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1.
CorSalud ; 12(4): 445-450, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278961

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Un corazón con tres aurículas, que sumaba cinco cámaras en total, fue un hecho que sorprendió a la medicina hace ya más de un siglo. Este raro defecto cardíaco congénito tiene muy baja incidencia, lo cual hace que sea muy poco conocido por las jóvenes generaciones de médicos dedicados a las enfermedades cardiovasculares. El cor triatriatum sinister generalmente se diagnostica en la temprana infancia y es considerado una causa congénita de estenosis mitral. La conducta quirúrgica es de elección para poder liberar el obstáculo al adecuado flujo sanguíneo a través de la aurícula izquierda. Se presenta el caso de un adulto joven con síntomas típicos de estenosis mitral, sin aparentes elementos claves al examen físico y con un ecocardiograma que evidencia esta anomalía, apenas vista y publicada en nuestro medio en pacientes adultos.


ABSTRACT A heart with three atria, totaling five chambers in all, was a fact that surprised medicine more than a century ago. This rare congenital heart defect has a very low incidence, which makes it very little known to the young generations of doctors dedicated to cardiovascular diseases. The cor triatriatum sinister is usually diagnosed in early childhood, and it is considered a congenital cause of mitral stenosis. Surgical approach is the choice to release the obstacle in order to adequate blood flow through the left atrium. We present the case of a young adult with typical symptoms of mitral stenosis, without apparent key elements on the physical examination and that the echocardiogram showed this anomaly, hardly seen and published in our field in adult patients.


Subject(s)
Cor Triatriatum , Atrial Function, Left , Heart Septal Defects , Mitral Valve Stenosis
3.
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(4): 273-278, 20200000. fig, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1368323

ABSTRACT

Background: Four-dimensional echocardiography technique results in marked improvements in terms of quality and accuracy in assessing the size and function of heart chambers, especially the left atrium as its geometric variation has a notable impact on the results when using traditional echocardiographic techniques alone. Thus, this study aimed at investigating the probability of significant functional and morphological changes in the left atrium with advancing age using Four-dimension echocardiography. Method: Four-dimensional technique derived left atrial phasic volumes and functions were assessed in (30) healthy subjects with mean age of 73.6 (±3.6) years and (30) young subjects with mean age of 23.17 (±3.5) years. Results: Old age group showed a significant increase in maximum left atrial volume index, minimum left atrial volume index and pre-atrial contraction left atrial volume index compared to young age group (31.52±1.09 vs. 26.44±1.03, P < 0.001), (17.93±0.43 vs. 15.89±0.44, P < 0.00) and (25.73±1.003 vs. 22.34±0.77, P < 0.01), respectively. In the old age group, the passive left atrial emptying function (LAEF) significantly decreased (20.43±0.25% vs. 24.96±0.93%, p<0.00), while the active LAEF significantly increased (37.36±1.33% vs. 32.65±1.13%, P< 0.009) in comparison to the values of the young subjects. Conclusions: These results suggest that left atrial structural as well as functional changes occur with advancing age in absence of evident pathological causes and 4-dimentional echocardiography can be used to evaluate these changes


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged/physiology , Atrial Function, Left/physiology , Echocardiography, Four-Dimensional
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(3): 188-196, Mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135608

ABSTRACT

The present study evaluated the volume and function of the left atrium by two-dimensional echocardiographic feature-tracking imaging (2D-FTI) and Simpson's monoplanar modeling in dogs with asymptomatic degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD). The study consisted of 80 dogs that were divided into the following three groups: Group 1, 21 dogs (A); Group 2, 30 dogs (B1) and Group 3, 29 dogs (B2). The variable strain (contraction phase) was significantly lower in Group 3 than in Group 1 (12.92±4.54 x 16.69±5.74, p=0.014), and significant differences in the contraction strain index (CSI) were observed between all of the groups that were evaluated (1 = 46.82±8.10, 2 = 39.88±8.03, 3 = 35.25±5.64, p<0.0001). The atrial diastolic volume index (AdVi) that was measured by 2D-FTI was significantly higher in Group 3 than in Group 1 (1.31±0.95 x 0.96±0.31, p=0.038), and the atrial cardiac index (ACI) was also higher in Group 3 than in Group 1 (102.38±80.18 x 78.19±33.38, p=0.030). Atrial function was assessed by Simpson's monoplanar method, which demonstrated an increase in the left atrial systolic volume, while the contractile function decreased with an increasing disease severity (Group 1 0.21±0.06; Group 2 0.25±0.06; Group 3 0.32±0.08, p<0.0001). The intraobserver and interobserver assessments showed low to moderate variability; most of the values for the coefficient of variation for the variables that were analysed with each method were below 25%. Thus, DMVD was determined to cause an alteration in atrial function, especially in the contraction phase, and even in asymptomatic animals, and the methods of 2D-FTI echocardiography and Simpson's monoplanar evaluation are sensitive and early methods for the detection of left atrial dysfunction.(AU)


O presente estudo avaliou o volume e a função atrial esquerda obtidos por meio da ecocardiografia bidimensional feature tracking (2D-FTI) e pelo método monoplanar de Simpson em cães saudáveis e cães com DMVD assintomáticos. Foram avaliados 80 cães distribuídos em três grupos: Grupo 1, 21 cães (classe A); Grupo 2, 30 cães (classe B1) e Grupo 3, 29 cães (classe B2). A variável strain (fase de contração) foi significativamente menor no Grupo 3 que no Grupo 1 (12,92±4,54 x 16,69±5,74, p=0,014) e para a variável índice de strain de contração (CSI), houve diferença estatística entre todos os grupos avaliados (1 = 46,82±8,10; 2 = 39,88±8,03; 3 = 35,25±5,64, p<0,0001). O índice de volume diastólico atrial (iVdA) mensurado por meio do 2D-FTI foi significativamente maior no Grupo 3 que no Grupo 1 (1,31±0,95 x 0,96±0,31, p=0,038), assim como para o índice cardíaco atrial (iCA) também foi maior no Grupo 3 (102,38±80,18 x 78,19±33,38, p=0,030). A função atrial avaliada pelo método monoplanar de Simpson demonstrou um aumento do volume atrial esquerdo e do volume sistólico do átrio esquerdo, enquanto que a função contrátil diminuiu com o aumento da gravidade da doença (Grupo 1 0,21±0,06; Grupo 2 0,25±0,06; Grupo 3 0,32±0,08; p<0,0001). A avaliação intraobservador e interobservador, demonstrou variabilidade baixa a moderada, uma vez que a maioria dos valores de coeficiente de variação se concentraram abaixo de 25% para as variáveis analisadas em ambos os métodos. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a DMVD causa alteração na função atrial, principalmente na fase de contração, mesmo em animais assintomáticos e que a ecocardiografia 2D-FTI e o método monoplanar de Simpson são métodos sensíveis e precoces na detecção da disfunção atrial esquerda.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Atrial Function, Left , Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac/veterinary , Heart Valve Diseases/veterinary , Mitral Valve/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography/veterinary
5.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(5): 935-945, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055037

