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1.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 32(2): e303, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347398

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El sexo influye en la susceptibilidad de las personas de ambos géneros con relación a la mayoría de las enfermedades comunes, incluidas la diabetes mellitus y la aterosclerosis. Objetivo: Identificar si existen diferencias en la presentación de la enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica entre hombres y mujeres de edad mediana con diabetes mellitus. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en 1449 pacientes con diabetes mellitus en edad mediana (40 a 59 años) que ingresaron en el Centro de Atención al Diabético de Bayamo, Granma, desde el año 2010 al 2019. Se empleó la prueba de Chi Cuadrado para comprobar la relación entre las variables cualitativas, y T de Student para comparar los valores promedio de las variables cuantitativas. Resultados: La proporción de enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica en el sexo masculino fue similar a la del femenino (51,4 por ciento x 48,6 por ciento, p=0.2328). No hubo discrepancias importantes en el porcentaje de la enfermedad, entre ambos sexos, en los diferentes grupos etarios. El riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica en los hombres fue mayor que en las mujeres premenopausicas (OR=2,19, IC: 1,4-3,3 p=0,0002), pero inferior respecto a las posmenopáusicas. (OR=1.12, IC: 0.8-1.4, p=0.4129). El análisis multivariado mostró al tiempo de la diabetes >10 años y a la hipertensión arterial como riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica en ambos sexos. Asimismo, se evidenció en la edad mayor de 45 años en los hombres (OR=2.5, IC: 1.4-4.6) y la menopausia en las mujeres (OR=1.8, IC: 1.1-3.07). Conclusiones: La frecuencia de la enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica en las personas de edad mediana con diabetes mellitus es similar en ambos sexos. El sexo masculino tiene mayor riesgo de enfermarse que las mujeres premenopausicas, pero menor que las posmenopáusicas. La hipertensión arterial y el tiempo de la diabetes son factores de riesgo comunes para uno y otro sexo(AU)


Introduction: Sex influences the susceptibility of people of both genders to most common diseases, including diabetes mellitus (DM) and atherosclerosis. Objective: Identify if there are differences in the presentation of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease between middle-aged men and women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 1449 patients with DM in middle age (40 to 59 years) who were admitted to the Diabetic´s Care Center of Bayamo, Granma province, from 2010 to 2019. The Chi-Square test was used to check the relation between the qualitative variables, and the T Student test to compare the average values of the quantitative variables. Results: The proportion of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in males was similar to that of females (51.4 percent x 48.6 percent, p=0.2328). There were no major discrepancies in the percentage of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, between both sexes, in the different age groups. The risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in men was higher than in pre-menopausal women (OR=2.19, CI: 1.4-3.3 p=0.0002), but lower than in post-menopausal women. (OR=1.12, CI: 0.8-1.4, p=0.4129). Multivariate analysis showed diabetes >10 years and arterial hypertension as a risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in both sexes. It was also evidenced in ages over 45 years in men (OR=2.5, CI: 1.4-4.6) and menopause in women (OR=1.8, CI: 1.1-3.07). Conclusions: The frequency of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in middle-aged people with diabetes mellitus is similar in both sexes. Males have a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease than pre-menopausal women, but lower than post-menopausal women. High blood pressure and diabetes time are common risk factors for both sexes(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Menopause , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Chi-Square Distribution , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 39-48, July. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285237

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O aumento significativo de doenças cardiovasculares em países em desenvolvimento alerta sobre seu impacto em populações carentes. Objetivo Identificar a relação de agrupamentos de componentes da síndrome metabólica (SM) com aterosclerose e inflamação crônica em adultos e idosos. Métodos Análise transversal usando dados de dois estudos populacionais de tipo coorte realizados em Florianópolis, sul do Brasil (EpiFloripa Adult Cohort Study, n = 862, 39,9±11,5 anos; EpiFloripa Aging Cohort Study, n = 1197, 69,7±7,1 anos). Pressão arterial (PA), circunferência da cintura (CC), e níveis plasmáticos de lipídio e glicose foram analisados como fatores individuais ou como agrupamentos de componentes da SM (como número de componentes presentes em um indivíduo ou como combinações). Os desfechos incluíram espessura intima-media carotídea (EIMC), placas ateroscleróticas, e níveis de proteína C reativa (CRP). Regressão linear múltipla e regressão logística, ajustadas quanto aos fatores de confusão, foram usadas para análise. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resultados Indivíduos com PA e CC elevadas, dislipidemia e hiperglicemia (61,5%) apresentaram maiores valores de EIMC e PCR que aqueles que não apresentaram componentes de SM. CC elevada foi um determinante comum de inflamação sistêmica, ao passo que a coexistência de PA elevada e CC elevada (agrupamentos de dois ou três fatores) associou-se com maior EIMC (β entre +3,2 e +6,1 x 10-2 mm; p < 0,05) e PCR (EXPβ entre 2,18 e 2,77; p < 0,05). Conclusão A coexistência de PA e CC elevadas associou-se com maiores valores de EIMC e níveis de PCR. A obesidade central, isolada ou em combinação com outros fatores de risco, teve efeito sobre a inflamação sistêmica.


Abstract Background The significant increase in cardiovascular diseases in developing countries alerts about their impact on underprivileged populations. Objective To identify the relationship of clusters of metabolic syndrome (MS) components with atherosclerosis and chronic inflammation among adults and elderly. Methods Cross-sectional analysis using data from two population-based cohort studies in Florianópolis, Southern Brazil (EpiFloripa Adult Cohort Study, n = 862, 39.9±11.5 years; EpiFloripa Aging Cohort Study, n = 1197, 69.7±7.1 years). Blood pressure (BP), waist circumference (WC), and lipid and glucose levels were analyzed as individual factors or as clusters (either as the number of components present in an individual or as combinations of components). Outcomes included carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), atherosclerotic plaques, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses adjusted for confounding factors were used. The statistical significance adopted was 5%. Results Individuals with high BP, elevated WC, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia (6.1% of the sample) showed higher IMT and CRP than those negatives for all MetS components. Elevated WC was a common determinant of systemic inflammation, while the coexistence of high BP and elevated WC (clusters of two or three factors) was associated with higher IMT (β between +3.2 and +6.1 x 10-2 mm; p value < 0.05) and CRP (EXPβ between 2.18 and 2.77; p value < 0.05). Conclusion The coexistence of high BP and elevated WC was associated with increased IMT and CRP levels, but central obesity affected systemic inflammation either alone or in combination with other risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Inflammation
3.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(2): e2100, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280342

