbanização tem impacto na carga de doenças cardiovasculares. As populações indígenas podem sofrer uma transição epidemiológica devastadora. Objetivos: Descrever o protocolo de estudo do Projeto de Aterosclerose nas Populações Indígenas (PAI) para avaliar a análise ecocardiográfica e as doenças cardiovasculares (CV) subclínicas em populações indígenas de acordo com o grau de urbanização e mostrar resultados preliminares do estudo piloto. Métodos: O PAI é um estudo transversal, com voluntários com idade entre 30 e 70 anos, em grupos indígenas brasileiros expostos a estágios baixos e avançados de urbanização (Fulni-ô e Truká, respectivamente) e um grupo controle urbano, excluindo indivíduos com doenças CV conhecidas ou em hemodiálise. O estudo piloto começou no território de Fulni-ô em setembro de 2016. Os participantes foram submetidos a avaliação clínica e laboratorial, eletrocardiograma (ECG), ultrassonografia de carótidas e um protocolo ecocardiográfico abrangente, incluindo strain longitudinal global (SLG) avaliado por speckle tracking. Os resultados preliminares são descritos de acordo com o sexo em uma análise univariada. Resultados: O estudo piloto avaliou o protocolo descrito em 55 indivíduos do grupo indígena Fulni-ô (48,7 ± 12,0 anos, 80% mulheres). Foram encontrados fatores de risco tradicionais como hipertensão, diabetes e dislipidemia em 40%, 36% e 54%, respectivamente, sem diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os sexos. O uso de tabaco mostrou-se extremamente prevalente, referido em 91% dos participantes. Os parâmetros derivados da ecocardiografia estavam, em média, dentro da faixa normal. No entanto, a média do SLG foi de 17,3 ± 3,4% (p 0,73 por sexo). Conclusão: Descrevemos o protocolo do estudo PAI para avaliar doenças cardiovasculares subclínicas e fatores de risco em populações indígenas de acordo com o estágio de urbanização. Resultados preliminares sugerem alta prevalência desses na população indígena em menor grau de urbanização.


Background: The urbanization process impacts the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Indigenous populations can undergo a devastating epidemiological transition. Objective: The present study aimed to describe the Project of Atherosclerosis among Indigenous Populations (PAI) study protocol for assessing echocardiographic images and subclinical CVD in indigenous populations according to the degree of urbanization and report its preliminary results. Methods: The PAI is a cross-sectional study that includes volunteers aged 30­70 years among Brazilian indigenous groups exposed to low and advanced stages of urbanization (Fulni-ô and Truká, respectively) and an urban control group. Individuals with known CVD or who were on hemodialysis were excluded. The pilot study began in Fulni-ô territory in September 2016. The participants underwent clinical and laboratory


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Health of Indigenous Peoples , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Urbanization , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Risk Factors , Population Groups , Electrocardiography/methods
5.
Rev. cuba. med ; 59(4): e1633, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144501

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La aterosclerosis subclínica es predictora de eventos vasculares futuros y es diagnosticada por imágenes y biomarcadores sin que existan manifestaciones clínicas. Objetivo: Identificar los factores pronósticos asociados con la aterosclerosis subclínica en pacientes dislipidémicos. Método: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte en el Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras en 1028 pacientes en el periodo de 2016 al 2019. Resultados: La existencia de placa de ateroma fue de 26,9 por ciento. Existieron diferencias significativas relacionadas al tabaquismo (30,0 por ciento vs 23,7 por ciento). En las variables lipídicas, el promedio de los valores de la LDLc fue superior en los pacientes con placa de ateroma y la relación CT/LDL fue mayor en los que no tienen esta alteración. La frecuencia de engrosamiento del complejo íntima-media mayor de 1,0 mm fue de 37,1 por ciento. Existieron diferencias significativas relacionadas al tabaquismo (30,4 por ciento vs 22,4 por ciento) y la presencia de HTA (56,7 por ciento vs 48,8 por ciento ) en las variables lipídicas el promedio de los valores de la HDLc fue superior en los pacientes sin aumento del grosor del complejo íntima-media y la elevación CT/HDL fue mayor en los que presentan dicha alteración. Conclusiones: Los factores que influyen de manera independiente en la probabilidad de formación de las placas de ateroma son la LDLc (elevada), la edad, los triglicéridos y el sexo masculino y los que influyen en la probabilidad para el engrosamiento del complejo íntima-media son la HDLc (baja), el tabaquismo, y la hipertensión arterial(AU)