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: New echocardiographic techniques are used in the diagnosis and prognosis of many heart diseases. However, reference values in different populations are still needed for several of these new indexes. We studied these new echocardiographic parameters in a group of Brazilians with no known cardiovascular disease. Objective: To study values for new echocardiographic indexes in Brazilians without known cardiovascular disease and their correlation with age. Methods: Cross-sectional study that included healthy individuals who underwent three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) strain (e) analysis. Left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) function were analyzed by 3DE and STE, and right ventricular (RV) function by STE. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Seventy-seven subjects (46.7% men; 40.4 ± 10.4 years) were included. Maximum, minimum and pre-atrial contraction (pre-A) LA volumes (ml/m2) were 21.2 ± 5.5, 7.8 ± 2.5, and 11.0 ± 3.1, respectively. Peak positive global LA e (LAScd), peak negative global LA e and total global LA e (LASr) were 17.4 ± 5.2%, -13.2 ± 2.0% and 30.5 ± 5.9%, respectively. LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (ml/m2) measured 57 ± 12 and 24 ± 6, and 3D LV ejection fraction measured 58 ± 6%. Global LV longitudinal, circumferential and radial e were -19 ± 2%, -19 ± 3%, and 46 ± 12%, respectively. LV torsion measured 1.6 ± 0.70 /cm. Global longitudinal RV e (RV-GLS) and RV free wall strain were -22 ± 3% and -24 ± 5%. Minimum LA and pre-A volumes, LV apical rotation, torsion and RV-GLS increased with age, while total and passive LA emptying fractions, LAScd, LASr, LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes decreased with age. Conclusion: Values for new echocardiographic indexes in Brazilians without known cardiovascular disease and their correlation with age are presented.


Resumo Fundamentos: Novas técnicas ecocardiográficas são utilizadas no diagnóstico e prognóstico de diversas cardiopatias. No entanto, muitos desses novos índices ainda carecem de valores de referência em diferentes populações. Estudamos esses novos parâmetros ecocardiográficos em um grupo de brasileiros sem doença cardiovascular conhecida. Objetivo: Estudar valores dos novos índices ecocardiográficos em brasileiros sem doença cardiovascular conhecida e sua correlação com a idade. Métodos: Estudo transversal composto por indivíduos saudáveis que realizaram ecocardiograma tridimensional (E3D) e ecocardiograma bidimensional com análise de deformação (e) por speckle tracking (EST). Foram analisadas as funções atrial esquerda (AE) e ventricular esquerda (VE) por E3D e EST, e a função ventricular direita (VD) por EST. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significantes. Resultados: Foram incluídos setenta e sete indivíduos (46,7% homens; 40,4 ± 10,4 anos). Os volumes AE máximo, mínimo e pré-contração atrial (pré-A) (ml/m2) foram 21,2 ± 5,5, 7,8 ± 2,5 e 11,0 ± 3,1, respectivamente. O pico da e global positiva do AE (LAScd), pico da e global negativa do AE e e global total do AE (LASr) foram 17,4±5,2%, -13,2 ± 2,0% e 30,5 ± 5,9%, respectivamente. Os volumes diastólico final e sistólico final do VE (ml/m2) mediram 57 ± 12 e 24 ± 6 e a fração de ejeção tridimensional do VE mediu 58 ± 6%. A e longitudinal, circunferencial e radial global do VE foi de -19 ± 2%, -19 ± 3% e 46 ± 12%, respectivamente. A torção do VE mediu 1,6 ± 0,7(0)/cm. A e longitudinal global do VD (SLG-VD) e a deformação da parede livre do VD foram de -22 ± 3% e -24 ± 5%. Os volumes mínimo e pré-A do AE, rotação apical do VE, torção e SLG-VD aumentaram com a idade, enquanto as frações de esvaziamento total e passivo do LA, LAScd, LASr, volumes diastólico final e sistólico final do VE diminuíram com a idade. Conclusão: Apresentam-se os valores para os novos índices ecocardiográficos em brasileiros sem doença cardiovascular conhecida e sua correlação com a idade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Echocardiography/standards , Atrial Function, Left , Ventricular Function, Left , Ventricular Function, Right , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional/standards , Reference Values , Brazil , Echocardiography/methods , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Age Factors , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional/methods , Healthy Volunteers
6.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(5): 508-516, Sept-Oct. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040105

ABSTRACT

The study is based on the fact that left atrial (LA) volume measurement is a marker of the presence of diastolic dysfunction and that Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with ventricular remodeling, worsening of left ventricular (LV) diastolic and systolic function, and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Objective: To evaluate whether LAV changes are related to vitamin D deficiency. Method: A cross-sectional, population-based, unicentric study in which 640 patients over 45 years of age enrolled in the Niterói's Médico de Família program, RJ, were evaluated. Patients were submitted to tissue Doppler echocardiography to evaluate the parameters of diastolic and systolic function and vitamin D dosage. The presence or absence of hypovitaminosis D associated with structural and functional cardiac changes was compared between each group. A p < 0.05 value was considered as an indicator of statistical significance. Results: Of the 640 individuals analyzed, hypovitaminosis D was confirmed in 39.2% of the patients, of whom 34.8% had diastolic dysfunction. The most relevant echocardiographic parameters that were statistically significant were non-indexed AEDs and LAV, E'/A' and E wave deceleration time, which were associated with the presence of hypovitaminosis D (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The study of the association of hypovitaminosis D and the appearance of structural and functional cardiac abnormalities may contribute to the discussion of the adoption of one more criterion to select individuals at risk of developing clinical cardiac insufficiency in primary care since, with the use of echocardiography, the subclinical condition of cardiac involvement, with prognostic and treatment implications for the referred patients with hypovitaminosis D, can be identified early


