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2.
J. Card. Arrhythm. (Impr.) ; 34(3): 105-112, Dec., 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359637

ABSTRACT

This is a series case report of five symptomatic patients presented with diagnosis of sinus bradycardia, first and second degrees atrioventricular (AV) blocks, that were referred to pacemaker implantation. During the screening, a functional cause for the bradycardia and AV blocks were documented by treadmill stress test, 24-hour Holter monitoring and atropine test. After the confirmation of the diagnosis, patients were submitted to cardioneuroablation on an anatomical basis supported by a tridimensional electroanatomical fractionation mapping software. The technique and the acute and short-term results of the cardioneuroablation are described.


Subject(s)
Syncope , Bradycardia , Atrioventricular Block
3.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e500, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280182

ABSTRACT

Systemic sclerosis is an immunological disorder characterized by tissue fibrosis and multi-organ dysfunction.1 The accompanying images exhibit electrocardiographic changes in severe systemic sclerosis. Advanced 3:1 atrioventricular block, best observed in Lead Vi, suggests extensive fibrosis of the conduction system (Image A). While one P wave is buried in the T wave (black arrows), two are evident (red arrows) along the isoelectric line. Bradyarrhythmia related prolonged QT interval, best measured in Lead II represents increased risk for torsades-de-pointes, a polymorphic ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Additionally, right bundle branch block with giant T wave inversions (T wave depth > 10 mm) in precordial leads V2- 4 suggests pulmonary hypertension. Post-induction the rhythm abruptly changes to torsades-de-pointes (Image B) necessitating defibrillation.


La esclerosis sistémica es un trastorno inmunológico caracterizado por fibrosis tisular y disfunción multiorgánica. 1 Las imágenes adjuntas muestran cambios electrocardiográficos en la esclerosis sistémica grave. El bloqueo auriculoventricular avanzado 3: 1, que se observa mejor en la derivación VI, sugiere una fibrosis extensa del sistema de conducción ( Imagen A ).Mientras que una onda P está enterrada en la onda T (flechas negras), dos son evidentes (flechas rojas) a lo largo de la línea isoeléctrica. El intervalo QT prolongado relacionado con bradiarritmia, mejor medido en la derivación II, representa un mayor riesgo de torsades-de-pointes, una taquiarritmia ventricular polimórfica. Además, el bloqueo de la rama derecha del haz con inversiones de la onda T gigante (profundidad de la onda T> 10 mm) en las derivaciones precordiales V2- 4 sugiere hipertensión pulmonar. Después de la inducción, el ritmo cambia abruptamente a torsades-de-pointes ( Imagen B ), lo que requiere desfibrilación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Scleroderma, Systemic , Electrocardiography , Tachycardia , Bradycardia , Bundle-Branch Block , Risk , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Atrioventricular Block , Hypertension, Pulmonary
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 154-158, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287265

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad de Chagas es endémica en América Latina y sigue siendo un problema regional a pesar de que su frecuencia ha disminuido gracias a importantes avances en salud ambiental. Para determinar su frecuencia en pacientes con enfermedades miocárdicas de El Salvador, se llevó a cabo una in vestigación observacional retrospectiva en nuestro hospital que es un centro de referencia de nivel nacional. Se revisó el registro del Laboratorio de Chagas en el período 2013-2015 para conocer cuántos individuos internados en la Unidad Cardiológica eran positivos por serología para infección chagásica y cuáles fueron sus diagnósticos. Se realizó un total de 1472 pruebas a pacientes individuales durante los 36 meses del período de estudio. De los 557 pacientes con serología positiva para Chagas, 97 (17.4%) fueron eventualmente hospitalizados en la Unidad Cardiológica. A su vez, estos 97 pacientes representaron el 33.7% de los 288 pacientes con cardiopatías. Entre los 97 con cardiopatía chagásica, 40 (41.2%) cumplieron criterios para colocación de marcapaso permanente, mientras que solo 13 de 191 (6.8%) enfermos con cardiopatías no chagásicas cumplieron esos criterios. La frecuencia de bloqueos auriculoventriculares asociados a infección por Trypanosoma cruzi resultó mucho mayor que las publicadas en estudios previos realizados en Sudamérica.