Introduction: Subclinical atherosclerosis is a predictor of future vascular events and is diagnosed by imaging and biomarkers without any clinical manifestations. Objective: To identify the prognostic factors that are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in dyslipidemic patients. Method: A cohort study was carried out at the Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital in 1028 patients in the period from 2016 to 2019. Results: The existence of atheroma plaque was 26.9 percent. There were significant differences related to smoking (30.0 percent vs 23.7 percent). In the lipid variables, the average of the LDLc values ​​is higher in patients with atheroma plaque and the CT/LDL ratio is higher in those without this alteration. Regarding the frequency of thickening of the intima-media complex greater than 1.0 mm, it was 37.1 percent. There were significant differences related to smoking (30.4 percent vs 22.4 percent) and the presence of HTA (56.7 percent vs 48.8 percent in the lipid variables, the average of the HDLc values ​​is higher in the patients without an increase in the thickness of the intima-media complex and the CT/HDL elevation is greater in those with said alteration. Conclusions: The factors that independently influence the probability of atheroma plaque formation are LDLc (elevated), age, triglycerides and male sex, and those that influence the probability of thickening of the intima-media complex. They are HDLc (low), smoking, and high blood pressure(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prognosis , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Dyslipidemias/complications , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/prevention & control , Cohort Studies
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 560-564, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042042

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Angiographically visible plaques in patent vein grafts are usually detected years after surgery. Our aim was to examine early plaque formation in vein grafts. Methods: Bypass angiography and intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) examination were performed on 77 aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) implanted in 36 patients during the first 2 years after CABG. In each graft, a good quality 25 mm ultrasound image was analyzed. We measured: plaque area, lumen area, external elastic membrane (EEM) area, graft area and wall area. For the comparative assessment of SVGs, the index plaque area/EEM area was calculated. Data were analyzed for the following 4 time periods: I - 0-4 months (22 grafts), II - 5-8 months (23 grafts), III - 9-12 months (19 grafts) and IV - 13-16 months (13 grafts) after CABG. Student's t and Fisher-Snedecor tests were used for the purpose of statistical analysis in this retrospective study. Results: In period I, plaque formation (neointimal) was observed in 10 grafts (45%), with a mean plaque area of 1.59 mm., in 6 grafts (26%) in period II, with a mean plaque area of 1.03 mm. and in 15 grafts (71%) in period III, with a mean plaque area of 1.41 mm., and in all (100%) grafts in period IV, with mean plaque area of 2,3 mm.. Average index plaque area/EEM area in periods I, II, III and IV were 0.12, 0.08, 0.13 and 0.22. We have showed a significant plaque increase between periods II and IV(P=0.038). Conclusion: IVUS showed plaque in about 40% of venous grafts during the first year after CABG. Between 13-16 months plaque was visible in all studied grafts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Saphenous Vein/transplantation , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Retrospective Studies , Coronary Angiography/methods , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Early Diagnosis
7.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(2): 126-132, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1009412

ABSTRACT

A doença aterosclerótica tem evolução lenta, o que dá a oportunidade de intervir no estilo de vida e até farmacologicamente na tentativa de aumentar a expectativa de vida livre de eventos. Para esse fim, habitualmente utilizam-se modelos de estratificação de risco baseada em modelos clássicos, como os critérios de Framingham, mas há um número representativo de eventos que acontecem em casos considerados de baixo risco. As principais dúvidas surgem nos casos considerados de risco intermediário, e, nessa situação, os exames de imagem podem auxiliar a identificar e tratar adequadamente casos de maior gravidade. Habitualmente, as avaliações são feitas por ultrassom das artérias carótidas (ACa) e pela medida do escore de cálcio por tomografia, cada um com suas particularidades e limitações técnicas. O desempenho dos métodos depende, em grande parte, do equipamento disponível e da expertise da equipe médica envolvida. Contudo, há claras vantagens da pesquisa de placas nas ACa e da quantificação da calcificação nas artérias carótidas (CAC) sobre a avaliação da espessura médio intimal (IMT - do inglês intima-media thickness), enquanto a pesquisa do grau de calcificação coronariana é recomendada em recentes diretrizes internacionais. Ao mesmo tempo, persistem algumas dúvidas se os exames têm desempenho distinto na estratificação de risco de infarto e acidente vascular cerebral


Atherosclerotic disease is a slowly progressive condition, thereby providing the opportunity to intervene in the patient's lifestyle, and even pharmacologically, in an attempt to increase event-free life expectancy. To this end, risk stratification models based on classic criteria such as the Framingham criteria are generally used to stratify the individual patient risk, but there is a considerable number of events that occur in cases considered low risk. The main uncertainty arises in cases considered intermediate risk, and in these situations, imaging tests can help identify and appropriately treat cases of greater severity. The assessments are generally performed using carotid artery ultrasound and the measurement of calcium score by computed tomography, with each method having its own particularities and technical limitations. The performance of the methods largely depends on the available equipment and the expertise of the medical staff involved. However, there are clear advantages of plaque research in carotid arteries (ACA) and of the quantification of calcification in the carotid arteries (CAC) over the evaluation of intima - medial thickness (IMT), while investigation of the degree of coronary calcification is recommended in recent international guidelines. Meanwhile, questions remain as to whether the techniques perform differently in the risk stratification of infarction and stroke