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El tabaquismo constituye uno de los problemas más graves de la salud pública a escala mundial, y se ha definido como la gran epidemia silenciosa del siglo XX. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia del tabaquismo y su relación con algunos factores de riesgo ateroscleróticos en la mujer de edad mediana. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal que incluyó 301 mujeres de 40 a 59 años pertenecientes al Policlínico Universitario 19 de abril. Se estudiaron variables clínicas relacionadas con el estilo de vida como la tensión arterial, el índice de masa corporal, la circunferencia de la cintura y el tabaquismo. Resultados: La frecuencia del tabaquismo fue elevada en este grupo de mujeres de edad mediana, con un 56,5 por ciento, y un promedio de comienzo a los 19,6 años de edad. Los factores de riesgo que predominaron fueron la hipertensión arterial y el exceso de peso, así como una elevada frecuencia de mujeres que fuman y son hipertensas. El 25,9 por ciento de las que fuman tenían asociados tres factores de riesgo. Conclusiones: El tabaquismo continúa siendo un problema de salud en la mujer de edad mediana, y se asocia a otros factores de riesgo como la hipertensión arterial y el exceso de peso. Disminuir su consumo es un reto para la salud pública en Cuba(AU)


Introduction: Tobacco smoking constitutes one of the most serious public health problems worldwide, and it has been defined as the great silent epidemic of the 20th century. Objective: To determine the frequency of tobacco smoking and its relationship with some atherosclerotic risk factors in middle-aged women. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out including 301 women aging 40 to 59 years old from April 19 University Polyclinic. Lifestyle-related clinical variables were studied such as blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and tobacco smoking. Results: The frequency of tobacco smoking was high in this group of middle-aged women (56.5 percent), and an average beginning at 19.6 years of age. The predominating risk factors were high blood pressure and overweight, we found that high frequency of women who smoke are hypertensive. 25.9 percent of those who smoke had three associated risk factors. Conclusions: Tobacco smoking continues to be a health problem in middle-aged women, and it is associated with other risk factors, such as high blood pressure and overweight. Reducing the tobacco smoking habit is a challenge for public health in Cuba(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Tobacco Use Disorder/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Women's Health , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cuba
4.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(1): 10-18, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154531

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Lipoprotein (a) is a cardiovascular risk factor in adult. Studies have shown the presence of this emergent risk factor in school children, which may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Objective To evaluate the association between lipoprotein (a) and cardiovascular risk factors in school children. Methods Lipoprotein (a) levels were measured in 320 school children (6-14 years) selected from a population survey carried out in Ouro Preto (southeast of Brazil). Demographic (sex and age), biochemical (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose), anthropometric (body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage), clinical (arterial blood pressure, pubertal stage and birth weight) and economic (family income) parameters, as well as family history (obese and/or hypertensive parents) were analyzed. Non-parametric analysis was used to evaluate lipoprotein (a) levels in each subgroup. Variables with p≤0.20 in the univariate analysis were included in binary regression logistic model. Differences with p < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Lipoprotein (a) levels were associated with total cholesterol (p=0.04), body fat (p=0.009), and mother´s systolic (p=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.04). In a logistic regression analysis, children with high lipoprotein (a) levels and body fat, and children born from hypertensive mothers were, respectively, at 3.2(p=0.01) and 1.4 (p=0.03) times higher risk than other children. In clustering these factors, elevated lipoprotein (a) was 2.6 times more likely to be seen in school children with high body fat and born hypertensive mothers. Conclusions Lipoprotein (a) was correlated with cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. Persistence of these risk factors in childhood suggests a contribution of elevated lipoprotein (a) to future cardiovascular disease. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Lipoprotein(a)/blood , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Demography , Cholesterol , Cross-Sectional Studies , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Adiposity , Hypertension
5.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(3): e2976, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126523

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La periodontitis se caracteriza por ser una inflamación mediada por el huésped y asociada a microbios que producen la pérdida de la adherencia periodontal. Una infección focal localizada como la enfermedad periodontal podría conducir a una inflamación sistémica. La disfunción endotelial vascular se ha asociado con una variedad de enfermedades y factores de riesgo para la aterosclerosis, que incluyen la edad, hipertensión arterial, dislipidemias, diabetes, tabaquismo, enfermedades cardiovasculares específicas como arteriopatía coronaria, cerebral y procesos infecciosos e inflamatorios como enfermedad periodontal. Objetivo: Evaluar los efectos del tratamiento periodontal no quirúrgico sobre la función endotelial de los pacientes con periodontitis crónica mediante una revisión de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados. Métodos: Se utilizó una estrategia de búsqueda primaria en combinación de vocabulario controlado y términos de texto libre para la elaboración de una estrategia de búsqueda en MEDLINE a través de PubMed, mediante el PubMed Advanced Search Builder el 5 de julio de 2019. Análisis e integración de la información: Fueron seleccionados 29 artículos de 2214. Para la elección se tuvo en cuenta que fueran estudios en humanos donde estuvieran relacionadas las variables de estudio. Del 100 por ciento de los artículos seleccionados se encontró que el 37,9 por ciento pertenecían a estudios de casos y controles, el 31 por ciento pertenecían a estudios transversales, el 10,34 por ciento a estudios de cohorte y solo 20,6 por ciento fueros estudios de ensayos clínicos, de los cuales solo 3 artículos (10 por ciento) fueron seleccionados para esta revisión. Conclusiones: La terapia periodontal no presenta un efecto sobre la función endotelial en un periodo de 3 meses, sin embargo, a los 6 meses se reporta una mejoría en la función endotelial(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Periodontitis is characterized by being an inflammation mediated by the host and associated with microbes that produce, the loss of periodontal adhesion. A localized focal infection such as periodontal disease could lead to systemic inflammation. Vascular endothelial dysfunction has been associated with a variety of pathologies and risk factors for atherosclerosis, including age, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes, smoking, specific cardiovascular pathologies such as coronary artery disease, cerebral, inflammatory, and infectious processes such as periodontal disease. Objective: Assess the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the endothelial function of patients with chronic periodontitis through a review of randomized clinical trials. Methods: We used a primary search strategy using a combination of controlled vocabulary and free text terms based on the MEDLINE search strategy through PubMed using the PubMed Advanced Search Builder on July 05, 2019. Analysis and integration of the information: 29 articles of 2214 were selected because they are human studies where the study variables are related. 100 percent of the selected articles found that 37.9 percent belonged to case-control studies, 31 percent belonged to cross-sectional studies, 10.34 percent to cohort studies and only 20.6 percent were clinical trial studies, of which only 3 articles (10 percent) were selected for this review. Conclusions: Periodontal therapy does not have an effect on endothelial function in a period of 3 months, however at 6 months an improvement in endothelial function was reported(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontitis/physiopathology , Review Literature as Topic , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Risk Factors , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Databases, Bibliographic
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(5): 373-383, oct. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056734

