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China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1352-1369, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970606


Atherosclerosis(AS) is caused by impaired lipid metabolism, which deposits lipids in the intima, causes vascular fibrosis and calcification, and then leads to stiffening of the vascular wall. Hyperlipidemia(HLP) is one of the key risk factors for AS. Based on the theory of "nutrients return to the heart and fat accumulates in the channels", it is believed that the excess fat returning to the heart in the vessels is the key pathogenic factor of AS. The accumulation of fat in the vessels over time and the blood stasis are the pathological mechanisms leading to the development of HLP and AS, and "turbid phlegm and fat" and "blood stasis" are the pathological products of the progression of HLP into AS. Didang Decoction(DDD) is a potent prescription effective in activating blood circulation, removing blood stasis, resolving turbidity, lowering lipids, and dredging blood vessels, with the functions of dispelling stasis to promote regeneration, which has certain effects in the treatment of atherosclerotic diseases. This study employed high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) to screen the main blood components of DDD, explored the targets and mechanisms of DDD against AS and HLP with network pharmacology, and verified the network pharmacological results by in vitro experiments. A total of 231 blood components of DDD were obtained, including 157 compounds with a composite score >60. There were 903 predicted targets obtained from SwissTargetPrediction and 279 disease targets from GeneCards, OMIM, and DisGeNET, and 79 potential target genes of DDD against AS and HLP were obtained by intersection. Gene Ontology(GO) analysis suggested that DDD presumably exerted regulation through biological processes such as cholesterol metabolism and inflammatory response, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) analysis suggested that signaling pathways included lipid and atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, chemo-carcinogenesis-receptor activation, and AGE-RAGE signaling pathways in diabetic complications. In vitro experiments showed that DDD could reduce free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation and cholesterol ester content in L02 cells and improve cellular activity, which might be related to the up-regulation of the expression of PPARα, LPL, PPARG, VEGFA, CETP, CYP1A1, and CYP3A4, and the down-regulation of the expression of TNF-α and IL-6. DDD may play a role in preventing and treating AS and HLP by improving lipid metabolism and inflammatory response, and inhibiting apoptosis with multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway characteristics.

Humans , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Network Pharmacology , Nutrients , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Lipids , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 311-320, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970467


Atherosclerosis(AS) is the common pathological basis of many ischemic cardiovascular diseases, and its formation process involves various aspects such as vascular endothelial injury and platelet activation. Vascular endothelial injury is the initiating factor of AS plaque. Monocytes are recruited to differentiate into macrophages at the damaged endothelial cells, which absorb oxidized low-density lipoprotein(ox-LDL) and slowly transform into foam cells. Smooth muscle cells(SMCs) proliferate and migrate continuously. As the only cell producing interstitial collagen fibers in the fibrous cap, SMCs largely determine whether the plaque ruptured or not. The amplifying inflammatory response during the formation of AS recruits platelets to adhere to the damaged area of vascular endothelium and stimulates excessive platelet aggregation. Autophagy activity is associated with vascular lesions and abnormal platelet activation, and excessive autophagy is considered to be a negative factor for plaque stability. Therefore, precise regulation of different types of vascular autophagy and platelet autophagy to treat AS may provide a new therapeutic perspective for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic ischemic cardiovascular disease. Currently, treatment strategies for AS still focus on lowering lipid levels with high-intensity statins, which often cause significant side effects. Therefore, the development of safer and more effective drugs and treatment modes is the focus of current research. Traditional Chinese medicine and natural compounds have the potential to treat AS by targeted autophagy, and have been playing an increasingly important role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in China. This paper summarizes the experimental studies on different vascular cell types and platelet autophagy in AS, and sums up the published research results on targeted autophagy of traditional Chinese medicine and natural plant compounds to regulate AS, providing new ideas for further research.

