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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(1): 35-44, feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430519

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Conventional implant treatment cannot always be used to rehabilitate edentulous patients with advanced maxillary atrophic. Zygomatic dental implants have been used over the past 20 years as an alternative treatment solution to bone grafting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the implant and prosthetic survival rate in non-oncologic patients with a severely atrophic maxilla. This review also aims to better understand the rate of peri-operative complications in this cohort of patients. A multi-database (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHAL) focused systematic search was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations. Any randomised control trials studies involving human participants treated with zygomatic osseous implants were included. After eliminating duplicates, a total of 4 studies met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis review. With all the studies included there was a total of 174 patients treated with zygomatic osseous implants. The overall implant success rate was 98.03 %. The prosthetic success rate was 96.4 %. The most frequent peri-operative complication was sinusitis. Based on the limited data available in literature, zygomatic dental implants represent a valid alternative to bone augmenting procedure. However, they are not without risks and longer follow-ups are required to confirm the validity of the treatment in long term.


Los tratamientos convencionales con implantes no siempre pueden ser usados para rehabilitar pacientes edentulos con atrofia maxilar avanzada. Los implantes dentales zigomáticos son usados por los pasados 20 años como alternativa de tratamiento a las reconstrucciones óseas. El objetivo de este meta-análisis es evaluar la sobrevida de implantes y prótesis en pacientes no oncológicos con maxila severamente atrófica. Esta revisión también pretende entender al promedio de complicaciones peri operatorias en esta cohorte de pacientes. Una búsqueda sistemática en bases de datos múltiples (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE y CINAHAL) fue desarrollada de acuerdo a recomendaciones de Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Cualquier estudio clínico aleatorizado de participantes humanos donde se utilizaron los implantes zigomáticos fueron incluidos. Después de eliminar duplicados, un total de 4 estudios cumplieron los criterios de inclusión para esta meta análisis. Con todos los estudios incluidos se obtuvieron 174 pacientes tratados con implantes zigomáticos. El promedio de éxito fue de 98,03 %. El promedio de éxito de la rehabilitación fue de 96,4 %. La complicación mas frecuente fue la sinusitis. Basados en los datos limitados en la literatura, los implantes zigomáticos representan una alternativa valida a los procedimientos de aumento óseo. Sin embargo, estos no están libres de riesgos y seguimientos de mayores periodos son necesarios para confirmar la validez de los tratamientos en el largo plazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Zygoma/surgery , Maxillary Diseases/rehabilitation , Dental Implantation, Endosseous/methods , Atrophy , Maxillary Diseases/surgery , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 53-58, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971149

