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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888623


At present, the standard left atrial appendage occlusion procedure mainly involves two-dimensional imaging methods such as X-ray fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiography to guide the operation, which will lead to underestimation of the three dimensional structure of the left atrial appendage and the surrounding tissue, thus adversely affects the surgery. To solve this problem, a surgery assist system for left atrial appendage occlusion based on preoperative cardiac CT images is developed. The proposed system realizes the left atrial appendage parameter measurement based on cardiac CT image, and realizes the calculation of optimal delivery sheath trajectory and three-dimensional simulation of the delivery sheath movement on the basis of a novel delivery sheath trajectory model. The system is expected to provide precise guidance for left atrial appendage occlusion, improve the success rate and safety of the operation, and at the same time help reduce the difficulty of learning the operation, and facilitate the promotion of left atrial appendage occlusion.

Atrial Appendage/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Cardiac Catheterization , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Humans , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 999-1002, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143991


Abstract Minimally invasive surgical ablation is generally contraindicated in patients with atrial fibrillation and thrombosis of the left atrial appendage. We have treated three of these patients using an innovative technique based on a bilateral video-thoracoscopic approach, performing a continuous encircling lesion at the pulmonary veins outflow with radio-frequency ablation, simultaneously excluding the left atrial appendage. The postoperative course was uneventful, without neurologic events and all patients maintained a stable sinus rhythm at 1-year follow-up. This procedure represents a new mini-invasive method to treat persistent atrial fibrillation when partial thrombosis of the left atrial appendage contraindicates other ablation techniques.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Thrombosis/etiology , Catheter Ablation , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Thoracoscopy , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 841-843, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137322


Abstract Cardiac rhythm disorders are common in many patients with cancer. The management of synchronous long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation and pulmonary lesions remains a serious surgical dilemma due to the lack of clinical data and surgical guidelines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first described case of simultaneous thoracoscopic pulmonary segmentectomy and left atrial posterior wall and pulmonary vein isolation combined with left atrial appendage resection in a patient with early-stage primary lung cancer and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation.

Humans , Female , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Catheter Ablation/methods , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/surgery , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/complications , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonectomy/methods , Pulmonary Veins/surgery , Thoracoscopy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Heart Atria/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 577-579, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137308


Abstract Early recognition and rapid and appropriate treatment of cardiac tamponade are mandatory to prevent the irreversible deterioration of cerebral perfusion and other important organs. In this study, cardiac tamponade was induced by inadvertent transseptal puncture, which was managed with pericardial drainage and surgical repair in a patient with symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Epicardial atrial fibrillation ablation and left atrial appendage amputation were also performed at the same time.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Cardiac Tamponade/etiology , Cardiac Tamponade/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Cardiac Tamponade/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Catheter Ablation , Catheters , Amputation
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880761


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of the combination of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation and left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) on cardiac function and the success rate of AF ablation.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the data of 56 patients with AF undergoing a one-stop procedure for AF ablation and LAAC in our hospital between May, 2015 and May, 2019. Propensity score matching (PSM) at the ratio of 1:1 was used to select 56 control patients undergoing AF ablation at high risk of stroke, for matching with the hybrid procedure group. The perioperative complications, thromboembolic events, recurrence of atrial arrhythmia and cardiac function were compared between the groups.@*RESULTS@#The two groups of patients were comparable for age, gender, BMI, duration and type of AF, concomitant diseases, CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The combination of AF ablation and LAAC is safe but does not improve the success rate of AF ablation. The one-stop procedure can improve cardiac function of the patients, but AF ablation alone can achieve better improvement of cardiac function.

Atrial Appendage/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Catheter Ablation , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(10): 1350-1354, oct. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058605


We report a 65-years old woman with a history of permanent atrial fibrillation with high risk for ischemic and bleeding events. She developed a heart failure with severely impaired left ventricular ejection fraction and severe secondary mitral regurgitation. Given her high surgical risk, using transesophageal echocardiography guidance, a concomitant deployment of two MitraClip devices using a high-posterior septal puncture and a left atrial appendage closure with an Amplatzer Amulet occluder were performed through the same access.

