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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(5): 999-1007, nov. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350014

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Alterações do substrato elétrico e anatômico do coração são fatores que originam e perpetuam a fibrilação atrial (FA), porém, os mecanismos envolvidos não foram totalmente elucidados ainda. Objetivo: Avaliar o papel do remodelamento do sistema nervoso cardíaco intrínseco (SNCI), incluindo fibras nervosas e receptores muscarínicos e β-adrenérgicos, na FA permanente humana. Métodos Foram avaliadas 4 amostras em átrios de 13 corações obtidos em necrópsias de pacientes com doença cardíaca e FA permanente, e em 13 controles com as mesmas doenças, porém, sem FA. Utilizando imunoperoxidase e histomorfometria, quantificamos a densidade das fibras do SNCI, bem como a porcentagem positiva de miocárdio para receptores β-adrenérgicos 1, 2 e 3, receptor quinase 5 acoplado à proteína G (GRK-5), e receptores muscarínicos 1 a 5. Os resultados foram comparados usando ANOVA e ANOVA hierarquizada e ajustados pelo volume do átrio esquerdo e, para avaliação da expressão de receptores β e GRK-5, pelo uso de β-bloqueadores. Adotamos como significativo α = 0,05. Resultados Houve aumento na densidade das fibras ( p <0,01), especialmente nas fibras simpáticas ( p =0,02). Quanto aos receptores muscarínicos, só houve diferença nos M1, que estavam aumentados (5,87±4,52 vs 2,85±2,40; p =0,03). Quanto aos componentes do sistema adrenérgicos analisados, houve expressão aumentada de β-3 (37,41 vs 34,18, p =0,04) e GRK-5 (51,16 vs 47,66; p<0,01). O uso de β-bloqueadores não teve impacto na expressão de receptores beta. Conclusão O aumento na inervação do SNCI e a alteração na expressão de receptores em regiões suscetíveis de desencadear FA podem ter um papel na fibrilação atrial permanente.


Abstract Background The primary factors that originate and perpetuate atrial fibrillation (AF) are electrical and anatomical substrate alterations. However, the central mechanisms governing AF perpetuation have not been elucidated yet, which is reflected on the modest results of the treatment in patients with long persistent AF. Objective To evaluate if human intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system (ICANS) remodeling, including nervous system fibers and muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptors, play a role in permanent AF. Methods Heart necropsy samples from thirteen patients with heart disease and permanent AF and thirteen controls without AF were used. By using immunoperoxidase and histomorphometry quantification, we identified the following: the density of all fibers of the ICANS, sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers; and the percentage of myocardium positive for β-adrenergic receptors 1, 2 and 3; G protein-coupled receptor kinase-5 (GRK-5); and muscarinic receptors M1 to M5. The results were compared using ANOVA and nested ANOVA and were adjusted according to the left atrium volume for all variables, and β-blocker use to evaluate the expression of β-receptors and GRK-5. Results There was an overall increase in the density of fibers of the ICANS (p=0.006), especially in atrial sympathetic nerve fibers (p=0.017). Only M1 muscarinic receptors were increased (5.87 vs 2.35, p=0.032). For adrenergic receptors, the results were positive for increased expression of β-3 (37.41 vs 34.18, p=0.039) and GRK-5 (51.16 vs 47.66; p<0.001). β-blocker use had no impact on β-receptor expression. Conclusion Increased ICANS innervation and remodeling receptor expression in regions prone to triggering AF may play a role in permanent AF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Autonomic Nervous System , Sympathetic Nervous System , Heart Atria , Myocardium
2.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 36(1): e36105, abr. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1248118

ABSTRACT

Desde época temprana de la cirugía cardíaca (CC), la fibrilación auricular (FA) ha sido un acompañante frecuente del posoperatorio, y no es esperable su abatimiento en el futuro cercano. La interpretación de su significado clínico se ha modificado en los últimos años, tras conocerse su tendencia recurrente y su asociación con serias complicaciones inmediatas y a largo plazo. Esto deja entrever un nuevo desafío, dejando de ser un problema menor y de consideración puntual en el perioperatorio para constituir un tema de preocupación y seguimiento en el futuro alejado, aún con incertidumbres evolutivas y de manejo. La profilaxis efectiva de esta arritmia, una respuesta lógica al problema, es dificultosa por la multiplicidad de factores de riesgo y lo intrincado de su génesis, todavía no completamente dilucidada, sumadas a la edad creciente de los pacientes intervenidos, la complejidad mayor de los procedimientos, los posibles efectos colaterales de los fármacos empleados y la inexistencia de un algoritmo predictivo confiable que permita racionalizar las medidas preventivas. Además, muchas recomendaciones de las guías de práctica clínica actuales se basan en información obtenida en estudios realizados en la FA primaria, por lo que su adopción en el escenario de la CC ha sido menor a la deseable. Todos estos aspectos son objeto de análisis en esta revisión que finaliza con pautas de manejo práctico de la arritmia en el entorno perioperatorio.


