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1.
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1367185

ABSTRACT

Lisdexanfetamina e drogas disponíveis no SUS (metilfenidato, bupropiona, amitriptilina, clomipramina, nortriptilina). Indicação: Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH) em crianças e adolescentes. Pergunta: Lisdexanfetamina é eficaz e segura para melhoria de sintomática, comparada ao placebo e medicações disponíveis no SUS, no tratamento de crianças e adolescentes com TDAH? Métodos: Revisão rápida de evidências (overview) de revisões sistemáticas, com levantamento bibliográfico realizado na base de dados PUBMED, utilizando estratégia estruturada de busca. A qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada com AMSTAR-2 (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews). Resultados: Foram selecionadas 3 revisões sistemáticas, que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. Conclusão: Lisdexanfetamina e metilfenidato são mais eficazes que placebo, e similares entre si, para reduzir sintomas em escalas de avaliação. Lisdexanfetamina e metilfenidato têm risco similar ao placebo de abandono do tratamento devido a efeitos adversos. Bupropiona não é mais eficaz que placebo para alívio sintomático. Lisdexanfetamina tem efeitos adversos de redução do apetite e insônia/ dificuldades do sono. Não foram encontradas evidências na literatura sobre os efeitos terapêuticos de amitriptilina, clomipramina e nortriptilina no tratamento de crianças e adolescentes com TDAH


Lisdexamfetamine and drugs available in the Brazilian Public Health System (BPHS) (methylphenidate, bupropion, amitriptyline, clomipramine, nortriptyline, bupropion). Indication: Children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Question: Lisdexamfetamine is effective and safe for symptomatic improvement, compared to placebo and drugs available in the BPHS, for treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD? Methods: Rapid response review of evidence (overview) of systematic reviews, with bibliographic search in the PUBMED database, using a structured strategy. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed with AMSTAR-2 (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess systematic Reviews). Results: 3 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria and were selected. Conclusion: Lisdexamfetamine and methylphenidate are more effective than placebo, and similar to each other, to reduce symptoms on rating scales. Lisdexamfetamine and methylphenidate are not different from placebo in the risk of treatment discontinuation due to adverse effects. Bupropion is no more effective than placebo for symptomatic relief. Lisdexamfetamine has adverse effects of decreased appetite and insomnia/sleep troubles. No evidence was found in the literature about therapeutic effects of amitriptyline, clomipramine and nortriptyline for treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Bupropion , Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate/therapeutic use , Methylphenidate/therapeutic use , Placebos , Clomipramine , Evidence-Informed Policy , Amitriptyline , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Nortriptyline
2.
Psico USF ; 26(3): 545-557, Jul.-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1351337

ABSTRACT

ADHD constitutes a developmental risk. The general aim was to identify social skills, behavior problems, academic performance and family resources of children with ADHD, with the specific aim being to compare students regarding indicators of ADHD and the use or not of medication. Participants were 43 Elementary Education I students (M=9.6 years, SD=1.5), 43 parents (M=39.1 years, SD=7.6) and 38 teachers (M=43.1 years, SD=8.4). The instruments used were the Inventory of Social Skills, Behavior Problems and Academic Competence (SSRS-BR), Conners' Scale and the Inventory of Family Resources. The collection was carried out in public schools. The results showed that the students had scores higher than the reference sample in Behavior Problems and Social Skills and lower in classes of social skills and Academic Competence; the presence of family resources; and grades above 5.0 as a school mean. We concluded that there is a need for interventions with the studied population. (AU)


TDAH constitui risco no desenvolvimento. Teve-se como objetivo geral identificar habilidades sociais, problemas de comportamento, desempenho acadêmico e recursos familiares de crianças com TDAH e, como específico, comparar alunos quanto a indicadores de TDAH e uso ou não de medicação. Participaram 43 estudantes (M = 9,6 anos, DP = 1,5) do Ensino Fundamental I, 43 responsáveis (M = 39,1 anos, DP = 7,6) e 38 professoras (M = 43,1 anos, DP = 8,4). Os instrumentos utilizados foram Inventário de Habilidades Sociais, Problemas de Comportamento e Competência Acadêmica (SSRS-BR), Escala de Conners e Inventário de Recursos Familiares. A coleta foi realizada em escolas públicas. Os resultados apontaram alunos com escores superiores à amostra de referência em Problemas de Comportamento e Habilidades Sociais, e inferiores em classes de Habilidades Sociais e Competência Acadêmica; recursos familiares presentes e; notas acima de 5,0 como média escolar. Conclui-se a necessidade de intervenções com a população estudada. (AU)


TDAH constituye riesgo de desarrollo. El objetivo general era identificar habilidades sociales, problemas de comportamiento, rendimiento académico y recursos familiares de niños con TDAH; qué tan específico es comparar estudiantes con respecto a los indicadores de TDAH y el uso de medicamentos. Participaron 43 estudiantes (M = 9.6 años, SD = 1.5) de la escuela primaria, 43 padres (M = 39.1 años, SD = 7.6) y 38 maestros (M = 43.1 años, SD = 8.4). Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: Inventario de Habilidades Sociales, Problemas de Comportamiento y Competencia Académica (SSRS-BR), Escala de Conners e Inventario de Recursos Familiares. La colección se realizó en escuelas públicas. Los resultados mostraron estudiantes con puntajes más altos que la referencia en Problemas de comportamiento y habilidades sociales y más bajos en clases de habilidades sociales y competencia académica; recursos familiares presentes; calificaciones promedio de la escuela superiores a 5.0. Concluye la necesidad de intervenciones. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Family/psychology , Social Skills , Problem Behavior/psychology , Academic Performance/psychology , Students/psychology , Education, Primary and Secondary , School Teachers/psychology
3.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 26: e2383, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285380