Humans , Female , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Septal Occluder Device , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Severity of Illness Index , Angiography/methods , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Echocardiography, Transesophageal
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(4): 712-721, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038571


Abstract Background: Left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion is an alternative therapy for atrial fibrillation patients who have high embolic risk and contraindications to anticoagulant therapy. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and mid-term outcomes of percutaneous LAA occlusion, including device-related thrombosis. Methods: Sixty consecutive patients who had undergone percutaneous LAA occlusion with AMPLATZER™ Amulet™ device from September 2015 to March 2018 were enrolled. Patients were followed for 21 ± 15 months (median - 20 months, interquartile range - 9 to 27 months). The postprocedural assessment was done at the 1(st), 6(th), and 12(th) month. Patients were clinically evaluated, and transesophageal echocardiography was performed at each visit. We evaluated the condition of normality of variables using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. P-values < 0.05 were statistically significant. Results: The most common indication for the procedure was major bleeding with anticoagulants (n: 53, 88.3%). The procedure was completed successfully in 59 (98.3%) patients. Periprocedural mortality was observed in one patient. Postprocedural antiplatelet treatment was planned as dual or single antiplatelet therapy or low-dose anticoagulant therapy in 52 (88.1%), 2 (3.4%), and 5 (8.5%) patients, respectively. We found no clinically significant cerebrovascular events, device-related thrombus, or embolization in any patient during the follow-up. Two (3.4 %) patients presented significant peri-device leak (>3 mm) at the 1st month evaluation, which disappeared at the 12th month follow-up. Conclusion: We concluded that LAA occlusion using the Amulet™ LAA occluder can be performed with high procedural success and acceptable outcomes.

Resumo Fundamento: A oclusão do apêndice atrial esquerdo (AAE) é uma terapia alternativa para pacientes com fibrilação atrial que tenham alto risco embólico e contraindicações à terapia anticoagulante. Objetivo: Avaliar a viabilidade, segurança e resultados de médio prazo da oclusão percutânea do AAE, incluindo a trombose relacionada à prótese. Métodos: Sessenta pacientes consecutivos que foram submetidos à oclusão percutânea do AAE com a prótese AMPLATZER™ Amulet™ de setembro de 2015 a março de 2018 foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram acompanhados por 21 ± 15 meses (mediana - 20 meses, intervalo interquartílico - 9 a 27 meses). A avaliação pós-procedimento foi feita no 1º, 6º e 12º mês. Os pacientes foram examinados clinicamente e um ecocardiograma transesofágico foi realizado a cada visita. A condição de normalidade das variáveis foi avaliada por meio do teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: A indicação mais comum para o procedimento foi sangramento significativo com anticoagulantes (n: 53, 88,3%). O procedimento foi concluído com sucesso em 59 (98,3%) pacientes. Mortalidade peri-procedimento ocorreu em um paciente. A tratamento antiplaquetário pós-procedimento foi planejado como terapia antiplaquetária única ou dupla ou terapia anticoagulante de dose baixa em 52 (88,1%), 2 (3,4%) e 5 (8,5%) pacientes, respectivamente. Não foram encontrados eventos cerebrovasculares clinicamente significativos, trombo relacionado à prótese ou embolização nos pacientes durante o seguimento. Dois (3,4%) pacientes apresentaram vazamento peri-prótese significativo (>3 mm) na avaliação do 1º mês, que desapareceu no 12º mês de seguimento. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que a oclusão do AAE com o oclusor de AAE Amulet™ pode ser realizada com grande sucesso e resultados aceitáveis.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Septal Occluder Device , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Echocardiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Risk Assessment , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(4): 495-498, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020498


Abstract Management of symptomatic atrial tachycardia (AT) during pregnancy seems challenging, especially those originating from left atrial appendage (LAA), which easily tend to be incessant and mediate cardiomyopathy. It's contradictory between therapy and pregnancy. In this study, we report a case of a woman who presented with persistent AT, which lead to heart failure, during early pregnancy. She underwent successful catheter ablation using CartoSound and electroanatomic mapping without fluoroscopy. An electrophysiology (EP) study confirmed a focal LAA tachycardia. Soon after, left ventricular function of her heart normalized, and the patient successfully delivered a healthy child.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Catheter Ablation/methods , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Electrocardiography , Electrophysiology
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 87(4): 286-291, oct.-dic. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-887538