Since an early age of heart surgery, atrial fibrillation has been a frequent companion of the postoperative period, and its decline is not to be expected in the near future. The interpretation of its clinical significance has changed in recent years, after knowing its recurrent trend and its association with serious immediate and long-term complications. This fact unveils a new challenge, as it is no longer a minor problem of consideration restricted to the perioperative period and has become a topic of concern and follow-up in the distant future, still with uncertainties as to its evolution and management. The effective prophylaxis of this arrhythmia, a logical response to the problem, has been difficult by the multiplicity of risk factors and the intricate of its genesis, not yet completely elucidated, added to the increasing age of the patients involved, the greater complexity of the procedures, the possible side effects of the drugs used and the absence of a reliable predictive algorithm that could allow to rationalize preventive measures. In addition, many recommendations from current clinical practice guidelines are based on information obtained from studies in primary atrial fibrillation, so their adoption in the heart surgery scenario has been less than desirable. All these aspects are analyzed in this review, which ends with directives for the practical management of the arrhythmia in the perioperative environment.


Desde os primeiros días da cirurgia cardíaca, a fibrilação atrial (FA) tem sido uma companheira frequente para o pós-operatório, e sua reduçao não é esperada em um futuro próximo. A interpretação de sua significância clínica mudou nos últimos anos, tendo conhecido sua tendência recorrente e sua associação com sérias complicações imediatas e de longo prazo. Este fato mostra um novo desafio, pois deixou de ser um pequeno problema e uma consideração oportuna no perioperatório para constituir um tema de preocupação e acompanhamento em um futuro distante, mesmo com incertezas quanto à sua evolução e gestão. A profilaxia efetiva dessa arritmia, uma resposta lógica ao problema, tem sido cercada pela multiplicidade de fatores de risco e pela intrincação de sua gênese ainda não completamente elucidada, juntamente com a idade crescente dos pacientes envolvidos, a maior complexidade dos procedimentos, os possíveis efeitos colaterais dos medicamentos utilizados e a ausência de um algoritmo preditivo confiável para racionalizar as medidas preventivas. Além disso, muitas recomendações das guias atuais de prática clínica são baseadas em informações obtidas em estudos conduzidos em FA primária, de modo que sua adoção no cenário da cirurgia cardíaca tem sido menos do que desejável. Todos esses aspectos são analisados nesta revisão, que termina com diretrizes práticas de gestão para arritmia no ambiente perioperatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Incidence , Risk Factors , Case Management , Stroke/etiology
3.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 71-77, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155790

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. Sorting nexin 10 (SNX10) has been reported to be an important regulator in embryonic development and human diseases, however, little is known about its role in cardiac disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of SNX10 expression in AF. Methods: Nineteen valvular heart disease patients with AF and nine valvular heart disease patients with sinus rhythm (SR) were enrolled. Atrial tissue samples from patients undergoing open heart surgery were examined. Atrial tissues of normal hearts were obtained from two cases' autopsies. The SNX10 expression and its associations with the degree of fibrosis were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Masson's trichrome staining. Results: SNX10 expression was detected in the cytoplasm of cardiac cells in human myocardial tissue. The SNX10 expression level was higher in the SR group than in the AF group (P=0.023). SNX10 expression was negatively associated with the degree of fibrosis (P=0.017, Spearman rho=-0.447), the New York Heart Association degree (P=0.003, Spearman rho=-0.545), left atrial diameter (P=0.038, Spearman rho=-0.393), right atrial diameter (P=0.043, Spearman rho=-0.386), and the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level 24 hours after surgery (P=0.030, Spearman rho=-0.426), but not the BNP level before surgery and 72 hours after surgery. No statistical significance was observed between SNX10 and the level of troponin T and C-reactive protein. Conclusion: Decreased SNX10 might serve as a potential risk factor in AF of the valvular heart disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Appendage , Heart Valve Diseases/surgery , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Sorting Nexins , Heart Atria
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1673-1678, Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143654