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Comparar a habilidade atencional auditiva em crianças portadoras de transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade/impulsividade (TDAH) antes e após o uso da medicação psicoestimulante. Métodos Participaram do estudo oito crianças do gênero masculino, com TDAH, entre 8 e 10 anos de idade. Todas faziam uso de medicamentos psicoestimulantes. Para avaliar o comportamento auditivo, foi aplicado o questionário Scale of Auditory Behaviors (SAB) e para identificar possíveis sintomas de desatenção, o Swanson, Nolan e Pelham (SNAP-IV). A habilidade auditiva atencional foi avaliada pelo Teste de Habilidade de Atenção Auditiva Sustentada (THAAS) pré e pós-uso do medicamento psicoestimulante. Neste teste, foram analisados os erros de desatenção, de impulsividade e de decréscimo de vigilância. A análise dos dados foi feita com base nos testes Wilcoxon e Correlação de Spearman. Resultados O questionário SAB mostrou-se alterado na maior parte das crianças, as quais também apresentaram sinais de desatenção e/ou impulsividade no questionário SNAP-IV. No THASS, observou-se diferença nos quesitos desatenção (p=0,017) e pontuação total de erros pré e pós-medicação (p=0,025). Conclusão Houve melhora no desempenho do teste que avaliou a habilidade atencional auditiva após o uso da medicação psicoestimulante, com destaque para o item desatenção.


ABSTRACT Purpose To compare the auditory attention ability in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) before and after the use of psychostimulant medication. Methods Eight male children with ADHD participated in the study, between eight and ten years old. All participants used psychostimulant drugs. To assess auditory behavior, the Scale of Auditory Behaviors (SAB) and SNAP-IV questionnaires were applied to identify possible symptoms of inattention and/or impulsivity. To assess auditory attention ability, the Sustained Auditory Attention Ability Test (SAAAT) was applied before and after the use of the psychostimulant medication. In this test, the errors of inattention, impulsiveness and decreased vigilance were analyzed. For data analysis, the Wilcoxon and Spearman correlation tests were used. Results The SAB questionnaire showed changes in most children, who also showed signs of inattention and/or impulsivity in the SNAP-IV questionnaire. In the SAAAT, a difference was observed in the item inattention (p=0.017) and in total score of errors before and after medication (p=0.025). Conclusion There was an improvement in the test performance assessing the auditory attention ability after the use of psychostimulant medication, with emphasis on the item inattention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Auditory Perception , Surveys and Questionnaires , Hearing Tests , Methylphenidate/therapeutic use
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(supl.2): 72-75, mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125111

ABSTRACT

El trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) es un trastorno neurobiológico frecuente en la infancia. Sus síntomas cardinales involucran a la atención y/o la impulsividad y/o la hiperactividad. Hay diferentes subtipos de TDAH según la expresividad clínica de esos tres síntomas. Hay distintas estrategias terapéuticas de alta efectividad. El metilfenidato, un estimulante que actúa en las vías dopaminérgicas y adrenérgicas, se utiliza con frecuencia en su tratamiento. El Cuestionario de Cualidades y Dificultades (SDQ) es un cuestionario de despistaje breve utilizado para la detección de problemas de salud mental en niños y adolescentes. Consta de 25 preguntas que se distribuyen en 5 escalas: sintomatología emocional, problemas de conducta, hiperactividad/inatención, problemas con los compañeros y conducta prosocial. Se recogió la puntuación del SDQ en una muestra de pacientes con TDAH con una edad situada entre los 7 y 12 años. Se comparó la puntuación obtenida antes de comenzar el tratamiento con metilfenidato y después de comenzar tratamiento, cada 3-6 meses y hasta un periodo de 2 años. Se realizó el procesamiento estadístico mediante R, que es un programa gratuito para análisis estadísticos y gráficos, y permite análisis temporales. Los resultados indican que la hiperactividad mejora a lo largo del primer año de tratamiento, la sintomatología emocional y los problemas de comportamiento mejoran durante los primeros 6 meses de tratamiento, la sintomatología prosocial mejora lentamente a lo largo de los 2 años y los problemas con compañeros no mejoran en el tiempo analizado.


Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder frequent in childhood. The main symptoms are attention disorder and/or impulsivity and/or hyperactivity. There are different subtypes of ADHD according to the degree of presence of these three symptoms. There are different therapeutic approaches with high proved effectiveness. Methylphenidate, a stimulant that acts through the dopaminergic and adrenergic pathways, is commonly used for the treatment of ADHD. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief behavioural screening instrument internationally used for the screening of mental health problems in children and adolescents. It consists in a 25 items questionnaire with 5 different scales: emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity / inattention, peer relationship problems and prosocial behaviours. The SDQ score was collected in a sample of ADHD patients with an age between 7 and 12 years. The score obtained before starting treatment with methylphenidate was compared before and after starting treatment, every 3-6 months and up to a period of 2 years. Statistical processing was performed using R, which is a free program for statistical and graphical analysis, that allows temporary analysis. The results indicate that hyperactivity improves throughout the first year of treatment, emotional symptoms and behavioral problems improve during the first 6 months of treatment, pro-social symptoms slowly improve over 2 years. Problems with partners do not improve in the analyzed time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Methylphenidate/therapeutic use , Office Visits , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Time Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Disease Progression , Neuropsychological Tests
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(supl.2): 63-66, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125109

ABSTRACT

El cociente Theta-Beta (T/B) del electroencefalograma cuantificado (EEGQ) de los pacientes con trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) constituye una variable del EEG característica del trastorno primario con una precisión global del 89%. El objetivo de este estudio es medir el cociente T/B de una población de con TDAH y los efectos del tratamiento farmacológico con psicoestimulantes y no psicoestimulantes sobre el cociente T/B. La muestra estaba formada por 85 sujetos de entre 6 y los 18 años (68 niños y 17 niñas) con el diagnóstico de TDAH de subtipo inatento y combinado, según los criterios del DSM-V. Se les realizó un EEGQ con medición del cociente T/B antes y después de 6 meses de tratamiento con fármacos psicoestimulantes y no psicoestimulantes. Se compararon ambos grupos mediante la prueba de rangos con signo de Wilcoxon para muestras relacionadas. En el 86% de los casos el cociente T/B fue elevado respecto de los valores normales para la edad. La reducción en el cociente T/B fue significativa en el grupo tratado con psicoestimulantes aunque la reducción con los no psicoestimulantes no fue significativa. En conclusión, se confirma la elevación del cociente T/B en los pacientes con TDAH. Los fármacos psicoestimulantes disminuyen de forma significativa el cociente T/B elevado en los pacientes con TDAH tras 6 meses de tratamiento.