ABSTRACT

La aterosclerosis subclínica es un potente predictor de eventos cardiovasculares, aunque se desconoce cuál de los puntajes de riesgo es más eficaz para predecir su presencia en una población latinoamericana. El objetivo fué comparar la performance de los puntajes de riesgo: Framingham, Regicor y Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Estimator para predecir la existencia de aterosclerosis subclínica en pacientes asintomáticos sin enfermedad cardiovascular conocida; así como determinar la prevalencia y distribución en los distintos lechos vasculares. Desde 2014 a 2017 se evaluaron pacientes de 35 a 75 años asintomáticos y sin enfermedad cardiovascular conocida, a quienes se les realizó una eco Doppler carotídea y femoral, y score de calcio. Se definió como aterosclerosis subclínica a la presencia de placas en las arterias carótidas y/o femorales o a la presencia de calcio en las coronarias (score de Agatston > 0). Se estudiaron así 212 pacientes, edad media 53 ± 7 años, de los cuales el 60% (128) eran varones. La prevalencia de aterosclerosis subclínica fue 62% (131 casos). De esos 131 con placa en alguno de los territorios, el Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Estimator fue el que identificó el mayor número de casos con riesgo cardiovascular elevado (39%), Framingham detectó 20%, y Regicor 0% (p < 0.01). La reclasificación neta fue del 41%, 50% y 60% respectivamente (< 0.01). La prevalencia de aterosclerosis subclínica en sujetos asintomáticos sin antecedentes de enfermedad cardiovascular fue 62%. El calculador Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Estimator fue el más efectivo para predecir aterosclerosis subclínica en esta población.


Subclinical atherosclerosis is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular events, although it is unknown which of the risk scores is more useful to predict its presence in a Latin American population. The objective was to compare the performance of the risk scores: Framingham, Regicor and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Estimator to predict the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic persons without known cardiovascular disease; as well as determining its prevalence and distribution in the different vascular beds. From 2014 to 2017, patients from 35 to 75 years, asymptomatic and without known cardiovascular disease who underwent a carotid and femoral Doppler echo and calcium score were evaluated. Subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as the presence of plaques in the carotid and/or femoral arteries or the presence of calcium in the coronary arteries (Agatston score > 0). A total of 212 patients were included. The mean age was 53 ± 7 years, of which 60% (128) were male. The prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis was 62% (131 cases). Of these 131 subjects with a plaque in any of the territories, the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Estimator was the one that identified the highest number of cases with high cardiovascular risk (39%), Framingham detected 20%, and Regicor 0% (p < 0.01). The net reclassification was 41%, 50% and 60% respectively (< 0.01). The prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic persons without a history of cardiovascular disease was 62%. The Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Estimator was the most effective predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Asymptomatic Diseases , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Hyperlipidemias/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 560-564, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042042

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Angiographically visible plaques in patent vein grafts are usually detected years after surgery. Our aim was to examine early plaque formation in vein grafts. Methods: Bypass angiography and intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) examination were performed on 77 aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) implanted in 36 patients during the first 2 years after CABG. In each graft, a good quality 25 mm ultrasound image was analyzed. We measured: plaque area, lumen area, external elastic membrane (EEM) area, graft area and wall area. For the comparative assessment of SVGs, the index plaque area/EEM area was calculated. Data were analyzed for the following 4 time periods: I - 0-4 months (22 grafts), II - 5-8 months (23 grafts), III - 9-12 months (19 grafts) and IV - 13-16 months (13 grafts) after CABG. Student's t and Fisher-Snedecor tests were used for the purpose of statistical analysis in this retrospective study. Results: In period I, plaque formation (neointimal) was observed in 10 grafts (45%), with a mean plaque area of 1.59 mm., in 6 grafts (26%) in period II, with a mean plaque area of 1.03 mm. and in 15 grafts (71%) in period III, with a mean plaque area of 1.41 mm., and in all (100%) grafts in period IV, with mean plaque area of 2,3 mm.. Average index plaque area/EEM area in periods I, II, III and IV were 0.12, 0.08, 0.13 and 0.22. We have showed a significant plaque increase between periods II and IV(P=0.038). Conclusion: IVUS showed plaque in about 40% of venous grafts during the first year after CABG. Between 13-16 months plaque was visible in all studied grafts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Saphenous Vein/transplantation , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Retrospective Studies , Coronary Angiography/methods , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Early Diagnosis
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(9): 632-637, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038746

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cervical arterial dissection accounts for only a small proportion of ischemic stroke but arouses scientific interest due to its wide clinical variability. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate its risk factors, outline its clinical characteristics, compare treatment with antiaggregation or anticoagulation, and explore the prognosis of patients with cervical arterial dissection. Methods: An observational, retrospective study using data from medical records on patients with cervical arterial dissection between January 2010 and August 2015. Results: The total number of patients was 41. The patients' ages ranged from 19 to 75 years, with an average of 44.5 years. The most common risk factor was smoking. Antiaggregation was used in the majority of patients (65.5%); 43% of all patients recanalized in six months, more frequently in patients who had received anticoagulation (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The presence of atherosclerotic disease is considered rare in patients with cervical arterial dissection; however, our study found a high frequency of hypertension, smoking and dyslipidemia. The choice of antithrombotic remains controversial and will depend on the judgment of the medical professional; the clinical results with anticoagulation or antiaggregation were similar but there was more recanalization in the group treated with anticoagulation; its course was favorable in both situations. The recurrence of cervical arterial dissection and stroke is considered a rare event and its course is favorable.