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY BACKGROUND: New-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is the most common arrhythmia following coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and is associated with prolonged hospitalization, stroke, and mortality. The frontal plane QRS-T [f(QRS-T)] angle, which is defined as the angle between the directions of ventricular depolarization (QRS-axis) and repolarization (T-axis), is a novel marker of ventricular repolarization heterogeneity. The f(QRS-T) angle is associated with adverse cardiac outcomes. In light of these findings, in this study, we aimed to investigate the potential relationship between the f(QRS-T) angle and POAF. METHODS: 180 patients who underwent CABG between August 2017 and September 2018 were included in the study retrospectively. Two groups were established as patients who preserved postoperative sinus rhythm (n=130) and those who developed POAF (n=50). The f(QRS-T) angle and all other data were compared between groups. RESULTS: The fF(QRS-T) angle (p<0.001), SYNTAX score (p=0.039), serum high-sensitivity CRP levels (p=0.026), mean age (p<0.001), electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy rate (LVH) (p=0.019), and hypertension rate (p=0.007) were higher, and the mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (p<0.001) was lower in the POAF group. Multivariable logistic regression analyses demonstrated that lower LVEF (p=0.004), LVH (p=0.041), and higher age (p=0.008) and f(QRS-T) angle (p<0.001) were independently associated with POAF. CONCLUSIONS: High f(QRS-T) angle level is closely associated with the development of POAF. The f(QRS-T) angle can be a potential indicator of POAF.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: A fibrilação atrial pós-operatória de início recente (Poaf) é a arritmia mais comum após a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (CABG) e associada a hospitalização prolongada, acidente vascular cerebral e mortalidade. O ângulo QRS-T [f(QRS-T)] do plano frontal, que é definido como o ângulo entre as direções da despolarização ventricular (eixo-QRS) e repolarização (eixo-T), é um novo marcador da heterogeneidade da repolarização ventricular. O ângulo f(QRS-T) está associado a desfechos cardíacos adversos. À luz desses achados, neste estudo, objetivamos investigar a relação potencial entre o ângulo f(QRS-T) e a Poaf. MéTODOS: Cento e oitenta pacientes submetidos a CABG entre agosto de 2017 e setembro de 2018 foram incluídos no estudo retrospectivamente. Dois grupos foram estabelecidos como pacientes com ritmo sinusal pós-operatório (n=130) e com Poaf (n=50). O ângulo f(QRS-T) e todos os dados foram comparados entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: Ângulo f(QRS-T) (p<0,001), escore Syntax (p=0,039), níveis séricos de PCR de alta sensibilidade (p=0,026), idade média (p<0,001), taxa de hipertrofia ventricular esquerda eletrocardiográfica (LVH) (p=0,019) e taxa de hipertensão (p=0,007) foram maiores; a fração de ejeção média do ventrículo esquerdo (LVEF) (p<0,001) foi menor no grupo com Poaf. As análises de regressão logística multivariável demonstraram que menor LVEF (p=0,004), LVH (p=0,041), maior idade (p=0,008) e maior ângulo f(QRS-T) (p<0,001) foram independentemente associados à Poaf. CONCLUSÕES: Níveis de ângulo altos f(QRS-T) estão intimamente associados à Poaf. O ângulo f(QRS-T) pode ser um indicador potencial de Poaf.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Stroke Volume , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ventricular Function, Left
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1473-1475, Nov. 2020.
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143643

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery, with a prevalence between 15-40% after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Several strategies have been tested for the prevention and management of AF postoperatively. Previous studies and analysis of records have shown higher rates of hospitalization and clinical outcomes associated with this entity, including increased mortality in the short- and long-term. This perspective reviews the topic, and offers recommendations for the management of this arrhythmia in the postoperative period of CABG, with a special focus on anticoagulation strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications , Postoperative Period , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects
6.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 619-625, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137340

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of CHA2DS2-VASc and Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) risk scores for prediction of postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) development in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) operation. Methods: The population of this observational study consisted of 370 patients undergoing CABG operation. CHA2DS2-VASc and ATRIA risk scores were calculated for all patients and their association with postoperative AF (AF episode lasting > 5 min) were evaluated. Predictors of postoperative AF were determined by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: During follow-up, 110 patients (29.7%) developed postoperative AF. With multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for postoperative AF were determined: ATRIA risk score (odds ratio [OR] 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.36; P<0.001), fasting glucose level (OR 1.006; 95% CI 1.004-1.009; P<0.001), and 24-hour drainage amount (OR 1.002; 95% CI; 1.001-1.004; P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that CHA2DS2-VASc and ATRIA risk scores were significant predictors for new-onset AF (C-statistic 0.648; 95% CI 0.59-0.69; P<0.001; and C-statistic 0.664; 95% CI 0.61-0.71; P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: CHA2DS2-VASc and ATRIA risk scores predict new AF in patients undergoing CABG.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Stroke , Stroke Volume , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Ventricular Function, Left , Risk Assessment
7.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 713-721, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137324

