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3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(1): 100-105, July. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285226

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Na fibrilação atrial paroxística (FAP), o isolamento das veias pulmonares com criobalão (IVP-CB) tem eficácia semelhante à da ablação por radiofrequência (IVP-RF). Em procedimentos de reablação após IVP-RF, a reconexão das VPs é alta, ao passo que em pacientes com reablação após IVP-CB, as informações são escassas. Objetivo Determinar os locais de reconexão das VPs em pacientes que foram submetidos à reablação após IVP-CB inicial. Métodos Pacientes que foram submetidos a um procedimento de reablação de fibrilação atrial, após um IVP-CB inicial para FAP foram incluídos. O mapeamento eletroanatômico do AE foi utilizado. Um local de reconexão foi definido com a presença de uma voltagem de 0,3mV ou maior nas VPs e condução unidirecional ou bidirecional nas VPs durante o ritmo sinusal. Os locais de reconexão foram identificados por meio de corte paraesternal longitudinal e posteriormente ablacionados com radiofrequência. Resultados Dos 165 pacientes submetidos ao IVP inicial, 27 necessitaram reablações, dos quais 18 (66,6%) eram do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 55+12,3 anos. O tempo de recorrência foi de 8,9+6,4 meses. A reconexão das VPs foi encontrada em 21 (77,8%) pacientes. Houve um total de 132 lacunas de condução, seis por paciente, 3,6 por VP. Um número significativo de lacunas ocorreu na região ântero-superior da VP superior esquerda (VPSE) e nas regiões septal e inferior da VP superior direita (VPSD). Conclusões As VPs superiores apresentaram os locais de maior reconexão, principalmente na região anterior da VPSE e na região septal da VPSD. A razão por trás disso pode ser devido à maior espessura da parede atrial e à dificuldade em alcançar o contato de criobalão adequado.


Abstract Background In paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF), pulmonary vein isolation using cryoballoon (CB-PVI) has similar efficacy as radiofrequency ablation (RF-PVI) has. In redo ablation procedures following RF-PVI, PV reconnection is high, whereas in patients with redo following CB-PVI, information is scarce. Objective To determine the sites of PV reconnection in patients who underwent redo ablation after initial CB-PVI. Methods Patients who underwent an AF redo procedure, following an initial CB-PVI for PAF were included. LA electroanatomic mapping was used. A reconnection site was defined as the presence of a voltage of 0.3mV or greater in the PV and unidirectional or bidirectional conduction in the PV during sinus rhythm. Reconnections sites were identified using a clock-face view description and were ablated with radiofrequency afterwards. Results Out of the 165 patients who underwent initial PVI, 27 required redo ablations, of which 18 (66.6%) were males, with a mean age of 55+12.3 years. The time of recurrence was 8.9+6.4 months. PV reconnection was found in 21 (77.8%) patients. There was a total of 132 conduction gaps, six per patient, 3.6 per PV. A significant number of gaps were in the anterosuperior region of the left superior PV (LSPV), and in the septal and inferior regions of the right superior PV (RSPV). Conclusions The upper PVs had the most reconnection sites, mostly at the anterior region of the LSPV and the septal region of the RSPV. The reason behind this may be due to greater atrial wall thickness, and difficulty in achieving adequate cryoballoon contact.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Pulmonary Veins/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Catheter Ablation , Cryosurgery , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 334-343, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153006

ABSTRACT

Resumo Após mais de 20 anos desde sua utilização inicial, a ablação por cateter se tornou um procedimento rotineiramente realizado para tratamento de pacientes com fibrilação atrial (FA). Fundamentado inicialmente no isolamento elétrico das veias pulmonares em pacientes com FA paroxística, subsequentes avanços no entendimento da fisiopatologia levaram a técnicas adicionais não só para obter melhores resultados, mas também para tratar pacientes com formas persistentes de arritmia, assim como pacientes com cardiopatia estrutural e insuficiência cardíaca.


