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Sâo Paulo med. j ; 140(2): 182-187, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366042


Abstract BACKGROUND: Prevention of recurrence of stroke depends on recognition of the underlying mechanism of ischemia. OBJECTIVE: To screen patients who were hospitalized with diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke in terms of atrial fibrillation (AF) with repeated Holter electrocardiography recordings. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study conducted at Konya Education and Research Hospital, Turkey. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke, without atrial fibrillation on electrocardiography (ECG), were evaluated. Their age, gender, histories of previous ischemic attack, occurrences of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) and other risks were assessed during the first week after acute ischemic stroke and one month thereafter. ECG recordings were obtained from 130 patients through 24-hour ambulatory Holter. Patients without PAF attack during the first Holter were re-evaluated. RESULTS: PAF was detected through the first Holter in 33 (25.4%) out of 130 acute ischemic stroke patients. A second Holter was planned for 97 patients: 53 (54.6%) of them could not attend due to COVID-19 pandemic; while 44 (45.3%) patients had the second Holter and, among these, 4 (9.1%) had PAF. The only parameter associated with PAF was older age. Four (10.8%) of the 37 patients with PAF had also symptomatic carotid stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Detecting the presence of PAF by screening patients with no AF in the ECG through Holter ECG examinations is valuable in terms of changing the course of the treatment. It should be kept in mind that the possibility of accompanying PAF cannot be ruled out in the presence of other factors that pose a risk of stroke.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke , COVID-19 , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/adverse effects , Pandemics
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(1): 88-94, jan. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360110


Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação atrial é um problema de saúde pública associado com um risco cinco vezes maior de acidente vascular cerebral e mortalidade. A análise de custos é importante para a introdução de novas terapias, e deve ser reconsiderada em situações especiais, tais como a pandemia do coronavírus em 2020. Objetivo: Avaliar os custos (em um período de um ano) relacionados à terapia anticoagulante e a qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibrilação atrial tratados em um hospital público universitário. Métodos: Os custos do paciente foram aqueles relacionados à anticoagulação e calculados pela média de custos mensais da varfarina ou de anticoagulantes orais diretos (DOACs). As despesas não médicas, como alimentação e transporte, foram calculadas a partir de dados obtidos de questionários. O questionário brasileiro SF-6D foi usado para medir a qualidade de vida. Valores p<0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: A população do estudo consistiu em 90 pacientes, 45 em cada braço (varfarina vs. DOACs). Os custos foram 20% mais altos no grupo dos DOACs (US$55 532,62 vs. US$46 385,88), e principalmente relacionados ao preço dos medicamentos (US$23 497,16 vs. US$1903,27). Os custos hospitalares foram mais altos no grupo da varfarina (US$31 088,41 vs $24 604,74), e relacionados às visitas ao ambulatório. Ainda, as despesas não médicas foram duas vezes maiores no grupo varfarina ($13 394,20 vs $7 430,72). A equivalência de preço entre os dois medicamentos seria alcançada por uma redução de 39% no preço dos DOACs. Não foram observadas diferenças quanto à qualidade de vida. Conclusões: Os custos totais foram mais altos no grupo de pacientes tratados com DOACs que no grupo da varfarina. No entanto, uma redução de cerca de 40% no preço dos DOACs tornaria viável a incorporação desses medicamentos no sistema de saúde público brasileiro.

Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation is a public health problem associated with a fivefold increased risk of stroke or death. Analyzing costs is important when introducing new therapies and must be reconsidered in special situations, such as the novel coronavirus pandemic of 2020. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the costs related to anticoagulant therapy in a one-year period, and the quality of life of atrial fibrillation patients treated in a public university hospital. Methods: Patient costs were those related to the anticoagulation and calculated by the average monthly costs of warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Patient non-medical costs (eg., food and transportation) were calculated from data obtained by questionnaires. The Brazilian SF-6D was used to measure the quality of life. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The study population consisted of 90 patients, 45 in each arm (warfarin vs direct oral anticoagulants). Costs were 20% higher in the DOAC group ($55,532.62 vs $46,385.88), and mainly related to drug price ($23,497.16 vs $1,903.27). Hospital costs were higher in the warfarin group ($31,088.41 vs $24,604.74) and related to outpatient visits. Additionally, non-medical costs were almost twice higher in the warfarin group ($13,394.20 vs $7,430.72). Equivalence of price between the two drugs could be achieved by a 39% reduction in the price of DOACs. There were no significant group differences regarding quality of life. Conclusions: Total costs were higher in the group of patients taking DOACs than those taking warfarin. However, a nearly 40% reduction in the price of DOACs could make it feasible to incorporate these drugs into the Brazilian public health system.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Administration, Oral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticoagulants
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 249-256, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935136