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical effects of fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with minimally invasive scar release in the treatment of post-acne atrophic scars. Methods: A retrospectively observational study was conducted. From January to June 2021, 60 patients with grade 3 and 4 post-acne atrophic scars who met the inclusion criteria were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. According to the adopted treatment methods, 30 patients treated with fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with minimally invasive scar release were included in combined treatment group (19 males and 11 females, aged (26±4) years), and 30 patients treated with fractional carbon dioxide laser alone were included in laser alone group (18 males and 12 females, aged (25±6) years). All the patients received the treatment once every two months, totally 3 times. Before the first treatment and 2 months after the last treatment, the scars were assessed by échelle d'évaluation clinique des cicatrices d'acné (ECCA). In 2 months after the last treatment, the curative effect was evaluated and the total effective rate was calculated according to the ECCA score. The adverse reactions of patients during the treatment were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed with independent sample t test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact probability test. Results: Before the first treatment, the ECCA scores of patients in the two groups were similar (P>0.05). In 2 months after the last treatment, the ECCA scores of patients in combined treatment group were significantly lower than those of laser alone group (Z=-2.89, P<0.05). The ECCA scores of patients in combined treatment group and laser alone group in 2 months after the last treatment were both significantly lower than those before the first treatment (with Z values of -4.81 and -4.79, respectively, P<0.05). In 2 months after the last treatment, the treatment in laser alone group cured the scars in 2 patients, and were markedly effective in 13 patients, effective in 7 patients, and ineffective in 8 patients; the treatment in combined treatment group cured the scars in 4 patients, and were markedly effective in 22 patients, effective in 3 patients, and ineffective in one patients. The total effective rate of scar treatment in combined treatment group (96.67%, 29/30) was significantly higher than 73.33% (22/30) in laser alone group (P<0.05). During treatment, in combined treatment group, 3 patients had pain, one patient had redness and swelling, and one patient had pigmentation. In laser alone group, one patient had pain, and 2 patients had pigmentation. No infection occurred in the wounds of all the patients in the two groups. Conclusions: Compared with fractional carbon dioxide laser alone, fractional carbon dioxide laser combined with minimally invasive scar release for post-acne atrophic scars can result in a higher total effective rate, with simple operation and good effect, so it is worthy of clinical application.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Cicatrix/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Lasers, Gas/therapeutic use , Acne Vulgaris , Atrophy , Pain , Carbon Dioxide
3.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 691-697, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Clinically, it has been found that some patients with epilepsy are accompanied by cerebellar atrophy that is inconsistent with symptoms, but the pattern of cerebellar atrophy after epilepsy and the role of cerebellar atrophy in the mechanism of epilepsy have not been elucidated. This study aims to explore the specific pattern of cerebellar atrophy after epilepsy via analyzing magnetic resonance images in patients with postepileptic cerebellar atrophy.@*METHODS@#A total of 41 patients with epilepsy, who received the treatment in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 2017 to January 2022 and underwent cranial MRI examination, were selected as the case group. The results of cranial MRI examination of all patients showed cerebellar atrophy. In the same period, 41 cases of physical examination were selected as the control group. General clinical data and cranial MRI results of the 2 groups were collected. The maximum area and signal of dentate nucleus, the maximum width of the brachium pontis, the maximum anterior-posterior diameter of the pontine, and the maximum transverse area of the fourth ventricle were compared between the 2 groups. The indexes with difference were further subjected to logistic regression analysis to clarify the characteristic imaging changes in patients with cerebellar atrophy after epilepsy.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the maximum width of the brachium pontis and the maximum anterior-posterior diameter of the pontine were decreased significantly, the maximum transverse area of the fourth ventricle was increased significantly in the case group (all P<0.05). The difference in distribution of the low, equal, and high signal in dentate nucleus between the 2 groups was statistically significant (χ2=43.114, P<0.001), and the difference in the maximum area of dentate nucleus between the 2 groups was not significant (P>0.05). The maximum width of the brachium pontis [odds ratio (OR)=3.327, 95% CI 1.454 to 7.615, P=0.004] and the maximum transverse area of the fourth ventricle (OR=0.987, 95% CI 0.979 to 0.995, P=0.002) were independent factors that distinguished cerebellar atrophy after epilepsy from the normal control, while the anterior-posterior diameter of pontine (OR=1.456, 95% CI 0.906 to 2.339, P>0.05) was not an independent factor that distinguished them.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In MRI imaging, cerebellar atrophy after epilepsy is manifested as significant atrophy of the brachium pontis, significant enlargement of the fourth ventricle, and increased dentate nucleus signaling while insignificant dentate nucleus atrophy. This particular pattern may be associated with seizures and exacerbated pathological processes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pons , Epilepsy/diagnostic imaging , Atrophy/pathology , Cerebellum/pathology
4.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 395-401, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic variants in a patient with adult ceroid lipofuscinosis neuronal type 7 (ACLN7).@*METHODS@#A female patient diagnosed with ACLN7 in Henan Provincial People's Hospital in June 2021 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data, auxiliary examination and result of genetic testing were retrospectively analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The patient, a 39-year-old female, has mainly presented progressive visual loss, epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia and mild cognitive decline. Neuroimaging analysis has revealed generalized brain atrophy, prominently cerebellum. Fundus photography has revealed retinitis pigmentosa. Ultrastructural skin examination has revealed granular lipofuscin deposits in the periglandular interstitial cells. Whole exome sequencing revealed that she has harbored compound heterozygous variants of the MSFD8 gene, namely c.1444C>T (p.R482*) and c.104G>A (p.R35Q). Among these, c.1444C>T (p.R482*) was a well established pathogenic variant, while c.104G>A (p.R35Q) was a missense variant unreported previously. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the daughter, son and elder brother of the proband have respectively carried heterozygous c.1444C>T (p.R482*), c.104G>A (p.R35Q), and c.104G>A (p.R35Q) variants of the same gene. The family has therefore fit with the autosomal recessive inheritance pattern of the CLN7.@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with previously reported cases, this patient has the latest onset of the disease with a non-lethal phenotype. Her clinical features have involved multiple systems. Cerebellar atrophy and fundus photography may be indicative of the diagnosis. The c.1444C>T (p.R482*) and c.104G>A (p.R35Q) compound heterozygous variants of the MFSD8 gene probably underlay the pathogenesis in this patient.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Neuronal Ceroid-Lipofuscinoses/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Atrophy , Mutation
5.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 390-394, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981759

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic etiology of a patient with adolescent-onset hypomyelinated leukodystrophy with atrophy of basal ganglia and cerebellum (H-ABC).@*METHODS@#A patient who was diagnosed with H-ABC in March 2018 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University was selected as the study subject. Clinical data was collected. Peripheral venous blood samples of the patient and his parents were collected. The patient was subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES). Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The patient, a 31-year-old male, had manifested with developmental retardation, cognitive decline and abnormal gait. WES revealed that he has harbored a heterozygous c.286G>A variant of the TUBB4A gene. Sanger sequencing confirmed that neither of his parents has carried the same variant. Analysis with SIFT online software indicated the amino acid encoded by this variant is highly conserved among various species. This variant has been recorded by the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) with a low population frequency. The 3D structure constructed by PyMOL software showed that the variant has a harmful effect on the structure and function of the protein. According to the guidelines formulated by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the variant was rated as likely pathogenic.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.286G>A (p.Gly96Arg) variant of the TUBB4A gene probably underlay the hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with atrophy of basal ganglia and cerebellum in this patient. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of TUBB4A gene variants and enabled early definitive diagnosis of this disorder.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Basal Ganglia/pathology , Cerebellum , Atrophy/pathology , Mutation , Tubulin/genetics
6.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-4, 01/jan./2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369163

ABSTRACT

Introduction: One of the challenges of maxillofacial surgery is the rehabilitation of patients with severe bone loss, using implant-supported prostheses. This challenge is based on the small remaining bone structure, and on the need to reconstruct the structure for the rehabilitation with autogenous or exogenous grafts. Case report: We report the case of a patient with severe maxillary atrophy, where a skullcap graft was performed associated with implant placement and prosthetic completion 14 months after the start of treatment. Final considerations: We demonstrate clinical safety for the use of extraoral grafts without complications, representing a good alternative treatment for this group of patients.