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care/methods , Vitamin D , Atrial Function, Left , Heart Atria , Avitaminosis/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Blood Pressure , Echocardiography/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistical Analysis , Heart Failure , Heart Rate
7.
Rev. salud pública Parag ; 9(1): [P57-P64], jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1047032

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La dilatación de la aurícula izquierda (AI) se considera un marcador ecocardiográfico para la remodelación auricular y la fibrilación auricular. Por ende, hemos investigado la correlación entre la dilatación de la AI con las alteraciones hemodinámicas del ventrículo izquierdo en pacientes con hipertensión arterial. Objetivo: Determinar la relación existente entre la hipertensión arterial y la dilatación auricular izquierda. Así mismo determinar las características epidemiológicas de la población en estudio y las diferencias ecocardiográficas entre pacientes hipertensos y pacientes sin HTA. Metodología: En este estudio observacional y prospectivo hemos investigado las variaciones electrocardiográficas, mediciones ecocardiográficas y Holter ECG de 24 hs en pacientes hipertensos que acuden a un hospital terciario desde marzo a septiembre del 2018 en forma ambulatoria y a internados en el Hospital de Clínicas. Resultados: Se estudiaron 104 pacientes, 65 hipertensos conocidos y 39 no hipertensos como grupo control. El diámetro de la AI tuvo una media de 37±8 en pacientes hipertensos, mientras que en pacientes no hipertensos la media fue de 34±5 (p=0,03). Se encontró una asociación significativa entre hipertensión y aumento del diámetro de la AI (p=0,04 OR: 2,6 IC 0,88­7,7). En los pacientes hipertensos se observó una asociación significativa entre la aurícula izquierda dilatada y la fracción de eyección disminuida (p= 0,01 OR: 4,66 IC: 1,28­16,98). Además, una asociación significativa entre la AI dilatada y el diámetro diastólico aumentado del ventrículo izquierdo (VI) (p= 0,0004 OR: 8,75 IC 2,18­35,01). Se observó una asociación significativa entre la presencia de una AI dilatada y el diámetro sistólico del VI aumentado en hipertensos (p= 0,006 OR: 5,74 IC 1,5­21,91). Conclusiones: Hubo una relación significativa entre la hipertensión arterial y la dilatación de la aurícula izquierda. Los pacientes hipertensos con una dilatación de la AI tuvieron un aumento significativo de los diámetros sistólicos y diastólicos del ventrículo izquierdo, así como una disminución significativa de la funcionalidad sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo. Por ende, los pacientes hipertensos que tienen una dilatación de la aurícula izquierda presentaron además alteraciones hemodinámicas asociadas del ventrículo izquierdo. Palabras clave: Dilatación de la aurícula izquierda; Hipertensión arterial; Fracción de eyección del VI. Diámetro sistólico y diastólico del VI.


Introduction: Dilation of the left atrium (LA) is considered an echocardiographic marker for atrial remodeling and atrial fibrillation. Therefore, we have investigated the correlation between dilatation of the IA with hemodynamic alterations of the left ventricle in patients with arterial hypertension. Objetive: Determine the relationship between arterial hypertension and left atrial dilatation. The same epidemiological characteristics of the study population and the echocardiographic differences between hypertensive patients and patients without HTN. Methodology: In this observational and prospective study we have investigated electrocardiographic variations, echocardiographic measurements and Holter ECG of 24 hours in hypertensive patients who attend a tertiary hospital from March 2018 to September 2018 as outpatients and inpatients. Results: 104 patients were studied, 65 known hypertensive patients and, 39 non-hypertensive as control group. The diameter of the AI had a mean of 37 ± 8 in hypertensive patients, while in non-hypertensive patients the mean was 34 ± 5 (p = 0.03). A significant association was found between hypertension and increased diameter of the LA (p = 0.04 OR: 2.6 CI 0.88-7.7). In hypertensive patients, a significant association was observed between the dilated left atrium and the decreased ejection fraction (p = 0.01 OR: 4.66 CI: 1.28- 16.98). In addition, a significant association between dilated LA and the increased diastolic diameter of the LV (p = 0.0004 OR: 8.75 IC 2.18-35.01). A significant association was observed between the presence of dilated IA and the left ventricular systolic diameter increased in hypertensive patients (p = 0.006 OR: 5.74 CI 1.5-21.91). Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between arterial hypertension and dilatation of the left atrium. Hypertensive patients with dilatation of the IA had a significant increase in systolic and diastolic diameters of the left ventricle, as well as a significant decrease in systolic functionality of the left ventricle. Therefore, hypertensive patients who have dilation of the left atrium also had associated hemodynamic alterations of the left ventricle. Key words: Dilation of the left atrium; Arterial hypertension; LV ejection fraction. Systolic and diastolicdiameter of the LV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Atrial Function, Left , Hypertension , Systole , Diastole
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(5): 501-508, May 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011187

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is a standard procedure for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) not responsive to previous treatments, that has been increasingly considered as a first-line therapy. In this context, perioperative screening for risk factors has become important. A previous study showed that a high left atrial (LA) pressure is associated with AF recurrence after ablation, which may be secondary to a stiff left atrium. Objective: To investigate, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, if LA stiffness could be a predictor of AF recurrence after RFCA, and to discuss its clinical use. Methods: The meta-analysis followed the MOOSE recommendations. The search was performed in MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, until March 2018. Two authors performed screening, data extraction and quality assessment of the studies. Results: All studies were graded with good quality. A funnel plot was constructed, which did not show any publication bias. Four prospective observational studies were included in the systematic review and 3 of them in the meta-analysis. Statistical significance was defined at p value < 0.05. LA stiffness was a strong independent predictor of AF recurrence after RFCA (HR = 3.55, 95% CI 1.75-4.73, p = 0.0002). Conclusion: A non-invasive assessment of LA stiffness prior to ablation can be used as a potential screening factor to select or to closely follow patients with higher risks of AF recurrence and development of the stiff LA syndrome.