Humans , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Autophagy
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 9(3): 1-13, sept. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518684


Worldwide, the leading cause of death is cardiovascular disease. The study details the prescription of statins at the Pablo Arturo Suarez Hospital in Ecuador between March 2021 and February 2022 following the ASCVD risk scale of the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. There are 563 people in this cross-sectional and retrospective study: 70% women, 30% men, 93.30% mestizos, 48.10% diabetics, 62.30% hypertensives, and 18.70% smokers. 26.10% of all patients received statins, with simvastatin being the most common (96.60%). The mean cardiovascular risk in the general population was 15.52 ± 14.51%, 44.99% of subjects had a risk lower than 7.50%, and 29% had a risk higher than 20%, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.001) according to sex. The study determined that 58.60% of the population received a statin or an inadequate dosage.

A nivel mundial, la principal causa de muerte es la enfermedad cardiovascular. El estudio detalla la prescripción de estatinas en el Hospital Pablo Arturo Suárez de Ecuador entre marzo de 2021 y febrero de 2022, siguiendo la escala de riesgo ASCVD del Colegio Americano de Cardiología y la Asociación Americana del Corazón. Son 563 personas en este estudio transversal y retrospectivo: 70% mujeres, 30% hombres, 93.30% mestizos, 48.10% diabéticos, 62.30% hipertensos y 18.70% fumadores. El 26.10% de los pacientes recibía estatinas, siendo la simvastatina la más frecuente (96.60%). El riesgo cardiovascular medio en la población general fue de 15.52 ± 14.51%, el 44.99% de los sujetos tenía un riesgo inferior al 7.50%, y el 29% tenía un riesgo superior al 20%, con una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p<0.001) según el sexo. El estudio determinó que el 58.60% de la población recibía una estatina o una dosis inadecuada.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Atorvastatin/administration & dosage , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(4): 500-510, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385267


Abstract Background: The use of combined oral contraceptives (COC) is a risk factor for atherosclerotic disease, and physical exercise can minimize this condition. Objective: To verify if high intensity interval training (HIIT) promotes changes in the lipid and inflammatory profile of women using COC. Methods: Sequential crossover study with women aged 20-30 years, classified as irregularly active by the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), when using COC. A physical-clinical assessment was performed with anthropometric measurements, VO2max, and analysis of lipid and inflammatory profile. Participants were divided into 2 groups: the initial intervention group (GII), which began practicing HIIT for 2 months, and the posterior intervention group (GIP), which remained inactive for the same period. The GII and GIP would then alternate their conditions. The collected data was divided into: Initial moment (IM), post-exercise moment (PEM) and post-inactivity (PIM). The statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, adopting a significance level of p <0.05 . Results: Twelve women were evaluated. After crossing the GII and GIP data, there was a difference in the C-reactive protein values between the IM of 4 (1.6-6.3 mg/dL) vs. PEM 2 (1.5-5 mg/dL); as well as between the PEM vs. the PIM= 4 (1.5-5.8 mg/dL), with a p -value = 0.04 in the comparisons. There was no change between the "moments" of the lipid profile, although it was possible to notice a reduction in resting HR and an increase in indirect VO2max. Conclusion: The HIIT program was able to reduce the inflammatory profile, but it did not alter the lipid profile of irregularly active women using COC.

Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Contraceptives, Oral, Combined/adverse effects , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , High-Intensity Interval Training , Cross-Sectional Studies , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Heart Disease Risk Factors
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(2): 243-252, Mar.-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364985


Abstract Background: Atherosclerosis is a serious health problem, and several factors contribute to its occurrence. Longitudinal and qualified monitoring of primary health care (PHC) may contribute to the management of atherosclerosis and reduction of avoidable hospital admissions. Objectives: To estimate the trend in hospitalizations for atherosclerosis and the impact of PHC coverage on its evolution from 2008 to 2018 in Brazil. Methods: An ecological time series analytical study based on the outcomes of hospital admissions for atherosclerosis in Brazil. Time in years, PHC coverage, and Family Health Strategy (FHS) services were considered independent variables. A Prais-Winsten model was used to estimate the outcome trend, and α < 0.05 was adopted. Results: We observed a mean increase of 1.81 hospitalizations for atherosclerosis per 100 000 inhabitants annually (p = 0.002) in Brazil. This growth was evidenced in the Northeast (p < 0.001), Southeast (p = 0.003), and South (p < 0.001) regions, being stable in the North (p = 0.057) and Midwest (p = 0.62) regions. Men presented twice the growth in hospitalizations from the fifth decade of life on (p < 0.01). An inversely proportional relationship was observed for PHC coverage (B = -0.71; p < 0.001) and the proportion of FHS services (B = -0.59; p < 0.001) with the rate of admissions due to atherosclerosis in Brazil. Conclusions: Although hospitalizations for atherosclerotic complications are increasing in Brazil, they present regional and individual gender and age discrepancies, as well as a mitigating effect exerted by PHC coverage.