Introdução: um dos desafios da cirurgia bucomaxilofacial é a reabilitação de pacientes com perda óssea severa, utilizando próteses implantossuportadas. Este desafio baseia-se na pequena estrutura óssea remanescente e na necessidade de reconstrução da estrutura para a reabilitação com enxertos autógenos ou exógenos. Relato de caso: Relatamos o caso de um paciente com atrofia maxilar grave, onde foi realizado enxerto de calota craniana associado à instalação de implante, com finalização protética 14 meses após o início do tratamento. Consideracoes finais: Demonstramos segurança clínica para o uso de enxertos extrabucais sem complicações, representando uma boa alternativa de tratamento para este grupo de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Mandible , Patients , Prostheses and Implants , Atrophy , Skull , Surgery, Oral , Jaw, Edentulous
7.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 222-226, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936138

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To summarize and analyze the clinical characteristics of children with basal ganglia germinoma and to improve the level of early clinical diagnosis.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of children diagnosed with basal ganglia germinoma admitted to the Pediatric Surgery Ward of Peking University First Hospital from January 2013 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the clinical characteristics of children with basal ganglia germinoma.@*RESULTS@#A total of 30 patients were included in the study, 28 were male, 2 were female, the mean age at onset was (9.7±2.2) years, the median disease duration was 7 months, 27 had unilateral disease, and 3 had bilateral disease. The clinical manifestations were decreased limb muscle strength, cognitive function disorders, polydipsia, precocious puberty, intracranial hypertension, dysphonia and swallowing dysfunction. The serum and cerebrospinal fluid tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were normal in the 30 patients, and the serum and cerebrospinal fluid tumor marker β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) were normal in 8 patients.The serum β-HCG was normal in 11 patients but the cerebrospinal fluid β-HCG was slightly elevated, and the serum and cerebrospinal fluid β-HCG were slightly elevated in 11 patients. A total of 33 lesions with irregular shapes were found by imaging examination, including 15 (45.5%) patchy lesions, 10 (30.3%) patchy lesions, and 8 (24.2%) round-like high-density lesions. Tumors showed obvious high-density shadows on computed tomography (CT) scan. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the tumors showed low or isointensity on T1WI and isointensity on T2WI, accompanied by mild peritumoral edema, hemispheric atrophy, cerebral peduncle atrophy, calcification, cystic degeneration, ventricular dilatation and wallerian degeneration. On contrast-enhanced scans, the tumor showed no enhancement or heterogeneous enhancement.@*CONCLUSION@#The main age of onset of germ cell tumors in the basal ganglia in children is about 10 years old, and males are absolutely dominant. The clinical features and imaging manifestations have certain characteristics. With both combined, the early diagnosis of germ cell tumors in the basal ganglia can be improved.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Atrophy/pathology , Basal Ganglia/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human , Germinoma/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal , Retrospective Studies
8.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 276-279, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935791

ABSTRACT

Objective: Objective to investigate the health changes of patients with severe trimethyltin chloride (TMT) poisoning in four years. Methods: Six patients with severe TMT poisoning treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical College in August 2016 were numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively. The patients were followed up 0.5, 2 and 4 years after poisoning and compared and analyzed. The follow-up contents include: symptom degree, score of simple mental intelligence examination scale (MMSE) and modified Rankin Scale (MRS) , cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) , EEG, etc. Results: The symptoms of dizziness, headache, chest tightness, palpitation, nausea and vomiting decreased gradually in 6 patients. The symptoms of speech disorder and memory decline in No.1, 2 and 3 patients gradually increased, and the scores of MMSE and Mrs gradually decreased; Patients No.4, 5 and 6 had improved speech disorder, but their memory decreased, MMSE and Mrs scores were still flat, and mild cognitive impairment. The brain atrophy of No.1, 2 and 3 patients was aggravated, which showed obvious atrophy of hippocampus, temporal lobe, insular lobe and cerebellum and enlargement of ventricle; There was no significant change in brain atrophy in No.4, 5 and 6 patients. Conclusion: The neurotoxic symptoms in the later stage of severe TMT poisoning are still serious, and the neurotoxic time is long.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrophy , Follow-Up Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Trimethyltin Compounds
9.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 417-420, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928432