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biomarkers , Risk Factors , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnostic imaging , Quality of Life , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Myocardial Infarction
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(8): e8711, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011600

ABSTRACT

Carotid artery assessment by ultrasound is a non-invasive evaluation of subclinical atherosclerosis and a predictor of cardiovascular events. However, ultrasound examinations are operator-dependent. In the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), ultrasound images have been acquired from more than 10,000 participants. In this article, we describe the reproducibility of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), carotid plaque detection, and carotid plaque score (defined as the number of arterial sites with plaques) using ELSA-Brasil protocol, in a subset of 118 participants. Two board-certified radiologists and a trained technician read carotid images. We calculated intra- and inter-observer intraclass correlation (ICC) for CIMT values. We also present kappa coefficients for plaque detection and weighted kappa coefficients for carotid plaque score. Participants were aged 58.2±6.6 years, and 60 (50.8%) were men. For common carotid artery CIMT measurements, intra- and inter-observer ICC values were very good to excellent, ranging from 0.90 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.72-0.95) to 0.98 (95%CI: 0.97-0.99). For carotid plaque, intra- (0.96 [95%CI: 0.96-0.96]) and inter- (0.99 [95%CI: 0.99-0.99]) observer weighted kappa coefficients were very good. Intra- and inter-observer Kappa coefficients for the presence of plaques by site were good to very good, ranging from 0.69 to 1.00. In conclusion, we found very good reproducibility for carotid plaque score and CIMT measurements in the ELSA-Brasil at baseline. These results are comparable to the best findings from similar large cohorts that analyzed carotid ultrasound data.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Observer Variation , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Longitudinal Studies , Ultrasonography
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(8): e7543, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951741

ABSTRACT

Allantoin is the main product of uric acid oxidation and was found to be augmented in atherosclerotic plaque in human autopsy and in animal models of atherosclerosis. Uric acid is abundant in human plasma and is prone to oxidation in inflammatory conditions such as atherosclerosis. In this study, we found a significant increase in plasma uric acid (P=0.002) and allantoin (P=0.025) in participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) that presented common carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) within the 75th percentile (c-IMT≥P75). Multiple linear regression showed an association of c-IMT with uric acid (β=0.0004, P=0.014) and allantoin (β=0.018, P=0.008). This association was independent of age, the traditional risk factor LDL/HDL ratio, and non-traditional risk factors: pulse pressure, neck circumference, and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase. The independent and strong association of allantoin with c-IMT shows that it might be a useful marker, along with other traditional risk factors, to evaluate an early stage of atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Uric Acid/blood , Allantoin/blood , Atherosclerosis/blood , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Biomarkers/blood , Linear Models , Double-Blind Method , Peroxidase/analysis , Oxidative Stress , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging
10.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 28(3): 1-12, set.-dic. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-901024

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la aterosclerosis y la osteoporosis son enfermedades con una alta incidencia. Diversos estudios epidemiológicos han mostrado una asociación entre ambos procesos. Objetivo: describir la posible asociación entre la aterosclerosis subclínica y la disminución de la densidad mineral ósea, así como la relación de estos procesos con variables de la esfera reproductiva en mujeres de edad mediana. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con 103 mujeres que asistieron a la consulta de climaterio y osteoporosis del Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología. La aterosclerosis subclínica se diagnosticó a través del ultrasonido doppler carotídeo, y la densidad mineral ósea mediante la absorciometría dual de rayos x en columna lumbar. El test chi cuadrado de independencia, el coeficiente de correlación lineal de Pearson, la prueba t de comparación de medias y Anova, permitieron realizar el análisis estadístico. Resultados: la aterosclerosis subclínica se diagnosticó en 28 de las mujeres de edad mediana (27 por ciento), y 48 pacientes (46,6 por ciento) presentaron densidad mineral ósea disminuida (osteopenia u osteoporosis). El 57,1 por ciento de las pacientes con aterosclerosis subclínica tuvieron una densidad mineral ósea disminuida. El 70,4 por ciento de las pacientes con aterosclerosis subclínica estaban en posmenopausia; el 66,7 por ciento de las que tenían osteopenia, y el 75 por ciento de las que presentaron osteoporosis, pertenecían a la etapa posmenopáusica. Conclusiones: las mujeres de edad mediana con aterosclerosis subclínica tienen mayor frecuencia de osteopenia u osteoporosis. En aquellas con aterosclerosis subclínica y densidad mineral ósea disminuida predomina la posmenopausia. El tipo de menopausia y el tiempo de vida reproductiva no se relacionan con la aterosclerosis subclínica y la disminución de la densidad mineral ósea. Se evidencia una asociación inversa entre tiempo de posmenopausia y densidad mineral ósea(AU)