Theta-Beta (T / B) ratio of the quantified electroencephalogram (EEGQ) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) constitutes a characteristic EEG variable of the primary disorder with an overall accuracy of 89%. The objective of this study was to measure the T/B ratio in a sample of patients with ADHD and the effects of the treatment with psychostimulants and non-psychostimulants on the T/B ratio. The sample consisted of 85 children between 6 and 18 years (68 males and 17 females) with the diagnosis of the inattentive and combined subtype of ADHD, according to the criteria of the DSM-V. An EEGQ was performed with measurement of the T/B ratio before and after 6 months of treatment with psychostimulant and non-psychostimulant drugs. Both groups were compared using the Wilcoxon signed range test for related samples. The results showed that 86% of the cases had a T/B ratio above the normal values for the age of them. The reduction in the T/B ratio was statistically significant in the group of patients treated with psychostimulants. The reduction of non-psychostimulants was not significant. In conclusion, we confirmed the high T/B ratio in patients with ADHD. Psychostimulant drugs decrease the elevated T/B ratio in patients with ADHD after 6 months of treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Theta Rhythm/physiology , Beta Rhythm/physiology , Electroencephalography/methods , Central Nervous System Stimulants/therapeutic use , Reference Values , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): e61-e62, 2020-02-00.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1096074

ABSTRACT

Los fármacos estimulantes se usan, habitualmente, en la población pediátrica para tratar el trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad, y sus efectos secundarios están bien descritos. Sin embargo, la tricotilomanía no aparece como uno de ellos. En la literatura, hay algunos casos publicados de tricotilomanía en relación con la administración de metilfenidato y dextroanfetamina. Se presentan dos casos de tricotilomanía de nueva aparición en niños en seguimiento en nuestro Centro por déficit de atención e hiperactividad y en tratamiento con fármacos psicoestimulantes (metilfenidato y lisdexanfetamina), como probable efecto adverso de estos.


Stimulant drugs are commonly used in pediatric population in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and their side effects are well described, however trichotillomania does not appear as one of them. In the literature we found some published cases of trichotillomania in relation to methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine. We present two cases of new-onset trichotillomania in children followed up in our center by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and treated with psychostimulant drugs (methylphenidate and lisdexamfetamine), as a probable adverse effect of this treatment


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Trichotillomania/chemically induced , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Central Nervous System Stimulants/adverse effects
7.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(12): e00056420, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142631

ABSTRACT

A perturbação de hiperatividade e déficit de atenção (PHDA) é considerada um dos problemas de comportamento e neurodesenvolvimento mais frequentes nas crianças e adolescentes em idade escolar, tanto em Portugal como a nível mundial. Além disso, a categorização diagnóstica da PHDA e a prescrição de psicoestimulantes como tratamento de primeira linha têm sido não só objeto de pesquisa científica e validação clínica, mas também alvo de polêmica e crítica social, sobretudo à luz do conceito de medicalização. Apesar do seu aspecto midiático e relevância em domínios tão diversos quanto os da educação, do medicamento, da saúde mental e dos apoios psicossociais, existe uma lacuna profunda na caracterização das dimensões históricas, socioéticas e institucionais da PHDA em Portugal. Aliando dados historiográficos e etnográficos à análise documental e da mídia, este artigo procura responder a esse desafio, traçando a trajetória social da PHDA neste país - desde a emergência da "hiperatividade" nos anos 1970/1980 ao debate público e político sobre a prescrição de psicoestimulantes. Dessa perspectiva interdisciplinar e por meio do estudo do caso português, procura contextualizar-se a definição, validação e ampliação da PHDA como parte de um processo dinâmico e socialmente situado na interseção de sistemas diagnósticos e farmacêuticos globais, contingências institucionais e socioeconômicas e, ainda, políticas públicas e especificidades locais. Discute-se, por fim, a forma como o caso da PHDA em Portugal contribui para o desenvolvimento de novas linhas de reflexão e de pesquisa interdisciplinar que permitem repensar o escopo social da saúde mental e da saúde global.


Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most frequent behavioral and neurodevelopmental problems in school-age children and adolescents, both in Portugal and worldwide. The diagnostic categorization of ADHD and the prescription of psychostimulants as its first-line treatment have been the object not only of scientific research and clinical validation, but also of controversy and social critique, especially in light of the concept of medicalization. Despite its high profile and salience in such diverse fields as education, pharmaceuticals, mental health, and public policy, a significant gap remains in the characterization of social-historical, ethical, and institutional dimensions of ADHD outside English-speaking countries. Combining historical and ethnographic research with document and media analysis, the article addresses that challenge by tracing the social trajectory of ADHD in Portugal, from the emergence of "hyperactivity" in the 1970s and 1980s to the current public and political debates on psychostimulant treatments and prescribing trends. From this interdisciplinary perspective and based on the Portuguese case study, the aim of this article is to contextualize the definition, validation, and expansion of ADHD as part of a dynamic and socially situated process in which global diagnostic and pharmaceutical systems intersect with institutional and socioeconomic contingencies, as well as local specificities and needs. More broadly, the article discusses how the case study of ADHD contributes to the development of interdisciplinary research that helps rethinking the social scope of mental health across local and global health contexts.