Resumen: Objetivo: Demostrar que la resección quirúrgica de la orejuela izquierda en los pacientes con enfermedad reumática mitral y fibrilación auricular persistente de larga evolución disminuye la posibilidad de embolia cerebral. Asimismo, esto también elimina la necesidad de anticoagulación oral a largo plazo. Método: Se estudiaron en forma observacional y prospectiva 27 pacientes adultos con enfermedad reumática mitral y fibrilación auricular persistente de larga evolución, sometidos a cirugía valvular mitral y resección quirúrgica de la orejuela izquierda. La anticoagulación oral con warfarina fue suspendida después del tercer mes postoperatorio, recibiendo solamente aspirina a largo plazo. El punto final fue la ausencia de embolia cerebral. Secundariamente, se evaluó la formación de trombos en la aurícula izquierda por ecocardiografía transtorácica postoperatoria. Resultados: Después del tercer mes, ningún paciente presentó embolia cerebral. Un paciente exhibió isquemia cerebral transitoria dentro de los primeros 3 meses en tratamiento con warfarina. Secundariamente, en la cirugía se encontró trombo en aurícula izquierda en 11 casos (40.7%). De estos 11, 6 (54.5%) habían tenido embolia cerebral previamente, sin encontrar significación estadística (p = 0.703). Conclusiones: Este estudio muestra que pudiera haber indicios de que la orejuela izquierda pueda ser la principal fuente embolígena en la enfermedad reumática mitral, y que su resección pueda eliminar el riesgo de embolia cerebral en pacientes con enfermedad reumática mitral y fibrilación auricular persistente de larga evolución.

Abstract: Objective: To demonstrate that surgical removal of the left atrial appendage in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease and long standing persistent atrial fibrillation decreases the possibility of stroke. This also removes the need for long-term oral anticoagulation after surgery. Method: A descriptive, prospective, observational study was conducted on 27 adult patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease and long standing persistent atrial fibrillation, who had undergone mitral valve surgery and surgical removal of the left atrial appendage. Oral anti-coagulation was stopped in the third month after surgery. The end-point was the absence of embolic stroke. An assessment was also made of postoperative embolism formation in the left atrium using transthoracic echocardiography. Results: None of the patients showed embolic stroke after the third post-operative month. Only one patient exhibited transient ischaemic attack on warfarin therapy within the three postoperative months. Left atrial thrombi were also found in 11 (40.7%) cases during surgery. Of these, 6 (54.5%) had had embolic stroke, with no statistical significance (P = .703). Conclusions: This study suggests there might be signs that the left atrial appendage may be the main source of emboli in rheumatic mitral valve disease, and its resection could eliminate the risk of stroke in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Embolism/etiology , Embolism/prevention & control , Mitral Valve , Rheumatic Heart Disease/surgery , Rheumatic Heart Disease/complications , Prospective Studies , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(6): 541-549, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887988


Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cardiac arrhythmia with high risk for thromboembolic events, specially stroke. Objective: To assess the safety of left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) with the Amplatzer Cardiac Plug for the prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with nonvalvular AF. Methods: This study included 15 patients with nonvalvular AF referred for LAAC, 6 older than 75 years (mean age, 69.4 ± 9.3 years; 60% of the male sex). Results: The mean CHADS2 score was 3.4 ± 0.1, and mean CHA2DS2VASc , 4.8 ± 1.8, evidencing a high risk for thromboembolic events. All patients had a HAS-BLED score > 3 (mean, 4.5 ± 1.2) with a high risk for major bleeding within 1 year. The device was successfully implanted in all patients, with correct positioning in the first attempt in most of them (n = 11; 73.3%). Conclusion: There was no periprocedural complication, such as device migration, pericardial tamponade, vascular complications and major bleeding. All patients had an uneventful in-hospital course, being discharged in 2 days. The echocardiographic assessments at 6 and 12 months showed neither device migration, nor thrombus formation, nor peridevice leak. On clinical assessment at 12 months, no patient had thromboembolic events or bleeding related to the device or risk factors. In this small series, LAAC with Amplatzer Cardiac Plug proved to be safe, with high procedural success rate and favorable outcome at the 12-month follow-up. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