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To modify the chronic atrial fibrillation of atrial tachycardia pacing in beagles with a homemade pacemaker placed outside the body and to evaluate connective tissue growth factor and fibrosis of atrial tissue in our modified atrial tachycardia pacing beagle model. Methods: Twelve adult beagles of either sex were randomly divided into an atrial tachycardia pacing group and a control group (n=6 in each group). We performed the temporary pacemaker implantation at the right atrial appendage and put the pacemaker into the pocket of dog clothing in the atrial tachycardia pacing group. After eight weeks of atrial tachycardia pacing, the electrocardiography, transthoracic echocardiography, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and Masson's staining of the right atrial appendages were performed along with the immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis of connective tissue growth factor, collagen I, and collagen III. Results: In the atrial tachycardia pacing group, atrial fibrillation was induced in five beagles (83.3%); the left atrium enlarged significantly; more canines had mitral regurgitation; and the Masson's staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot results demonstrated more obvious fibrosis of the left atrium. Conclusion: The modified beagle model of atrial fibrillation using a right atrium pacemaker outside the body was effective, increased connective tissue growth factor and collagen I messenger ribonucleic acid overexpression, and induced atrial fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Pacemaker, Artificial , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging
8.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 266-273, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131043

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Se denomina bloqueo interauricular avanzado (BIA) a la existencia de una onda P ≥ 120 ms y bifásica +/- en las derivaciones inferiores (II-III-VF) del electrocardiograma (ECG) de superficie, el cual constituye un factor predictivo significativo del desarrollo de fibrilación auricular. En fecha reciente se han descrito cuatro patrones de BIA atípicos (BIA-At) con base en la morfología y la duración de la onda P, sin conocer si comparten patogenia y características clínicas similares. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo de pacientes, visitados en el Servicio de Cardiología, en ritmo sinusal y con BIA. Las variables analizadas se obtuvieron de la historia clínica informatizada. El análisis de la onda P se efectuó al aumentar el tamaño del electrocardiograma y mediante calipers electrónicos. El análisis estadístico se realizó con SPSS 19.0, con nivel de significación de p < 0.05. Resultados: Se incluyó a 75 pacientes con media de edad de 74.4 ± 11.7 años, con 62.7% de varones. Se compararon los grupos de pacientes con BIA típico (BIA-T) y BIA-At. El primero se relacionó con la existencia de diabetes mellitus (p = 0.001), enfermedad renal crónica estadio ≥ 3 (p = 0.036), bloqueo auriculoventricular (p = 0.006) y una menor fracción de expulsión ventricular media (p = 0.025); no hubo diferencias respecto de la prevalencia de fibrilación auricular/flúter o accidente cerebrovascular. Sólo la diabetes se acompañó de riesgo de ser un BIA-T (OR: 6.4; p = 0.002; IC 95%: 2.0-21.1). Conclusiones: La diabetes mellitus constituye el único factor de riesgo de que un BIA sea típico. Los pacientes con BIA-T y BIA-At presentan similar prevalencia de fibrilación auricular y accidente cerebrovascular, por lo que son objeto de un mismo tratamiento clínico.


Abstract Objective: It is called advanced interatrial block (IAB) to the existence of a P wave ≥ 120 ms and biphasic ± in the lower leads II-III-VF of the surface electrocardiogram (ECG), which constitutes a significant predictive factor for the development of atrial fibrillation. Recently, four patterns of atypical aIAB (At-IAB) have been described based on the morphology and duration of the P wave, but it’s unknown if they share the same pathogenesis and clinical characteristics. Method: An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was performed with patients, visited in cardiology, who have a sinus rhythm and with aIAB. The analyzed variables were obtained from the computerized clinical history. The analysis of the P wave was made by increasing the size of the ECG and by electronic calipers. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0; level of significance: p < 0.05. Results: A total of 75 patients with an average age of 74.4 ± 11.7 years and with a 62.7% males, were included. It was compared the group of patients with typical aIAB (T-aIAB) and with At-aIAB. The first one was associated with the existence of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.001), chronic kidney disease stage ≥ 3 (p = 0.036), atrioventricular block (p = 0.006) and a lower mean ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.025); there were no differences regarding the prevalence of atrial fibrillation/flutter or stroke. Only diabetes was associated with the risk of T-aIAB (odds ratio: 6.4; p = 0.002; 95% confidence interval: 2.0-21.1). Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus is the only risk factor for an aIAB to be typical. Patients with T-aIAB and At-aIAB have a similar prevalence of atrial fibrillation and stroke, so they must follow the same clinical management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Electrocardiography , Interatrial Block/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Atrioventricular Block/epidemiology , Interatrial Block/complications , Interatrial Block/diagnosis
9.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 577-579, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137308