Humans , Primary Health Care/methods , Atherosclerosis/complications , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , Time Series Studies , Environmental Health , Ecological Studies , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 405-421, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927321


Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the general name of a series of diseases based on atherosclerosis. With the development of the social economy and the progress of population aging in China, the burden of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is increasing. However, in recent years some clinical studies have proved that the traditional blood lipid indicators, including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, have some limitations in the risk control of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and the blood lipid indicators need to be further supplemented and improved. This consensus expounds non-traditional blood lipid indexes from the perspectives of test and clinic, mainly including apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein a, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipoprotein residue, and non-fasting blood lipid. This consensus systematically expounds the pathophysiological mechanism of non-traditional blood lipid indexes, the relationship with cardiovascular disease, detection methods and performance, intervention, control and application in the state of cardiovascular disease, and gives the corresponding clinical expert suggestion.

Humans , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Consensus , Lipids , Lipoproteins , Risk Factors
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 38(3): e1909, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408721


Introducción: El síndrome metabólico constituye un hito en la investigación de evaluar mejor y de manera óptima el riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica. Objetivo: Analizar la correlación entre la capacidad predictiva del riesgo global de enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica del síndrome metabólico y las tablas de riesgo: Framingham Risk Score, la tabla de la OMS/ISH y las de Gaziano, la ecuación PROCAM y el algoritmo QRISK2. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión documental, para lo cual se empleó la bibliografía nacional e internacional, especialmente la publicada en los últimos 5 años. Se utilizó el motor de búsqueda Google Académico y se consultaron artículos de libre acceso en las bases de datos Pubmed y SciELO desde marzo 2020 hasta el mes de enero 2021. Se emplearon como palabras clave: síndrome metabólico, riesgo cardiovascular global, método de estimación de riesgo y sus equivalentes en inglés. Las unidades de análisis fueron artículos originales, de revisión, incluyendo revisiones sistemáticas publicadas en los idiomas español e inglés. Fueron seleccionados 38 artículos (23 en idioma español, 15 en inglés) y 31 (81,5 por ciento) corresponden a los últimos 5 años. Conclusiones: El síndrome metabólico y los sistemas de estimación del riesgo global de enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica no deben ser utilizados como equivalentes a causa de que su concordancia, en sentido general, es muy cuestionable. No obstante, se puede considerar como una herramienta útil en prevención primaria de la enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica, siempre y cuando no sustituyan el juicio clínico y se contemplen todas las excepciones y precauciones posibles en el momento de su aplicación(AU)

Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is a milestone within the research to assess better and optimally the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Objective: To analyze the correlation between the predictive capacity for the global risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease of metabolic syndrome and the risk tables: Framingham Risk Score, the WHO/ISH and Gaziano tables, the PROCAM equation, and the QRISK2 algorithm. Methods: A documentary review was carried out, using national and international literature, especially published within the last five years. The Google Scholar search engine was used and open-access articles were consulted in the Pubmed and SciELO databases, from March 2020 to January 2021. The keywords used were síndrome metabólico [metabolic syndrome], riesgo cardiovascular global [global cardiovascular risk], método de estimación de riesgo [risk estimation method] and their English equivalents. The units of analysis were original review articles, including systematic reviews published in Spanish and English. Thirty-eight articles were selected (23 in Spanish and fifteen in English), 31 (81.5 percent) of which correspond to the last five years. Conclusions: Metabolic syndrome and global risk estimation systems for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease should not be used as equivalents because their concordance, in general, is very questionable. Nevertheless, they can be considered a useful tool in the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, as long as they do not replace clinical judgment and all possible exceptions or precautions are considered at the time of their application(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Global Health , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Algorithms , Health Status Indicators , Risk Assessment/methods
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.788-792, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353341
Revagog ; 3(3): 104-110, Jul-Sept. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1344331