El trastorno de hiperactividad y déficit de atención (THDA) está considerado uno de los problemas de comportamiento y neurodesarrollo más frecuentes en niños y adolescentes en edad escolar, tanto en Portugal, como a nivel mundial. Asimismo, la categorización diagnóstica del THDA y la prescripción de psicoestimulantes como tratamiento de primera línea ha sido no sólo objeto de investigación científica y validación clínica, sino también objeto de polémica y crítica social, sobre todo a la luz del concepto de medicalización. A pesar de su cariz mediático y relevancia en dominios tan diversos como son los de la educación, del medicamento, de la salud mental y de los apoyos psicosociales, existe una laguna profunda en la caracterización de las dimensiones históricas, socio-éticas e institucionales del THDA en Portugal. Aunando datos historiográficos y etnográficos y al análisis documental, y de los medios de comunicación, este artículo procura responder a este desafío, trazando la trayectoria social del THDA en este país - desde la emergencia de la "hiperactividad" en los años 1970/1980 al debate público y político sobre la prescripción de psicoestimulantes. Desde esta perspectiva interdisciplinar, y a través del estudio del caso portugués, se intenta contextualizar la definición, validación y ampliación del THDA como parte de un proceso dinámico y socialmente situado, que atraviesa sistemas diagnósticos y farmacéuticos globales, contingencias institucionales y socioeconómicas e, incluso, políticas públicas y especificidades locales. Se discute, finalmente, la forma en la que el caso del THDA en Portugal contribuye al desarrollo de nuevas líneas de reflexión y de investigación interdisciplinaria que permiten repensar el campo social de la salud mental y de la salud global.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Portugal , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Global Health , Brazil , Mental Health
8.
Arch. Health Sci. (Online) ; 26(1): 51-54, 28/08/2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046121

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Considerando o elevado consumo de metilfenidato, fármaco psicoestimulante empregado no tratamento do Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade, verifica-se a necessidade de monitoramento da sua utilização. Objetivo: Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a utilização de metilfenidato em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde de São José do Rio Preto/SP, Brasil. Casuística e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo exploratório. Foram analisadas as notificações de receita de metilfenidato de 99 pacientes no período de janeiro a setembro de 2017. A coleta dos dados demográficos, clínicos e farmacológicos, foi realizada através do sistema informatizado do Componente Básico da Assistência Farmacêutica da farmácia da unidade. Resultados: A idade dos usuários de metilenidato variou de cinco a 44 anos de idade. Houve predomínio do sexo masculino (78%). A maioria das notificações era do setor privado (59%). Identificou-se prescrição por seis diferentes especialidades médicas, sendo que a maior parte foi prescrita pela neurologia (58%), seguida pela neurologia pediátrica (23%). Quanto à dosagem do metilfenidato, a concentração diária mais frequente foi de 20 mg em 49% das notificações. A maior dosagem prescrita foi de 60 mg para um paciente adulto. A maior parte dos pacientes em uso de metilfenidato eram crianças entre cinco e 12 anos de idade (64%), e destes, 66% eram do sexo masculino. Conclusão: Verifica-se predomínio da prescrição do metilfenidato para crianças do sexo masculino. As dosagens variam entre 10 e 60 mg. A maior parte das prescrições foi emitida por neurologistas e psiquiatras de estabelecimentos privados, entretanto, identificou-se a prescrição por profissionais não especializados em saúde mental.


Introduction: The methylphenidate is a psychostimulant drug used for the treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity with high consumption, and its monitoring is necessary. Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the use of methylphenidate in a Basic Healthcare Unit in São José do Rio Preto/SP, Brazil. Patients and Methods: This is an exploratory and descriptive study. Methylphenidate prescriptions were analyzed related to 99 patients during the period from January to September 2017. The demographic, clinical and pharmacological data were collected using the computerized system of the drug product dispensing department of the healthcare unit. Results: Age ranged from five to 44 years of age. There was a predominance of males (78%). The majority of notifications were from the private sector (59%). It was identified the prescription from six different medical specialties, and the most of it was prescribed by neurology (58%), followed by pediatric neurology (23%). As for the dosage of methylphenidate, the most frequent daily concentration found in the prescriptions was 20 mg (49% of prescriptions). The highest dosage prescribed was 60 mg for an adult patient. The most part of patients using methylphenidate were children between five and 12 years of age (64%), which 66% were male. Conclusion: There is a predominance of prescription of methylphenidate for male children. The dosages vary between 10 and 60 mg. The majority of the prescriptions were issued by neurologists and psychiatrists of private establishments. Furthermore, it was identified the prescription by professionals who are not specialized in mental health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Health Centers , Drug Prescription of Special Control , Methylphenidate/therapeutic use
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1,supl.1): 68-71, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002608

ABSTRACT

El trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) es un trastorno del neurodesarrollo complejo y heterogéneo, de carácter crónico, de etiología multifactorial, principalmente debida a factores genéticos y ambientales. Realizamos un estudio analítico retrospectivo del tratamiento de niños diagnosticados de TDAH. Se estudió una muestra de 82 niños diagnosticados de TDAH (74.4% niños y 25.6% niñas). El 96.3% de los casos presentaba algún trastorno asociado. El tratamiento farmacológico fue el tratamiento de elección (90.2%). El 46.0% recibía metilfenidato de liberación inmediata, un 51.4% metilfenidato de liberación sostenida y la atomoxetina solo se recetó en un 2.7% de los casos. El 20.3% de la muestra abandonó en algún momento el tratamiento farmacológico. El tratamiento farmacológico fue la opción más utilizada en nuestra muestra, y el metilfenidato de liberación inmediata el fármaco de elección para inicio del tratamiento. Se utilizan poco las alternativas a los estimulantes. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el tipo de tratamiento y el subtipo de TDAH o el género, aunque sí en cuanto a la edad de inicio del tratamiento.