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child with myopathy and cerebellar atrophy with ataxia.@*METHODS@#Clinical examinations and laboratory testing were carried out for the patient. The proband and the parents' genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and subjected to trio whole-exome sequencing. Candidate variant was validated by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The 1-year-and-8-month-old boy manifested motor developmental delay, ataxia, hypomyotonia, increased serum creatine kinase. Cranial MRI showed cerebellar atrophy with progressive aggravation. Genetic testing revealed that the patient has harbored compound heterozygous variants of the MSTO1 gene, namely c.13delG (p.Ala5ProfsTer68) and c.971C>T (p.Thr324Ile), which were respectively inherited from his mother and father. The former was unreported previously and was predicted to be likely pathogenic, whilst the latter has been reported previously and was predicted to be of uncertain significance.@*CONCLUSION@#The compound heterozygous c.13delG (p.Ala5ProfsTer68) and c.971C>T (p.Thr324Ile) variants probably underlay the disease in the proband. Above finding has enriched the spectrum of MSTO1 gene variants underlying mitochondrial myopathy and cerebellar atrophy with ataxia.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Male , Ataxia/genetics , Atrophy/genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , Mitochondrial Myopathies , Mutation , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Exome Sequencing
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 591-597, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Insufficient cerebral perfusion is suggested to play a role in the development of Alzheimer disease (AD). However, there is a lack of direct evidence indicating whether hypoperfusion causes or aggravates AD pathology. We investigated the effect of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on AD-related pathology in humans.@*METHODS@#We enrolled a group of cognitively normal patients (median age: 64 years) with unilateral chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Regions of interest with the most pronounced hypoperfusion changes were chosen in the hypoperfused region and were then mirrored in the contralateral hemisphere to create a control region with normal perfusion. 11C-Pittsburgh compound-positron emission tomography standard uptake ratios and brain atrophy indices were calculated from the computed tomography images of each patient.@*RESULTS@#The median age of the 10 participants, consisting of 4 males and 6 females, was 64 years (47-76 years). We found that there were no differences in standard uptake ratios of the cortex (volume of interest [VOI]: P = 0.721, region of interest [ROI]: P = 0.241) and grey/white ratio (VOI: P = 0.333, ROI: P = 0.445) and brain atrophy indices (Bicaudate, Bifrontal, Evans, Cella, Cella media, and Ventricular index, P > 0.05) between the hypoperfused regions and contralateral normally perfused regions in patients with unilateral chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings suggest that chronic hypoperfusion due to large vessel stenosis may not directly induce cerebral β-amyloid deposition and neurodegeneration in humans.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Arteries , Atrophy , Brain/metabolism , Cerebral Cortex/metabolism , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Constriction, Pathologic/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods
11.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1729-1732, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971357

ABSTRACT

The hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a rare hereditary disease in nervous system due to the damage of corticospinal tract. HSP has various inheritance modes, including autosomal dominant inheritance, autosomal recessive inheritance, X-linked inheritance, and mitochondrial inheritance in some cases. At present, there are at least 80 subtypes of HSP. Hereditary spastic paraplegia type 11 (SPG11) is the most common subtype in autosomal recessive inheritance, and its pathogenic factor is KIAA1840 gene, which encodes spatacsin protein. A total of 52 SPG11 patients aged from 4-24 years old have been reported. Their initial symptoms were gait disturbance and/or mental retardation. As the disease develops, they may present with mental retardation, sphincter disturbance, decreased vision, ataxia, amyotrophy, pes arcuatus, ophthalmoplegia, peripheral neuropathy, and others. Except agenesis of the corpus callosum and periventricular white matter changes, patients might show cortical atrophy, ventricular dilation, and cerebellar atrophy, and so on. Chinese SPG11 patients manifested significant clinical and genetical heterogeneity and no obvious gender difference. Of them, 37 pathogenic mutations of KIAA1840 gene were detected, which all introduced truncated mutation of spatacsin protein. KIAA1840 gene frameshift mutation is the most common type of mutation.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Young Adult , Atrophy , Intellectual Disability , Mutation , Proteins , Spastic Paraplegia, Hereditary/pathology
12.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 57 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1414261

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A atrofia gástrica (AG) e metaplasia intestinal (MI) são condições préneoplásicas no desenvolvimento de câncer gástrico, onde a avaliação endoscópica e histopatológica baseia-se no sistema atualizado de Sydney que inclui uma biópsia da incisura angular (IA) na sua avaliação, assim como os sistemas de estadiamento de risco de câncer gástrico Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) e o Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment using Intestinal Metaplasia (OLGIM). Objetivo: Comparar as classificações OLGA e OLGIM com e sem a biópsia da IA. Além disso, determinar a prevalência de Helicobacter pylori (HP) e das alterações pré-neoplásicas (AG, MI e displasia) por região biopsiada, e ainda identificar os achados exclusivos da IA, além de identificar potenciais fatores de risco para câncer gástrico associados às alterações pré-neoplásicas. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo observacional, retrospectivo e prospectivo, descritivo, unicêntrico com 350 pacientes sem diagnóstico de neoplasia gástrica, que realizaram endoscopia digestiva alta com biópsias na Gastroclínica Itajaí, no período de novembro de 2017 até outubro de 2018 (retrospectivo) e de março de 2020 a maio de 2022. A classificação histopatológica de gastrite obedeceu ao sistema Sydney atualizado, e a avaliação do risco de câncer gástrico aos sistemas OLGA e OLGIM. A metodologia aplicada avaliou os escores dos sistemas OLGA e OLGIM com e sem a avaliação da biópsia da IA. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando medidas descritivas (frequências, porcentagens, média, desvio padrão, intervalo de confiança de 95%). A comparação entre os ranks foi feita pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis ou Wilcoxon. Para analisar a relação entre as frequências foi utilizado o teste exato de Fisher bilateral. O score de Wilson com correção de continuidade foi aplicado ao intervalo de confiança. Resultados: A idade mediana foi de 54,7 anos, sendo 52,5% pacientes do gênero feminino e 47,5% do gênero masculino. A comparação entre o protocolo de biópsias empregado (corpo + antro [CA] vs corpo + antro + incisura [CAI]) e os estágios OLGA e OLGIM apresentou uma diminuição significativa em ambos os sistemas de estadiamento quando aplicado o protocolo de biópsia restrito ao corpo e antro (OLGA CAI vs CA; p 0,008 / OLGIM CAI vs CA; p 0,002). A prevalência das lesões pré-malignas (AG, MI e displasia) da mucosa gástrica foi de (33,4%, 34% e 1,1%, respectivamente) na amostra total. A região do antro foi o sítio que apresentou significativamente maior número de alterações (p≤0,0001), exceto para a positividade da infecção por HP, a qual esteve presente em 24,8% dos pacientes. Não foi possível fazer correlação entre os fatores de risco para desenvolvimento do câncer gástrico com os achados histológicos devido à baixa prevalência dos mesmos e a casuística ter resultado em uma amostra bastante limitada. Conclusão: A biópsia da incisura angular é importante porque aumentou o número de casos em estágios mais avançados de atrofia e metaplasia intestinal. O estudo apresentou limitações, onde a principal delas foi a amostra relativamente pequena e composta por indivíduos saudáveis apesar de idosos na sua maior parte