RESUMO As dissecções arterais cervicais correspondem somente a uma pequena proporção dos casos de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) isquêmico, mas despertam interesse científico devido à sua alta variabilidade clínica. Objetivos: Este estudo destina-se a avaliar os fatores de risco, desfechos clínicos, comparar o tratamento com anticoagulação e antiagregação, e avaliar o prognóstico desses pacientes. Métodos: Estudo observacional, retrospectivo utilizando dados de prontuários de pacientes com dissecção arterial cervical entre os períodos de janeiro de 2010 e agosto de 2015. Resultados: O número de pacientes foi 41. A idade foi de 19 a 75 anos, com idade média de 44,5 anos. O fator de risco mais comum encontrado foi o tabagismo. Antiagregação foi utilizada na maioria dos pacientes (65,5%); 43% dos pacientes apresentaram recanalização em seis meses, sendo esta mais frequentemente observada nos pacientes que receberam anticoagulação (p = 0,04). Conclusão: A presença de doença aterosclerótica é considerada rara em pacientes com dissecção arterial cervical. Entretanto, nosso estudo encontrou alta frequência de hipertensão arterial, tabagismo e dislipidemia. A escolha pela terapia antitrombótica permanece controversa e dependerá do julgamento clínico do médico; os resultados clínicos com anticoagulação ou antiagregação foram similares, mas houve maior taxa de recanalização no grupo tratado com anticoagulação. A recorrência de dissecação arterial cervical e AVC foi considerada rara e o curso, favorável.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Vertebral Artery Dissection/etiology , Vertebral Artery Dissection/drug therapy , Prognosis , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Carotid Artery Diseases/etiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/drug therapy , Carotid Artery Diseases/epidemiology , Smoking/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Vertebral Artery Dissection/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(1): 87-97, Jan. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985008

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of mortality in the contemporary world. The critical role of the endothelial cells (EC) in vascular homeostasis, the metabolic changes that take place when the cell is activated, and the elements involved in these processes have been widely explored over the past years. Obesity and its impact, promoting a rise in blood levels of free fatty acids (FAs) are often associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular mortality. However, the mechanisms that promote cardiovascular structural changes and adaptive changes in the ECs, particularly in the context of obesity, are little known. Here, we reviewed studies that assessed the metabolic adaptations of healthy and dysfunctional ECs during exposure to FAs, as well as the epidemiological perspectives of cardiovascular structural changes in obesity. Finally, we explored the role of new agents - sphingolipids, dietary unsaturated fatty acids and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (iSGLT2) - in atherosclerosis and their relationship with obesity.


RESUMO A aterosclerose é a causa líder de mortalidade no mundo contemporâneo. O papel central da célula endotelial (EC) na homeostase vascular, as alterações metabólicas que ocorrem quando a célula se torna ativada e os elementos envolvidos nesses processos vêm sendo bastante explorados nos últimos anos. A obesidade e o seu impacto, promovendo uma elevação dos níveis sanguíneos de ácidos graxos (FAs) livres, é bastante associada à aterosclerose e à mortalidade cardiovascular. Entretanto, os mecanismos que promovem alterações estruturais cardiovasculares e alterações adaptativas nas ECs, particularmente no contexto da obesidade, são pouco conhecidos. Aqui, nós revisamos estudos que avaliaram as adaptações metabólicas das ECs normais e disfuncionais durante exposição a FAs, bem como as perspectivas epidemiológicas das alterações cardiovasculares estruturais na obesidade. Finalmente, exploramos o papel de novos atores — esfingolípides, ácidos graxos insaturados da dieta e inibidores do cotransportador de sódio-glucose 2 (iSGLT2) — na aterosclerose e sua relação com a obesidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endothelial Cells , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Risk Factors , Obesity/complications
10.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(1): 43-50, Jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985007

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To evaluate the frequency of food consumption in apparently healthy men and their association with cardiovascular risk factors and biomarkers of subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS In this observational study, 88 men had their food standard obtained through the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Associations of dietary patterns with cardiovascular risk factors, such as anthropometric data, laboratory and clinical evaluations, carotid-femoral arterial stiffness (IMT) and pulse wave velocity were evaluated. RESULTS The highest values were observed, for most of the risk factors evaluated, with the highest frequency of weekly consumption of dairy products, meats, sweets, fats, cold meats, sodas, milk and white chocolate; and lower frequency of weekly consumption of fruits, cereals, vegetables, legumes, oilseeds, and soy. There was no significant difference for coffee and dark chocolate CONCLUSIONS A diet with high consumption of animal products has a higher correlation with cardiovascular risk factors; the opposite is true for the consumption of plant-based food, associated with the profile of more favorable biomarkers for cardiovascular health and better biochemical and structural parameters.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a frequência do consumo alimentar de indivíduos homens aparentemente saudáveis e a associação desta com fatores de risco cardiovascular e biomarcadores de aterosclerose subclínica. MÉTODOS Neste estudo observacional, 88 homens tiveram o padrão alimentar obtido por meio do questionário de frequência alimentar (QFA). Foram avaliadas as associações dos padrões alimentares com os fatores de risco cardiovascular, como dados antropométricos, avaliações laboratoriais e clínica, rigidez arterial determinada pela carótida-femoral (IMT) e velocidade da onda de pulso (VOP). RESULTADOS O padrão observado para a maioria dos fatores de risco avaliados foi de valores mais altos, segundo maior frequência de consumo semanal de lácteos, carnes, doces, gorduras/frituras, embutidos, refrigerantes, chocolates ao leite e branco; e de menor frequência de consumo semanal de frutas, cereais, legumes, verduras, leguminosas, oleaginosas e soja. Não houve diferença significativa para café e chocolate amargo. CONCLUSÕES Uma dieta com alto consumo de produtos animais apresenta maior correlação com fatores de risco cardiovascular, sendo o oposto para o consumo de alimentos de origem vegetal, associado ao perfil de biomarcadores de saúde cardiovascular mais favorável e melhores parâmetros bioquímicos e estruturais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Atherosclerosis/blood , Feeding Behavior , Food Handling , Meat/adverse effects , Triglycerides/blood , Vegetables , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Pulse Wave Analysis , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Meat/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(1): 16-21, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989293