El climaterio es una etapa fisiológica que permite al médico reconocer tempranamente los riesgos de patologías y la gran oportunidad de revertirlas. Este trabajo examinará la evidencia actual de la terapia hormonal en la prevención primaria de la enfermedad cardiovascular en mujeres, así como la importancia que igualmente tienen la indemnidad de los ovarios, el peso normal, el uso correcto de antibióticos, la preservación de la microbiota intestinal, las dietas antioxidantes, los estilos de vida saludables y el obligatorio abandono del hábito de fumar.

Humans , Female , Climacteric/physiology , Menopause/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Andropause/physiology , Estradiol/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Healthy Lifestyle
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 23(2)ago. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1409163


RESUMEN La artritis reumatoide y la aterosclerosis son dos enfermedades inflamatorias estrictamente relacionadas. Este trabajo tiene el propósito de mostrar consideraciones de diferentes autores sobre la asociación entre la aterosclerosis y la artritis reumatoide. La inflamación relacionada con la artritis reumatoide puede conducir a la aparición de aterosclerosis de varias maneras. Es importante evaluar y monitorear a los pacientes con artritis reumatoide para detectar la existencia de factores de riesgo tradicionales para la aparición de enfermedad cardiovascular, a fin de reducir el impacto en el sistema cardiovascular.

ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis are two strictly related inflammatory diseases. To show different authors' considerations on the association between atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis ―related inflammation can lead to the onset of atherosclerosis in several ways. It is important to evaluate and monitor rheumatoid arthritis patients to detect the existence of existing traditional risk factors for the appearance of CVD, in order to reduce the impact on the cardiovascular system.

Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 42-50, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878234


This study was designed to evaluate the role of short-chain fatty acid butyrate acid on intestinal morphology and function, and atherosclerotic plaque formation in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE

Animals , Humans , Mice , Apolipoproteins E/genetics , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Butyrates/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Plaque, Atherosclerotic
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200062, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132243


Abstract Cilostazol (CLZ) is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor with antiplatelet and vasodilator properties. It has been recently verified that CLZ plays a significant role in the arteries by inhibiting the proliferation and growth of muscle cells, increasing the release of nitric oxide by the endothelium and promoting angiogenesis. Considering these promising effects, the use of nanocapsules may be an interesting strategy to optimize its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics at the vascular level for preventing atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cilostazol-loaded nanocapsules in the abdominal aortic tunics and on the lipid profile of Wistar rats in order to investigate its potential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thirty-two animals were divided into four groups of eight animals, with 30-day treatment. Group 1 received nanoencapsulated CLZ; Group 2, control nanocapsules with no drug; Group 3, propylene glycol and water; and Group 4, a solution of CLZ in propylene glycol and water. After 30 days, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the cellularity and thickness of the arterial tunics of the abdominal aorta. However, the group that received nanoencapsulated CLZ (Group 1) had an improvement in HDL-c and triglyceride values compared to unloaded nanocapsules (Group 2).