Introduction: Gastric atrophy (GA) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are pre-neoplastic conditions in the development of gastric cancer, where endoscopic and histopathological evaluation is based on the updated Sydney system that includes a biopsy of the incisura angularis (IA), as well as the Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) and Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment using Intestinal Metaplasia (OLGIM) gastric cancer risk staging systems. Objective: To compare the OLGA and OLGIM classifications with and without IA biopsy. In addition, to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) and preneoplastic changes (AG and IM) by biopsied region, and to identify the exclusive findings of IA. Also, to identify potential risk factors for gastric cancer associated with pre-neoplastic changes. Materials and Methods: Observational, retrospective and prospective, descriptive, unicentric study with 350 patients without a diagnosis of gastric cancer, who underwent upper digestive endoscopy with biopsies at Gastroclínica Itajaí, from November 2017 to October 2018 (retrospective) and from March 2020 to May 2022. The histopathological classification of gastritis followed the updated Sydney system, and the gastric cancer risk assessment followed the OLGA and OLGIM systems. The methodology applied evaluated the scores of the OLGA and OLGIM systems with and without the assessment of the IA biopsy. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive measures (frequencies, percentages, mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval). Ranks were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis or Wilcoxon tests. To analyze the relationship between the frequencies, the bilateral Fisher's exact test was used. Wilson's score with continuity correction was applied to the confidence interval. Results: The median age was 54,7 years, with 52,5% female patients and 47,4% male patients. The comparison between the used biopsies protocol (corpus + antrum [CA] vs corpus + antrum + incisura angularis [CAI]) and the OLGA and OLGIM stages showed a significant decrease in both staging systems when the biopsy protocol restricted to the corpus and antrum was applied (OLGA CAI vs CA; p 0,008 / OLGIM CAI vs CA; p 0,002). The prevalence of pre-malignant lesions (GA, IM and dysplasia) of the gastric mucosa was (33,4%, 34% and 1,1%, respectively) in the total sample. The antrum region was the site that presented a significantly higher number of alterations (p≤0,0001), except for the positivity of HP infection, which was present in 24,8% of the patients. It was not possible to make a correlation between the risk factors for the development of gastric cancer and the histological findings because the casuistry resulted in a very limited sample with low prevalence of risk factors. Conclusion: Incisura angularis biopsy is important because it increased the number of cases in more advanced stages of intestinal metaplasia and atrophy. The study had limitations, the main one being the relatively small sample composed of healthy individuals, although mostly elderly


Subject(s)
Stomach Neoplasms , Biopsy , Gastritis , Atrophy , Helicobacter pylori , Risk Assessment , Metaplasia
13.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(8): e00296021, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384288

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the evolution of head circumference (HC) in children with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). This study aims to evaluate HC growth in children with CZS in the first three years of life and identify associated factors. HC data obtained at birth and in neuropediatric consultations from 74 children with CZS were collected from the Child's Health Handbook, parents' reports, and medical records. Predictors of HC z-score were investigated using different mixed-effects models; Akaike's information criterion was used for model selection. The HC z-score decreased from -2.7 ± 1.6 at birth to -5.5 ± 2.2 at 3 months of age, remaining relatively stable thereafter. In the selected adjusted model, the presence of severe brain parenchymal atrophy and maternal symptoms of infection in the first trimester of pregnancy were associated with a more pronounced reduction in the HC z-score in the first three years of life. The decrease of HC z-score in CZS children over the first three months demonstrated a reduced potential for growth and development of the central nervous system of these children. The prognosis of head growth in the first 3 years of life is worse when maternal infection occurs in the first gestational trimester and in children who have severe brain parenchymal atrophy.


Pouco se sabe sobre a evolução do perímetro cefálico (PC) em crianças com síndrome congênita associada à infecção pelo vírus Zika (SCZ) em acompanhamentos contínuos. Este estudo buscou avaliar o crescimento do PC em crianças com SCZ nos primeiros três anos de suas vidas e identificar os fatores associados a ele. Os dados do PC ao nascimento e obtidos em consultas neuropediátricas de 74 crianças com SCZ foram coletados no Cartão da Criança, nos laudos paternos e em seus prontuários. Os preditores de escore-z para PC foram investigados utilizando-se diferentes modelos de efeitos mistos. O critério de informação de Akaike foi utilizado para selecionar os modelos usados. O escore-z de PC diminuiu de -2,7 ± 1,6 ao nascimento para -5,5 ± 2,2 aos 3 meses de idade, mas permaneceu relativamente estável desde então. No modelo ajustado selecionado, a presença de atrofia parênquimal cerebral grave e sintomas maternos de infecção no primeiro trimestre de sua gravidez estiveram associados a uma redução mais acentuada no escore-z de PC nos primeiros três anos de vida dos participantes. A diminuição do escore-z de PC em crianças com SCZ nos primeiros 3 meses de sua vida monstra o potencial reduzido de crescimento e desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso central dessas crianças. O prognóstico de crescimento do perímetro cefálico nos primeiros 3 anos de vida é pior quando a infecção materna ocorreu no primeiro trimestre gestacional e em crianças que tiveram atrofia parênquimal grave.