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate serum irisin and apelin levels in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) when they were subclinical hypothyroid and become euthyroid after levothyroxine therapy and association of these adipokines with markers of atherosclerosis such as serum homocysteine levels and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Subjects and methods: The study included 160 patients with newly diagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 86 euthyroid healty subjects. Serum glucose and lipid profile, insulin, HOMA, TSH, free T3, free T4, anti-thyroperoxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, homocysteine, apelin and irisin levels were measured in all study subjects. Thyroid and carotid ultrasound examinations were performed. The subclinical hypothyroid group was reevaluated after 12-weeks of levothyroxine therapy when they became euthyroid. Results: Clinical characteristics of the patient and control group were similar. Glucose, insulin and HOMA levels, lipid parameters and free T3 were similar between the two groups.. Serum homocystein was higher and apelin was lower in patients with SCH, but irisin levels were similar between the two groups. While thyroid volume was lower, carotid IMT was significantly greater in patients with SCH (pCarotidIMT:0,01). After 12-weeks of levothyroxine therapy, all the studied parameters remained unchanged except, serum freeT4, TSH, homocystein and apelin. While homocystein decreased (p: 0,001), apelin increased significantly (p = 0,049). In multivariate analysis, low apelin levels significantly contributed to carotid IMT (p = 0,041). Conclusions: Apelin-APJ system may play a role in vascular and cardiac dysfunction in patients with SCH and treatment of this condition may improve the risk of cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Fibronectins/blood , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Hashimoto Disease/complications , Apelin/blood , Hypothyroidism/complications , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/blood , Hashimoto Disease/drug therapy , Hashimoto Disease/blood , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Hypothyroidism/blood
12.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-998767

ABSTRACT

As doenças cardiovasculares estão entre as maiores causas de morbidade e mortalidade em todo o mundo e são responsáveis por um elevado custo para os sistemas de saúde. Assim, as medidas de prevenção dessas doenças e o controle de seus fatores de risco tornam-se essenciais. Para isso, temos como alternativa, intervenções educacionais para a população, como maneira de fortalecer o indivíduo para realizar as mudanças necessárias em seu estilo de vida, e medidas de educação profissional, para difundir o manejo de emergências cardiovas-culares, com grande impacto na sobrevida de indivíduos com esses problemas. Neste texto, procuramos descrever as medidas educacionais mais frequentes e efetivas para essa prevenção.


Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and represents a high cost for health systems. Therefore, measures to prevent these conditions and to control their risk factors are essential. One alternative consists of educational interventions for the population as a means of enabling the individual to make the necessary changes in their lifestyle, as well as professional education measures to disseminate the management of cardiovascular emergencies with considerable impact on the survival of individuals with these problems. In this text, we strive to describe the most common and effective educational measures for this prevention


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Dyslipidemias/genetics , Pediatric Obesity/genetics , Food and Nutrition Education , Risk Factors , Endothelium/abnormalities , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Sedentary Behavior
13.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-998688

ABSTRACT

As doenças cardiovasculares estão entre as principais causas de mortalidade no mundo e não afligem apenas os adultos. Muitos trabalhos têm demonstrado que elas já podem ser vistas na infância. Entre os fatores de risco para a doença cardiovascular, pode-se destacar a dislipidemia, o baixo peso ao nascer e a obesidade infantil. A detecção de dislipidemia na infância é crucial, por ser considerada a fase estratégica para a implementação de medidas de prevenção da aterosclerose no âmbito populacional. Embora as causas ambientais ou poligênicas sejam as mais frequentes, é importante a identificação de formas genéticas como a hipercolesterolemia familiar e hipertrigliceridemias de base genética, pois medidas relacionadas aos hábitos de vida e terapêutica medicamentosa devem ser iniciadas preco-cemente, evitando-se complicações e mudando a história natural dos desfechos clínicos. Outros estudos têm demonstrado que o baixo peso ao nascer também contribui para o desenvolvimento tardio de hipertensão arterial, doença coronariana e disfunção endotelial. Possivelmente, por conta das agressões ao sistema vascular em desenvolvimento. No en-tanto, os mecanismos ainda são incertos. Evidências sugerem que alguns biomarcadores, tais como os níveis de ácido úrico e homocisteína e a baixa concentração de óxido nítrico observados em crianças com baixo peso ao nascer, podem estar associados a alterações deletérias na vida adulta. Por fim, o terceiro fator que deve ser considerado é a obesidade infantil. Essa desordem tem causa multifatorial e pode favorecer o surgimento das etapas iniciais da aterosclerose, como a disfunção endotelial, já na infância. Porém, é um fator de risco modificável, e as estratégias de prevenção e intervenção baseiam-se, na maioria dos casos, em mudanças do estilo de vida, como alimentação saudável e exercício físico.


Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of mortality in the world and does not affect adults alone. Many papers have shown that it can already be seen in childhood. The most significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease include dyslipidemia, low birth weight and childhood obesity. Screening for dyslipidemia in childhood is crucial as this is considered a strategic phase for the implementation of measures aimed at preventing atherosclerosis in the population setting. Although environment or polygenic causes are the most common, it is important to identify genetic forms such as familial hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, since measures related to lifestyle and pharmacotherapy must be initiated early in life to avoid complications and change the natural history of clinical outcomes. Other studies have shown that low birth weight also contributes to the late development of hypertension, coronary artery disease and endothelial dysfunction, possible due to injury to the developing vascular system. However, the mechanisms are still uncertain, and evidence suggests that some biomarkers, such as uric acid and homocysteine levels, and the low concentration of nitric oxide observed in low birthweight children, may be associated with deleterious changes in adulthood. Finally, the third factor to be considered is childhood obesity. This disorder has a multifactorial etiology and may favor the onset of the first stages of atherosclerosis, such as endothelial dysfunction, in young children. However, it is a modifiable risk factor, and prevention and intervention strategies are largely based on lifestyle changes such as healthy diet and exercise


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Dyslipidemias/genetics , Diet, Healthy/nursing
14.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-998680

ABSTRACT

A infância e a adolescência são períodos que compreendem a transição para a vida adulta, no qual ocorrem mudanças no âmbito físico, psicológico, emocional e social. Nesse período tão crucial para o desenvolvimento, fatores ambientais e doenças aos quais os jovens estão expostos podem refletir na vida adulta, gerando maiores chances de desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas, incluindo a doença cardiovascular (DCV). A principal etiologia das doenças cardiovasculares é a aterosclerose, que tem seu início na infância. Dessa forma, é reconhecido atualmente que a prevenção cardiovascular primordial deve iniciar precocemente, na infância e adolescência, antes da instalação da doença de fato, de modo a diminuir a prevalência e incidência das DCV na idade adulta.