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder, of a chronic nature, of multifactorial etiology, mainly due to genetic and environmental factors. We conducted a retrospective analytical study of the t herapeutic management of children diagnosed with ADHD. A sample of 82 children diagnosed with ADHD (74.4% children and 25.6% girls) was studied. 96.3% of the cases presented some associated disorder. Pharmacological treatment was the treatment of choice (90.2%). 46.0% received immediate release methylphenidate, 51.4% sustained release methylphenidate and atomoxetine was only prescribed in 2.7% of patients. 20.3% of the sample abandoned pharmacological treatment at some point. Pharmacological treatment was the most frequent option in our sample, and methylphenidate immediate release the drug of choice for treatment initiation. The alternatives to stimulants are used in very low percentage of the patient. No significant differences were found between the type of treatment regarding the subtype of ADHD or gender, but we found significant difference in relation with the age of onset of treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Atomoxetine Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Central Nervous System Stimulants/therapeutic use , Methylphenidate/therapeutic use , Patient Dropouts/statistics & numerical data , Psychotherapy , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/classification , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution
10.
Saúde Soc ; 28(1): 40-54, jan.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-991669

ABSTRACT

Abstract The debates around the diagnosis and pharmacological treatment of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have traditionally been approached from the perspective of the "medicalization processes" of children's behaviour. However, this perspective tends to overlook the meanings of diagnosis and treatment of ADHD for children and their caregivers. The purpose of this article is to describe the discursive positions of children and their caregivers on the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven Chilean children and their caregivers. The material was analysed following the procedures of the discourse structure analysis. A discursive structure was identified that configures four emerging realities: the myth of origin of the child's behaviour and learning problems; the ambivalences in/of medicalization; the process of identity (dis)stabilization under diagnosis and treatment; and the subversion of medicalization. It is observed that the subjective experience of the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD is not homogeneous, since different discursive positions, family and institutional understandings that enter into conflict cross it. The experiences of ADHD are shaped by discursive structures that condition the meanings of this experience. The medicalization process is not univocal, but can take different forms and have consequences on children's experiences and social trajectories.


Resumen Los debates en torno al diagnóstico y tratamiento farmacológico del Trastorno de Déficit Atencional e Hiperactividad (TDAH) han sido tradicionalmente abordados desde la perspectiva de los "procesos de medicalización" del comportamiento infantil. Sin embargo, esta perspectiva tiende a pasar por alto los sentidos y significaciones del diagnóstico y tratamiento del TDAH para los niños y sus cuidadores. El objetivo de este artículo es describir las posiciones discursivas de niños y de sus cuidadores sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento farmacológico del TDAH. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad a siete niños chilenos y a sus cuidadores. El material fue analizado siguiendo los procedimientos del análisis estructural del discurso. Se identificó una estructura discursiva que configura cuatro realidades emergentes: el mito de origen de los problemas de comportamiento y de aprendizaje del niño; las ambivalencias en/de la medicalización; el proceso de (des)estabilización identitaria bajo el diagnóstico y tratamiento; y la subversión de la medicalización. Se observa que la experiencia subjetiva del diagnóstico y tratamiento del TDAH no es homogénea, dado que se encuentra atravesada por distintas posiciones discursivas, comprensiones familiares e institucionales que entran en conflicto. Las experiencias del diagnóstico y tratamiento del TDAH se encuentran modeladas por estructuras discursivas que condicionan las posibilidades de dar sentido a dicha experiencia. El proceso de medicalización no es unívoco, sino que puede asumir formas diferentes y tener consecuencias diversas sobre las experiencias y trayectorias sociales de niños y niñas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Chile , Medicalization , Language Arts
11.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 35(3): 99-106, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1052938

ABSTRACT

Los Accidentes de Tránsito (AT) son un problema mundial de salud pública. Existe evidencia de que los individuos que presentan Trastorno por Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH) tienen mayor riesgo de experimentar AT. Objetivos: determinar la presencia del TDAH y evaluar su relación sobre la incidencia de accidentes motociclísticos en pacientes lesionados por esta causa. Método: Estudio de casos transversal, con muestra pareada por sexo y edad con relación 2.1. La población estuvo conformada por pacientes de 18-63 años de cualquier género, ingresados en el área de emergencia u hospitalización debido a accidente en motocicleta y por causa diferente a AT. Fue un estudio de casos, transversal, analítico, basado en la historia clínica de los pacientes, a quienes se aplicó el test de TDAH según el DSM5 y se dividieron entre pacientes que asistían o no por accidentes de motocicleta. Tratamiento estadístico: se realizó estadística descriptiva y para las comparaciones se calculó el riesgo relativo (OR) con intervalos de confianza 95% y se aplicó chi cuadrado. Resultados: 47 fueron casos y 94 controles, se obtuvo una media de 33 ± 11,74 años. El 93,6% de la población fue masculina. Se evi- denció mayor proporción de manifestaciones aso- ciadas a TDAH en los casos respecto a los contro- les (OR=3,00, IC: 95%, p<0,05), siendo el TDAH inatento el más frecuente. Discusión: Los estudios mundiales demuestran una relación entre el TDAH y los accidentes de tránsito en motorizados, lo cual coincide con los hallazgos obtenidos en la presen- te investigación. Conclusión: Existe una asocia- ción positiva entre la presencia de TDAH y una mayor ocurrencia de accidentes de moto. Es importante el conocimiento y diagnóstico precoz de esta patología para contribuir en la prevención de AT en personas que presentan esta condición(AU)


Traffic accidents (TA) are a public health issue worldwide. Every year the mortality rate increases due to these events. It has been demonstrated that individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk of having TA than healthy individuals. Objectives: to determine the presence of ADHD and evaluate its effect on motorcycle accident's incidence in injured patients due to these acci- dents. Methods: Prospective, transverse, case-control study with sample matched by sex and age; we evaluated 141 patients between 18-63 years-old. The population included patients who were admitted to the emergency ward or hospitalization areas due to motorcycle accidents (cases), and those who were admitted due to a cause different from AT (controls). Results: there were 47 cases and 94 controls. The mean age was 33 ± 11,74 years and 93,6% were men. It was evident that the cases had more ADHD manifestations than the controls (OR=3,00, IC: 95%, p<0,05) being the inattentive ADHD subtype the most frequent findings. Conclusion: There's a positive relationship between having ADHD and a greater motorcycle accident frequency(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Motorcycles , Accidents, Traffic/mortality , Accidents, Traffic/psychology , Public Health , Internal Medicine
12.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 24: e42566, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1012805