ABSTRACT

Abstract Early recognition and rapid and appropriate treatment of cardiac tamponade are mandatory to prevent the irreversible deterioration of cerebral perfusion and other important organs. In this study, cardiac tamponade was induced by inadvertent transseptal puncture, which was managed with pericardial drainage and surgical repair in a patient with symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Epicardial atrial fibrillation ablation and left atrial appendage amputation were also performed at the same time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Cardiac Tamponade/etiology , Cardiac Tamponade/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Cardiac Tamponade/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Catheter Ablation , Catheters , Amputation
10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(3): 339-345, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137254

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The current study aims to investigate the role of echocardiographically measured epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness in the prediction of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Methods: One hundred and twenty-four patients scheduled to undergo isolated on-pump CABG due to coronary artery disease were enrolled to the current study. Patient characteristics, medical history and perioperative variables were prospectively collected. EAT thickness was measured using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Any documented episode of new-onset postoperative AF (POAF) until discharge was defined as the study endpoint. Fortyfour participants with POAF served as AF group and 80 patients without AF served as Non-AF group. Results: Two groups were similar in terms of baseline echocardiographic and laboratory findings. In laboratory findings, the groups were similar in terms of the studied parameters, except N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT Pro-BNP), which was higher in AF group than in Non-AF group (P=0.035). The number of left internal mammary artery (LIMA) grafts was not different in both groups. AF group had higher cross-clamp (CC) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) times than Non-AF group (P=0.01 and P<0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, EAT was found an independent predictor for the development of POAF (OR 4.47, 95% CI 3.07-5.87, P=0.001). Conclusion: We have shown that EAT thickness is associated with increased risk of AF development and can be used as a prognostic marker for this purpose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/diagnostic imaging , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(5): 775-782, maio 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131230

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A ablação da fibrilação atrial (FA) e do flutter atrial dependente de istmo cavo-tricuspídeo (FLA-ICT) pode ser realizada simultaneamente quando as duas arritmias tenham sido registradas antes do procedimento. Entretanto, a melhor abordagem não é clara quando pacientes com FLA-ICT são encaminhados para ablação sem o registro prévio de FA. Objetivos Avaliar a prevalência e identificar os preditores de ocorrência do primeiro episódio de FA após ablação de FLA-ICT em pacientes sem o registro prévio de FA. Métodos Coorte retrospectiva de pacientes submetidos exclusivamente a ablação por cateter para FLA-ICT, sem registro prévio de FA. As características clínicas foram comparadas entre os grupos em que houve ocorrência de FA pós-ablação de FLA-ICT vs. sem ocorrência de FA. O nível de significância estatística adotado foi de 5%. Na análise de preditores, o desfecho primário avaliado foi ocorrência de FA após ablação de FLA-ICT. Resultados De um total de 227 pacientes submetidos a ablação de FLA-ICT (110 com registro de FA e 33 sem seguimento adequado), 84 pacientes foram incluídos, dos quais 45 (53,6%) apresentaram FA pós-ablação. Não houve variáveis preditoras de ocorrência de FA. Os escores HATCH e CHA2DS2-VASC foram semelhantes nos dois grupos. As taxas de recorrência de FLA-ICT e complicações após a ablação foram de 11,5% e 1,2%, respectivamente. Conclusões A ablação de FLA-ICT é eficaz e segura, mas 50% dos pacientes desenvolvem FA após ablação. Entretanto, ainda é incerto o papel da ablação combinada (FLA-ICT e FA) visando prevenção da ocorrência de FA. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background Simultaneous ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) and cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter can be performed when both arrythmias had been recorded before the procedure. However, the best approach has not been defined in case of patients referred for ablation with CTI-dependent atrial flutter, without history of AF. Objectives To assess the prevalence and to identify predictors of the first episode of AF after ablation of CTI-dependent atrial flutter in patients without history of AF. Methods Retrospective cohort of patients with CTI-dependent atrial flutter without history of AF undergoing catheter ablation. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients who developed AF and those who did not have AF after the procedure. Significance level was set at 5%. In the analysis of predicting factors, the primary outcome was occurrence of AF after CTI-dependent atrial flutter ablation. Results Of a total of 227 patients undergoing ablation of CTI-dependent atrial flutter (110 with history of AF and 33 without adequate follow-up), 84 were included, and 45 (53.6%) developed post-ablation AF. The HATCH and CHA2DS2-VASC scores were not different between the groups. Recurrence rate of CTI-dependent atrial flutter and complication rate were 11.5% and 1.2%, respectively, after ablation. Conclusions Although ablation of CTI-dependent atrial flutter is a safe and effective procedure, 50% of the patients developed AF after the procedure. However, the role of combined ablation (CTI-dependent atrial flutter plus AF) aiming at preventing AF is still uncertain. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Atrial Flutter/surgery , Catheter Ablation/adverse effects , Recurrence , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/prevention & control , Atrial Flutter/diagnosis , Atrial Flutter/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Catheter Ablation/methods
12.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(2): 206-210, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101476