Introduction: atherosclerosis and osteoporosis are diseases with a high incidence. Several epidemiological studies have shown a relation among both processes. Objective: to describe the possible relation among subclinical atherosclerosis and the decrease of bone´s mineral density, as well as the relations of these processes with reproductive variables in middle-aged women. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 103 women who attended to the Climacteric and Osteoporosis Consultation in the National Institute of Endocrinology. Subclinical atherosclerosis was diagnosed through carotid doppler ultrasound, and bone´s mineral density by performing a dual x-ray absorptiometry in the lumbar spine. The chi square test of independence, the Pearson linear correlation coefficient, the t test for comparison of averages and Anova allowed the performance of the statistical analysis. Results: subclinical atherosclerosis was diagnosed in 28 of the middle-aged women in the study (27 percent), and 48 of them (46.6 percent) had decreased bone´s mineral density (osteopenia or osteoporosis). 57.1 percent of the patients with subclinical atherosclerosis had a decreased bone´s mineral density. 70.4 percent of the patients with subclinical atherosclerosis were in the postmenopause stage; 66.7 percent of those with osteopenia, and 75 percent of those with osteoporosis were in the postmenopausal stage. Conclusions: middle-aged women with subclinical atherosclerosis have more incidence of osteopenia or osteoporosis. In those with subclinical atherosclerosis and low bone´s mineral density, postmenopause is predominant. The type of menopause and the reproductive lifetime are not related to subclinical atherosclerosis and low bone´s mineral density. An inverse association among the postmenopausal time and bone´s mineral density is evidenced(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/epidemiology , Bone Density , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(6): 552-563, June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887879

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Cardiac Magnetic Resonance is in need of a simple and robust method for diastolic function assessment that can be done with routine protocol sequences. Objective: To develop and validate a three-dimensional (3D) model-based volumetric assessment of diastolic function using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and compare the results obtained with the model with those obtained by echocardiography. Methods: The study participants provided written informed consent and were included if having undergone both echocardiography and cine steady-state free precession (SSFP) CMR on the same day. Guide points at the septal and lateral mitral annulus were used to define the early longitudinal relaxation rate (E'), while a time-volume curve from the 3D model was used to assess diastolic filling parameters. We determined the correlation between 3D CMR and echocardiography and the accuracy of CMR in classifying the diastolic function grade. Results: The study included 102 subjects. The E/A ratio by CMR was positively associated with the E/A ratio by echocardiography (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001). The early diastolic relaxation velocity by tissue Doppler and longitudinal relaxation rate for the lateral mitral annulus displacement were positively associated (p = 0.007), as were the ratio between Doppler E/e' and CMR E/E' (p = 0.01). CMR-determined normalized peak E (NE) and deceleration time (DT) were able to predict diastolic dysfunction (areas under the curve [AUCs] = 0.70 and 0.72, respectively). In addition, the lateral E/E' ratio showed good utility in identifying diastolic dysfunction (AUC = 0.80). Overall, echocardiography and CMR interobserver and intraobserver agreements were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient range 0.72 - 0.97). Conclusion: 3D modeling of standard cine CMR images was able to identify study subjects with reduced diastolic function and showed good reproducibility, suggesting a potential for a routine diastolic function assessment by CMR.