Objective: To investigate the functional changes of key gut microbiota (GM) that produce lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and to explore their potential role in the pathogenesis of AF. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Patients with AF admitted to Beijing Chaoyang Hospital of Capital Medical University were enrolled from March 2016 to December 2018. Subjects with matched genetic backgrounds undergoing physical examination during the same period were selected as controls. Clinical baseline data and fecal samples were collected. Bacterial DNA was extracted and metagenomic sequencing was performed by using Illumina Novaseq. Based on metagenomic data, the relative abundances of KEGG Orthology (KO), enzymatic genes and species that harbored enzymatic genes were acquired. The key features were selected via the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analysis. The role of GM-derived LPS biosynthetic feature in the development of AF was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and logistic regression analysis. Results: Fifty nonvalvular AF patients (mean age: 66.0 (57.0, 71.3), 32 males(64%)) were enrolled as AF group. Fifty individuals (mean age 55.0 (50.5, 57.5), 41 males(82%)) were recruited as controls. Compared with the controls, AF patients showed a marked difference in the GM genes underlying LPS-biosynthesis, including 20 potential LPS-synthesis KO, 7 LPS-biosynthesis enzymatic genes and 89 species that were assigned as taxa harbored nine LPS-enzymatic genes. LASSO regression analysis showed that 5 KO, 3 enzymatic genes and 9 species could be selected to construct the KO, enzyme and species scoring system. Genes enriched in AF group included 2 KO (K02851 and K00972), 3 enzymatic genes (LpxH, LpxC and LpxK) and 7 species (Intestinibacter bartlettii、Ruminococcus sp. JC304、Coprococcus catus、uncultured Eubacterium sp.、Eubacterium sp. CAG:251、Anaerostipes hadrus、Dorea longicatena). ROC curve analysis revealed the predictive capacity of differential GM-derived LPS signatures to distinguish AF patients in terms of above KO, enzymatic and species scores: area under curve (AUC)=0.957, 95%CI: 0.918-0.995, AUC=0.940, 95%CI 0.889-0.991, AUC=0.972, 95%CI 0.948-0.997. PLS-SEM showed that changes in lipopolysaccharide-producing bacteria could be involved in the pathogenesis of AF. The key KO mediated 35.17% of the total effect of key bacteria on AF. After incorporating the clinical factors of AF, the KO score was positively associated with the significantly increased risk of AF (OR<0.001, 95%CI:<0.001-0.021, P<0.001). Conclusion: Microbes involved in LPS synthesis are enriched in the gut of AF patients, accompanied with up-regulated LPS synthesis function by encoding the LPS-enzymatic biosynthesis gene.

Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Lipopolysaccharides , Prospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 243-248, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935135


Objective: To explore the relationship between fasting blood glucose level and thromboembolism events in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Methods: This was an observational study based on data from a multicenter, prospective Chinese atrial fibrillation registry cohort, which included 18 703 consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in 31 hospitals in Beijing from August 2011 to December 2018. Patients were divided into 5 groups according to status of comorbid diabetes and fasting glucose levels at admission: normal blood glucose (normal glucose group), pre-diabetes group, strict glycemic control group, average glycemic control group and poor glycemic control group. Patients were followed up by telephone or outpatient service every 6 months. The primary follow-up endpoint was thromboembolic events, including ischemic stroke and systemic embolism. The secondary endpoint was the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death and thromboembolic events. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multifactorial Cox regression were used to analyze the correlation between fasting glucose levels and endpoint events. Results: The age of 18 703 patients with NVAF was (63.8±12.0) years, and there were 11 503 (61.5%) male patients. There were 11 877 patients (63.5%) in normal blood glucose group, 2 023 patients (10.8%)in pre-diabetes group, 1 131 patients (6.0%) in strict glycemic control group, 811 patients in average glycemic control group and 2 861 patients(4.3%) in poor glycemic control group. Of the 4 803 diabetic patients, 1 131 patients (23.5%) achieved strict glycemic control, of whom 328 (29.0%) were hypoglycemic (fasting blood glucose level<4.4 mmol/L at admission). During a mean follow-up of (51±23) months (up to 82 months), thromboembolic events were reported in 984 patients (5.3%). The survival curve analysis of Kaplan Meier showed that the incidence rates of thromboembolic events in normal glucose group, pre-diabetes group, strict glycemic control group, average glycemic control group and poor glycemic control group were 1.10/100, 1.41/100, 2.09/100, 1.46/100 and 1.71/100 person-years, respectively (χ²=53.0, log-rank P<0.001). The incidence rates of composite endpoint events were 1.86/100, 2.17/100, 4.08/100, 2.58/100, 3.16/100 person-years (χ²=72.3, log-rank P<0.001). The incidence of thromboembolic events and composite endpoint events in the other four groups were higher than that in the normal blood glucose group (P<0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that compared with normal glucose group, the risk of thromboembolism increased in pre-diabetes group(HR=1.23, 95%CI 1.00-1.51, P=0.049), strict glycemic control group(HR=1.32, 95%CI 1.06-1.65, P=0.013) and poor glycemic control group(HR=1.26, 95%CI 1.01-1.58, P=0.044). Conclusion: Both high or low fasting glucose may be an independent risk factor for thromboembolic events in patients with NVAF.

Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Blood Glucose/analysis , Fasting , Prospective Studies , Thromboembolism/etiology
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(5): 724-732, mayo 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389509


Background: Vitamin K antagonists such as acenocoumarol and warfarin are usually indicated for the treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (AF). The Therapeutic Range Time (TRT) is a quality of treatment indicator. Values greater than 65% are associated with significantly lower stroke and bleeding rates. Proper pharmaceutical care improves TRT. Aim: To evaluate the impact of pharmaceutical care in patients with AF treated with acenocoumarol. Material and Methods: We studied 41 patients using acenocoumarol for AF aged 71 ± 11 years (43% women). They received pharmaceutical counseling during 12 weeks. TRT was calculated retrospectively for the year before counseling and prospectively during the intervention period. Results: After receiving pharmaceutical counseling TRT improved from 29% at baseline to 46% at the end of the intervention (p < 0.01). After pharmaceutical care, the adherence of patients to drug treatment improved from 27% at baseline to 85% at the end of the study. The user satisfaction survey of the pharmaceutical care received showed a high degree of patient satisfaction. Conclusions: Pharmaceutical care in patients with oral anticoagulant treatment improves TRT of anticoagulation. It is accepted and positively evaluated by patients.

Humans , Male , Female , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Retrospective Studies , Counseling , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(1): e36105, abr. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | BNUY, UY-BNMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1248118


Desde época temprana de la cirugía cardíaca (CC), la fibrilación auricular (FA) ha sido un acompañante frecuente del posoperatorio, y no es esperable su abatimiento en el futuro cercano. La interpretación de su significado clínico se ha modificado en los últimos años, tras conocerse su tendencia recurrente y su asociación con serias complicaciones inmediatas y a largo plazo. Esto deja entrever un nuevo desafío, dejando de ser un problema menor y de consideración puntual en el perioperatorio para constituir un tema de preocupación y seguimiento en el futuro alejado, aún con incertidumbres evolutivas y de manejo. La profilaxis efectiva de esta arritmia, una respuesta lógica al problema, es dificultosa por la multiplicidad de factores de riesgo y lo intrincado de su génesis, todavía no completamente dilucidada, sumadas a la edad creciente de los pacientes intervenidos, la complejidad mayor de los procedimientos, los posibles efectos colaterales de los fármacos empleados y la inexistencia de un algoritmo predictivo confiable que permita racionalizar las medidas preventivas. Además, muchas recomendaciones de las guías de práctica clínica actuales se basan en información obtenida en estudios realizados en la FA primaria, por lo que su adopción en el escenario de la CC ha sido menor a la deseable. Todos estos aspectos son objeto de análisis en esta revisión que finaliza con pautas de manejo práctico de la arritmia en el entorno perioperatorio.

Since an early age of heart surgery, atrial fibrillation has been a frequent companion of the postoperative period, and its decline is not to be expected in the near future. The interpretation of its clinical significance has changed in recent years, after knowing its recurrent trend and its association with serious immediate and long-term complications. This fact unveils a new challenge, as it is no longer a minor problem of consideration restricted to the perioperative period and has become a topic of concern and follow-up in the distant future, still with uncertainties as to its evolution and management. The effective prophylaxis of this arrhythmia, a logical response to the problem, has been difficult by the multiplicity of risk factors and the intricate of its genesis, not yet completely elucidated, added to the increasing age of the patients involved, the greater complexity of the procedures, the possible side effects of the drugs used and the absence of a reliable predictive algorithm that could allow to rationalize preventive measures. In addition, many recommendations from current clinical practice guidelines are based on information obtained from studies in primary atrial fibrillation, so their adoption in the heart surgery scenario has been less than desirable. All these aspects are analyzed in this review, which ends with directives for the practical management of the arrhythmia in the perioperative environment.