Abstract More than 20 years since its initial use, catheter ablation has become a routinely performed procedure for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Initially based on the electrical isolation of pulmonary veins in patients with paroxysmal AF, subsequent advances in the understanding of pathophysiology led to additional techniques not only to achieve better results, but also to treat patients with persistent forms of arrhythmia, as well as patients with structural heart disease and heart failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Veins/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Catheter Ablation , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922050

ABSTRACT

Pulsed electric field(PEF) provides high-energy instantaneous pulse and release energy to myocardial cell membrane, resulting in irreversible electroporation and causes myocardial cell contents leakage, destruction of intracellular homeostasis, cell death, and slight inflammatory response. PEF as non-thermal energy promotes the design and application of arrhythmia ablation catheter to enter a new stage. There are currently limited clinical studies that have proved the safety and effectieness of Farawave PEF catheter, PVAC GOLD PEF catheter, Lattice-tip Sphere-9 PEF and radiofrequency (RF) catheter used for atrial fibrillation ablation, but still need further discussion. The research of atrial fibrillation ablation with PEF is under study in China. In this paper, the design and application of PEF ablation for tachyarrhythmia are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Catheter Ablation , Catheters , Humans , Pulmonary Veins/surgery , Tachycardia
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921826

ABSTRACT

The effect of relaxation time in hyperbolic heat transfer model on the temperature field of microwave ablation of atrial fibrillation was investigated. And the results were compared with those calculated by Pennes model. A three-dimensional model of microwave ablation of atrial fibrillation was constructed. The relaxation time (


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Catheter Ablation , Hot Temperature , Humans , Microwaves , Radiofrequency Ablation , Temperature
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888623

ABSTRACT

At present, the standard left atrial appendage occlusion procedure mainly involves two-dimensional imaging methods such as X-ray fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiography to guide the operation, which will lead to underestimation of the three dimensional structure of the left atrial appendage and the surrounding tissue, thus adversely affects the surgery. To solve this problem, a surgery assist system for left atrial appendage occlusion based on preoperative cardiac CT images is developed. The proposed system realizes the left atrial appendage parameter measurement based on cardiac CT image, and realizes the calculation of optimal delivery sheath trajectory and three-dimensional simulation of the delivery sheath movement on the basis of a novel delivery sheath trajectory model. The system is expected to provide precise guidance for left atrial appendage occlusion, improve the success rate and safety of the operation, and at the same time help reduce the difficulty of learning the operation, and facilitate the promotion of left atrial appendage occlusion.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Cardiac Catheterization , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Humans , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
8.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 999-1002, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143991

ABSTRACT

Abstract Minimally invasive surgical ablation is generally contraindicated in patients with atrial fibrillation and thrombosis of the left atrial appendage. We have treated three of these patients using an innovative technique based on a bilateral video-thoracoscopic approach, performing a continuous encircling lesion at the pulmonary veins outflow with radio-frequency ablation, simultaneously excluding the left atrial appendage. The postoperative course was uneventful, without neurologic events and all patients maintained a stable sinus rhythm at 1-year follow-up. This procedure represents a new mini-invasive method to treat persistent atrial fibrillation when partial thrombosis of the left atrial appendage contraindicates other ablation techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Thrombosis/etiology , Catheter Ablation , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Thoracoscopy , Treatment Outcome
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(3): 528-535, out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131326