Se conoce poco sobre la evolución del perímetro cefálico (PC) en niños con síndrome de Zika congénito (SZC) en los seguimientos continuos. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el crecimiento del PC en niños con SZC en los primeros 3 años de vida e identificar los factores asociados. Se recogieron datos del PC al nacimiento y obtenidos en las consultas de neuropediatría de 74 niños con SZC a partir de la Tarjeta del Niño, los informes de los padres y los registros médicos. Se investigaron los predictores de la puntuación Z del PC mediante diferentes modelos de efectos mixtos; se utilizó el criterio de información de Akaike para la selección del modelo. La puntuación Z del PC disminuyó de -2,7 ± 1,6 al nacer a -5,5 ± 2,2 a los 3 meses de edad, pero a partir de entonces se mantuvo relativamente estable. En el modelo ajustado seleccionado, la presencia de atrofia grave del parénquima cerebral y los síntomas maternos de infección en el primer trimestre del embarazo se asociaron con una reducción más pronunciada de la puntuación Z del PC en los primeros 3 años de vida. La disminución de la puntuación Z del PC en los niños con SZC durante los primeros 3 meses demuestra el menor potencial de crecimiento y desarrollo del sistema nervioso central de estos niños. El pronóstico del crecimiento de la cabeza en los primeros 3 años de vida es peor cuando la infección materna se produjo en el primer trimestre gestacional y en los niños que tenían una atrofia grave del parénquima cerebral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Child , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Zika Virus , Microcephaly/etiology , Atrophy/complications , Brazil , Zika Virus Infection/congenital
14.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 208-212, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927867

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the influence of recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor as an adjuvant therapy on scar alleviation and inflammatory cytokines in patients with atrophic acne scar. Methods The random number table was employed to randomly assign 120 patients with atrophic acne scar into a test group and a control group.Both groups of patients were treated with CO2 lattice laser.After the operation,the control group was routinely smeared with erythromycin ointment and the test group was coated with recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor gel.The clinical efficacy,clinical indicators,scar alleviation,and inflammatory cytokine levels before and after treatment were compared,and adverse reactions were counted. Results The test group had higher total effective rate(P=0.040) and lower total incidence of adverse reactions(P=0.028) than the control group.Compared with the control group,the test group showcased short erythema duration after treatment(P=0.025),early scab forming(P=0.002),and early edema regression(P<0.001).After treatment,the proportion of grade 1 scars graded by Goodman and Baron's acne scar grading system in the test group and control group increased(P=0.001,P=0.027),and the proportion of grade 4 scars decreased(P<0.001,P=0.034).Moreover,the proportion of grade 1 scars in the test group was higher than that in the control group(P=0.031) after treatment,and the proportion of grade 4 scars presented an opposite trend(P=0.031).After treatment,the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) in both groups declined(all P<0.001),and the test group had lower TNF-α and IL-1β levels than the control group(all P<0.001). Conclusion The recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor gel as an adjuvant therapy of CO2 lattice laser can effectively alleviate the atrophic acne scar,relieve local inflammatory reaction,and has good curative effect and less adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Atrophy/complications , Carbon Dioxide , Cicatrix/pathology , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
15.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 699-704, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939650

ABSTRACT

A boy, aged 5 years, attended the hospital due to progressive psychomotor regression for 2.5 years. Motor function regression was the main manifestation in the early stage, and brain MRI and whole-exome sequencing (WES) of the family showed no abnormalities. After the age of 4 years and 9 months, the boy developed cognitive function regression, and brain MRI showed cerebellar atrophy. The reanalysis of WES results revealed a compound heterozygous mutation, [NM_000520, c.784C>T(p.His262Tyr]), c.1412C>T(p.Pro471Leu)], in the HEXA gene. The enzyme activity detection showed a significant reduction in the level of β-hexosaminidase encoded by this gene. The boy was diagnosed with juvenile Tay-Sachs disease (TSD). TSD has strong clinical heterogeneity, and cerebellar atrophy may be an important clue for the diagnosis of juvenile TSD. The reanalysis of genetic data when appropriate based on disease evolution may improve the positive rate of WES.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Atrophy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mutation , Tay-Sachs Disease/genetics
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(8): 666-675, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339239

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Multiple sclerosis exhibits specific neuropathological phenomena driving to both global and regional brain atrophy. At the clinical level, the disease is related to functional decline in cognitive domains as the working memory, processing speed, and verbal fluency. However, the compromise of social-cognitive abilities has concentrated some interest in recent years despite the available evidence suggesting the risk of disorganization in social life. Recent studies have used the MiniSEA test to assess the compromise of social cognition and have found relevant relationships with memory and executive functions, as well as with the level of global and regional brain atrophy. Objective: The present article aimed to identify structural changes related to socio-cognitive performance in a sample of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Methods: 68 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis Chilean patients and 50 healthy control subjects underwent MRI scans and neuropsychological evaluation including social-cognition tasks. Total brain, white matter, and gray matter volumes were estimated. Also, voxel-based morphometry was applied to evaluate regional structural changes. Results: Patients exhibited lower scores in all neuropsychological tests. Social cognition exhibited a significant decrease in this group mostly related to the declining social perception. Normalized brain volume and white matter volume were significantly decreased when compared to healthy subjects. The regional brain atrophy analysis showed that changes in the insular cortex and medial frontal cortices are significantly related to the variability of social-cognitive performance among patients. Conclusions: In the present study, social cognition was only correlated with the deterioration of verbal fluency, despite the fact that previous studies have reported its link with memory and executive functions. The identification of specific structural correlates supports the comprehension of this phenomenon as an independent source of cognitive disability in these patients.