ABSTRACT

Abstract Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after cardiac surgery remarkably remains the most prevalent event in perioperative cardiac surgery, having great clinical and economic implications. The purpose of this study is to present recommendations based on international evidence and adapted to our clinical practice for the perioperative management of POAF. This update is based on the latest current literature derived from articles and guidelines regarding atrial fibrillation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Risk Factors
13.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4409, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039728

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To compare the chest tube drainage by the same thoracotomy intercostal space with the traditional approach in patients undergoing muscle-sparing thoracotomy. Methods We evaluated 40 patients aged ≥18 years who underwent elective muscle sparing thoracotomies. Patients were divided into two groups of 20 patients. One group underwent thoracic drainage by the same intercostal space of thoracotomy and the other by traditional chest drainage approach. Results The mean length of hospital stay for the intercostal drainage group in the intensive care unit was 1.5 day (1.0 to 2.0 days) and 2.0 days (25.1 to 3.0 days) for the traditional chest drainage group (p=0.060). The intercostal drainage group had mean length of hospital stay (p=0.527) and drainage (p=0.547) of 4 days, and the traditional chest drainage group and 2 and 5.5 days, respectively. Dipirona and tramadol doses did not differ between groups (p=0.201 and p=0.341). The mean pain scale values on first postoperative was 4.24 in the drainage by the same intercostal group and 3.95 in the traditional chest drainage (p=0.733). In third postoperative day, mean was 3.18 for the first group and 3.11 for the traditional group (p=0.937). In the 15th day after surgery, drainage by the incision was 1.53 and the traditional chest drainage was 2.11 (p=0.440), 30th days after drainage by incision was 0.71 and traditional chest drainage was 0.84 (p=0.787). Complications, for both groups were similar with 30% in proposed drainage and 25% in traditional approach (p=0.723). Conclusion Drainage by the same thoracotomy intercostal space was feasible and results 30 days after surgery were not inferior to those of the traditional chest drainage approach.


RESUMO Objetivo Comparar a drenagem torácica pela mesma intercostotomia à drenagem tradicional em pacientes submetidos à toracotomia poupadora lateral. Métodos Foram avaliados 40 pacientes maiores de 18 anos submetidos a toracotomias poupadoras laterais eletivas. Eles foram separados em dois grupos de 20 pacientes cada, sendo um submetido à drenagem torácica pelo mesmo espaço intercostal da toracotomia e o outro à drenagem tradicional. Resultados No grupo da drenagem pela mesma intercostotomia, a mediana de tempo de internação em unidade de terapia intensiva foi de 1,5 dia (1,0 a 2,0 dias) e de 2,0 dias (1,25 a 3,0 dias) na drenagem tradicional (p=0,060). As medianas do tempo de internação (p=0,527) e de drenagem (p=0,547) foram ambas de 4 dias, no primeiro grupo, e de 2 e 5,5 dias, no grupo com drenagem tradicional. As doses utilizadas de dipirona e de tramadol não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos (p=0,201 e p=0,341). As médias da escala de dor foram 4,24 no primeiro dia pós-operatório do grupo com a drenagem proposta e 3,95 nos drenados da forma tradicional (p=0,733); no terceiro pós-operatório, foi de 3,18 para o grupo drenado pela incisão e de 3,11 nos drenados da forma tradicional (p=0,937). No 15º dia após a cirurgia, a drenagem pela incisão foi de 1,53 e a tradicional de 2,11 (p=0,440); no 30º pós-operatório, foi de 0,71 e 0,84, respectivamente, para a incisão e a forma tradicional (p=0,787). Em relação às complicações, os grupos foram semelhantes, com 30% na drenagem proposta e 25% na drenagem tradicional (p=0,723). Conclusão A drenagem pelo mesmo espaço intercostal foi exequível e não apresentou inferioridade à técnica tradicional no período pós-operatório estudado de 30 dias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracotomy/methods , Chest Tubes , Drainage/methods , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Postoperative Period , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Pain Measurement , Thoracotomy/adverse effects , Analgesia, Epidural , Drainage/statistics & numerical data , Dipyrone/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Dyspnea/etiology , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Length of Stay
14.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(4): 348-359, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149093