Resumo Fundamento: Fibrilação atrial (FA) é uma arritmia cardíaca que submete os pacientes a alto risco de eventos tromboembólicos, particularmente o acidente vascular encefálico. Objetivo: Avaliar a segurança da oclusão do apêndice atrial esquerdo (OAAE) com o dispositivo Amplatzer Cardiac Plug na prevenção de fenômenos embólicos em pacientes com FA de origem não valvar. Métodos: Este estudo de OAAE incluiu 15 pacientes, sendo 6 (40%) acima de 75 anos (idade média, 69,4 ± 9,3 anos; 60% do sexo masculino). Resultados: A média do escore CHADS2 foi 3,4 ± 0,1. Quando se aplicou o CHA2DS2VASc, a média foi de 4,8 ± 1,8, mostrando alto risco de eventos tromboembólicos. Todos os pacientes tinham o escore HAS-BLED > 3 (média 4,5 ± 1,2) com alto risco de sangramentos maiores em 1 ano. Houve sucesso no implante do dispositivo em todos os pacientes, com posicionamento correto na primeira tentativa na maioria deles (n = 11; 73,3%). Conclusão: Não houve complicações periprocedimento, como migração do dispositivo, tamponamento pericárdico, complicações vasculares e hemorragias maiores. Na fase intra-hospitalar, os pacientes evoluíram favoravelmente, obtendo alta em até 2 dias. Nas avaliações ecocardiográficas do seguimento em 6 e 12 meses, não houve migração do dispositivo, presença de trombos e nem vazamentos peridispositivo. Na evolução clínica aos 12 meses, nenhum dos pacientes apresentou eventos tromboembólicos ou sangramentos relacionados aos fatores de risco ou ao dispositivo. Nesta pequena série, a OAAE mostrou-se segura, com uma alta taxa de sucesso do procedimento e evolução favorável dos pacientes aos 12 meses. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Cardiac Catheterization/instrumentation , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Septal Occluder Device , Thrombosis , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Equipment Safety
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(6): 517-522, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897953


Abstract Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is associated with a 4- to 5-fold strokes increase and may be responsible for 15% to 20% of all strokes in the elderly. In this scenario, the left atrial appendage thrombus would be the associated with 90% of cases. The use of anticoagulants, percutaneous devices, and the left atrial appendage surgical exclusion is still an open discussion. For left atrial appendage procedures, relevant anatomic spatial relationships have to be emphasized, besides the chance of the normal physiological functioning would be eliminated with the proceedings. There are evidences that the left atrial appendage closure during routine cardiac surgery is significantly associated with an increased risk of early postoperative atrial fibrillation. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to focus basic aspects for continuous medical education. In summary, the rationale of this text is to emphasize anatomical and pharmacological aspects involved in the simple surgical exclusion of left atrial appendage under cardiopulmonary bypass. There are several operative techniques, but to conclude this revision it will present one of them based on the discussed basic sciences.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Stroke/prevention & control , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/education , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Evidence-Based Medicine , Atrial Appendage/physiology , Stroke/etiology , Education, Medical, Continuing , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(5): 440-447, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887971