RESUMEN Antecedentes: La esclerosis múltiple presenta fenómenos neuropatológicos específicos que conducen a la atrofia cerebral global y regional. A nivel clínico, la enfermedad está relacionada con el deterioro funcional de los dominios cognitivos como la memoria de trabajo, la velocidad de procesamiento y la fluidez verbal. Sin embargo, el compromiso de las habilidades socio-cognitivas ha concentrado cierto interés en los últimos años debido a la evidencia disponible que sugiere el riesgo de desorganización en la vida social. Estudios recientes han utilizado la prueba MiniSEA para evaluar el compromiso de la cognición social y han encontrado relaciones relevantes con la memoria y funciones ejecutiva, así como con el nivel de atrofia cerebral global y regional. Objetivo: El presente artículo tiene como objetivo identificar cambios estructurales relacionados con el rendimiento sociocognitivo en una muestra de pacientes con esclerosis múltiple recurrente-remitente. Métodos: 68 pacientes Chilenos con esclerosis múltiple recurrente-remitente y 50 sujetos de control sanos se sometieron a resonancias magnéticas y evaluación neuropsicológica, incluidas las tareas de cognición social. Se estimaron los volúmenes cerebrales totales, de materia blanca y materia gris. Además, se aplicó la morfometría basada en vóxel para evaluar los cambios estructurales regionales. Resultados: Los pacientes muestran puntuaciones más bajas en todas las pruebas neuropsicológicas. La cognición social exhibe una disminución significativa en este grupo principalmente relacionada con la disminución de la percepción social. El volumen normalizado del cerebro y el volumen de la materia blanca disminuyeron significativamente en comparación con los sujetos sanos. El análisis regional de atrofia cerebral mostró que los cambios en la corteza insular y la corteza frontal medial están significativamente relacionados con la variabilidad del rendimiento sociocognitivo entre los pacientes. Conclusiones: En el presente estudio, la cognición social sólo se correlacionó con el deterioro de la fluencia verbal, a pesar de que estudios previos han reportado su vinculación con la memoria y funciones ejecutivas. La identificación de correlatos estructurales específicos apoya la comprensión de este fenómeno como una fuente independiente de discapacidad cognitiva en estos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Atrophy/pathology , Brain/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cognition , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , Social Cognition , Neuropsychological Tests
18.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 42(2): 42-46, maio-ago. 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1283885

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Por sua posição na face, a mandíbula é frequentemente atingida pelos traumas, surgindo em algumas estatísticas como o osso fraturado com maior incidência em face. Em fraturas de mandíbulas atróficas o tratamento conservador, com fixação intermaxilar não costuma ser uma opção viável pela falta de dentes e pequena área de contato ósseo existente. Dessa forma, a redução aberta e fixação interna estável tem sido o tratamento de escolha sempre que a condição do paciente permitir. Objetivo: relatar um caso de osteossíntese de fratura de mandíbula atrófica por acesso extraoral. Relato de caso: Paciente 64 anos, faioderma, sexo feminino, procurou o serviço de Cirurgia e Traumatologia Bucomaxilofacial da Universidade Federal da Bahia apresentando traumatismo facial por queda da própria altura, referindo severas queixas álgicas espontâneas em região mandibular. Ao exame físico notou-se edentulismo total em ambas as arcadas, edema, hematoma e degrau ósseo á palpação em região de corpo de mandíbula a direita, alémde mobilidade atípica a manipulação da mandíbula. Ao exame de imagem notou-se sinais de fratura em corpo mandibular direito e côndilo esquerdo. O tratamento instituído foiconservador para a fratura de côndilo e cirúrgico para a fratura de corpo, o acesso foi extraoral ea fixação rígida foi realizada com placa e parafusos dos dispositivos Load-Bearing. Considerações finais: A paciente não apresentou quaisquer déficits funcionais pós-procedimento cirúrgico, sendo o tratamento abertocom fixação interna estável bastante promissor por restabelecer a união de focos fraturados e deslocados, proporcionando estabilidade da fratura e conforto imediato para a paciente(AU)


Introduction: Due to its position on the face, the jaw is frequently affected by trauma, appearing in some statistics as the fractured bone with a higher incidence in the face. In fractures of atrophic jaws, conservative treatment, with intermaxillary fixation, is not usually a viable option due to the lack of teeth and small area of existing bone contact. Thus, open reduction and stable internal fixation have been the treatment of choice whenever the patient's condition permits. Objective: to report a case of osteosynthesis of atrophic mandible fracture through extraoral access. Case report: Patient 64-year-old, female, sought the service of Maxillofacial Surgery and Traumatology at the Federal University of Bahia presenting facial trauma due to falling from his own height, referring to severe spontaneous pain complaints in the mandibular region. On physical examination, total edentulism was noted in both arches, edema, hematoma and bone step on palpation in the right jaw body region, in addition to atypical mobility in the jaw manipulation. On imaging examination, signs of fracture were noted in the right mandibular body and left condyle. The treatment instituted was conservative for condyle fracture and surgical for body fracture, access was extraoral and rigid fixation was performed with plate and screws of the Load-Bearing devices. Final considerations: The patient did not presente any functional deficits after the surgical procedure, and the open treatment with stable internal fixation is very promising for restoring the union of fractured and displaced foci, providing fracture stability and immediate comfort for the patient(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Mandibular Fractures , Atrophy , Jaw, Edentulous , Mandible/surgery
19.
Rev. argent. cir. plást ; 27(2): 82-85, 20210000. fig, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1357889