Childhood and adolescence constitute the transition to adult life, where changes occur in the physical, psychological, emotional and social spheres. In such a crucial period of deve-lopment, environmental factors and diseases to which young people are exposed may have repercussions in adulthood, increasing the chances of developing chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). The main etiology of cardiovascular diseases is atheroscle-rosis, which has its onset in childhood. Accordingly, it is currently recognized that primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease should begin early, i.e. in childhood and adolescence, prior to its actual onset, in order to reduce the prevalence and incidence of CVD in adulthood.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Obesity/congenital , Chronic Disease , Diet, Food, and Nutrition
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(9): 837-844, Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976864

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Malnutrition-Inflammation-Atherosclerosis Syndrome is very frequent in patients with chronic kidney disease on haemodialysis. In these patients, the inflammation associated with malnutrition is observed by the Malnutrition-Inflammation Score. OBJECTIVE To analyse the relationship between malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome and anthropometric and biochemical parameters of patients on haemodialysis. METHODS A cross - sectional study was performed at the Haemodialysis Clinic of the Barão de Lucena Hospital, Recife, Brazil, between July and August 2016, with patients cared at the clinic for at least six months. Patients with amputees, hospitalized, visually impaired, HIV positive, with catheters in the neck, ascites and/or oedema, and those who were unable to provide information at the time of the interview were excluded. The patients were submitted to anthropometric evaluation for the classification of the nutritional status by waist circumference, neck circumference, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio. Nutritional status related to inflammation was measured by the Malnutrition-Inflammation Score and nutritional status assessment using biochemical indicators that used urea, creatinine and albumin. RESULTS Twenty-seven individuals of both genders, adults and elderly, aged 51.3 ± 13.3 years old participated in the study. The anthropometric evaluation showed that most of the population presented cardiovascular risk. The biochemical evaluation reported low frequencies of malnutrition. Malnutrition-Inflammation-Atherosclerosis syndrome was evidenced in 3.7% of the patients. The Malnutrition-Inflammation Score had a moderate negative correlation with body mass index, waist circumference, neck circumference, waist-to-height ratio and creatinine. CONCLUSION The correlation seen among the parameters suggests that most of the parameters evaluated can be used as an indirect indicator of malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis syndrome.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO A síndrome Desnutrição-Inflamação-Aterosclerose é frequente nos pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise, acarretando perda de proteínas corporais e produção de citocinas pró-inflamatórias. OBJETIVO Verificar, entre os indicadores nutricionais estudados, aqueles que melhor se correlacionam com a síndrome Desnutrição-Inflamação-Aterosclerose em pacientes submetidos à hemodiálise. MÉTODOS O estudo foi transversal, realizado na Clínica de Hemodiálise do Hospital Barão de Lucena, no Recife (PE), entre julho e agosto de 2016, com pacientes atendidos há pelo menos seis meses. Foram excluídos pacientes amputados, internados, com deficiência visual, cateter no pescoço, HIV positivo, ascite e/ou edema e aqueles incapazes de prestar informações no momento da entrevista. Os pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação antropométrica para a classificação do estado nutricional pela circunferência da cintura, perímetro do pescoço, índice de massa corporal, relação cintura-quadril e relação cintura-estatura. O estado nutricional relacionado à inflamação foi mensurado pelo escore Desnutrição-Inflamação e a avaliação do estado nutricional pelos indicadores bioquímicos: ureia, creatinina e albumina. RESULTADOS Participaram do estudo 27 indivíduos de ambos os sexos, adultos e idosos, com idade de 51,3 ± 13,3 anos. A avaliação antropométrica mostrou que a maior parte da população apresentava risco cardiovascular. A avaliação bioquímica relatou baixas frequências de desnutrição. Foi evidenciada síndrome Desnutrição-Inflamação-Aterosclerose em 3,7% dos pacientes. O escore Desnutrição-Inflamação apresentou correlação moderada negativa com o índice de massa corporal, circunferência da cintura, perímetro do pescoço, relação cintura-estatura e creatinina. CONCLUSÃO A correlação observada entre os parâmetros sugere que a maioria dos parâmetros avaliados pode ser utilizada como indicador indireto da síndrome Desnutrição-Inflamação-Aterosclerose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Malnutrition/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Reference Values , Syndrome , Time Factors , Urea/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Anthropometry , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Renal Dialysis/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Creatinine/blood , Life Style , Middle Aged
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(5): 402-410, May 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950159

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: AIDS as well as atherosclerosis are important public health problems. The longer survival among HIV-infected is associated with increased number of cardiovascular events in this population, and this association is not fully understood. Objectives: To identify the frequency of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients compared to control subjects; to analyze associations between atherosclerosis and clinical and laboratory variables, cardiovascular risk factors, and the Framingham coronary heart disease risk score (FCRS). Methods: Prospective cross-sectional case-control study assessing the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in 264 HIV-infected patients and 279 controls. Clinical evaluation included ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries, arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), laboratory analysis of peripheral blood, and cardiovascular risk according to FCRS criteria. The significance level adopted in the statistical analysis was p < 0.05. Results: Plaques were found in 37% of the HIV group and 4% of controls (p < 0.001). Furthermore, carotid intima-media thickness was higher in the HIV group than in controls (p < 0.001). Patients with carotid plaque had higher fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides than those without plaques. The presence of HIV, adjusted for age, overweight/obesity, and smoking increased by almost fivefold the risk of atherosclerotic carotid plaque (OR: 4.9; 95%CI: 2.5-9.9; p < 0.001). Exposure to protease inhibitors did not influence carotid intima-media thickness, was not associated with carotid plaque frequency, and did not alter the mechanical characteristics of the arterial system (PWV and AIx). Conclusions: HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of atherosclerosis in association with classical cardiovascular risk factors. Treatment with protease inhibitors does not promote functional changes in the arteries, and shows no association with increased frequency of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries. The FCRS may be inappropriate for this population.