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo revisar a produção científica brasileira sobre medicalização no âmbito da educação. Foi realizada uma busca sistemática na literatura brasileira com as palavras-chave patologização da vida, a medicalização da educação, da aprendizagem, do ensino e da infância. Ao todo, foram selecionados para análise 40 artigos publicados entre 2010 e 2016, indexados na Scientific Electronic Library Online - SciELO. As informações foram analisadas com base na análise de conteúdo temática, proposta por Bardin. Os resultados evidenciaram uma diversidade de compreensões sobre o conceito de medicalização. Alguns artigos relataram a ocorrência de práticas educativas produtoras de sofrimentos e individualização da queixa escolar, evidenciando um descompasso entre a produção de literatura e o cotidiano da escola. Destaca-se ainda um significativo aumento de diagnósticos de TDAH e de terapias medicamentosas no tratamento da queixa escolar, expandindo, consequentemente, a indústria farmacêutica ao conceber a criança como um potencial consumidor de medicamento. Por fim, indicam-se novos estudos que possam ampliar as fontes de pesquisa, incorporando-se também teses e dissertações. Recomenda-se ainda pesquisas com crianças, familiares e comunidade escolar que possam analisar o impacto da medicalização na subjetividade e no desempenho dos estudantes.


RESUMEN En este estudio se tuvo como objetivo revisar la producción científica brasileña sobre medicalización en el ámbito de la educación. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en la literatura brasileña con las palabras clave patologización de la vida, la medicalización de la educación, del aprendizaje, de la enseñanza y de la infancia. En total, se seleccionó para análisis 40 artículos publicados entre 2010 y 2016, indexados en la ScientificElectronic Library Online - SciELO. La información se analizó sobre la base del análisis de contenido temático propuesto por Bardin. Los resultados evidenciaron una diversidad de entendimientos sobre el concepto de medicalización. En algunos artículos se relataron la ocurrencia de prácticas educativas productoras de sufrimientos e individualización de la queja escolar, evidenciando un descompaso entre la producción de literatura y el cotidiano de la escuela. Se destaca un significativo aumento de diagnósticos de TDAH y de terapias medicamentosas en el tratamiento de la queja escolar, expandiendo, consecuentemente, la industria farmacéutica al concebir al niño como un potencial consumidor de medicamento. Por último, se indican nuevos estudios que puedan ampliar las fuentes de investigación, incorporándose también tesis y disertaciones. Se indican también investigaciones con niños, familiares y comunidad escolar que puedan analizar el impacto de la medicalización en la subjetividad y en el desempeño de los estudiantes.


ABSTRACT This study aimed to review the Brazilian scientific production on medicalization in the field of education. A systematic search was carried out in the Brazilian literature with the keywords pathologization of life, medicalization of education, learning, teaching and childhood. In all, 40 articles published between 2010 and 2016, indexed in the Scientific Electronic Library Online - SciELO, were selected for analysis. The information was analyzed based on the thematic content analysis proposed by Bardin. The results showed a diversity of understandings about the concept of medicalization. Some articles reported the occurrence of educational practices that produce suffering and the individualization of school complaints, evidencing a disagreement between the production of literature and the daily routine of schools. There has been also a significant increase in diagnoses of ADHD and drug therapies in the treatment of school complaints, thus expanding the pharmaceutical industry by conceiving children as potential consumers of medication. Finally, new studies are indicated to broaden the sources of research, incorporating also theses and dissertations. It is also recommended the realization of research with children, relatives, and the school community so as to analyze the impact of medicalization on the subjectivity and performance of students.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy , Medicalization/education , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Drug Industry/education , Inappropriate Prescribing
13.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 22(3): 220-224, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975592

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction There has been a sudden idiopathic hearing loss case presented after methylphenidate treatment in a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective This study was performed to reveal the probable ototoxic side effects of methylphenidate use in patients with ADHD. Methods Thirty pediatric patients with ADHD were included in the study. Pure tone audiometry, speech discrimination scores, waves I, III, V absolute latencies and waves IIII, I-V, III-V interpeak latencies at the 80 dB nHL intensity after click stimulus auditory brainstem response (ABR) results were compared before and 3 months after methylphenidate treatment. Results There were no statistically significant difference between pretreatment and posttreatment pure tone and speech audiometry findings and ABR results (p > 0.05 for all parameters). Conclusion Methylphenidate can be regarded as a safe drug regarding ototoxic side effects. Additional studies with a larger sample size and longer follow-up may be needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Hearing Loss/chemically induced , Methylphenidate/adverse effects , Audiometry, Evoked Response , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Audiometry, Speech , Hearing/drug effects
14.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(10): 3327-3336, Out. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-974669

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Trantorno de Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH) destaca-se por atingir cerca de 5% a 10% da população infanto-juvenil em diversos continentes, sendo a principal opção de tratamento o uso do metilfenidato (Ritalina). Neste contexto, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo compreender como os conteúdos veiculados nas redes sociais (comunidades virtuais) influenciam no modo pelo qual os familiares, membros destas comunidades, entendem o TDAH e o tratamento, bem como lidam com seus filhos com suspeita ou já diagnosticados com TDAH. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida na perspectiva da Antropologia Médica. A etnografia virtual foi elegida como metodologia de investigação para adentrar a uma comunidade virtual da rede social Facebook. Observou-se que a comunidade virtual investigada, constituída por mães de crianças e adolescentes diagnosticados com TDAH, discute principalmente o uso da medicação para tratamento do TDAH em seus filhos. As narrativas indicam que causa muita angústia em algumas mães darem a seus filhos um medicamento controlado. O sofrimento dos pais mediante as dificuldades de lidarem com seus filhos induz a ideia de que há necessidade de uma solução médica, pois vivemos em uma era em que os percalços da vida tornaram-se patologias.