Abstract Background: Left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) is an effective alternative to oral anticoagulation (OA) for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Objective: To present the immediate results and late outcomes of patients submitted to LAAC and included in the Brazilian Registry of Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Closure. Methods: 91 patients with NVAF, high stroke risk (CHA2DS2VASc score = 4.5 ± 1.5) and restrictions to OAC (HAS-BLED score = 3.6 ± 1.0) underwent 92 LAAC procedures using either the Amplatzer cardiac plug or the Watchman device in 11 centers in Brazil, between late 2010 and mid 2016. Results: Ninety-six devices were used (1.04 device/procedure, including an additional non-dedicated device), with a procedural success rate of 97.8%. Associated procedures were performed in 8.7% of the patients. Complete LAAC was obtained in 93.3% of the successful cases. In cases of incomplete closure, no residual leak was larger than 2.5 mm. One patient needed simultaneous implantation of 2 devices. There were 7 periprocedural major (5 pericardial effusions requiring pericardiocentesis, 1 non-dedicated device embolization and 1 coronary air embolism without sequelae) and 4 minor complications. After 128.6 patient-years of follow-up there were 3 deaths unrelated to the procedure, 2 major bleedings (one of them in a patient with an unsuccessful LAAC), thrombus formation over the device in 2 cases (both resolved after resuming OAC for 3 months) and 2 strokes (2.2%). Conclusions: In this multicenter, real world registry, that included patients with NVAF and high thromboembolic and bleeding risks, LAAC effectively prevented stroke and bleeding when compared to the expected rates based on CHA2DS2VASc and HASBLED scores for this population. Complications rate of the procedure was acceptable considering the beginning of the learning curve of most of the involved operators.

Resumo Fundamento: A oclusão percutânea do apêndice atrial esquerdo (OAAE) é uma alternativa eficaz à anticoagulação oral (ACO) para a prevenção de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) em pacientes com fibrilação atrial não-valvular (FANV). Objetivo: Apresentar os resultados imediatos e o seguimento tardio de pacientes submetidos a OAAE e incluídos no Registro Brasileiro de Oclusão Percutânea do Apêndice Atrial Esquerdo. Métodos: 91 pacientes com FANV, alto risco de AVC (escore CHA2DS2VASc = 4,5 ± 1,5) e restrição à AO (escore HAS-BLED = 3,6 ± 1,0) foram submetidos a 92 procedimentos de OAAE com as próteses Amplatzer Cardiac Plug e Watchman em 11 centros do Brasil, entre o final de 2010 e a metade de 2016. Resultados: Utilizaram-se 96 próteses no total (1,04 próteses/procedimento, incluindo-se o uso de 1 prótese não-dedicada adicional em um dos casos), obtendo-se sucesso em 97,8% dos procedimentos. Realizaram-se procedimentos associados à OAAE em 8,7% dos pacientes. Observou-se oclusão total do AAE em 93,3% dos casos com sucesso, e nos casos de oclusão incompleta, nenhum leak foi > 2,5 mm. Um paciente necessitou do implante simultâneo de 2 próteses. Houve 7 complicações maiores periprocedimento (5 derrames pericárdicos necessitando pericardiocentese, 1 embolização da prótese não-dedicada e 1 embolia aérea coronariana sem sequelas) e 4 menores. No seguimento de 128,6 pacientes-ano, houve 3 óbitos não relacionados ao procedimento, 2 sangramentos maiores (um deles em um dos casos de insucesso da OAAE), formação de trombo sobre a prótese em 2 casos (tratados com sucesso com reinstituição da ACO por 3 meses), e 2 AVCs (2,2%). Conclusões: Neste registro multicêntrico de mundo real, que incluiu pacientes com FANV e alto risco de sangramento e de eventos tromboembólicos, a OAAE foi eficaz na prevenção de AVC e sangramento quando comparada às taxas de AVC previstas pelos escores CHA2DS2VASc e HASBLED para esta população. O índice de complicações do procedimento foi aceitável, considerando se tratar do início da curva de aprendizado da maioria dos operadores envolvidos.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Stroke/prevention & control , Septal Occluder Device , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 35(2): 109-117, 2016. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-796796