Resumo Fundamento: A ressonância magnética cardíaca necessita de um método simples e robusto para a avaliação da função diastólica que pode ser feito com sequências protocolares de rotina. Objetivo: Desenvolver e validar a avaliação volumétrica da função diastólica através de um modelo tridimensional (3D) com utilização de imagens de ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC) e comparar os resultados obtidos com este modelo com os obtidos por ecocardiografia. Métodos: Os participantes do estudo assinaram um termo de consentimento e foram incluídos se tivessem sido submetidos no mesmo dia tanto à ecocardiografia quanto à cine RMC com precessão livre no estado estacionário (steady-state free precession, SSFP). Pontos-guia foram utilizados no anel mitral septal e lateral para definir a velocidade de estiramento no início da diástole (E'), enquanto curvas de volume-tempo do modelo 3D foram utilizadas para avaliar os parâmetros de enchimento diastólico. Foram determinadas a correlação entre a RMC 3D e a ecocardiografia, além da acurácia da RMC em classificar o grau de função diastólica. Resultados: Ao todo, 102 sujeitos foram incluídos no estudo. A razão E/A pela RMC esteve positivamente associada com a razão E/A obtida pela ecocardiografia (r = 0,71, p < 0,0001). Estiveram positivamente associadas a velocidade de relaxamento diastólico inicial ao Doppler tecidual e a velocidade de relaxamento longitudinal de deslocamento do anel mitral lateral (p = 0,007), bem como a razão entre E/e' por Doppler e E/E' pela RMC (p = 0,01). A velocidade normalizada de pico de enchimento (EM) determinada pela RMC e o tempo de desaceleração (TD) foram capazes de predizer a disfunção diastólica (áreas sob a curva [AUCs] = 0,70 e 0,72, respectivamente). Além disso, a razão E/E' lateral mostrou boa utilidade para a identificação da disfunção diastólica (AUC = 0,80). No geral, a ecocardiografia e a RMC apresentaram excelente concordância interobservador e intraobservador (coeficiente de correlação intraclasse 0,72 - 0,97). Conclusão: Uma modelagem 3D de imagens padrões de cine RMC foi capaz de identificar os indivíduos do estudo com função diastólica reduzida e mostrou uma boa reprodutibilidade, sugerindo ter potencial na avaliação rotineira da função diastólica por RMC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stroke Volume/physiology , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Echocardiography , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Diastole/physiology , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(5): 452-457, May 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838731

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) correlates with the presence of atherosclerosis in adults and describes vascular abnormalities in both hypertensive children and adolescents. Objective: To assess CIMT as an early marker of atherosclerosis and vascular damage in hypertensive children and adolescents compared with non-hypertensive controls and to evaluate the influence of gender, age, and body mass index (BMI) on CIMT on each group. Methods: Observational cohort study. A total of 133 hypertensive subjects (male, n = 69; mean age, 10.5 ± 4 years) underwent carotid ultrasound exam for assessment of CIMT. One hundred and twenty-one non-hypertensive subjects (male, n = 64; mean age, 9.8 ± 4.1 years) were selected as controls for gender, age (± 1 year), and BMI (± 10%). Results: There were no significant difference regarding gender (p = 0.954) and age (p = 0.067) between groups. Hypertensive subjects had higher BMI when compared to control group (p = 0.004), although within the established range of 10%. Subjects in the hypertensive group had higher CIMT values when compared to control group (0.46 ± 0.05 versus 0.42 ± 0.05 mm, respectively, p < 0.001; one-way ANOVA). Carotid IMT values were not significantly influenced by gender, age, and BMI when analyzed in both groups separately (Student's t-test for independent samples). According to the adjusted determination coefficient (R²) only 11.7% of CIMT variations were accounted for by group variations, including age, gender, and BMI. Conclusions: Carotid intima-media thickness was higher in hypertensive children and adolescents when compared to the control group. The presence of hypertension increased CIMT regardless of age, gender, and BMI.


Resumo Fundamento: O aumento da espessura médio-intimal carotídea (EMIC) correlaciona-se com a presença de aterosclerose em adultos e descreve anormalidades vasculares em crianças e adolescentes hipertensos. Objetivo: Avaliar a EMIC como marcador precoce de aterosclerose e dano vascular em crianças e adolescentes hipertensos em comparação com um grupo controle e avaliar a influência do sexo, idade e índice de massa corporal (IMC) sobre a EMIC em cada grupo. Métodos: Estudo observacional de coorte. Um total de 133 indivíduos hipertensos (sexo masculino, n = 69; idade média 10.5 ± 4 anos) foi submetido à ultrassonografia das artérias carótidas para avaliação da EMIC. Cento e vinte e um indivíduos saudáveis (sexo masculino, n = 64; idade média, 9.8 ± 4.1 anos) foram selecionados como controles para as seguintes características: sexo, idade (± 1ano) e IMC (±10%). Resultados: Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos com relação ao sexo (p = 0,954) e idade (p = 0,067). Os indivíduos hipertensos apresentaram maior IMC (p = 0,004), porém dentro da faixa estabelecida de até 10%. Os indivíduos hipertensos apresentaram maiores valores de EMIC quando comparados ao grupo-controle (0,46 ± 0,05 versus 0,42 ± 0,05 mm, respectivamente, p < 0.001; ANOVA com um parâmetro). Os valores da EMIC não foram influenciados por sexo, idade e IMC quando analisados em ambos os grupos separadamente (Teste t de Student para amostras independentes). De acordo com o coeficiente de determinação (R²) ajustado, apenas 11.7% das variações da EMIC são devidas às variações em cada grupo, incluindo idade, sexo e IMC. Conclusões: A espessura médio-intimal das carótidas apresentou-se aumentada em crianças e adolescentes hipertensos quando comparados ao grupo controle. A presença de hipertensão aumentou a EMIC independentemente de idade, sexo e IMC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Body Mass Index , Sex Factors , Cohort Studies , Age Factors
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(2): 115-121, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838435