Animals , Male , Rats , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Nanocapsules/administration & dosage , Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cilostazol/administration & dosage , Aorta, Abdominal , Propylene Glycols , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Nitric Oxide
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(2): t:114-l:122, mar.-abr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-881988


Background: Functional foods such as flaxseed have been commonly consumed to prevent atherosclerosis. Objectives: To assess the effects of flaxseed in atherogenesis in rabbits consuming a high-cholesterol diet. Methods: Thirty male albino rabbits were randomized to three groups based on a 12-week dietary treatment: control group (G1), standard diet; high-cholesterol diet (G2), standard diet plus 0.25% cholesterol from lyophilized eggs; and high-cholesterol plus flaxseed (G3), similar diet as G2 plus flaxseed. Biochemical (total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides) and immunohistochemical (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF- α ]) analyses were performed in all groups. P values < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Results: At 12 weeks, serum TC levels increased significantly in G2 and G3 compared with G1. Serum LDL-C levels were higher in group G2, and the increase in group G3 was approximately six times lower than that in G2. HDL-C levels increased in all groups, with the highest increase observed in G2. Triglycerides levels in G3 decreased by ~70% and differed significantly in G1 and G3 (p = 0.034) and G2 and G3 (p = 0.015). ICAM-1 levels increased only in aortic segment 4 in G3. TNF- α levels in G3 were similar to those in the control group, while the levels in G2 were greater than twice as those in the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The group fed with a functional diet (flaxseed) showed decreased development of atherosclerosis, reduced serum triglycerides levels, and lower TNF- α levels on immunohistochemistry

Fundamentos: Alimentos funcionais, como a linhaça, têm sido consumidos com frequência para prevenção da aterosclerose. Objetivos: Avaliar os efeitos da linhaça sobre a aterogênese em coelhos submetidos a uma dieta rica em colesterol. Métodos: Trinta coelhos albinos machos foram randomizados em três grupos com base em um tratamento dietético por 12 semanas: grupo controle (G1), dieta padrão; dieta rica em colesterol (G2), dieta padrão mais 0,25% de colesterol proveniente de ovos liofilizados; e dieta rica em colesterol mais linhaça (G3), dieta semelhante à do G2 adicionada de linhaça. Análise bioquímica (colesterol total [CT], lipoproteína de alta densidade [HDL-colesterol], lipoproteína de baixa densidade [LDL-colesterol] e triglicérides) e imunohistoquímica (molécula de adesão intercelular 1 [ICAM-1] e fator de necrose tumoral alfa [TNF- α ]) foram realizadas em todos os grupos. Valores de p < 0,05 indicaram significância estatística. Resultados: Às 12 semanas, os níveis séricos de CT aumentaram significativamente nos grupos G2 e G3 em comparação com o G1. Os níveis séricos de LDL-colesterol foram mais altos no grupo G2, e o aumento no grupo G3 foi cerca de seis vezes menor do que no G2. Os níveis de HDL-colesterol aumentaram em todos os grupos, com o maior aumento observado no G2. Os níveis de triglicérides no G3 reduziram em ~70% e diferiram significativamente entre o G1 e G3 (p = 0,034) e G2 e G3 (p = 0,015). Níveis de ICAM-1 aumentaram apenas no segmento aórtico 4 no G3. Os níveis de TNF- α no grupo G3 foram semelhantes aos do grupo controle, enquanto os níveis no G2 foram maiores do que o dobro em relação aos do grupo controle (p < 0,05). Conclusões: O grupo alimentado com uma dieta funcional (linhaça) mostrou redução no desenvolvimento de aterosclerose, níveis séricos mais baixos de triglicérides e níveis mais baixos de TNF- α à imunohistoquímica

Animals , Rabbits , Flax , Hypercholesterolemia , Inflammation , Rabbits , Animal Experimentation , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Cholesterol, Dietary , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Diet , Diet, Atherogenic/methods , Clinical Trial , Models, Animal , Obesity/therapy , Data Interpretation, Statistical
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(3): e5854, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839272