Introducción: El cierre percutáneo de orejuela izquierda con dispositivos percutáneos (CPOI) ha demostrado ser útil en la prevención de embolia arterial como alternativa al tratamiento anticoagulante (TACO) en pacientes con fibrilación auricular no valvular (FANV). Sin embargo, en las primeras semanas post implante, existe el riesgo de formación de trombos sobre el dispositivo. Objetivos: Describir e Identificar los factores de riesgo para la formación de trombos sobre el dispositivo posterior al cierre de orejuela izquierda. Métodos: Se incluyeron 15 pacientes con FANV y alto riesgo hemorrágico, sometidos a CPOI con dispositivo Ultrasept (Cardia Inc., Eagan, MN), en el Hospital Clínico de la Universidad Católica, entre Abril 2013 y Junio 2014. A todos se les realizó eco-cardiograma transesofágico (ETE) al primer, tercer y sexto mes post implante. Todos los pacientes recibieron aspirina en forma permanente y TACO por 45 días el que se reemplazó por clopidogrel hasta el sexto mes post implante. Se analizaron parámetros clínicos y ecocardiográficos en forma retrospectiva para identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a la formación de trombos sobre el dispositivo. Resultados: La edad promedio de los pacientes fue 77± 8 años, 73% de sexo masculino. El 80% tenía FA permanente y 20% FA paroxística. EL Score de CHA2DS2VASc promedio fue de 5 (mínimo 3, máximo 8 puntos). En 4 pacientes (26.6%), encontramos trombos en el dispositivo en el seguimiento con ETE (1 paciente al primer mes y 3 al tercer mes), sin consecuencias clínicas. Al comparar los pacientes que formaron trombos con el resto, no hubo diferencias en las variables clínicas (edad, sexo, Hipertensión arterial (HTA), Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Dislipidemia, Tabaquismo, Insuficiencia Renal, AVE previos), ni en las variables ecocardiográficas estudiadas, como el área de la aurícula izquierda (AI), contraste espontáneo en la AI, insuficiencia mitral ni cierre incompleto de orejuela (medida por la existencia de flujo peridispositivo). Sin embargo, los pacientes con trombos presentaron CHA2DS2VASc score más alto (7.1 vs 4.7; p= 0.001) y fracción de eyección (FE) más baja (43% vs 55%; p= 0.001). En la curva ROC de CHA2DS2VASc para predecir una mayor probabilidad de formación de trombos, un valor > 6 obtiene una sensibilidad de un 100% y una especificidad de un 80%. En nuestro seguimiento clínico de 2 años ± 5.7 meses posterior al implante, 1 paciente tuvo un AVE isquémico identificando como fuente enfermedad carotidea (no tenía trombos en el dispositivo). El resto de los pacientes se mantienen asintomáticos. Conclusiones: En nuestra experiencia, el CHA2DS-2VASc score (> 6) y la fracción de eyección baja, fueron factores de riesgo para la formación de trombos sobre el dispositivo de cierre de orejuela. Este hallazgo debería confirmarse en series más grandes dado que podría cambiar la estrategia de anticoagulación post implante.

Background: Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) has been shown to be useful in the prevention of arterial embolism as an alternative to oral anticoagulants in patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation. However, thrombus formation may develop in the first weeks following device implantation/ Aim: to identify risk factors for thrombus development on devices used for LAA closure. Methods: 15 patients with non valvular AF and high risk for anticoagulant treatment were included. Patients received an Ultrasept (Cardia Inc., Eagan, MN) between April 2013 and June 2014. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed in all patients 1, 3 and 6 months post implant. All patients received aspirin permanently and acenocumarol for 45 days, followed by clopidogrel until 6 months post implant. Results: Mean age was 77 years old (SD 8). 73% were males. AF was permanent in 80% and paroxysmal in 20%. Mean CHA2DS2VASC was 8 (range 3 to 8). Thrombus were revealed by TEE in 4 patients (26.6%), at 1 month (1 patient) and at 3 months post implant (3 patients). No complications occurred in these patients. Clinical variables (age, sex, hyper-tension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking habit, renal failure and prior strokes) were no different in patients with or without thrombus. The same was true for left atrial size, mitral insufficiency or incomplete closure of LAA. In contrast, patients with thrombus formation had a higher CHA2DS2VASc score (7.1 vs 4.7, p=0.001 and a lower LV ejection fraction (43% vs 55%, p=0.001). A CHA2DS2VASc score > 6 was 100% sensible and 80% specific for thrombus formation (ROC curve). After a follow-up of 24 ± 5 months only 1 patients had and ischemic cerebro-vascular event which was attributed to carotid artery disease (the patient had no evidence of device thrombus). All other patients remain asymptomatic. Conclusion: A CHA2DS2VASc score > 6 and a low ejection fraction were risk factors for thrombus formation on LAA closing device. Confirmation of these findings in a larger series of patients could lead to a change in anticoagulant strategy following the implantation of devices to close the LAA.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Cardiac Catheterization/adverse effects , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Follow-Up Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Embolism/prevention & control , Forecasting
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 84(1): 17-24, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712906