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and clinical predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic, young adult women with type 1 DM. Subjects and methods The study included 45 women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) (aged 36 ± 9 years) who underwent carotid Doppler ultrasound evaluation to determine the carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and to assess the occurrence of carotid artery plaques. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR), and metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined by the World Health Organization criteria. Results The cohort had a mean age of 36 ± 9 years, diabetes duration of 18.1 ± 9.5 years, and body mass index (BMI) of 24.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. MS was present in 44.4% of the participants. The CIMT was 0.25 ± 0.28 mm, and the prevalence of carotid artery plaques was 13%. CIMT correlated positively with hypertension (p = 0.04) and waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.37, p = 0.012). The presence of carotid artery plaques correlated positively with age (p = 0.018) and hypertension (p = 0.017). eGDR correlated negatively with CIMT (r = -0.39, p = 0.009) and carotid plaques (p = 0.04). Albuminuria showed a correlation trend with CIMT (p = 0.06). Patients with carotid artery plaques were older, had a higher prevalence of hypertension, and lower eGDR. No correlation was found between CIMT and carotid plaques with diabetes duration, MS, BMI, cholesterol profile, glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, or fibrinogen. Conclusion Insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, and older age were predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic, young adult women with type 1 DM.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Triglycerides/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Body Mass Index , Risk Assessment , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Obesity, Abdominal/physiopathology , Asymptomatic Diseases
14.
Clinics ; 71(8): 435-439, Aug. 2016. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: lil-794635

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The toxicity of anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents can be reduced by associating these compounds, such as the anti-proliferative agent paclitaxel, with a cholesterol-rich nanoemulsion (LDE) that mimics the lipid composition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). When injected into circulation, the LDE concentrates the carried drugs in neoplastic tissues and atherosclerotic lesions. In rabbits, atherosclerotic lesion size was reduced by 65% following LDE-paclitaxel treatment. The current study aimed to test the effectiveness of LDE-paclitaxel on inpatients with aortic atherosclerosis. METHODS: This study tested a 175 mg/m2 body surface area dose of LDE-paclitaxel (intravenous administration, 3/3 weeks for 6 cycles) in patients with aortic atherosclerosis who were aged between 69 and 86 yrs. A control group of 9 untreated patients with aortic atherosclerosis (72-83 yrs) was also observed. RESULTS: The LDE-paclitaxel treatment elicited no important clinical or laboratory toxicities. Images were acquired via multiple detector computer tomography angiography (64-slice scanner) before treatment and at 1-2 months after treatment. The images showed that the mean plaque volume in the aortic artery wall was reduced in 4 of the 8 patients, while in 3 patients it remained unchanged and in one patient it increased. In the control group, images were acquired twice with an interval of 6-8 months. None of the patients in this group exhibited a reduction in plaque volume; in contrast, the plaque volume increased in three patients and remained stable in four patients. During the study period, one death unrelated to the treatment occurred in the LDE-paclitaxel group and one death occurred in the control group. CONCLUSION: Treatment with LDE-paclitaxel was tolerated by patients with cardiovascular disease and showed the potential to reduce atherosclerotic lesion size.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aortic Diseases/drug therapy , Cholesterol/therapeutic use , Paclitaxel/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Tubulin Modulators/therapeutic use , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Angiography , Cholesterol/blood , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Drug Delivery Systems , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Fat Emulsions, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Multidetector Computed Tomography
15.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 35(2): 118-126, 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-796797

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La coronarioectasia (CE), es una infrecuente forma de enfermedad coronaria, en que dilataciones coronarias coexisten con placas ateroes-cleróticas. Puede presentarse como cuadros agudos o crónicos, aún sin estenosis significativa. Distintas series lo han asociado a perfiles variados de factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio analítico de cohorte retrospectivo, evaluando las coronariografías realizadas en nuestro centro entre Junio de 2009 a Julio de 2015. Se definió CE como dilatación >1,5 veces comparado con el diámetro de la arteria de referencia. Se estudiaron factores de riesgo cardiovascular clásicos y se compararon con un grupo control elegido de forma aleatoria. Resultados: De 9648 coronariografías, 64 presentaban CE. La mayor parte eran hombres, de menor edad, con menos hipertensión arterial, diabetes e hiperlipidemia, comparados con los controles. En la mayoría de los casos la CE afectaba a 3 vasos (83,3%) y en solo 5 casos (28%) coexistía con estenosis. El análisis multivariado señaló como factores de riesgo significativos a la edad < 55 años (OR: 2,63, IC: 1,4 -4,9, p<0,05), Obesidad (OR: 3,2; IC:1,7-5,8, p<0,05) e Hiperlipidemia (OR: 0,09; IC: 0,016-0,54). Considerando los pacientes que se presentaron como SCA se observó que los pacientes con CE fueron más jóvenes (45,9 años; DE: 5,9 v/s 48,8 años; DE: 5,3; p=0,02), y con menos hiperlipidemia (OR:0,2; IC:0,06-0,7, p=0,01). Respecto a la obesidad, esta fue más preva-lente en pacientes con CE (OR: 2,49; IC: 0,956-6,4. p=ns). Conclusión: La CE es una entidad poco frecuente, que puede producir SCA aun en ausencia de estenosis significativa. Son pacientes más jóvenes y con menos antecedente de dislipidemia, por lo que en su patogenia aparentemente participan factores diferentes a los de la enfermedad ateroesclerótica obstructiva.