Resumo Fundamento: A ablação por cateter de radiofrequência (ACRF) é um procedimento padrão para pacientes com fibrilação atrial (FA) não responsivos a tratamentos prévios, que tem sido cada vez mais considerada como terapia de primeira linha. Nesse contexto, o screening para fatores de risco perioperatório tornou-se importante. Um estudo prévio mostrou que uma pressão do átrio esquerdo (AE) elevada está associada a recorrência de FA após a ablação, podendo ser secundária a um AE rígido. Objetivo: Investigar, por meio de revisão sistemática e metanálise, se a rigidez do AE é um preditor de recorrência de FA após ACRF, e discutir seu uso na prática clínica. Métodos: A metanálise foi realizada seguindo-se as recomendações do MOOSE. A busca foi realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE e Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, até março de 2018. Dois autores realizaram triagem, extração de dados e avaliação da qualidade dos estudos. Resultados: Todos os estudos obtiveram boa qualidade. Um gráfico de funil foi construído, não identificando viés de publicação. Quatro estudos prospectivos observacionais foram incluídos na revisão sistemática e 3 deles na metanálise. Foi adotado o nível de significância estatística de p < 0,05. Rigidez do AE foi um forte preditor independente da recorrência de FA após ACRF (HR = 3,55, IC 95% 1,75-4,73, p = 0,0002). Conclusão: A avaliação não invasiva da rigidez do AE antes da ablação pode ser utilizada como um potencial fator de rastreamento para a seleção ou acompanhamento de pacientes com maiores riscos de recorrência de FA e desenvolvimento da síndrome do AE rígido.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Atrial Function, Left/physiology , Catheter Ablation , Atrial Remodeling/physiology , Prognosis , Recurrence , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Predictive Value of Tests
9.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 32(1)jan.-mar. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-969892

ABSTRACT

Atualmente, a avaliação da função atrial esquerda é um método emergente que pode ter relação com o prognóstico dos pacientes. Classicamente, as medidas estáticas de diâmetro, área e volume são as mais usadas com esta finalidade. A técnica conhecida como speckle tracking é capaz de fornecer informações dinâmicas do átrio esquerdo ao longo do ciclo cardíaco, assim como detectar alterações na função atrial esquerda em fases subclínicas, antes de ocorrerem aumentos volumétricos ou disfunções diastólicas. Valores de normalidade para o speckle tracking estão sendo propostos, mas as diferenças metodológicas e de técnicas empregadas dificultam sua padronização. Esta revisão da literatura se propõe a discutir os avanços na análise da função atrial esquerda, em especial via speckle tracking


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Atrial Fibrillation , Echocardiography/methods , Atrial Function, Left/physiology , Cardiomyopathies/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Prognosis , Stroke Volume/physiology , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Risk Factors , Atrial Function/physiology , Stroke , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Atria , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction
10.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1272756

ABSTRACT

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) predisposes to left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure, however, alterations in left atrial (LA) function in MS are unknown. Objectives: We aimed to use strain/strain rate (SR) imaging to investigate the effect of MS on LA function. Subjects and Methods: This prospective case control study included a total of 100 subjects divided in to 75 metabolic syndrome (MS) patients referred to Al-Azhar university hospital outpatient clinic for evaluation and treatment of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus and 25 age and sex matched apparently healthy volunteers as a control group. All subjects underwent conventional echocardiographic examination and assessment of LA function by speckle tracking. Partial correlation and multiple stepwise regression analyses were used to determine the risk factors for impaired LA function. Results: Compared with the controls, the MS patients showed significantly lower levels of mean strain, mean peak systolic SR and mean peak early diastolic SR (P<0.05 for all), with no difference in the mean peak late diastolic SR. Central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and uncontrolled diabetes were independent risk factors for impaired LA function. Conclusion: SR imaging is reliable in assessing LA function in MS patients


Subject(s)
Atrial Function, Left , Case-Control Studies , Echocardiography , Egypt , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology
11.
CorSalud ; 10(4): 336-340, oct.-dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089700

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El cor triatriatum es una anomalía congénita rara. Su prevalencia es de un 0,1% entre todos los pacientes con cardiopatías congénitas. La aurícula queda dividida en dos partes por una membrana fibromuscular; una cámara proximal y otra distal que se comunican entre sí por dos o más orificios con distintos grados de obstrucción. Es más frecuente encontrarlo en la aurícula izquierda (cor triatriatum sinester). Se diagnostica generalmente en la infancia o durante la edad adulta, muchas veces de manera fortuita mediante un ecocardiograma de rutina. Las manifestaciones clínicas en esta rara enfermedad dependerán del grado de obstrucción de la membrana en la aurícula, así como de las cardiopatías congénitas asociadas.


ABSTRACT Cor triatriatum is a rare congenital defect, (estimated incidence of 0.1% of all patients with congenital heart diseases). The atrium is divided into two compartments by a fibromuscular membrane; a proximal and a distal chamber that communicate with each other through two or more perforations with varying degrees of obstruction. It is more commonly found in the left atrium (cor triatriatum sinester) and usually diagnosed in childhood or during adulthood, often incidentally by a routine echocardiogram. Clinical symptoms in this rare disease depend on the severity of obstruction of the membrane in the atrium, as well as the associated congenital heart diseases.


Subject(s)
Cor Triatriatum , Atrial Function, Left
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(4): 312-320, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888058

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation frequently affects patients with valvular heart disease. Ablation of atrial fibrillation during valvular surgery is an alternative for restoring sinus rhythm. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate mid-term results of successful atrial fibrillation surgical ablation during valvular heart disease surgery, to explore left atrium post-ablation mechanics and to identify predictors of recurrence. Methods: Fifty-three consecutive candidates were included. Eligibility criteria for ablation included persistent atrial fibrillation <10 years and left atrium diameter < 6.0 cm. Three months after surgery, echocardiogram, 24-hour Holter monitoring and electrocardiograms were performed in all candidates who maintained sinus rhythm (44 patients). Echo-study included left atrial deformation parameters (strain and strain rate), using 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. Simultaneously, 30 healthy individuals (controls) were analyzed with the same protocol for left atrial performance. Significance was considered with a P value of < 0.05. Results: After a mean follow up of 17 ± 2 months, 13 new post-operative cases of recurrent atrial fibrillation were identified. A total of 1,245 left atrial segments were analysed. Left atrium was severely dilated in the post-surgery group and, mechanical properties of left atrium did not recover after surgery when compared with normal values. Left atrial volume (≥ 64 mL/m2) was the only independent predictor of atrial fibrillation recurrence (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Left atrial volume was larger in patients with atrial fibrillation recurrence and emerges as the main predictor of recurrences, thereby improving the selection of candidates for this therapy; however, no differences were found regarding myocardial deformation parameters. Despite electrical maintenance of sinus rhythm, left atrium mechanics did not recover after atrial fibrillation ablation performed during valvular heart disease surgery.


Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação atrial frequentemente afeta pacientes com doenças das valvas cardíacas. A ablação da fibrilação atrial durante a cirurgia das válvulas é uma alternativa para restaurar o ritmo sinusal. Objetivos: Este estudo teve como objetivos avaliar resultados em médio prazo da ablação cirúrgica bem sucedida da FA durante cirurgia para doença valvar, para explorar a mecânica do AE após a ablação e identificar preditores de recorrência. Métodos: Foram incluídos 53 candidatos consecutivos. Os critérios de elegibilidade para ablação foram fibrilação atrial persistente <10 anos e diâmetro do átrio esquerdo < 6 cm. Três meses após a cirurgia, foram realizados ecocardiografia, Holter por 24 horas, e eletrocardiografias em todos os candidatos que mantiveram o ritmo sinusal (44 pacientes). O estudo eco incluiu parâmetros de deformação ao átrio esquerdo (strain e taxa de strain) usando ecocardiografia bidimensional com speckle tracking. Simultaneamente, 30 indivíduos sadios (controles) foram analisados com o mesmo protocolo para o desempenho do átrio esquerdo. Um valor de P < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: Após um período médio de acompanhamento de 17 ± 2 meses, 13 novos casos de fibrilação atrial no pós-operatório foram identificados. Um total de 1245 segmentos do átrio esquerdo foi analisado. O grupo pós-cirúrgico apresentou dilatação grave do átrio esquerdo, e as propriedades mecânicas do átrio esquerdo não se recuperaram após a cirurgia quando comparadas com valores normais. O volume do átrio esquerdo (≥ 64 mL/m2) foi o único preditor independente de recorrência de fibrilação atrial (p = 0,03). Conclusões: O volume do átrio esquerdo foi maior nos pacientes com fibrilação atrial recorrente, e desponta como o principal preditor de recorrência, melhorando, assim, a seleção de candidatos para essa terapia. No entanto, não foram encontradas diferenças em relação aos parâmetros de deformação do miocárdio. Apesar da manutenção elétrica do ritmo sinusal, a função mecânica do átrio esquerdo não se recuperou após a ablação da fibrilação atrial realizada durante a cirurgia para doença da valva cardíaca.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Cryosurgery/methods , Heart Valve Diseases/surgery , Heart Valve Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Recurrence , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Time Factors , Echocardiography/methods , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Atrial Function, Left/physiology , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Electrocardiography , Heart Atria/surgery , Heart Atria/physiopathology , Heart Atria/diagnostic imaging , Heart Rate/physiology , Heart Valve Diseases/physiopathology
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 108(3): 246-254, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838703

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Prognostic factors are extensively studied in heart failure; however, their role in severe Chagasic heart failure have not been established. Objectives: To identify the association of clinical and laboratory factors with the prognosis of severe Chagasic heart failure, as well as the association of these factors with mortality and survival in a 7.5-year follow-up. Methods: 60 patients with severe Chagasic heart failure were evaluated regarding the following variables: age, blood pressure, ejection fraction, serum sodium, creatinine, 6-minute walk test, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, QRS width, indexed left atrial volume, and functional class. Results: 53 (88.3%) patients died during follow-up, and 7 (11.7%) remained alive. Cumulative overall survival probability was approximately 11%. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (HR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.04 - 4.31; p<0.05) and indexed left atrial volume ≥ 72 mL/m2 (HR = 3.51; 95% CI: 1.63 - 7.52; p<0.05) were the only variables that remained as independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions: The presence of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia on Holter and indexed left atrial volume > 72 mL/m2 are independent predictors of mortality in severe Chagasic heart failure, with cumulative survival probability of only 11% in 7.5 years.


Resumo Fundamento: Fatores prognósticos são bastante estudados na insuficiência cardíaca (IC), mas ainda não possuem um papel estabelecido na IC grave de etiologia chagásica. Objetivo: Identificar a associação de fatores clínicos e laboratoriais com o prognóstico da IC grave de etiologia chagásica, bem como a associação desses fatores com a taxa de mortalidade e a sobrevida em um seguimento de 7,5 anos. Métodos: 60 pacientes portadores de IC grave de etiologia chagásica foram avaliados com relação às seguintes variáveis: idade, pressão arterial, fração de ejeção, sódio plasmático, creatinina, teste de caminhada de 6 minutos, taquicardia ventricular não sustentada, largura do QRS, volume do átrio esquerdo indexado e classe funcional. Resultados: 53 (88,3%) pacientes foram a óbito durante o período de seguimento e 7 (11,7%) permaneceram vivos. A probabilidade de sobrevida geral acumulada foi de aproximadamente 11%. Taquicardia ventricular não sustentada (HR = 2,11; IC 95%: 1,04 - 4,31; p<0,05) e volume do átrio esquerdo indexado ≥ 72 ml/m2 (HR = 3,51; IC 95%: 1,63 - 7,52; p<0,05) foram as únicas variáveis que permaneceram como preditores independentes de mortalidade. Conclusão: A presença de taquicardia ventricular não sustentada ao Holter e o volume do átrio esquerdo indexado > 72 ml/m2 são preditores independentes de mortalidade na IC chagásica grave, com probabilidade de sobrevida acumulada de apenas 11% em 7,5 anos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/complications , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/mortality , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/mortality , Prognosis , Sodium/blood , Stroke Volume/physiology , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/physiology , Cardiac Volume/physiology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Epidemiologic Methods , Atrial Function, Left/physiology , Age Factors , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/mortality , Creatinine/blood , Walk Test , Heart Failure/physiopathology
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 143-148, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-303184