ABSTRACT

Resumen La fibrilación auricular es la arritmia más frecuente en el periodo posquirúrgico de la cirugía cardíaca. Se relaciona con insuficiencia cardíaca, insuficiencia renal, embolismo sistémico y más días de estancia y mortalidad. La fibrilación auricular en el periodo posquirúrgico de la cirugía cardíaca (FAPCC) suele aparecer en las primeras 48 horas. Los principales mecanismos que producen la aparición y el mantenimiento de la FAPCC son el aumento del tono simpático y la respuesta inflamatoria. Los factores de riesgo adjuntos son la edad avanzada, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, enfermedad renal crónica, cirugía valvular, fracción de expulsión del ventrículo izquierdo menor de 40% e interrupción de fármacos bloqueadores β. Existen instrumentos que han demostrado predecir la aparición de FAPCC. El tratamiento profiláctico con bloqueadores β y amiodarona se relaciona con disminución de la aparición de FAPCC. Dada su naturaleza transitoria, se sugiere que el tratamiento inicial de FAPCC sea el control de la frecuencia cardíaca y sólo en caso de que el tratamiento no consiga el retorno al ritmo sinusal está indicada la cardioversión eléctrica. Se desconoce cuál debe ser el seguimiento a largo plazo y sólo se conocen en escasa medida las complicaciones más allá de este periodo. La FAPCC no es una arritmia benigna ni aislada en los pacientes sometidos a operación cardíaca, por lo que la identificación de los factores de riesgo, su prevención y el seguimiento en el ámbito ambulatorio deben formar parte de las unidades dedicadas a la atención y los cuidados de estos pacientes.


Abstract Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent arrhythmia in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. It is associated with heart failure, renal insufficiency, systemic embolism and increase in days of in-hospital and mortality. Atrial fibrillation in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery (FAPCC) usually appears in the first 48 h after surgery. The main mechanisms involved in the appearance and maintenance of FAPCC are the increase in sympathetic tone and the inflammatory response. The associated risk factors are advanced age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, valve surgery, fraction of ejection of the left ventricle less 40% and the withdrawal of beta-blocker drugs. There are instruments that have been shown to predict the appearance of FAPCC. Prophylactic treatment with beta-blockers and amiodarone, is associated with a decrease in the appearance of FAPCC. Given its transient nature, it is suggested that the initial treatment of FAPCC be the heart rate control and only if the treatment does not achieve a return to sinus rhythm, the use of electrical cardioversion is suggested. It is unknown what should be the long-term follow-up and complications beyond this period are little known. FAPCC is not a benign or isolated arrhythmia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, so the identification of risk factors, their prevention, and follow-up in the outpatient setting, should be part of the units dedicated to the care and care of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Risk Factors , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects
16.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(5): 605-609, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042038

ABSTRACT

Abstract Atrial fibrillation is a common type of arrhythmia and is an important cause of stroke and heart failure. vitamin D is an emerging risk factor of AF, and is implicated in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. It has been established that this vitamin is extensively involved in the regulation of both the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and the immune system. Epidemiological studies have not yet reached a consensus on the possible association between vitamin D deficiency and atrial fibrillation. Better research designs and methods can further clarify the relationship between the two.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Risk Factors
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(7): 456-459, July 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011365

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Patients on anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy are often required to discontinue these medications before and during surgical or invasive procedures. In some cases, the patient stops the treatment without medical supervision. These situations may increase stroke risk. Objective To identify the ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) prevalence related to length of time of discontinuation of antiplatelet or vitamin K antagonist therapy, in a group of inpatients from a specialized neurological hospital in Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study of stroke inpatients for three years. Medical reports were reviewed to find study participants, stroke characteristics, risk factors, reasons and time of drug interruption. Results In three years, there were 360 stroke and TIA inpatients, of whom 27 (7.5%) had a history of antiplatelet or vitamin K antagonist interruption correlated with the time of the event (81% ischemic stroke, 19% TIA). The median time between antiplatelet interruption and an ischemic event was five days, and 62% of events occurred within seven days after drug suspension. For vitamin K antagonists, the average time to the ischemic event was 10.4 days (SD = 5.7), and in 67% of patients, the time between drug discontinuation and the event was 7-14 days. The most frequent reason for drug suspension was patient negligence (37%), followed by planned surgery or invasive examination (26%) and side effects, including hemorrhage (18.5%). Conclusion Antiplatelet or vitamin K antagonist suspension has a temporal relationship with the occurrence of stroke and TIA. Since these events are preventable, it is crucial that healthcare professionals convince their patients that drug withdrawal can cause serious consequences.