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O isolamento elétrico das veias pulmonares é reconhecidamente base fundamental para o tratamento não farmacológico da fibrilação atrial (FA) e, portanto, tem sido recomendado como passo inicial na ablação de FA em todas as diretrizes. A técnica com balão de crioenergia, embora amplamente utilizada na América do Norte e Europa, ainda se encontra em fase inicial em muitos países em desenvolvimento, como o Brasil. Objetivo Avaliar o sucesso e a segurança da técnica de crioablação em nosso serviço, em pacientes com FA paroxística e persistente. Métodos Cento e oito pacientes consecutivos com FA sintomática e refratária ao tratamento farmacológico foram submetidos à crioablação para isolamento das veias pulmonares. Os pacientes foram separados em dois grupos, de acordo com a classificação convencional da FA paroxística (duração de até sete dias) e persistente (FA por mais de sete dias). Dados de recorrência e segurança do procedimento foram analisados respectivamente como desfechos primário e secundário. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resultados Cento e oito pacientes, com idade média de 58±13 anos, 84 do sexo masculino (77,8%), foram submetidos ao procedimento de crioablação de FA. Sessenta e cinco pacientes apresentavam FA paroxística (60,2%) e 43, FA persistente (39,2%). O tempo médio do procedimento foi de 96,5±29,3 minutos e o tempo médio de fluoroscopia foi de 29,6±11,1 minutos. Foram observadas cinco (4,6%) complicações, nenhuma fatal. Considerando a evolução após os 3 meses iniciais, foram observadas 21 recorrências (19,4%) em período de um ano de seguimento. As taxas de sobrevivência livre de recorrência nos grupos paroxístico e persistente foram de 89,2% e 67,4%, respectivamente. Conclusão A crioablação para isolamento elétrico das veias pulmonares é um método seguro e eficaz para tratamento da FA. Nossos resultados estão consoantes com demais estudos, que sugerem que a tecnologia pode ser utilizada como abordagem inicial, mesmo nos casos de FA persistente. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background Electrical isolation of the pulmonary veins is recognized as the cornerstone of non-pharmacological treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (AF), and therefore, has been recommended as the first step in AF ablation according to all guidelines. Even though the cryoballoon technology is widely used in North America and Europe, this experience is still incipient in many developing countries such as Brazil. Objective To evaluate initial results regarding success and safety of the new technology in patients with persistent and paroxysmal AF. Methods One hundred and eight consecutive patients with symptomatic AF refractory to pharmacological treatment were submitted to cryoablation for isolation of the pulmonary veins. Patients were separated into two groups according to AF classification: persistent (AF for over one week); or paroxysmal (shorter episodes). Recurrence and procedural safety data were analyzed respectively as primary and secondary outcomes. The level of significance was 5%. Results One hundred and eight patients, with mean age 58±13 years, 84 males (77.8%), underwent cryoablation. Sixty-five patients had paroxysmal AF (60.2%) and 43 had persistent AF (39.2%). The mean time of the procedure was 96.5±29.3 minutes and the mean fluoroscopy time was 29.6±11.1 minutes. Five (4.6%) complications were observed, none fatal. Considering a blanking period of 3 months, 21 recurrences (19.4%) were observed in a one-year follow-up period. The recurrence-free survival rates of AF in the paroxysmal and persistent groups were 89.2% and 67.4%, respectively. Conclusion Cryoablation for electrical isolation of the pulmonary veins is a safe and effective method for the treatment of AF. Our results are consistent with other studies suggesting that this technology can be used as an initial technique even in cases of persistent AF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Pulmonary Veins/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Catheter Ablation , Cryosurgery , Recurrence , Brazil , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 841-843, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137322

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cardiac rhythm disorders are common in many patients with cancer. The management of synchronous long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation and pulmonary lesions remains a serious surgical dilemma due to the lack of clinical data and surgical guidelines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first described case of simultaneous thoracoscopic pulmonary segmentectomy and left atrial posterior wall and pulmonary vein isolation combined with left atrial appendage resection in a patient with early-stage primary lung cancer and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Catheter Ablation/methods , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/surgery , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/complications , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonectomy/methods , Pulmonary Veins/surgery , Thoracoscopy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Heart Atria/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
12.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(4): 577-579, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137308

ABSTRACT

Abstract Early recognition and rapid and appropriate treatment of cardiac tamponade are mandatory to prevent the irreversible deterioration of cerebral perfusion and other important organs. In this study, cardiac tamponade was induced by inadvertent transseptal puncture, which was managed with pericardial drainage and surgical repair in a patient with symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Epicardial atrial fibrillation ablation and left atrial appendage amputation were also performed at the same time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Cardiac Tamponade/etiology , Cardiac Tamponade/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Cardiac Tamponade/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Catheter Ablation , Catheters , Amputation
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(6): 1015-1026, Jun., 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131238