Desde os primeiros días da cirurgia cardíaca, a fibrilação atrial (FA) tem sido uma companheira frequente para o pós-operatório, e sua reduçao não é esperada em um futuro próximo. A interpretação de sua significância clínica mudou nos últimos anos, tendo conhecido sua tendência recorrente e sua associação com sérias complicações imediatas e de longo prazo. Este fato mostra um novo desafio, pois deixou de ser um pequeno problema e uma consideração oportuna no perioperatório para constituir um tema de preocupação e acompanhamento em um futuro distante, mesmo com incertezas quanto à sua evolução e gestão. A profilaxia efetiva dessa arritmia, uma resposta lógica ao problema, tem sido cercada pela multiplicidade de fatores de risco e pela intrincação de sua gênese ainda não completamente elucidada, juntamente com a idade crescente dos pacientes envolvidos, a maior complexidade dos procedimentos, os possíveis efeitos colaterais dos medicamentos utilizados e a ausência de um algoritmo preditivo confiável para racionalizar as medidas preventivas. Além disso, muitas recomendações das guias atuais de prática clínica são baseadas em informações obtidas em estudos conduzidos em FA primária, de modo que sua adoção no cenário da cirurgia cardíaca tem sido menos do que desejável. Todos esses aspectos são analisados nesta revisão, que termina com diretrizes práticas de gestão para arritmia no ambiente perioperatório.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Incidence , Risk Factors , Case Management , Stroke/etiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 325-331, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153019


Resumo Fundamentos A fibrilação atrial é a arritmia persistente mais comum e é o principal fator que leva ao tromboembolismo. Objetivo Investigar o valor do diâmetro do átrio esquerdo combinado com o escore CHA2DS2-VASc na predição da trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo na fibrilação atrial não valvar. Métodos Trata-se de estudo retrospectivo. 238 pacientes com fibrilação atrial não valvar foram selecionados e divididos em dois grupos: trombose e não trombose. Determinou-se o escore CHA2DS2-VASc. Valores de p<0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados A análise de regressão logística multivariada revelou que histórico de acidente vascular cerebral/ataque isquêmico transitório, doença vascular, escore CHA2DS2-VASc, DAE, DDFVE e FEVE foram fatores de risco independentes para trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo (p<0,05). A análise da curva ROC ( Receiver Operating Characteristic ) revelou que a área sob a curva para o escore CHA2DS2-VASc na predição de trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo foi de 0,593 quando o escore CHA2DS2-VASc foi ≥3 pontos, e a sensibilidade e especificidade foram 86,5% e 32,6%, respectivamente, enquanto a área sob a curva para o DAE na predição de trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo foi 0,786 quando o DAE foi ≥44,17 mm, e a sensibilidade e especificidade foram 89,6% e 60,9%, respectivamente. Entre os diferentes grupos CHA2DS2-VASc, a taxa de incidência de trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo em pacientes com DAE ≥44,17 mm foi maior do que em pacientes com DAE <44,17 mm (p <0,05). Conclusão O escore CHA2DS2-VASc e o DAE estão correlacionados com a trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo na fibrilação atrial não valvar. Para pacientes com escore CHA2DS2-VASc de 0 ou 1, quando o DAE é ≥44,17 mm, o risco de trombose atrial esquerda/trombose de apêndice atrial esquerdo permaneceu alto. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

Abstract Background Atrial fibrillation is the most common persistent arrhythmia, and is the main factor that leads to thromboembolism. Objective To investigate the value of left atrial diameter combined with CHA2DS2-VASc score in predicting left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Methods This is a retrospective study. 238 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation were selected and divided into two groups: thrombosis and non-thrombosis. CHA2DS2-VASc score was determined. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the history of stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, CHA2DS2-VASc score, left atrial diameter (LAD), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were independent risk factors for left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis (p<0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve for the CHA2DS2-VASc score in predicting left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis was 0.593 when the CHA2DS2-VASc score was ≥3 points, and sensitivity and specificity were 86.5% and 32.6%, respectively, while the area under the curve for LAD in predicting left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis was 0.786 when LAD was ≥44.17 mm, and sensitivity and specificity were 89.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Among the different CHA2DS2-VASc groups, the incidence rate of left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis in patients with LAD ≥44.17 mm was higher than patients with LAD <44.17 mm (p<0.05). Conclusion CHA2DS2-VASc score and LAD are correlated with left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. For patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0 or 1, when LAD is ≥44.17 mm, the risk for left atrial/left atrial appendage thrombosis remained high. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Stroke Volume , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ventricular Function, Left , Risk Assessment
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(1): 101-106, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287786