RESUMO Pacientes em terapia anticoagulante ou antiagregante plaquetária frequentemente são solicitados a descontinuar essas medicações antes e durante procedimentos cirúrgicos ou invasivos. Se o paciente interromper tratamento sem supervisão médica, poderá aumentar de risco de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Objetivo Identificar prevalência de AVC isquêmico e ataque isquêmico transitório (AIT) associados à descontinuação de terapia antiplaquetária ou coumarínicos em pacientes internados em hospital especializado em atendimento neurológico no Brasil. Métodos Estudo transversal, retrospectivo de três anos, descritivo dos pacientes hospitalizados por AVC. A revisão de relatórios médicos determinou características do AVC, fatores de risco, motivos e tempo de interrupção medicamentosa. Resultados Em três anos, foram internados 360 pacientes por AVC ou AIT; destes, 27 interromperam temporariamente terapia antiplaquetária ou coumarínicos relacionando ao evento (81% acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico, 19% AIT). A prevalência foi de 7,5%. O tempo médio entre interrupção antiplaquetária e evento foi cinco dias, com 62% deles ocorrendo até sete dias após suspensão medicamentosa. Para coumarínicos, o tempo médio foi 10,4 dias (d.p.= 5,7), em 67% dos casos o tempo entre a descontinuação medicamentosa e o evento foi 7-14 dias. O motivo mais frequente para suspensão do medicamento foi negligência do paciente (37%), seguido por cirurgia planejada ou exame invasivo (26%) e efeitos colaterais, incluindo hemorragia (18,5%). Conclusão Suspensão de terapia de antiplaquetários ou coumarínicos tem relação temporal com ocorrência de AVC e de AIT. Esses eventos são passíveis de serem evitados, sendo imprescindível que profissionais de saúde convençam seus pacientes das consequências graves da retirada do medicamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Brazil , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Clopidogrel/administration & dosage
18.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(3): 248-254, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020955

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of supraventricular arrhythmia following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The CHA2DS2-VASc and CHADS2 scores are used to estimate thromboembolic risk in cases of AF. Their usefulness in predicting the development of AF in patients presenting STEMI is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive value of the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores in patients with AF following STEMI. DESIGN AND SETTING: This prospective cohort study on 696 patients with STEMI was conducted at a tertiary-level cardiology clinic in a public university hospital. METHODS: Models including clinical and laboratory parameters were constructed to test the predictive value of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores. Patients were divided into two groups: with and without AF. Predictors of AF were determined using multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS: In the patients with AF, CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were significantly higher than in those without AF (for both P < 0.001). Factors associated with AF in multivariate analyses included CHA2DS2-VASc score (odds ratio, OR: 1.48; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.25-1.75; P < 0.001), peak creatine kinase-myocardial binding (OR: 1.002; 95% CI: 1.00-1.003; P = 0.0024), duration of the coronary intensive care unit stay (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.24-12.30; P = 0.001) and no use of renin-angiotensin system blockers (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.14-4.10; P = 0.0017). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that CHA2DS2-VASc scores were significant predictors for new-onset AF (C-statistic: 0.698; 95% CI: 0.631-0.765; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores predicted new AF in patients presenting STEMI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/blood , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/blood , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve
20.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(2): 179-186, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990572

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to calculate the direct costs of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) in a high-complexity cardiovascular hospital. Methods: We performed a cost analysis with a pairwise-matched design. Twenty-two patients with POAF and 22 patients without this complication were included. Pair-matching was performed (1:1) based on the following criteria: identical type of surgery, similar EuroSCORE II values, and absence of any other postoperative complication. Results: The total hospital cost was significantly higher in the POAF group than in the non-POAF group (US$ 10,880 [± 2,688] vs. US$ 8,856 [± 1,782], respectively, for each patient; P=0.005). This difference was attributable to postoperative costs (US$ 3,103 [± 1,552] vs. US$ 1,238 [± 429]; P=0.0001) for patients with or without POAF, respectively. The median postoperative lengths of stay were 9 (range 5-17) and 5 (3-9) days for patients with and without POAF (P=0.032), respectively. Preoperatively, no differences were found in the EuroSCORE II values (median 1.7 vs. 1.6, respectively; P=0.91) or direct costs (US$ 1,127 vs. US$ 1,063, respectively; P=0.56) between POAF and non-POAF groups. Conclusion: POAF generates a high economic burden in the overall costs of cardiac surgery, and our results reveal the differential contribution of each of the evaluated factors. This information, which was previously unavailable in this setting, is essential for the development of more effective prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Postoperative Complications/economics , Atrial Fibrillation/economics , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/economics , Reference Values , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Time Factors , Risk Factors , Cost of Illness , Hospital Costs , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Length of Stay/economics
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