Objectives: To evaluate intra-procedural imaging with transesophageal echocardiography and angiography during left atrial appendage occlusion using the Amplatzer™ Cardiac Plug with regard to sizing and final device shape. Methods: Left atrial appendage ostium dimensions and diameter at a depth of 10 mm from the ostium were measured by transesophageal echocardiography (0-180°) and angiography (RAO 30° - Cranial 20°) in consecutive patients undergoing left atrial appendage occlusion using the ACP with an oversizing strategy of 10-20% relative to the baseline measurements. After delivery, ACP dimensions were measured and device shape was assessed. Results: Twenty-seven consecutive patients underwent successful uncomplicated left atrial appendage closure with Amplatzer™ Cardiac Plug. We found a significant difference between the largest and smallest left atrial appendage diameter measured with transesophageal echocardiography (22.3 ± 4.2 vs. 18.1 ± 4.1 mm, p <0.001). By the end of the procedure (by angiography), ACP had an optimal shape in 17 patients (63%), a strawberry-like shape in 7 patients (26%), and a square-like shape in 3 patients (11%). ACP was oversized on average by 1.5±2.7 and 3.3±2.3mm compared to transesophageal echocardiography and angiography, respectively. The final shape of the device was not significantly associated with the degree of oversizing. Conclusions: We found a considerable variability in the assessment of the left atrial appendage, using transesophageal echocardiography and angiography. The degree of Amplatzer™ Cardiac Plug expansion within the left atrial appendage and the final shape of the device were not associated with the degree of oversizing.

Objetivos: Evaluar las dimensiones de la orejuela izquierda antes del cierre percutáneo y la correlación de sus dimensiones finales y la forma del dispositivo Amplatzer™ cardiac plug con ecocardiografia transesofágica y angiografia. Métodos: Se midieron las dimensiones de la orejuela izquierda a una distancia de 10 mm a partir del ostium con ecocardiografia transesofágica (0 a 180°) y angiografia (RAO 30° Craneal 20°). Se utilizó una estrategia para sobre dimensionar el tamano del dispositivo del 10 al 20% con respecto a las mediciones iniciales. Se evaluaron las dimensiones y la forma final del dispositivo. Resultados: Se realizó el procedimiento en 27 pacientes. Se encontró una diferencia significativa entre el diámetro mayor y menor de orejuela izquierda medido por ecocardiografia transesofágica (22.3±4.2 vs 18.1 ±4.1 mm, p< 0.001). Una vez liberado el dispositivo, se encontró que en 17 pacientes (63%) adoptó una forma óptima, de "fresa" en 7 (26%) y cuadrada en 3 (11%). El tamaño del dispositivo seleccionado se sobre dimensionó en promedio 1.5 ± 2.7mm con la ecocardiografia transesofágica y 3.3 ± 2.3 mm con la angiografia. La forma final del dispositivo no se asoció de manera significativa con el grado de sobre dimensionamiento del mismo. Conclusiones: Existe variabilidad considerable en la evaluación de la orejuela izquierda entre la ecocardiografia transesofágica y la angiografia. No se encontró asociación entre el grado de expansión del dispositivo dentro de la orejuela izquierda ni de su forma final con el grado de sobre dimensionamiento del mismo.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Atrial Appendage , Atrial Appendage , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Intraoperative Care , Septal Occluder Device , Surgery, Computer-Assisted , Angiography , Atrial Appendage/anatomy & histology , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Organ Size , Prospective Studies , Prosthesis Design , Prosthesis Implantation/methods