Abstract Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America and remains a regional problem despite improvements in en vironmental health conditions that have helped to control its transmission. To know more about its prevalence in heart disease patients, we carried out a survey in our national (El Salvador) reference hospital. We reviewed the Chagas Lab´s records 2013-2015 to find out how many of the patients admitted to the Hospital´s Heart Unit were serologically positives for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and which the associated diagnoses were. A total of 1472 patients were tested along the 36-month study period. Out of 557 (37.8%) patients with positive serology for Chagas infection, 97 (17.4%) were eventually admitted to the Heart Unit. Among these 97 Chagas infected patients with heart disease, 40 (41.2%) met the criteria for permanent pacemaker placement, while only 13 of 191 (6.8%) patients with non-chagasic heart disease met these criteria. The frequency of heart atrioventricular block associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection was higher than frequencies reported in South American studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Trypanosoma cruzi , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Atrioventricular Block/etiology , Atrioventricular Block/epidemiology , El Salvador , Latin America
6.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(2): e1052, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341439

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las intoxicaciones por plantas son infrecuentes, de complicada orientación diagnóstica, que en general, se dificulta la identificación de la planta, su potencial tóxico y el tratamiento específico. Entre ellas la adelfa, capaz de producir cuadros de intoxicación grave, como un caso consultado a la guardia del Centro Nacional de Toxicología. Objetivos: Presentar un caso clínico de intoxicación grave por adelfa. Caso clínico: Paciente adulto, con intranquilidad, vómitos, dolores abdominales, tensión arterial 150/90 mmHg, frecuencia cardiaca y respiratoria normales, refirió que había consumido vía oral y rectal una poción elaborada con una planta, como tratamiento antiparasitario. El médico de guardia decidió comunicarse con el Centro Nacional de Toxicología. Se identificó la planta como adelfa. A pesar de la aplicación de reposición de volumen, lavado gástrico y la administración de carbón activado; presentó bloqueo auriculoventricular, extrasístoles aisladas y bradicardia. Se suministró atropina endovenosa, luego se trasladó hacia la unidad de cuidados intensivos y posteriormente egresó. Conclusiones: El caso presentó una intoxicación aguda grave por adelfa, con un correcto diagnóstico y tratamiento, que requirió de la labor conjunta de los médicos del cuerpo de guardia del hospital, la terapia intensiva y del Centro Nacional de Toxicología(AU)


Introduction: Poisoning by plants is infrequent, with a complicated diagnostic orientation, which in general makes it difficult to identify the plant, its toxic potential and specific treatment. Among them the oleander, capable of producing serious intoxication, as a case consulted to the National Toxicology Center. Objectives: To present a clinical case of severe oleander poisoning. Clinical case: Adult patient with restlessness, vomiting, abdominal pain, blood pressure 150/90 mmHg, normal heart and respiratory rates, and reported that he had consumed orally and rectally a potion made with a plant, as an antiparasitic treatment. The doctor who assisted him decided to communicate with the National Toxicology Center. The plant was identified as oleander. Despite the application of volume replacement, gastric lavage and the administration of activated charcoal; the patient presented atrioventricular block, isolated extrasystoles and bradycardia, intravenous atropine was administered, and subsequent transfer to the intensive care unit, and later he was discharged. Conclusions: The case presented a severe acute oleander poisoning, there was correct diagnosis and treatment, which required the joint work of the doctors from hospital emergency, the intensive care unit and the National Toxicology Center(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Psychomotor Agitation , Toxicology , Blood Pressure , Critical Care , Cardiac Complexes, Premature , Atrioventricular Block , Antiparasitic Agents
8.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(1): 18-24, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155788

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: It is challenging to diagnose syncope in patients with pacemakers. Because these patients have increased morbidity and mortality risks, they require immediate attention to determine the causes in order to provide appropriate treatment. This study aimed to investigate the causes and predictive factors of syncope as well as the methods used to diagnose syncope in cardiac pacemaker patients. Methods: Patients with pacemakers implanted owing to sinus node disease or atrioventricular block were evaluated with standardized questionnaires, endocavitary electrograms, and other tests based on the suspected causes of syncope. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze continuous variables and Chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests were used for categorical variables. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analyses. Statistical significance was P<0.05. Results: The study included 95 patients with pacemakers: 47 experienced syncope in the last 12 months and 48 did not. Of the 100 documented episodes of syncope, 48.9% were vasovagal syncopes, 17% had cardiac-related causes, 10.6% had unknown causes, and 8.5% had pacemaker failure. The multivariate analysis showed that a New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Class II was a significant factor for developing syncope (P<0.01). Conclusion: While the most common type of syncope in pacemaker patients was neurally mediated, it is important to perform detailed evaluations in this population as the causes of syncope can be life-threatening. The best diagnostic methods were stored electrogram analysis and the tilt table test. NYHA Functional Class II patients were found to have a higher risk for syncope.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pacemaker, Artificial , Syncope, Vasovagal/diagnosis , Syncope, Vasovagal/etiology , Syncope, Vasovagal/therapy , Atrioventricular Block , Syncope/diagnosis , Syncope/etiology , Tilt-Table Test
11.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(2)2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283777