Resumo Fundamento: Aterosclerose e AIDS são importantes problemas de saúde pública. A maior sobrevida de indivíduos infectados pelo HIV acha-se associada com maior número de eventos cardiovasculares nessa população, mas tal associação ainda não foi completamente esclarecida. Objetivos: Identificar a frequência de aterosclerose subclínica em pacientes infectados pelo HIV em comparação a controles; analisar as associações entre aterosclerose e variáveis clínicas e laboratoriais, fatores de risco cardiovascular e escore de risco de Framingham (ERF) para doença coronariana. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo transversal caso-controle avaliando a presença de aterosclerose subclínica em 264 pacientes infectados pelo HIV e 279 controles. A avaliação clínica incluiu ultrassonografia das artérias carótidas, análise da rigidez arterial através da velocidade de onda de pulso (VOP) e augmentation index (AIx), exames laboratoriais do sangue periférico e determinação do risco cardiovascular segundo os critérios do ERF. O nível de significância adotado na análise estatística foi p < 0,05. Resultados: Placas foram identificadas em 37% do grupo infectado pelo HIV e em 4% dos controles (p < 0,001). A espessura médio-intimal carotídea foi maior no grupo HIV do que nos controles (p < 0,001). Pacientes com placa carotídea apresentaram maiores níveis de glicemia de jejum, colesterol total, colesterol da lipoproteína de baixa densidade e triglicérides do que aqueles sem placas. A presença do HIV, ajustada por idade, sobrepeso/obesidade e tabagismo aumentou em quase cinco vezes o risco de placa aterosclerótica carotídea (OR: 4,9; IC95%: 2,5-9,9; p < 0,001). Exposição aos inibidores da protease não influenciou a espessura médio-intimal carotídea, não se associou com frequência de placa carotídea e não alterou as características mecânicas do sistema arterial (VOP e AIx). Conclusões: Pacientes infectados pelo HIV apresentam maior risco de aterosclerose na associação com os clássicos fatores de risco cardiovascular. Tratamento com os inibidores da protease não promove alterações funcionais nas artérias, nem se associa com maior frequência de placas ateroscleróticas carotídeas. O ERF pode ser inadequado para essa população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Carotid Arteries/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/diagnosis , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/etiology
17.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(2): t:114-l:122, mar.-abr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-881988

ABSTRACT

Background: Functional foods such as flaxseed have been commonly consumed to prevent atherosclerosis. Objectives: To assess the effects of flaxseed in atherogenesis in rabbits consuming a high-cholesterol diet. Methods: Thirty male albino rabbits were randomized to three groups based on a 12-week dietary treatment: control group (G1), standard diet; high-cholesterol diet (G2), standard diet plus 0.25% cholesterol from lyophilized eggs; and high-cholesterol plus flaxseed (G3), similar diet as G2 plus flaxseed. Biochemical (total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides) and immunohistochemical (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF- α ]) analyses were performed in all groups. P values < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Results: At 12 weeks, serum TC levels increased significantly in G2 and G3 compared with G1. Serum LDL-C levels were higher in group G2, and the increase in group G3 was approximately six times lower than that in G2. HDL-C levels increased in all groups, with the highest increase observed in G2. Triglycerides levels in G3 decreased by ~70% and differed significantly in G1 and G3 (p = 0.034) and G2 and G3 (p = 0.015). ICAM-1 levels increased only in aortic segment 4 in G3. TNF- α levels in G3 were similar to those in the control group, while the levels in G2 were greater than twice as those in the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The group fed with a functional diet (flaxseed) showed decreased development of atherosclerosis, reduced serum triglycerides levels, and lower TNF- α levels on immunohistochemistry


Fundamentos: Alimentos funcionais, como a linhaça, têm sido consumidos com frequência para prevenção da aterosclerose. Objetivos: Avaliar os efeitos da linhaça sobre a aterogênese em coelhos submetidos a uma dieta rica em colesterol. Métodos: Trinta coelhos albinos machos foram randomizados em três grupos com base em um tratamento dietético por 12 semanas: grupo controle (G1), dieta padrão; dieta rica em colesterol (G2), dieta padrão mais 0,25% de colesterol proveniente de ovos liofilizados; e dieta rica em colesterol mais linhaça (G3), dieta semelhante à do G2 adicionada de linhaça. Análise bioquímica (colesterol total [CT], lipoproteína de alta densidade [HDL-colesterol], lipoproteína de baixa densidade [LDL-colesterol] e triglicérides) e imunohistoquímica (molécula de adesão intercelular 1 [ICAM-1] e fator de necrose tumoral alfa [TNF- α ]) foram realizadas em todos os grupos. Valores de p < 0,05 indicaram significância estatística. Resultados: Às 12 semanas, os níveis séricos de CT aumentaram significativamente nos grupos G2 e G3 em comparação com o G1. Os níveis séricos de LDL-colesterol foram mais altos no grupo G2, e o aumento no grupo G3 foi cerca de seis vezes menor do que no G2. Os níveis de HDL-colesterol aumentaram em todos os grupos, com o maior aumento observado no G2. Os níveis de triglicérides no G3 reduziram em ~70% e diferiram significativamente entre o G1 e G3 (p = 0,034) e G2 e G3 (p = 0,015). Níveis de ICAM-1 aumentaram apenas no segmento aórtico 4 no G3. Os níveis de TNF- α no grupo G3 foram semelhantes aos do grupo controle, enquanto os níveis no G2 foram maiores do que o dobro em relação aos do grupo controle (p < 0,05). Conclusões: O grupo alimentado com uma dieta funcional (linhaça) mostrou redução no desenvolvimento de aterosclerose, níveis séricos mais baixos de triglicérides e níveis mais baixos de TNF- α à imunohistoquímica


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Flax , Hypercholesterolemia , Inflammation , Rabbits , Animal Experimentation , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Cholesterol, Dietary , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Diet , Diet, Atherogenic/methods , Intervention Studies , Models, Animal , Obesity/therapy , Data Interpretation, Statistical
18.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21(supl.2): e180008, 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-985263