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>In the early stages of atrial remodeling, aortic stiffness might be an indication of an atrial myopathy, in particular, atrial fibrosis. This study aimed to investigate the association between left atrial (LA) mechanical function, assessed by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, and aortic stiffness in middle-aged patients with the first episode of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This prospective study included 34 consecutive patients with the first episode of AF, who were admitted to Kartal Koşuyolu Research and Training Hospital between May 2013 and October 2015, and 31 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. During the 1 st month (mostly in the first 2 weeks) following their first admission, 34 patients underwent the first pulse wave measurements. Then, 21 patients were recalled for their second pulse wave measurement at 11.8 ± 6.0 months following their initial admission. Echocardiographic and pulse wave findings were compared between these 34 patients and 31 healthy controls. We also compared the pulse wave and echocardiographic findings between the first and second measurements in 21 patients.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Pulse wave analysis showed no significant differences between the AF patients and healthy controls with respect to PWV (10.2 ± 2.5 m/s vs. 9.7 ± 2.1 m/s; P = 0.370), augmentation pressure (9.6 ± 7.4 mmHg vs. 9.1 ± 5.7 mmHg; P = 0.740), and aortic pulse pressure (AoPP; 40.4 ± 14.0 mmHg vs. 42.1 ± 7.6 mmHg, P = 0.550). The first LA positive peak of strain was inversely related to the augmentation pressure (r = -0.30; P = 0.02) and aortic systolic pressure (r = -0.26, P = 0.04). Comparison between the two consecutive pulse wave measurements in 21 patients showed similar results, except for AoPP. In 21 patients, the AoPP at the second measurement (45.1 ± 14.1 mmHg) showed a significant increase compared with AoPP at the first measurement (39.0 ± 10.6 mmHg, P = 0.028), which was also higher than that of healthy controls (42.1 ± 7.6 mmHg, P = 0.000).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The association between aortic stiffness with reduced atrial strain and the key role of AoPP in the development of AF should be considered when treating nonvalvular AF patients with normal LA sizes.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Atrial Fibrillation , Atrial Function, Left , Physiology , Atrial Remodeling , Physiology , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Vascular Stiffness , Physiology
15.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 29(1): 3-10, jan.-mar.2016. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-777616

ABSTRACT

A adaptação à sobrecarga crônica de volume na insuficiência mitral (IM) tende a aumentar o átrioesquerdo (AE), predispondo a disfunção atrial e arritmias. Embora as dimensões do AE tragam importante informação prognóstica, a função contrátil atrial não tem sido estudada consistentemente na IM. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a função atrial em pacientes com IM por cardiopatia reumática (CR) eprolapso valvar mitral (PVM). Métodos: Foram estudados 54 pacientes com IM importante, com área do orifício regorgitante efetivo (ERO) ≥ 0,40 cm2,sendo 23 com CR e 31 com PVM, em ritmo sinusal, com fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (VE) > 60%. Foram medidos diâmetros e massa do VE, volumes do VE e AE (máximo, mínimo e pré-A), fração de esvaziamento total (FEsv.TAE), passiva (FEsv.P AE) e ativa (FEsv.A AE) do AE, para avaliar função. Medidas de Doppler transmitral e tecidual foram obtidas. Resultados: Comparados ao PVM, pacientes com CR eram mais jovens (35 ± 11 versus 55 ± 13 anos; p < 0,05) e do sexo feminino (17 versus 7 mulheres; p < 0,05); o índice de massa do VE foi maior no grupo PVM. O volume atrial máximo foiigual para os grupos, com maior volume mínimo (56,9 ± 30 versus 41,6 ± 17 mL; p = 0,02) e consequentemente menor FEsv.A AE (0,41 ± 0,11 versus 0,47 ± 0,07; p = 0,03) e FEsv.A AE (0,20 ± 0,08 versus 0,27 ± 0,07; p < 0,001) para o grupo CR. Conclusão: Embora mais jovens, pacientes com IM de etiologia reumática apresentam maior comprometimento da função atrial comparados a pacientes com PVM, possivelmente refletindo o acometimento do miocárdio atrial peladoença...


Adaptation to chronic volume overload in patients with mitral insufficiency (MI) tends to increase left atrium (LA), leading to LA dysfunction and arrhythmias. Though LA dimension is a well-known cardiovascular risk predictor, LA contractile function has not been thoroughly assessed in patients with MI of distinct etiologies. Objective: We aimed to assess LA structure and function in patients with MI due to rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Methods: We assessed 54 patients with severe MI, defined by an effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) ≥ 0.40 cm2, 23 with RHD and 31 with MVP, all in sinus rhythm and with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction > 60%. We measured LV diameters and mass, and also volumes (Simpson) to assess function, including maximal, minimal and pre-atrial contraction volumes, and total (TLAEF), passive (PLAEF) and active (ALAEF) LAemptying fraction. Transmitral and tissue Doppler measurements were obtained. Results: Compared to MVP, patients with RHD were younger (35 ± 11 versus 55 ± 13 years) and mainly female (17 versus 7 female; p < 0.05);LV mass index was higher for MVP patients. Although LA maximal volume was similar for both groups, patients with RHD had higher minimal LA volumes (56.9 ± 30 versus 41.6 ± 17 ml; p = 0.02), resulting in lower TLAEF (0.41 ± 0.11versus 0.47 ± 0.07; p = 0.03) and ALAEF (0.20 ± 0.08versus 0.27 ± 0.07; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Although younger, patients with MI due to RHD present with more severe LA dysfunction compared to MVP, possibly reflecting direct atrial impairment from rheumatic heart disease...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Heart Disease/diagnosis , Rheumatic Heart Disease/therapy , Atrial Function, Left/physiology , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/etiology , Mitral Valve Prolapse/etiology , Chronic Disease/therapy , Echocardiography, Doppler, Color/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Atria , Mitral Valve , Prospective Studies , Statistical Analysis , Stroke Volume/physiology
16.
Journal of Stroke ; : 304-311, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Left atrial dysfunction has been reported in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO). Here we investigated the role of left atrial dysfunction in the development of embolic stroke in patients with PFO. METHODS: We identified consecutive patients with embolic stroke of undetermined sources except for PFO (PFO+ESUS). Healthy subjects with PFO served as controls (PFO+control). A stratified analysis by 10-year age group and an age- and sex- matching analysis were performed to compare echocardiographic markers between groups. In the PFO+ESUS group, infarct patterns of PFO-related stroke were determined (cortical vs. cortico-subcortical) and analyzed in correlation with left atrial function parameters. RESULTS: A total of 118 patients and 231 controls were included. The left atrial volume indices (LAVIs) of the PFO+ESUS patients were higher than those of the PFO+controls in age groups of 40–49, 50–59, and 60–69 years (P28 mL/m2) LAVI was more associated with the cortical infarct pattern (P=0.043 for an acute infarction and P=0.024 for a chronic infarction, both adjusted for age and shunt amount). The degree of right-to-left shunting was not associated with infarct patterns, but with the posterior location of acute infarcts (P=0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Left atrial enlargement was associated with embolic stroke in subjects with PFO. Left atrial physiology might contribute to the development of PFO-related stroke and need to be taken into consideration for optimal prevention of PFO-related stroke.