ABSTRACT

A amiloidose é uma condição rara que descreve um grupo heterogêneo de distúrbios que cursam com a deposição extracelular de agregados proteicos fibrilares em tecidos e órgãos. Relata-se aqui o caso de paciente do sexo masculino, com 76 anos de idade, que, há 2 meses, iniciou quadro progressivo de dispneia aos mínimos esforços. Na investigação, observou-se aumento cardíaco global, e o ecocardiograma evidenciou cardiopatia restritiva infiltrativa e derrame pericárdico. Pela elevada suspeição clínica, foi solicitada ressonância magnética cardíaca, que foi altamente sugestiva de amiloidose cardíaca. Dessa forma, assim como no caso relatado, o acometimento cardíaco possui como principal forma de manifestação o tipo miocardiopatia restritivo, sendo um quadro de insuficiência cardíaca crônica com etiologia de difícil diagnóstico em pacientes acima de 50 anos, com prognóstico bastante reservado. Assim, apesar de permanecer como um desafio diagnóstico para o clínico, sua hipótese deve sempre ser aventada na ausência de outra causa que justifique tais achados (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Cardiomyopathy, Restrictive/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathy, Restrictive/diagnostic imaging , Atrioventricular Block/pathology , Pericardial Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Comorbidity , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/diagnostic imaging , Electrocardiography , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Amyloidosis
12.
CorSalud ; 12(4): 463-467, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278964

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Las manifestaciones cardiológicas del dengue son muy variadas, el virus puede penetrar al miocardio y producir una miocarditis aguda que, en ocasiones, puede pasar inadvertida y cursar de manera asintomática, con una evolución benigna; y en otras, puede producir alteraciones electrocardiográficas de trastornos del ritmo y la conducción o signos de disfunción ventricular que pueden llegar a la insuficiencia cardíaca grave. Se presenta el caso de un hombre de 21 años de edad, estudiante, con historia previa de salud, que ingresó en el Servicio de Cardiología con diagnóstico de dengue, confirmado por serología, complicado con un trastorno de la conducción (bloqueo aurículo-ventricular de grado avanzado 2:1) en relación a una miocarditis aguda por dengue. Este problema puede observarse en áreas en las que el dengue constituye un problema emergente, por lo que es de vital importancia su conocimiento para diseñar estrategias de prevención y tratamiento de las complicaciones.


ABSTRACT Dengue's cardiological manifestations are diverse; the virus is able to enter the myocardium and cause acute myocarditis that sometimes may go unnoticed and be asymptomatic, with benign outcomes; while in others, it may produce electrocardiographic rhythm and conduction disturbances or signs of ventricular dysfunction that could lead to severe heart failure. We present the case of a 21-year-old man, a student, previously healthy, who was admitted to the Department of Cardiology with a diagnosis of dengue confirmed by serology and complicated with conduction disorders (2:1 advanced atrioventricular block) related to acute myocarditis due to dengue. This problem can be seen in areas where dengue is an emerging problem. Therefore it is critical to be aware of it in order to design strategies for prevention and treatment of complications.


Subject(s)
Dengue , Atrioventricular Block , Myocarditis
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 683-688, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137352

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the change in serum Elabela level, a new apelinergic system peptide, in patients with complete atrioventricular (AV) block and healthy controls. Methods: The study included 50 patients with planned cardiac pacemaker (PM) implantation due to complete AV block and 50 healthy controls with similar age and gender. Elabela level was measured in addition to routine anamnesis, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Patients were divided into two groups, with and without AV block, and then compared. Results: In patients with AV block, serum Elabela level was significantly higher and heart rate and cardiac output were significantly lower than in healthy controls. Serum Elabela level was found to be positively correlated with high-sensitive C-reactive protein and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, but negatively correlated with heart rate, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and cardiac output. In linear regression analysis, it was found that these parameters were only closely related to heart rate and NT-proBNP. Serum Elabela level was determined in the patients with AV block independently; an Elabela level > 9.5 ng/ml determined the risk of complete AV-block with 90.2% sensitivity and 88.0% specificity. Conclusion: In patients with complete AV block, the serum Elabela level increases significantly before the PM implantation procedure. According to the results of our study, it was concluded that serum Elabela level could be used in the early determination of patients with complete AV block.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Atrioventricular Block , Cardiac Catheterization , Cardiac Output , Heart Rate
14.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 266-273, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131043