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: We aimed to demonstrate the clinical utility of CHA2DS2-VASc and anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation risk scores in the assessment of one year mortality in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. METHODS: We designed a retrospective cohort study using data from Suleyman Demirel University Hospital for the diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm. The study included 120 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm who underwent aortic computed tomography. Patients were divided into two groups according to presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm and the development of mortality. Predictors of mortality were determined by multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Multivariate regression analysis showed that CHA2DS2-VASc score, advanced age, female gender and elevated white blood cell counts were independent predictors of abdominal aortic aneurysm development while CHA2DS2-VASc score and elevated glucose levels were independent predictors of one year mortality in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. The concordance statistics for anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation risk Score and CHA2DS2-VASc risk score respectively were 0.96 and 0.97 and could significantly predict one year mortality in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: CHA2DS2-VASc and anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation risk scores are easily obtained in an emergency setting and can accurately predict one year mortality as a noninvasive follow-up in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. These simple scores could be used as a point of care decision aid to help the clinician in counseling patients presenting with abdominal aortic aneurysm and their families on treatment protocols.

Humans , Female , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/complications , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/diagnostic imaging , Stroke , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(3)2021. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292127


Resumo Historicamente, o papel do ecocardiograma de estresse físico no manejo da cardiomiopatia hipertrófica tem sido negligenciado na prática clínica, de acordo com a análise das diretrizes do American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association de 2002, que recomendavam cautela no uso dessa metodologia, em portadores de cardiomiopatia hipertrófica, devido ao risco de possível ocorrência tanto de arritmia cardíaca, como de colapso hemodinâmico no esforço. Atualmente, o estresse físico na cardiomiopatia hipertrófica integra a avaliação rotineira de pacientes sintomáticos com ou sem gradiente da via de saída do ventrículo esquerdo < 50 mmHg, em repouso. Para este grupo, é um método seguro e confiável para medir o gradiente da via de saída do ventrículo esquerdo durante o esforço e sólido diferenciador de pacientes com cardiomiopatia hipertrófica não obstrutivos (gradiente ausente, tanto em repouso quanto no esforço) daqueles com gradientes lábeis (gradiente ausente no repouso e presente no esforço). Portanto, na avaliação da cardiomiopatia hipertrófica, o estresse físico é igualmente útil na quantificação do grau de regurgitação mitral, nas alterações da contratilidade segmentar do ventrículo esquerdo e na avaliação da função diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo, diante do esforço, sendo capaz de predizer o futuro desenvolvimento de sintomas de insuficiência cardíaca. O método é também importante na determinação das diferentes estratégias de tratamento para cada paciente, desde a miomectomia cirúrgica ou a ablação septal alcoólica, para aqueles com gradiente lábil, com sintomas limitantes e refratários ao tratamento medicamentoso versus transplante cardíaco para aqueles sem gradiente.(AU)

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/congenital , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Familial , Heart Failure/complications , Mitral Valve , Stress, Physiological , Vibration/adverse effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Ergometry/methods , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Echocardiography, Stress/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Ablation Techniques
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(4): 717-718, out. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131352


Resumo Baixas doses de edoxabana e enoxaparina sódica foram objeto de uma comparação retrospectiva implementada com a técnica do escore de propensão a fim de mitigar os efeitos das diferenças nas características clínicas basais de duas coortes e minimizar o risco de viés. Posteriormente, usando um modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox, avaliou-se a associação de cada tipo de terapia com o risco do composto de morte por todas as causas, acidente vascular cerebral/ataque isquêmico transitório, hospitalizações e ocorrência de sangramentos maiores. Para essa análise, um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significante. A terapia com enoxaparina e cirrose hepática como causadora de trombocitopenia estiveram associadas ao aumento do risco do endpoint composto (enoxaparina: hazard ratio (HR): 3,31; IC 95%: 1,54 a 7,13; p = 0,0023; cirrose hepática, HR: 1,04; 95% CI: 1,002 a 1,089; p = 0,0410). Por outro lado, a terapia com edoxabana mostrou-se significativamente associada à diminuição do risco do endpoint composto (HR: 0,071; 95% CI: 0,013 a 0,373; p = 0,0019). Com base nessa análise retrospectiva, o edoxaban em doses baixas seria uma ferramenta farmacológica segura e eficaz para a profilaxia de eventos cardioembólicos em pacientes com FA e trombocitopenia.