ABSTRACT

El síndrome genitourinario de la menopausia se refiere a los signos y síntomas relacionados a la disminución estrogénica dando como resultado una atrofia vaginal, esto ocasiona un gran impacto negativo en las actividades cotidianas de las mujeres, existen varios tratamientos para aliviar y resolver los síntomas, siendo los más frecuentes la incontinencia urinaria por esfuerzo y resequedad vaginal. Dentro de los distintos tratamientos, el láser tiene como objetivo la restauración de la mucosa vaginal, estimulando los fibroblastos para obtener la neo colagenogenesis y vascularización, recuperando su funcionalidad y obteniendo mejoría de los síntomas junto con la calidad de vida de las pacientes


Genitourinary syndrome of menopause refers to a group of signs and symptoms related to the decreased estrogen and as a result, the vaginal atrophy, this has a great negative impact on the daily activities of women, there are several treatments to alleviate and resolve the symptoms, the most frequent being stress urinary incontinence and vaginal dryness. Among the different treatments, the laser aims to restore the aavaginal mucosa, stimulating fibroblasts to obtain neo-collagen oogenesis and revascularization, recovering their functionality and obtaining an improvement in symptoms along with the quality of life of patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Atrophy , Urogenital System , Menopause , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Hormone Replacement Therapy/methods , Estrogens , Lasers, Gas/therapeutic use , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
20.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(1): 78-82, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153102

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This report is of three cases of sicca syndrome, initially suspected to be Sjögren's syndrome, which was ruled out by clinical and laboratory investigations. The patients were a 24-year-old woman, a 32-year-old man, and a 77-year-old woman with chronic symptoms of sicca syndrome, including dry eye syndrome. The first case was associated with the use of isotretinoin, a retinoic acid. The second was associated with the use of anabolic androgenic steroids, and the third was related to a prolactin- secreting pituitary adenoma. All cases manifested sicca, including dry eye syndrome, after those events, and the manifestations persisted. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral atrophy of the lacrimal gland. The medical history, ocular examinations, laboratory exams, and magnetic resonance images confirmed dry eye syndrome; however, the exams were all negative for Sjögren's syndrome. The lacrimal gland was absent on magnetic resonance imaging in all three cases. The clinical history revealed that the signs and symptoms appeared after chronic exposure to retinoic acid, anabolic androgenic steroids, and a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma, respectively. Chronic isotretinoin, anabolic androgenic steroids, and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma or, in this last case, its inhibitory treatment, can cause lacrimal gland atrophy, sicca syndrome, and dry eye syndrome, and a differential diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome. Further studies on doses, time, and other susceptibilities to the long-lasting adverse effects of retinoic acid, anabolic androgenic steroids, and the repercussions of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma are necessary to confirm and expand upon these associations.


RESUMO O relato descreve três casos de síndrome de sicca, inicialmente suspeitos de serem a síndrome de Sjögren, que fo­ram negados pela investigação clínica e laboratorial. O primeiro associado ao uso de isotretinoína, um ácido retinóico, o segundo ao uso de esteroides androgênicos anabolizantes e o terceiro relacionado ao adenoma da hipófise secretora da prolactina, todos manifestaram sicca, incluindo a síndrome do olho seco após esses eventos e as manifestações persistem. A ressonância magnética revelou atrofia bilateral da glândula lacrimal. Eles eram uma mulher de 24 anos, um homem de 32 anos e uma mulher de 77 anos com sintomas crônicos da síndrome de sicca, incluindo a síndrome do olho seco. A história médica, o exame ocular, os exames laboratoriais e a ressonância magnética foram confirmados como síndrome do olho seco, no entanto, todos os exames foram negativos para a síndrome de Sjögren. A glândula lacrimal estava ausente na ressonância magnética nos três casos. A história clínica revelou que sinais e sintomas se manifestaram após exposição crônica ao ácido retinóico, esteróides anabolizantes androgênicos e adenoma secretivo da prolactina hipofisária, respectivamente. Isotretinoína crônica, esteroides anabólicos androgênicos e adenoma hipofisário secretor de prolactina ou, neste último caso, seu tratamento inibitório pode ser a causa da atrofia da glândula lacrimal, síndrome da sicca e síndrome do olho seco e diagnóstico diferencial da síndrome de Sjögren. Estudos adicionais sobre doses, duração e outras suscetibilidades aos efeitos adversos duradouros do ácido retinóico, esteroides androgênicos anabólicos e repercussões do adenoma da hipófise secretora da prolactina são necessários para confirmar e detalhar essas associações.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Dry Eye Syndromes , Sjogren's Syndrome , Lacrimal Apparatus , Prolactin , Atrophy , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Dry Eye Syndromes/chemically induced , Dry Eye Syndromes/pathology , Isotretinoin/adverse effects , Sjogren's Syndrome/diagnosis , Sjogren's Syndrome/chemically induced , Sjogren's Syndrome/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Androgens , Lacrimal Apparatus/pathology , Lacrimal Apparatus/diagnostic imaging
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