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Se denomina bloqueo interauricular avanzado (BIA) a la existencia de una onda P ≥ 120 ms y bifásica +/- en las derivaciones inferiores (II-III-VF) del electrocardiograma (ECG) de superficie, el cual constituye un factor predictivo significativo del desarrollo de fibrilación auricular. En fecha reciente se han descrito cuatro patrones de BIA atípicos (BIA-At) con base en la morfología y la duración de la onda P, sin conocer si comparten patogenia y características clínicas similares. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo de pacientes, visitados en el Servicio de Cardiología, en ritmo sinusal y con BIA. Las variables analizadas se obtuvieron de la historia clínica informatizada. El análisis de la onda P se efectuó al aumentar el tamaño del electrocardiograma y mediante calipers electrónicos. El análisis estadístico se realizó con SPSS 19.0, con nivel de significación de p < 0.05. Resultados: Se incluyó a 75 pacientes con media de edad de 74.4 ± 11.7 años, con 62.7% de varones. Se compararon los grupos de pacientes con BIA típico (BIA-T) y BIA-At. El primero se relacionó con la existencia de diabetes mellitus (p = 0.001), enfermedad renal crónica estadio ≥ 3 (p = 0.036), bloqueo auriculoventricular (p = 0.006) y una menor fracción de expulsión ventricular media (p = 0.025); no hubo diferencias respecto de la prevalencia de fibrilación auricular/flúter o accidente cerebrovascular. Sólo la diabetes se acompañó de riesgo de ser un BIA-T (OR: 6.4; p = 0.002; IC 95%: 2.0-21.1). Conclusiones: La diabetes mellitus constituye el único factor de riesgo de que un BIA sea típico. Los pacientes con BIA-T y BIA-At presentan similar prevalencia de fibrilación auricular y accidente cerebrovascular, por lo que son objeto de un mismo tratamiento clínico.


Abstract Objective: It is called advanced interatrial block (IAB) to the existence of a P wave ≥ 120 ms and biphasic ± in the lower leads II-III-VF of the surface electrocardiogram (ECG), which constitutes a significant predictive factor for the development of atrial fibrillation. Recently, four patterns of atypical aIAB (At-IAB) have been described based on the morphology and duration of the P wave, but it’s unknown if they share the same pathogenesis and clinical characteristics. Method: An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was performed with patients, visited in cardiology, who have a sinus rhythm and with aIAB. The analyzed variables were obtained from the computerized clinical history. The analysis of the P wave was made by increasing the size of the ECG and by electronic calipers. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0; level of significance: p < 0.05. Results: A total of 75 patients with an average age of 74.4 ± 11.7 years and with a 62.7% males, were included. It was compared the group of patients with typical aIAB (T-aIAB) and with At-aIAB. The first one was associated with the existence of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.001), chronic kidney disease stage ≥ 3 (p = 0.036), atrioventricular block (p = 0.006) and a lower mean ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.025); there were no differences regarding the prevalence of atrial fibrillation/flutter or stroke. Only diabetes was associated with the risk of T-aIAB (odds ratio: 6.4; p = 0.002; 95% confidence interval: 2.0-21.1). Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus is the only risk factor for an aIAB to be typical. Patients with T-aIAB and At-aIAB have a similar prevalence of atrial fibrillation and stroke, so they must follow the same clinical management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Electrocardiography , Interatrial Block/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Atrioventricular Block/epidemiology , Interatrial Block/complications , Interatrial Block/diagnosis
16.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(3): 162-163, July-Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149788

ABSTRACT

Classic myotonic dystrophy is a multisystem disorder that results from RNA toxicity and is one of the commonest adult onset muscular dystrophies. Patients often present with muscle stiffness from myotonia and dysphagia or dysarthria from laryngopharyngoesophageal muscle weakness. Benign electrocardiogram changes such as first degree atrioventricular block are commonly present and rarely merit further work up. Occasionally, patients develop advanced conduction defects which can unexpectedly progress to complete heart block perioperatively


La distrofia miotonica clásica es un trastorno multi-sistémico que resulta de la toxicidad del RNA y es una de las distrofias musculares más comunes en adultos. Los pacientes suelen presentar rigidez muscular por la miotonía, así como disfagia o disartria por debilidad muscular laringo-faríngea-esofágica. Los cambios benignos en el electrocardiograma, como el bloqueo auriculoventricular de primer grado, suelen estar presentes y rara vez merecen un análisis más profundo. Ocasionalmente, los pacientes desarrollan defectos de conduccion avanzados que pueden progresar inespera-damente para completar el bloqueo cardiaco perioperatorio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrioventricular Block , Heart Block , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , RNA , Dysarthria , Electrocardiography , Cardiac Conduction System Disease , Myotonia
20.
Rev. costarric. cardiol ; 21(2): 8-10, jul.-dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042864

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se presenta un caso clínico de una mujer gestante que presentó bloqueo atrioventricular completo en labor de parto, bradicardia severa, intervalo QT prolongado secundario, torsión de puntas y paro cardiorrespiratorio, del cual fue recuperada. Se discuten los mecanismos potenciales que pueden desencadenar este escenario.


Abstract A clinical case of a pregnant woman who presented with complete atrioventricular block in labor, severe bradycardia, secondary prolonged QT interval, Torsades de pointes and aborted cardiorespiratory arrest is presented. Potential mechanisms that can trigger this scenario are discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Labor, Obstetric , Pregnancy , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Costa Rica , Death, Sudden , Parturition , Atrioventricular Block
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