Background: Coronary ectasia (CE) is an uncommon condition where coronary artery dilatation coexists with atherosclerotic plaques. It may present as either acute or chronic syndromes even in the absence of coronary artery stenosis. Differences in risk factors associated to CE compared to those associated to usual CAD have been described. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed coronary arteriograms performed between June 2009 and July 2015. CE was defined as the presence of dilatation >1.5 times the diameter of the unaffected vessel. Cardiovascular risk factors were compared in CE vs a random sample of non-CE patients. Results: Out of 9648 coronary arteriograms 64 showed CE (9.5%). Compared to controls, CE patients were males, younger and hat lower prevalence or hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. CE was present in all 3 main vessels in 83.3% of CE patients and co-existed with significant stenosis in only 28%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant differences in risk factors were age <55 years (OR: 2.63; CI: 1.4 to 4.9, p <0.05), obesity (OR: 3 2; CI: 1.7 to 5.8, p <0.05) and hyperlipidemia (OR: 0.09; CI: 0.016 to 0.54). In patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome, those with CE were younger (45,9 years; SD: 5,9 v/s 48,8 years; SD: 5,3; p=0,02), y and a lower prevalence or hyperlipidemia (OR:0,2; IC:0,06-0,7, p=0,01). Conclusion: CE is an infrequent condition in CAD. It may me associated to either acute or chronic syndromes. They are younger, have a lower prevalence of dyslipidemia suggesting that risk factors other than traditionally recognized in obstructive CAD influence de development of CE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Dilatation, Pathologic/diagnostic imaging , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Prognosis , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Risk Assessment , Dilatation, Pathologic/complications , Atherosclerosis/complications , Observational Study
16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 921-927, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-40873

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although inconsistent, reports have shown fibrinogen levels to be associated with atherosclerosis. Accordingly, since cigarette smoking is associated with increased levels of fibrinogen and atherosclerosis, it may also affect the association between fibrinogen and atherosclerosis. We investigated the associations between fibrinogen and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) according to smoking status in a Korean male population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma fibrinogen levels were measured in 277 men aged 40-87 years without a history of myocardial infarction or stroke. High-resolution B-mode ultrasonography was used to examine the common carotid arteries. IMT level was analyzed both as a continuous (IMT-max, maximum value; IMT-tpm, 3-point mean value) and categorical variable (higher IMT; presence of plaque). Serial linear and logistic regression models were employed to examine the association between fibrinogen and IMT according to smoking status. RESULTS: Fibrinogen levels were positively associated with IMT-max (standardized beta=0.25, p=0.021) and IMT-tpm (standardized beta=0.21, p=0.038), even after adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in current smokers (n=75). No significant association between fibrinogen and IMT, however, was noted in former smokers (n=80) or nonsmokers (n=122). Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for having plaque per one standard deviation higher fibrinogen level were 2.06 (1.09-3.89) for current smokers, 0.68 (0.43-1.10) for former smokers, and 1.06 (0.60-1.87) for nonsmokers. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that cigarette smoking may modify the association between fibrinogen and carotid atherosclerosis. Further studies are required to confirm this finding in different populations.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asian Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Carotid Artery Diseases/blood , Carotid Artery, Common , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Cholesterol/blood , Cholesterol, HDL , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Lipoproteins, HDL/blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Neurosciences. 2010; 15 (2): 79-83
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-125527