Abstract Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is notable for affecting between 5% and 10% of the child and adolescent populations in several continents. The main treatment for this is methylphenidate (Ritalin). In this context, the objective of this research was to understand how the contents transmitted in social networks (virtual communities) influence the way family members of these communities understand ADHD and its treatment, as well as how they deal with their children who are suspected of having, or are already diagnosed with, ADHD. The research was developed from the standpoint of Medical Anthropology. Virtual ethnography was chosen as the research methodology to observe a virtual community from the social network Facebook. The virtual community investigated consisted mainly of mothers of children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, and it was observed that they mainly discuss the use of medication (Ritalin or Concerta) to treat ADHD in their children. The narratives show that it causes a lot of anxiety in some mothers to give their children controlled substances. We live in an age in which the vissicitudes of life have been pathologised. As a result, parental suffering, as caused by the difficulties of dealing with their children, leads to the idea that medical solutions are necessary for them to aleviate their children's conditions


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Social Networking , Central Nervous System Stimulants/therapeutic use , Methylphenidate/therapeutic use , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , User-Computer Interface , Family/psychology , Narration , Mothers/psychology
15.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 46(4): 222-228, oct.-dic. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-960142

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) es una perturbación con elevada prevalencia en población infantil de Bogotá. Entre las causas de este trastorno se encuentran factores genéticos y ambientales, pero pocos estudios han tratado de abordar el componente genético en población colombiana. Objetivos: Realizar un estudio de asociación genética entre diferentes polimorfismos y el TDAH en la población de Bogotá. Métodos: Múltiples polimorfismos de los genes DAT1, SERT, COMT y BDNF fueron genotipificados empleando las técnicas de PCR convencional y RFLP en 97 tríos de Bogotá. El test de desequilibrio de trasmisión (TDT) se empleó para determinar la asociación entre las diferentes variantes y el TDAH. Resultados: El análisis de TDT no identificó una transmisión preferencial de alelos de ninguna de las variantes estudiadas. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados indican que la etiología del TDAH es heterogénea e involucra diversos factores genéticos. Futuros estudios enfocados en otros polimorfismos candidatos en una muestra más grande ayudarán a comprender el TDAH en la población colombiana.


Abstract Background: Attention deficit and hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among children in Bogota City. Both genetic and environmental factors play a very important role in the etiology of ADHD. However, to date few studies have addressed the association of genetic variants and ADHD in the Colombian population. Objectives: To test the genetic association between polymorphisms in the DAT1, HTTLPR, COMT and BDNF genes and ADHD in a sample from Bogota City. Methods: We genotyped the most common polymorphisms in DAT1, SERT, COMT and BDNF genes associated with ADHD using conventional PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in 97 trios recruited in a medical center in Bogota. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was used to determine the association between such genetic variants and ADHD. Results: The TDT analysis showed that no individual allele of any variant studied has a preferential transmission. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the etiology of the ADHD maybe complex and involves several genetic factors. Further studies in other candidate polymorphisms in a larger sample size will improve our knowledge of the ADHD in Colombian population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Genetics , Play and Playthings , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Colombia , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Knowledge , Genes
16.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 27(3): 641-660, Jul.-Set. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-895616

ABSTRACT

Resumen El trabajo tiene como objetivo ofrecer un análisis sistemático de algunos resultados de investigaciones realizadas en Argentina y Brasil relacionadas con el uso del metilfenidato, su prescripción y la regulación de la venta. También examinamos las discusiones entre investigadores y profesionales que asisten a personas diagnosticadas con TDAH en ambos países. El artículo integra dos campos de investigación. En Argentina se analizaron artículos de prensa, datos numéricos de organizaciones oficiales y profesionales y entrevistas semiestructuradas de profesionales de salud individuales y grupales realizadas entre 2007 y 2011. En Brasil se analizaron las revistas científicas, la observación participante y los profesores de las escuelas y los profesionales de la salud. Las conclusiones incluyen que los movimientos sociales en ambos países se han organizado y articulado, en un intento de promover el debate sobre la medicalización de la infancia y su despliegue en la sociedad.


Abstract The paper aims to offer a systematic analysis of some results from investigations conducted in Argentina and Brazil relating on the use of methylphenidate, its prescription and sale's regulation. We also examined the discussions among researchers and professionals assisting individuals diagnosed with ADHD in both countries. The article integrates two research fields. In Argentina, newspaper articles, official and professional organizations' numeric data, and individual and group health professionals semi structured interviews conducted between 2007 and 2011 were analyzed. In Brazil scientific journals, participant observation and school teachers and health professionals were analyzed. Conclusions include that social movements in both countries have been organized and articulated, in an attempt to promote discussion on the medicalization of childhood and its deployment in society.


Resumo O artigo pretende oferecer uma análise sistemática de alguns resultados das investigações realizadas na Argentina e no Brasil sobre o uso de metilfenidato, sua prescrição e regulamento de venda. Também examinamos as discussões entre pesquisadores e profissionais que atendem indivíduos com diagnóstico de TDAH em ambos os países. O artigo integra dois campos de pesquisa. Na Argentina, foram analisados artigos de jornal, dados numéricos das organizações oficiais e profissionais e entrevistas semiestruturadas individuais e grupais de profissionais de saúde realizadas entre 2007 e 2011. No Brasil, foram analisadas as revistas científicas, a observação participante e professores e profissionais de saúde. Conclui-se que os movimentos sociais nos dois países foram organizados e articulados, na tentativa de promover a discussão sobre a medicalização da infância e sua implantação na sociedade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Argentina , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Brazil , Medicalization , Methylphenidate/therapeutic use
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(4): 204-208, Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838898

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To compare children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), before and after the use of methylphenidate, and a control group, using tests of working memory, inhibition capacity and mental flexibility. Methods Neuropsychological tests were administrated to 53 boys, 9–12 years old: the WISC-III digit span backward, and arithmetic; Stroop Color; and Trail Making Tests. The case group included 23 boys with ADHD, who were combined type, treatment-naive, and with normal intelligence without comorbidities. The control group (n = 30) were age and gender matched. After three months on methylphenidate, the ADHD children were retested. The control group was also retested after three months. Results Before treatment, ADHD children had lower scores than the control group on the tests (p ≤ 0.001) and after methylphenidate had fewer test errors than before (p ≤ 0.001) Conclusion Methylphenidate treatment improves the working memory, inhibitory control and mental flexibility of ADHD boys.