Abstract Low-dose edoxaban and enoxaparin sodium have been the subject of a retrospective comparison implemented with the propensity score technique in order to mitigate the effects of the differences in the basal clinical features of two cohorts and minimize the risk of bias. Subsequently, using a Cox proportional-hazards model, the association of each type of therapy with the risk of the composite of all-cause death, stroke/transient ischemic attack, hospitalizations and major bleeding events was assessed. For this analysis, a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Therapy with enoxaparin and liver cirrhosis as causing thrombocytopenia were associated with increased risk of the composite endpoint (enoxaparin: hazard ratio (HR): 3.31; 95% CI: 1.54 to 7.13; p = 0.0023; liver cirrhosis, HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.002 to 1.089; p = 0.0410). Conversely, edoxaban therapy was significantly associated with decreased risk of the composite endpoint (HR: 0.071; 95% CI: 0.013 to 0.373; p = 0.0019). Based on this retrospective analysis, edoxaban at low doses would appear as an effective and safe pharmacological tool for the prophylaxis of cardioembolic events in patients with AF and thrombocytopenia.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Patients , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 841-843, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137322


Abstract Cardiac rhythm disorders are common in many patients with cancer. The management of synchronous long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation and pulmonary lesions remains a serious surgical dilemma due to the lack of clinical data and surgical guidelines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first described case of simultaneous thoracoscopic pulmonary segmentectomy and left atrial posterior wall and pulmonary vein isolation combined with left atrial appendage resection in a patient with early-stage primary lung cancer and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation.

Humans , Female , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Catheter Ablation/methods , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/surgery , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/complications , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonectomy/methods , Pulmonary Veins/surgery , Thoracoscopy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Heart Atria/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(10): 1437-1443, Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136138


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to determine independent predictors of left atrial thrombus (LAT) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients without atrial fibrillation (AF) using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective study, we enrolled 149 consecutive AIS patients. All of the patients underwent a TEE examination to detect LAT within 10 days following admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess independent predictors of LAT. RESULTS: Among all cases, 14 patients (9.3%) had a diagnosis of LAT based on the TEE examination. In a multivariate analysis, elevated mean platelet volume (MPV), low left-ventricle ejection fraction (EF), creatinine, and reduced left-atrium appendix (LAA) peak emptying velocity were independent predictors of LAT. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for MPV was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.57-0.83; p = 0.011). With the optimal cut-off value of 9.45, MPV had a sensitivity of 71.4% and a specificity of 63% to predict LAT. CONCLUSION: AIS patients with low ventricle EF and elevated MPV should undergo further TEE examination to verify the possibility of a cardio-embolic source. In addition, this research may provide novel information with respect to the applicability of MPV to predict LAT in such patients without AF.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar indicadores independentes do trombo auricular esquerdo (LAT) em doentes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo (AIS) sem fibrilação auricular (AF) utilizando ecocardiografia transesofágica (TEE). MÉTODOS: Neste único centro, estudo retrospectivo, inscrevemos 149 pacientes consecutivos com AIS. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a exame de TEE para detectar LAT no prazo de dez dias após a admissão. A análise de regressão logística multivariada foi realizada para avaliar preditores independentes do final. RESULTADO: Entre todos os casos, 14 pacientes (9,3%) tiveram um diagnóstico de exame tardio no TEE. Numa análise multivariada, volume médio de plaquetas (VMP) elevado, fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo baixo (EF), creatinina e uma velocidade de pico de esvaziamento do átrio esquerdo reduzida (LAA) foram indicadores independentes da LAT. A área sob a análise da curva característica de operação do receptor para VMP foi de 0,70 (95% IC: 0, 57-0, 83; p=0,011). Com o valor-limite ideal de 9,45, o VMP teve uma sensibilidade de 71,4% e uma especificidade de 63% para prever mais tarde. CONCLUSÃO: Os doentes AIS com EF ventricular baixa e VMP elevado devem ser submetidos a um exame de TEE adicional para determinar a possibilidade de origem cardioembólica. Além disso, esta investigação pode fornecer novas informações sobre a aplicabilidade do VMP para prever tardiamente os doentes sem AF.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Appendage , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(1): 69-76, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131008


Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent arrhythmia; its prevalence is near 2% in the general population; in Mexico, more than one-half million people are affected. AF needs to be considered as a public health problem. Because AF is an independent risk factor associated with mortality, due to embolic events, heart failure, or sudden death; early diagnosis is of utmost importance. In unstable patients with a recent onset of AF, electrical cardioversion should be practiced. In stable patients, once thromboembolic measures have been taken, it is necessary to assess whether it is reasonable to administer an antiarrhythmic drug to restore sinus rhythm or performed electrical cardioversion. For recidivating cases of paroxysmal and persistent presentation, the most effective strategy is performed pulmonary vein isolation with either radiofrequency or cryoballoon energy. Permanent AF is that in which recovery of sinus rhythm is not possible, the distinguishing feature of this phase is the uncontrollable variability of the ventricular frequency and could be treated pharmacologically with atrioventricular (AV) nodal blockers or with a VVIR pacemaker plus AV nodal ablation. The presence of AF has long been associated with the development of cerebral and systemic (pulmonary, limb, coronary, renal, and visceral) embolism. The prevention of embolisms in “valvular” AF should perform with Vitamin K antagonists (VKA). For patients with AF not associated with mitral stenosis or a mechanical valve prosthesis, a choice can be made between anticoagulant drugs, VKA, or direct oral anticoagulants. Antiplatelet agents have the weakest effect in preventing embolism.

Resumen La fibrilación auricular (FA) es una arritmia frecuente; su prevalencia es cercana al 2% en la población general, en México se ven afectados más de medio millón de personas por eso debe considerarse como un problema de salud pública. Debido a que la FA es un factor de riesgo independiente asociado a mortalidad, por eventos embólicos, insuficiencia cardíaca o muerte súbita, la identificación y diagnóstico temprano es de suma importancia. En el inicio reciente de FA en pacientes inestables, se debe practicar la cardioversión eléctrica. En pacientes estables, una vez que se han tomado medidas tromboembólicas, es necesario evaluar si es razonable administrar un medicamento antiarrítmico para restaurar el ritmo sinusal o realizar una cardioversión eléctrica. Para los casos que recidivan, ya sea paroxística o persistente, la estrategia más efectiva es realizar el aislamiento de la venas pulmonares con radiofrecuencia o crioablación con balón. La FA permanente es aquella en la que no es posible la recuperación del ritmo sinusal, la característica distintiva de esta fase de la FA es la variabilidad incontrolable de la frecuencia ventricular. Puede tratarse farmacológicamente con bloqueadores nodales AV o con un marcapasos VVIR mas ablación del nodo AV. La presencia de FA se ha asociado durante mucho tiempo con el desarrollo de embolia cerebral y sistémica (pulmonar, de extremidades, coronaria, renal y visceral). La prevención de embolias en la FA “valvular” debe realizarse con antagonistas de la vitamina K (AVK). Para los pacientes con FA no asociados con estenosis mitral o una prótesis valvular mecánica, se puede elegir entre medicamentos anticoagulantes, AVK o anticoagulantes orales directos (DOAC). Los agentes antiplaquetarios tienen el efecto más débil para prevenir la embolia.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Risk Factors , Cryosurgery/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Mexico/epidemiology , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(6): 585-593, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056379


Abstract Background: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a common complication associated with undesirable outcomes; hence, the provision of appropriate tools is important to help identify patients at risk. Objectives: To evaluate the predictive capacity of the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores, alone and combined with left atrial (LA) size, for the onset of POAF in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valvular surgery. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study on 144 patients. A decision tree was used to identify the cut-off values of the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores and LA size in order to calculate sensitivity, specificity, predictive-value positive (PVP), and predictive-value negative (PVN), in addition to regression models. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to estimate the accuracy of the models. The level of significance adopted was 5%. Results: Patients who developed POAF were older (p = 0.050), had reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.045), longer hospital length of stay (p = 0,018), but their mean CHADS2 (p = 0.077) and CHA2DS2-VASc (p = 0.109) scores were similar to those of patients with no arrhythmia. LA size improved the predictive capacity of the CHADS2 score, in terms of specificity and PVP, and of the CHA2DS2-VASc score, in terms of sensitivity and PVN. However, the CHADS2 (OR = 1.198; CI95% = 0.859-1.156) and CHA2DS2-VASc (OR = 1.047; CI95% = 0.784-1.401) scores were not predictors of POAF, either alone or in combination with LA size (OR = 1.163; CI95% = 0.829-1.648 and OR = 1.065; CI95% = 0.795-1.433). Conclusion: The CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores alone or in combination with LA size did not show good predictive capacity for POAF.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Postoperative Complications , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Thoracic Surgery , Coronary Artery Bypass , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Heart Atria/anatomy & histology , Length of Stay
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(6): 650-654, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056370