ABSTRACT

To assess subclinical atherosclerosis in subtypes of hypertension using lipid profile as a biomarker and B mode ultrasonography of the carotid arteries. Ninety-six subjects [49 females and 47 males] aged 42-78 years were recruited from the vascular Doppler unit at Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq from January to June 2008. They were grouped into normotensive [group I], isolated systolic hypertension [group II], isolated diastolic hypertension [group III], and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension [group IV]. Subclinical atherosclerosis was observed in groups III and IV in terms of significantly low levels of high-density lipoprotein, high levels of low-density lipoprotein, and high atherogenic index. The mean intima media thickness was significantly increased with transition from group I to group IV in all carotid arteries, and the mean resistive index value of each carotid artery in group IV was significantly higher than that of group I. Carotid plaque was demonstrated in a significantly higher percent in group IV [12 out of 15] followed by groups III [14 out of 31] and II [1 out of 30]. Lipid profile and high resolution B-mode ultrasonography of the carotids are good predictive measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Isolated diastolic hypertension and combined systolic-diastolic hypertension accounts for early subclinical atherosclerosis compared with isolated systolic hypertension


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/classification , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Atherosclerosis/complications , Biomarkers/blood , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Lipids/blood , Lipid Metabolism/physiology
18.
Pakistan Oral and Dental Journal. 2008; 28 (2): 249-252
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-89648

ABSTRACT

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the incidence of CCAAs detected on panoramic radiographs of above 50-years-old patient population. Further, we evaluated the relationship between CCAAs and general and oral health examinations. Calcified carotid artery atheromas or CCAAs are projected on panoramic radiographs as a radiopaque nodular mass or masses adjacent to the cervical vertebrae at or below the intervertebral space between C3 and C4. We concluded that, panoramic radiography should be evaluated not only for pathosis of teeth and jaws, but also for other incidental findings, especially in the soft tissue region of the neck. The incidental findings could provide potentially life saving informations especially for those elderly people who are at risk for stroke


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery Diseases/pathology
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-40596

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease in chronic hemodialysis patients. This stratified randomized controlled trial was designed to measure the effect of high dose oral vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid on homocysteine levels, and to evaluate the effect on atherosclerosis as measured by Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Fifty-four chronic hemodialysis patients with hyperhomocysteinemia were randomized to receive oral 15 mg folic acid, 50 mg vitamin B6, and 1 mg vitamin B12 daily (treatment group) or oral 5 mg folic acid alone (control group) for 6 months. Homocysteine level and IMT were measured in both groups. RESULTS: At 6 months, homocysteine levels in the treatment group were significantly reduced from 27.94 +/- 8.54 to 22.71 +/- 3.68 mmol/l (p = 0.009) and were not significantly increased from 26.81 +/- 7.10 to 30.82 +/- 8.76 mmol/l in control group (p = 0.08). Mean difference between both groups was statistically significant (p = 0.002). There was no significant difference of IMT of carotid arteries, however, a tendency that the treatment group would have less thickness was observed (0.69 +/- 0.29 mm and 0.62 +/- 0.16 mm, p = 0.99). CONCLUSION: Treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic hemodialysis patients with daily oral 15 mg folic acid, 50 mg vitamin B6, and 1 mg vitamin B12 for 6 months decreases homocysteine levels and tends to reduce IMT of carotid arteries. A long term study for the prevention of atherosclerosis is warranted.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Female , Folic Acid/administration & dosage , Homocysteine/blood , Humans , Hyperhomocysteinemia/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin B 12/administration & dosage , Vitamin B 6/administration & dosage
20.
Journal of Dentistry-Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. 2006; 7 (1-2): 98-107
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-164238

ABSTRACT

According to some studies, diagnosis of carotid artery calcification in panoramic radiography could be a good marker and an aid for the prediction and prevention of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular accidents. Doppler sonography is an important diagnostic method for the recognition of calcified atheroma and carotid artery stenosis, With respect to the importance of the recognition of calcified atheroma and vast usage of panoramic radiography in dental treatments, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the degree of agreement between panoramic radiography and Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of calcified carotid artery. In this descriptive-analytic study, panoramic radiographs were taken from 35 nephrologic and neurologic patients with carotid Doppler sonography, in order to evaluate calcified carotid atheroma. Panoramic radiographs were designed in a form that, the most of cervical vertebrae height to the level of the 4[th] and 5[th] intervertebral spaces, could be seen. The data related to the presence or absence of calcified atheroma in Doppler sonography and panoramic radiography were collected by SPSS software. The degree of agreement between the two methods was evaluated by Kappa analysis. Panoramic radiograph and Doppler sonography in both male and female patients in right side showed an average to good agreement rate. Overall, this agreement in patients with cerebrovascular complications without paying any attention to the affected side was from good to average degree. The presence of linear and nodular opacities in the level of 3[rd]-4[th] or 4[th]-5[th] intervertebral spaces in panoramic radiography especially at the right side could be considered serious. If positive risk factors are also present, the patients could be referred, with great confidence and economical justification, for precise medical examinations, [Doppler Sonography]


Subject(s)
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color , Radiography, Panoramic , Constriction, Pathologic , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Calcinosis/diagnostic imaging , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging
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