RESUMO Objetivo Comparar crianças com transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDAH) com controles, utilizando testes de memória de trabalho, capacidade inibitória e flexibilidade mental, em meninos de 9 a 12 anos. Métodos Testes neuropsicológicos administrados: teste de ordem inversa dos dígitos, teste aritmético (WISC-III), Teste Stroop e Teste de Trilhas. Grupo experimental meninos (n=23), com TDAH combinado, virgens de tratamento, inteligência normal sem comorbidades. Grupo controle (n = 30) com as mesmas características do grupo experimental em termos de idade e sexo. Após três meses com metilfenidato, os grupos TDAH e controle foram novamente testadas. Resultados Antes do tratamento, as crianças com TDAH apresentaram menor pontuação do que o grupo controle nos testes analisados (p≤ 0.001) e o grupo com TDAH apresentou menos erros nos testes após metilfenidato (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusão O tratamento com metilfenidato melhora a memória de trabalho, controle inibitório e flexibilidade mental de meninos com TDAH.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Central Nervous System Stimulants/administration & dosage , Memory/drug effects , Methylphenidate/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , Treatment Outcome , Central Nervous System Stimulants/pharmacology , Methylphenidate/pharmacology , Neuropsychological Tests
19.
Psicol. soc. (Online) ; 29: e163163, 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-955848

ABSTRACT

Resumo O metilfenidato, principal substância utilizada no tratamento farmacológico do Transtorno do Défict de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH), é atualmente o psicoestimulante mais consumido no mundo e assunto constante na mídia e nas produções científicas em Psicologia e Psiquiatria. Neste artigo, discutimos alguns elementos do discurso científico sobre esse medicamento, nos servindo de elementos históricos, ricos em controvérsias, para propor sua emergência como problema, conforme indica Foucault. Assim, analisamos a diversidade de sentidos e práticas que envolvem o tema, desde a síntese das primeiras anfetaminas em laboratório, no início do século XX, até o momento atual, em que o metilfenidato é reconhecido como principal via de tratamento do TDAH, alcançando altíssimas taxas de consumo ao redor do planeta. Por fim, são apontadas algumas questões pertinentes ao contexto brasileiro, principalmente no que se refere às políticas públicas de saúde.


Resumen El metilfenidato, la principal sustancia usada en el tratamiento farmacológico del Trastorno de Déficit de Atención e Hiperactividad (TDAH), es actualmente el psicoestimulante más consumido en el mundo y tema constante en los medios de comunicación y en la producción científica de psicología y psiquiatría. En este artículo, se discuten algunos elementos del discurso científico sobre este producto, utilizándose elementos históricos, ricos en controversia, para proponer su emergencia como un problema, como indicado por Foucault. De este modo, se analiza la diversidad de significados y prácticas que implican el tema, desde la síntesis de las primeras anfetaminas en laboratorio, a principios del siglo XX, hasta el momento presente, donde el metilfenidato es reconocido como el principal medio de tratamiento del TDAH, alcanzando tasas de consumo extremadamente altas en todo el mundo. Por último, señalamos algunas cuestiones relacionadas con el contexto brasileño, especialmente con respecto a las políticas de salud pública.


Abstract Methylphenidate, the main substance used in the pharmacological treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), is currently the most consumed psychostimulant in the world and a constant matter in media and scientific production in psychology and psychiatry studies. In this article, we discuss some scientific discourse elements about this medicine by using historical elements that are rich in controversies, in order to propose their emergence as a problem, as Foucault indicates. Thus, we have analysed the diversity of meanings and practices involving this issue, from the production of the first amphetamines in laboratory in the early twentieth century to the present days, in which methylphenidate is recognized as the first choice of treatment for ADHD, reaching extremely high consumption rates around the planet. Finally, some relevant questions about the Brazilian context are pointed out, especially concerning public health policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , History, 20th Century , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Medicalization , Methylphenidate/pharmacology , Central Nervous System Stimulants/pharmacology
20.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 38(1): 30-38, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776499

ABSTRACT

Objective: To perform a cost-utility analysis on the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with methylphenidate immediate-release (MPH-IR) in children and adolescents from Brazil. Method: A Markov model was constructed to compare MPH-IR vs. no treatment. A 24-week naturalistic study was conducted to collect transition probabilities and utility data. Effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life-years (QALY), and costs reported in 2014 international dollars (I$). The perspective was the Brazilian Unified Health System as payer, and the time horizon was 6 years. Results: Of 171 patients, 73 provided information at baseline, and 56 at week 24. Considering the MPH-IR monthly cost of I$ 38, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of treatment was I$ 9,103/QALY for children and I$ 11,883/QALY for adolescents. In two-way sensitivity analysis, considering one Gross National Product per capita (I$ 11,530) as willingness-to-pay, a cost of no-treatment lower than I$ 45/month would render MPH-IR a cost-saving strategy. Discussion: MPH-IR treatment of children and adolescents is cost-effective for ADHD patients from the Brazilian public health system perspective. Both patients and the healthcare system might benefit from such a strategy. Trial registration number: NCT01705613.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Central Nervous System Stimulants/therapeutic use , Methylphenidate/therapeutic use , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/economics , Brazil , Follow-Up Studies , Markov Chains , Sensitivity and Specificity , Drug Costs/statistics & numerical data , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Delayed-Action Preparations/administration & dosage , Delayed-Action Preparations/economics , Central Nervous System Stimulants/economics , Methylphenidate/economics
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