Functional food intake has been highlighted as a strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases by reducing risk factors. In this study, we compared the effects of oral treatment with soy milk and simvastatin on dyslipidemia, left ventricle remodeling and atherosclerotic lesion of LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLr-/-) fed a hyperlipidic diet. Forty 3-month old male LDLr-/- mice were distributed into four groups: control group (C), in which animals received standard diet; HL group, in which animals were fed a hyperlipidic diet; HL+SM or HL+S groups, in which animals were submitted to a hyperlipidic diet plus soy milk or simvastatin, respectively. After 60 days, both soy milk and simvastatin treatment prevented dyslipidemia, atherosclerotic lesion progression and left ventricle hypertrophy in LDLr-/- mice. These beneficial effects of soy milk and simvastatin were associated with reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory state in the heart and aorta caused by the hyperlipidic diet. Treatment with soy milk was more effective in preventing HDLc reduction and triacylglycerol and VLDLc increase. On the other hand, simvastatin was more effective in preventing an increase in total cholesterol, LDLc and superoxide production in aorta, as well as CD40L both in aorta and left ventricle of LDLr-/-. In conclusion, our results suggest a cardioprotective effect of soy milk in LDLr-/- mice comparable to the well-known effects of simvastatin.

Animals , Male , Mice , Anticholesteremic Agents/administration & dosage , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Diet , Receptors, LDL/blood , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Soy Milk/administration & dosage , Ventricular Remodeling/physiology , Mice, Knockout
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2016. 167 f p. tab, graf, fig.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-997271


O objetivo desta tese é identificar e discutir suficiências e insuficiências da estratégia preventiva conhecida como rastreamento ­ a busca sistemática por casos em uma subpopulação assintomática e de alto risco. E de fazê-lo à luz dos novos conhecimentos e tecnologias trazidos com o século XXI, das necessidades de uma população mais velha, mais urbana e submetida a diferentes estressores, da realidade atual dos sistemas de saúde (mais especificamente do nosso Sistema Único de Saúde) e da disponibilidade finita de recursos para o seu financiamento. O grupo de doenças investigado foi o das Doenças Crônicas Não Transmissíveis ­ em especial a doença cardiovascular aterosclerótica e o câncer de mama. A tese foi escrita como um ensaio acadêmico a partir de revisão narrativa. A literatura médica tem modificado os limites que definem importantes doenças relacionadas à aterosclerose, com grande impacto no cálculo de suas prevalências. A diminuição dos limites que definem hipercolesterolemia, em relação ao colesterol sérico total, de 240 para 200 mg/dl, somou mais 42.647.000 pessoas ao grupo de doentes (+86%). O diagnostico e o tratamento deste grupo populacional são chamados de overdiagnosis e overtreatment ­ ou sobrediagnóstico e sobretratamento. O uso de equações preditivas pode estar superestimando os riscos cardiovasculares em mais de 150%. Essa estratégia pode ter pouco impacto na redução da carga populacional de doença em fase clínica e pode levar à sobreutilização dos serviços de saúde e, consequente, diminuição de sua eficiência. O sobrediagnóstico do câncer de mama em uma população rastreada é de cerca de 11 a 19%. Estima-se ser necessário rastrear 400 mulheres com idade entre 50 e 70 anos, com mamografias bianuais, durante mais de 30 anos, para se evitar 1 morte. Para cada morte por câncer de mama evitada, cerca de 3 casos de sobrediagnóstico serão identificados e tratados. Com o surgimento de novos recursos terapêuticos, nos últimos 40 anos a sobrevida em cinco anos do câncer de mama vem aumentando, chegando a 85% nos países desenvolvidos, e a 60% nos países em desenvolvimento. Esse ganho tira eficiência da estratégia de rastreamento. A assimilação de novas tecnologias diagnósticas ao processo ainda não encontra respaldo na literatura

Humans , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Early Diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 35(3): 270-282, 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844301


This paper outlines the position of the Department of Cardiovascular Prevention from the Chilean Society of Cardiology regarding the use of the "polypill". The international and local evidence regarding the benefits of the polypill compared to conventional therapy is reviewed. The benefits and some limitations of the polypill are outlined, along with cost-effective considerations. The increased adherence to treatment and the better clinical results of this strategy are put forward. The used of the polypill in different groups of subjects, especially those recovered from a recent myocardial in-farction, is recommended for individual patients and in Chilean cardiovascular prevention programs from the Ministry of Health.

Humans , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Agents/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Risk Factors , Secondary Prevention