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: Doenças cardiometabólicas são prevalentes nas populações, estando entre as principais causas de morte. Objetivos: Este subestudo do Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (Sabe) descreve as prevalências autorreferidas de hipertensão, diabete mellitus (DM) e doença cardiovascular aterosclerótica (DCV) nas suas três ondas (2000, 2006 e 2010) e analisa a associação com fatores de risco selecionados. Métodos: Empregou-se regressão logística. Resultados: O predomínio de mulheres e a idade (68 anos) foram mantidos nas três ondas. No período, verificou-se tendência geral de aumento nas prevalências de hipertensão (53,1 a 66,7%), DM (16,7 a 25%) e DCV (23,0 a 27,2%) - estabilização da prevalência de DCV apenas de 2006 a 2010. Indivíduos do sexo feminino, com índice de massa corporal (IMC) > 27 kg/m2 e ex-fumantes tenderam consistentemente à maior probabilidade de hipertensão autorreferida ao longo das ondas. Apresentar IMC > 27 kg/m2 associou-se à maior probabilidade de referir DM nas três ondas, enquanto com ex-fumantes isso aconteceu apenas em 2010. Ter sido fumante também se associou à DCV nas ondas, mas não o excesso de peso. Averiguando-se pares de ondas para testar alterações nas prevalências, viu-se que em geral houve elevação significativa nos percentuais das doenças com o tempo. Conclusão: Em suma, DM, hipertensão e DCV autorreferidos ocorreram com elevadas prevalências nos participantes do Sabe em São Paulo. A associação de IMC elevado com doenças cardiometabólicas sugere que adiposidade corporal pode favorecê-las, embora esta análise não permita assegurar relação causa × efeito. É possível que o aumento dos percentuais de doentes da primeira para a terceira onda reflita melhora nas condições de diagnóstico e/ou no controle dessas doenças no período.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Cardiometabolic diseases are prevalent in populations and are among the leading causes of death. Objective: This sub-study of the Health, Well-being and Aging (SABE) study describes the self-reported prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) for its three waves (2000, 2006, and 2010). It also analyses the associations with selected risk factors. Methods: Logistic regression models were performed. Results: Predominance of women and average age (68 years) were maintained in all the waves. During the period, there was a general tendency of increasing prevalence of hypertension (53.1 to 66.7%), DM (16.7 to 25.0%), and CVD (23.0 to 27.2%); and stabilization of the CVD prevalence rate occurred only from 2006 to 2010. Women, with body mass index (BMI) > 27 kg/m2, and ex-smokers had consistently higher risk of self-reported hypertension across the three waves. BMI >27kg/m2 was also associated with a higher probability of DM in the three waves, whereas with ex-smokers this occurred only in 2010. Ex-smokers presented higher risk of CVD in all the waves, but not excess weight. Wave pairs were analyzed to test changes in prevalence, and it was found a significant increase in diseases rates across the years. Conclusion: In summary, self-reported DM, hypertension, and CVD had high prevalence rates for participants of SABE Study, in São Paulo. The association of elevated BMI with cardiometabolic diseases suggests that body adiposity might favor their occurrence, although the study design does not guarantee a cause and effect relationship. Increased rates of affected individuals from the first to the third wave may reflect improvement in diagnostic conditions and/or control of these diseases' mortality during that period.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Logistic Models , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Self Report , Hypertension/etiology
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e7185, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889065

ABSTRACT

Hypovitaminosis D has been identified as a possible new cardiovascular risk factor. However, the results of studies correlating serum vitamin D levels with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to correlate serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in Afro-descendants. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on a sample of 382 individuals from a cohort of descendants of African slaves, inhabitants of "Quilombola" communities, with a mean age of 57.79 ±15.3 years, 54.5% of whom were women. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected and biochemical tests were performed, including serum levels of 25(OH)D by electrochemiluminescence and urinary albumin excretion, evaluated by the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) in a spot urine sample. All participants underwent high-resolution ultrasonography for C-IMT measurement. Hypovitaminosis D was defined as serum 25(OH)D levels <30 ng/mL. The mean serum 25(OH)D levels were 50.4±13.5 ng/mL, with a low prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (4.86%). By simple linear correlation, a significant inverse association between 25(OH)D levels and C-IMT (r=-0.174, P=0.001) was observed. However, after multiple linear regression analysis, the significance of the association between serum levels of 25(OH)D and C-IMT measurement was lost (β=-0.039, P=0.318) and only male gender, age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, glucose and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol remained significantly associated with C-IMT. Levels of 25(OH)D were independently and positively associated with HDL-cholesterol and inversely associated with age and ACR. In conclusion, no independent association between 25(OH)D levels and C-IMT was observed in this population. On the other hand, there was an inverse association with albuminuria, a marker of endothelial lesion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Blacks , Atherosclerosis/blood , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Albuminuria , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Blood Pressure , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Vitamin D/blood
20.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 43(4)oct.-dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901537

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La aterosclerosis, es la principal causa de las llamadas Grandes Crisis Ateroscleróticas. Objetivo: Identificar familias aterovulnerables mediante la búsqueda de factores de riesgo y señales tempranas y tardías de aterosclerosis. Método: Se realizó, hace doce años, un estudio descriptivo y transversal en una población rural (125 personas, distribuidas en 52 familias) perteneciente al área de salud Tumba Cuatro, Jaruco, antigua provincia La Habana (hoy provincia Mayabeque), durante el período comprendido entre el 1ro. de junio 2004 al 31 agosto 2004. Se hizo un corte en el tiempo a doce años y una mirada retrospectiva repasando las familias; se revisaron en ellas las personas fallecidas y cuales fueron consecuencia de alguna gran crisis aterosclerótica. Para identificar a las familias aterovulnerables, se diseñó una tabla cualitativa según propuesta de la Sociedad Europea de Hipertensión y Cardiología, modificada por los autores de este trabajo. Resultados: A los doce años 26 personas fallecieron, de las cuales 14 lo hicieron por una de las llamadas Gran Crisis de Aterosclerosis. La información aportada por la tabla cualitativa reveló que las familias que aportaron los 14 fallecidos, se distribuyeron y transitaron por las casillas de bajo, moderado, alto y muy alto riesgo. Conclusiones: La tabla diseñada y utilizada por los autores es sugestiva y puede ser útil para identificar el riesgo familiar, y el oportuno manejo de las familias aterovulnerables(AU)


Introduction: Atherosclerosis is the main cause of the so-called major atherosclerotic crises. Objective: To identify the families vulnerable to atherosclerosis by looking for risk factors and early and late signs of atherosclerosis. Methods: Twelve years ago, a descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in a rural population of 125 people from 52 families, who lived in the health area of Tumba Cuatro in Jaruco municipality, in the former province of La Habana (presently known as Mayabeque province), from June 1st 2004 to 31st August 2004. This 12-year period was retrospectively reviewed to look for dead people and for those who died of any major atherosclerotic crisis within the families of the former study. To attain this objective, a qualitative chart was designed according to the one developed by the European Society of Hypertension and Cardiology, and adapted by the authors of the paper. Results: Twelve years after, 26 persons had died and 14 of them had been victims of the so-called major atherosclerosis crisis. When the qualitative chart was used, then it was observed that the families of these 14 dead people had been distributed and moved through the low, moderate, high and very high risk boxes. Conclusions: The designed chart used by the authors is suggestive and may be useful in determining the family risk and the adequate management of families vulnerable to atherosclerosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Life Tables , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Atherosclerosis/genetics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
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