Abstract A 41-year-old man with end-stage heart failure due to nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy was submitted to the Batista procedure as an alternative to heart transplantation. With surgery, the patient showed progressive clinical amelioration, achieving long-term stable NYHA functional class II, despite gradual dilation of the heart chambers. Persistent atrial fibrillation appeared on the last year of life, his clinical condition deteriorated, and the patient died 14 years, four months, and 13 days after the operation. To the best of our knowledge this seems to be the longest reported survival for a patient submitted to Batista operation.

Humans , Male , Adult , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/surgery , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Survival , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/surgery , Heart Ventricles/surgery
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(4): 382-392, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149097


Resumen Introducción: La llegada de los anticoagulantes directos (ACD) ha supuesto un cambio en el tratamiento de la fibrilación auricular no valvular (FANV) en los últimos años. Los objetivos de este estudio son determinar el grado de control de la anticoagulación con antivitamina K (AVK) y su posible implicación en efectos cardiovasculares adversos mayores (ECAM) y evaluar las diferencias entre el grupo en tratamiento con AVK respecto del grupo con ACD. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo que incluyó a pacientes consecutivos diagnosticados con FANV valorados en el Servicio de Cardiología con un seguimiento de 18 meses. Se analizaron diferencias demográficas, clínicas y analíticas entre grupos, incluido el grado de control de la anticoagulación del grupo AVK y su posible relación con ECAM. Resultados: Se incluyó a 273 pacientes: 46.5% tratados con AVK, 42.5% con ACD y 11% sin tratamiento anticoagulante. El control de la anticoagulación con AVK fue del 62.1%, sin diferencias en ECAM en función de control. El grupo ACD presentó menos ECAM que el grupo de AVK (13.4 vs. 4.3%; HR, 0.90; 0.83-0.98; p = 0.01), con una menor mortalidad cardiovascular (0.0 vs. 5.5%; HR, 0.94; 0.90-0.98; p = 0.01) y total (0.9 vs. 12.6%; HR, 0.88; 0.82-0.94; p menor que 0,01), aunque sin diferencias significativas en eventos hemorrágicos (0.9 vs. 4.7%; p = 0.07) ni isquémicos (2.6 vs. 0.8%; p = 0.27). Discusión: Los pacientes con AVK poseen un perfil clínico diferente en comparación con los que reciben ACD. El control de anticoagulación del grupo de AVK fue inadecuado en casi la mitad de los casos. El grupo de AVK presentó más ECAM que el grupo de ACD.

Abstract Introduction: The arrival of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) has led to a change in the management of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in recent years. The objectives of this study are to determine the level of therapeutic control of anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and its possible involvement in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and to evaluate differences between the group on VKA with respect to the group on DOACs. Patients and methods: Prospective cohort study that included consecutive patients diagnosed with NVAF in Cardiology Consultations with a clinical follow-up of 18 months. Demographic, clinical and analytical differences between groups were analyzed, including the level of therapeutic control of anticoagulation on the VKA group and its association with MACE. Results: Overall, 273 patients were included: 46.5% on VKA, 42.5% on DOACs, 11% without antithrombotic treatment. Patients on VKA spent 62.1% of their time within therapeutic range (TTR by the Rosendaal formule). There were no differences in MACE depending on anticoagulation control. The DOACs group presented lesser MACE rate than the VKA group (13.4 vs. 4.3%; 0.90; HR 0.90; 0.83-0.98 p = 0.01) with lower cardiovascular mortality (0.0 vs. 5.5%; HR, 0.94; 0.90-0.98; p = 0.01) and total mortality (0.9 vs. 12.6%; HR, 0.88; 0.82-0.94; p less 0.01) although without significant differences in hemorrhagic (0.9 vs. 4.7 %; p = 0.07), or ischemic events (2.6 vs. 0.8%, p = 0.27). Conclusions: Patients on VKA have a different clinical profile than those who receive DOACs. Patients on VKA have an inadequate control of the anticoagulation in quite the half of the cases. The VKA group presented more MACE than the DOACs group.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Administration, Oral , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Anticoagulants/adverse effects