Subject(s)
Atrial Function, Left , Echocardiography , Embolism , Embolism, Paradoxical , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Healthy Volunteers , Heart Atria , Humans , Infarction , Physiology , Stroke
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(6): 625-636, Dec. 2015. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-769532

ABSTRACT

Abstract The assessment of left atrial (LA) function is used in various cardiovascular diseases. LA plays a complementary role in cardiac performance by modulating left ventricular (LV) function. Transthoracic two-dimensional (2D) phasic volumes and Doppler echocardiography can measure LA function non‑invasively. However, evaluation of LA deformation derived from 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a new feasible and promising approach for assessment of LA mechanics. These parameters are able to detect subclinical LA dysfunction in different pathological condition. Normal ranges for LA deformation and cut-off values to diagnose LA dysfunction with different diseases have been reported, but data are still conflicting, probably because of some methodological and technical issues. This review highlights the importance of an unique standardized technique to assess the LA phasic functions by STE, and discusses recent studies on the most important clinical applications of this technique.


Resumo A avaliação da função do átrio esquerdo (AE) é utilizada em várias doenças cardiovasculares. O AE tem um papel complementar no desempenho cardíaco através da modulação da função do ventrículo esquerdo (VE).A ecocardiografia com Doppler e a ecocardiografia transtorácica bidimensional (2D) de volumes de fase podem medir a função do AE de forma não-invasiva. No entanto, a avaliação da deformação do AE derivada da ecocardiografia bidimensional com speckle tracking (EST) é uma abordagem nova, promissora e factível para avaliar a mecânica do AE. Estes parâmetros são capazes de detectar disfunção do AE subclínica em diferentes patologias. Há relatos da variação normal da deformação do AE e dos valores de corte para o diagnóstico de disfunção do AE em diferentes doenças, mas os dados ainda são conflitantes, provavelmente devido a alguns problemas técnicos e metodológicos. Esta revisão destaca a importância de uma técnica única padronizada para a avaliação das funções fásicas do AE por EST, e discute estudos recentes sobre as aplicações clínicas mais importantes desta técnica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Function, Left/physiology , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography/standards , Heart Atria/pathology , Heart Atria , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Diseases , Reference Values , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
18.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 28(5): 417-423, set.-out. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-786808

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: A acurácia diagnóstica (AD) do eletrocardiograma (ECG) convencional para detecção das sobrecargas atriais (SA) é baixa. As derivações de Lewis (L) e Gallop (G) permitem melhor visualização da onda P no ECG. Objetivo: Verificar se os parâmetros da onda P nas derivações de Lewis e Gallop aumentam a acurácia diagnósticados critérios de SA do ECG convencional. Métodos: As características da onda P nas derivações de L e G foram padronizadas em 27 indivíduos saudáveis. Considerou-se como limite de normalidade o percentil 99 para esses parâmetros. Esses novos critérios foram avaliados em 117 pacientes através do ECG convencional e das derivações de L e G. As dimensões dos átrios pelo ecocardiograma foram consideradas padrão-ouro para definição das SA. Para determinação da AD de cada parâmetro utilizou-se a área sob a curva (AUC) ROC (receiver operating characteristic). Resultados: ECG convencional apresentou baixa AD para detecção das SA. O índice de Morris foi o único que mostrou AD significativa: AUC 0,57 (95%IC: 0,48-0,66); p=0,03. A inclusão da onda P>100 ms (L e G) não aumentou a AD para detecção de SA esquerda em relação aos critérios tradicionais: AUC 0,58 (95%IC: 0,50-0,65)vs. AUC 0,57 (95%IC: 0,49-0,65); p=0,80. A inclusão de onda P com amplitude >2mm (L) e/ou >3mm (G) tambémnão aumentou a AD para detecção de SA direita: AUC 0,53 (95%IC: 0,46-0,61) vs. AUC 0,53 (95%IC: 0,45-0,60); p=0,31.Conclusão: A inclusão da avaliação da onda P nas derivações acessórias de L e G não resultou em incremento da AD para detecção das SA.


Background: The diagnostic accuracy (DA) of the conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) for detecting atrial enlargement (AE) is low. Lewis (L) and Gallop (G) enable better viewing the P wave in the ECG.Objective: Checking whether the P wave parameters in the leads of Lewis and Gallop increase the diagnostic accuracy of the conventional ECG AE criteria. Methods: The P wave characteristics in the L and G leads were standardized in 27 healthy individuals. The percentile of 99 was considered as limit of normality for those parameters. These new criteria were evaluated in 117 patients through conventional ECG and the L and G leads. The atrial sizes under the echocardiogram were considered as golden standard for defining the AE. The areaunder the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve (AUC) was used for determining the DA of each parameter.Results: Conventional ECG presented low DA for detecting the AE. Morris index was the only showing significant DA: AUC 0.57 (95%CI:0.48-0.66); p=0.03. The inclusion of the P wave >100ms (L and G) has not increased the DA for detecting left AE compared to the traditional criteria: AUC 0.58 (95%CI: 0.50-0.65) vs. AUC 0.57 (95%CI: 0.49-0.65); p=0.80. Including P wave with amplitude >2 mm (L) and/or>3 mm (G) has not increased DA for detecting right AE either: AUC 0.53 (95%CI: 0.46-0.61) vs. AUC 0.53 (95%CI: 0.45-0.60); p=0.31. Conclusion: Including the P wave in the accessory leads of L and G did not result in increment of DA for detecting AE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Atrial Function, Left , Atrial Function, Right , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Electrocardiography/methods , Cohort Studies , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Statistical Analysis , Stroke Volume
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(1): 28-36, July 2015. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: lil-755004

ABSTRACT

Background:

Chagas disease is a cause of dilated cardiomyopathy, and information about left atrial (LA) function in this disease still lacks.

Objective:

To assess the different LA functions (reservoir, conduit and pump functions) and their correlation with the echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions.