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O uso da radiação ionizante em procedimentos médicos está associado a riscos significativos à saúde dos pacientes e da equipe de saúde. Objetivos Avaliar a segurança e a eficácia aguda da ablação por cateter para tratamento da fibrilação atrial (FA) e arritmias supraventriculares (SVTs), utilizando uma abordagem exclusivamente não fluoroscópica, guiada por eco intracardíaco (ICE) e mapeamento 3D. Métodos 95 pts (idade média 60 ± 18 anos, 61% do sexo masculino) programados para ablação de FA (69 pts, 45 FA paroxística e 24 FA persistente) ou SVTs (26 pts - 14 reentrada nodal, 6 Wolf-Parkinson-White [WPW], 5 flutter atrial direito [AD], 1 taquicardia atrial). Nove pacientes (9,5%) tinham marcapasso definitivo ou dispositivos de ressincronização com desfibrilador. Dois sistemas de mapeamento eletroanatômico foram utilizados - CARTO (65%) e NAVx (35%), bem como cateteres de ICE disponíveis - Acunav e ViewFlex. Resultados O isolamento das veias pulmonares (VPs), bem como todos os outros alvos que precisavam de ablação em ambos os átrios, foram alcançados e adequadamente visualizados. Não foram observados derrames pericárdicos, complicações trombóticas ou outras intercorrências nesta série. Punções transseptais difíceis (19 pacientes - 20%) foram realizadas sem fluoroscopia em todos os casos. Não foi utilizada fluoroscopia de backup, e nenhum vestuário de chumbo foi necessário. Avaliações detalhadas dos marcapassos após o procedimento não mostraram nenhum dano aos eletrodos, deslocamentos ou mudanças de limiar. Conclusões Uma estratégia de ablação por cateter sem uso de radiação para FA e outras arritmias atriais é segura e eficaz quando guiada pela utilização adequada do ICE e do mapeamento 3D. Diversos sítios em ambos os átrios podem ser alcançados e adequadamente ablacionados sem a necessidade de fluoroscopia de backup. Não foram observadas complicações. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 114(6):1015-1026)


Abstract Background The use of ionizing radiation in medical procedures is associated with significant health risks for patients and the health care team. Objectives Evaluate the safety and acute efficacy of ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) and supraventricular arrhythmias (SVTs) using an exclusively non-fluoroscopic approach guided by intracardiac echo (ICE) and 3D-mapping. Methods 95 pts (mean age 60 ± 18 years, 61% male) scheduled for AF Ablation (69 pts, 45 paroxysmal AF and 24 persistent AF) or non-AF SVT (26 pts - 14 AV node reentry, 6 WPW, 5 right atrial (RA) flutters, 1 atrial tachycardia) underwent zero fluoro procedures. Nine patients (9.5%) had permanent pacemakers or defibrillator resynchronization (CRT-D) devices. Both CARTO (65%) and NAVx (35%) mapping systems were used, as well as Acunav and ViewFlex ICE catheters. Results Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), as well as all other targets that needed ablation in both atria were reached and adequately visualized. No pericardial effusions, thrombotic complications or other difficulties were seen in these series. Difficult transseptal puncture (19 patients - 20%) was managed without fluoroscopy in all cases. No backup fluoroscopy was used, and no lead apparel was needed. Pacemaker interrogations after the procedure did not show any lead damage, dislocation, or threshold changes. Conclusions A radiation-free (fluoroless) catheter ablation strategy for AF and other atrial arrhythmias is acutely safe and effective when guided by adequate ICE and 3D-mapping utilization. Multiple different bi-atrial sites were reached and adequately ablated without the need for backup fluoroscopy. No complications were seen. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 114(6):1015-1026)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Pulmonary Veins , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/surgery , Catheter Ablation , Fluoroscopy , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
16.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(3): 375-386, May-June 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137267

ABSTRACT

Abstract Medical management of atrial fibrillation can be complex, challenging and requiring time to prove its effectiveness; furthermore, the response can be refractory and inconsistent if the underlying pathology is not permanently addressed. Surgical ablation has become a key intervention, and since its first intervention in 1987 (the Cox-maze procedure), the technique has evolved from a conventional open method to a minimally invasive technique whilst retaining excellent outcomes. Furthermore, recent advances in the use of a hybrid approach have been established as satisfactory approach in managing atrial fibrillation with satisfactory outcomes. This literature review focuses on the evidence behind the surgical success in managing atrial fibrillation throughout the past, present and the future of these surgical interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Catheter Ablation , Treatment Outcome , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880761

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of the combination of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation and left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) on cardiac function and the success rate of AF ablation.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the data of 56 patients with AF undergoing a one-stop procedure for AF ablation and LAAC in our hospital between May, 2015 and May, 2019. Propensity score matching (PSM) at the ratio of 1:1 was used to select 56 control patients undergoing AF ablation at high risk of stroke, for matching with the hybrid procedure group. The perioperative complications, thromboembolic events, recurrence of atrial arrhythmia and cardiac function were compared between the groups.@*RESULTS@#The two groups of patients were comparable for age, gender, BMI, duration and type of AF, concomitant diseases, CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores (@*CONCLUSIONS@#The combination of AF ablation and LAAC is safe but does not improve the success rate of AF ablation. The one-stop procedure can improve cardiac function of the patients, but AF ablation alone can achieve better improvement of cardiac function.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Catheter Ablation , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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