Methods:

10 control subjects (CG), and patients with Chagas disease as follows: 26 with the indeterminate form (GI); 30 with ECG alterations (GII); and 19 with LV dysfunction (GIII). All patients underwent M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography, pulsed-wave Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging.

Results:

Reservoir function (Total Emptying Fraction: TEF): (p <0.0001), lower in GIII as compared to CG (p = 0.003), GI (p <0.001) and GII (p <0.001). Conduit function (Passive Emptying Fraction: PEF): (p = 0.004), lower in GIII (GIII and CG, p = 0.06; GI and GII, p = 0.06; and GII and GIII, p = 0.07). Pump function (Active Emptying Fraction: AEF): (p = 0.0001), lower in GIII as compared to CG (p = 0.05), GI (p<0.0001) and GII (p = 0.002). There was a negative correlation of E/e’average with the reservoir and pump functions (TEF and AEF), and a positive correlation of e’average with s’ wave (both septal and lateral walls) and the reservoir, conduit and pump LA functions.

Conclusion:

An impairment of LA functions in Chagas cardiomyopathy was observed.

.

Fundamento:

A doença de Chagas é uma causa de miocardiopatia dilatada, sendo ainda pouco conhecida a função do átrio esquerdo (AE) nessa doença.

Objetivo:

Avaliar as diferenças nas funções do AE (reservatório, conduto e bomba) e sua correlação com os parâmetros ecocardiográficos das funções sistólica e diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo (VE).

Método:

10 controles (GC) e os seguintes pacientes com doença de Chagas: 26 com a forma indeterminada (GI); 30 com alterações eletrocardiográficas (GII); e 19 com disfunção de VE (GIII). Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a ecocardiografia bidimensional e em modo M, Doppler pulsado e Doppler tecidual.

Resultados:

Função de reservatório (fração de esvaziamento total: FET) (p < 0,0001), mais baixa no GIII do que no GC (p = 0,003), GI (p < 0,001) e GII (p < 0,001). Função de conduto (fração de esvaziamento passivo: FEP) (p = 0,004), mais baixa no GIII (GIII e GC, p = 0.06; GI e GII, p = 0.06; e GII e GIII, p = 0,07). Função de bomba (fração de esvaziamento ativo: FEA) (p = 0,0001), mais baixa no GIII do que no CG (p = 0,05), GI (p<0,0001) e GII (p = 0,002). Observou-se uma correlação negativa entre E/e’média e as funções de reservatório e de bomba (FET e FEA), e uma correlação positiva entre as ondas e’média e s’ (paredes septal e lateral) e as funções de reservatório, conduto e bomba.

Conclusão:

Observou-se comprometimento das funções do AE na miocardiopatia chagásica.

.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Atrial Function, Left/physiology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Chagas Cardiomyopathy , Echocardiography, Doppler , Myocardial Contraction/physiology , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(1): 65-70, July 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-754999

ABSTRACT

Background:

Left atrial volume (LAV) is a predictor of prognosis in patients with heart failure.

Objective:

We aimed to evaluate the determinants of LAV in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).

Methods:

Ninety patients with DCM and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction ≤ 0.50 were included. LAV was measured with real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (eco3D). The variables evaluated were heart rate, systolic blood pressure, LV end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume and ejection fraction (eco3D), mitral inflow E wave, tissue Doppler e´ wave, E/e´ ratio, intraventricular dyssynchrony, 3D dyssynchrony index and mitral regurgitation vena contracta. Pearson´s coefficient was used to identify the correlation of the LAV with the assessed variables. A multiple linear regression model was developed that included LAV as the dependent variable and the variables correlated with it as the predictive variables.

Results:

Mean age was 52 ± 11 years-old, LV ejection fraction: 31.5 ± 8.0% (16-50%) and LAV: 39.2±15.7 ml/m2. The variables that correlated with the LAV were LV end-diastolic volume (r = 0.38; p < 0.01), LV end-systolic volume (r = 0.43; p < 0.001), LV ejection fraction (r = -0.36; p < 0.01), E wave (r = 0.50; p < 0.01), E/e´ ratio (r = 0.51; p < 0.01) and mitral regurgitation (r = 0.53; p < 0.01). A multivariate analysis identified the E/e´ ratio (p = 0.02) and mitral regurgitation (p = 0.02) as the only independent variables associated with LAV increase.

Conclusion:

The LAV is independently determined by LV filling pressures (E/e´ ratio) and mitral regurgitation in DCM.

.

Fundamento:

O Volume do Átrio Esquerdo (VAE) é preditor prognóstico em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca.

Objetivo:

O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os determinantes do VAE em pacientes com Cardiomiopatia Dilatada (CMD).

Métodos:

Incluídos 90 pacientes com CMD e fração de ejeção do Ventrículo Esquerdo (VE) ≤ 0,50. O VAE foi medido pela ecocardiografia tridimensional (eco3D). Foram avaliados frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial sistólica, volume diastólico e sistólico final do VE, fração de ejeção do VE, onda E mitral, onda e´ do anel mitral (Doppler tecidual), relação E/e´, dissincronia intraventricular, índice de dissincronia tridimensional e insuficiência mitral. O coeficiente de correlação de Pearson analisou a correlação do VAE com as variáveis avaliadas e a regressão linear múltipla as variáveis independentes associadas ao VAE.

Resultados:

A idade média foi 53 ± 11 anos, fração de ejeção do VE: 31,5 ± 8,0% e VAE: 39,2 ± 15,7 ml/m2. As variáveis que se correlacionaram com o VAE foram: volume diastólico final do VE (r = 0,38; p < 0,01), volume sistólico final do VE (r = 0,43; p < 0,001), fração de ejeção do VE (r = -0,36; p v 0,01), onda E (r = 0,50; p < 0,01), relação E/e´ (r = 0,51; p < 0,01) e insuficiência mitral (r = 0,53; p < 0,01). A análise multivariada identificou relação E/e´ (p = 0,02) e insuficiência mitral (p = 0,02) como os únicos preditores independentes do aumento do VAE.

Conclusão:

O VAE na CMD é determinado independentemente pelas pressões de enchimento do VE (relação E/e´) e insuficiência mitral.

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Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Atrial Function, Left/physiology , Cardiac Volume/physiology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Blood Pressure/physiology , Echocardiography, Doppler , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional , Heart Atria/physiopathology , Heart Atria , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
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