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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e43213, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1120165

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: delinear o perfil das notificações de incidentes em saúde em um hospital universitário do Rio de Janeiro. Método: estudo retrospectivo e descritivo com abordagem quantitativa, realizado em um hospital universitário do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram coletados das fichas de notificação de incidentes em saúde referente ao período de outubro de 2015 a maio de 2018.Resultados: no total, foram analisadas 534 notificações de incidentes em saúde. Os enfermeiros foram os principais notificadores, com um predomínio expressivo das queixas técnicas, destacando a prevalência da tecnovigilância. Os incidentes com dano ocorreram com maior concentração nos setores de internação. Conclusão: a partir do perfil das notificações foi possível evidenciar fragilidades no sistema que sugerem a existência da subnotificação na instituição, sendo um entrave para o entendimento das ocorrências.


Objective: to profile health incident notifications at a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Method: in this quantitative, retrospective, descriptive study at a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, data were collected from health incident notification sheets for October 2015 to May 2018. Results: 534 health incident notifications were examined. Nurses were the main notifiers, and there was a significant prevalence of technical complaints, predominantly technovigilance-related. Incidents involving damage were concentrated more in inpatient sectors. Conclusion: the profile of notifications made it possible to highlight weaknesses in the system that suggest the existence of underreporting in the institution, which is an obstacle to understanding the occurrences.


Objetivo: perfilar las notificaciones de incidentes de salud en un hospital universitario de Río de Janeiro. Método: en este estudio cuantitativo, retrospectivo y descriptivo en un hospital universitario de Río de Janeiro, se recolectaron datos de las hojas de notificación de incidentes de salud de octubre de 2015 a mayo de 2018. Resultados: se examinaron 534 notificaciones de incidentes de salud. Las enfermeras fueron los principales notificadores y hubo una prevalencia significativa de quejas técnicas, predominantemente relacionadas con la tecnovigilancia. Los incidentes con daños se concentraron más en los sectores de hospitalización. Conclusión: el perfil de notificaciones permitió resaltar debilidades en el sistema que sugieren la existencia de subregistro en la institución, lo cual es un obstáculo para el entendimiento de las ocurrencias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Notification , Patient Safety , Patient Harm , Hospitals, University , Quality of Health Care , Underregistration , Brazil , Attitude of Health Personnel , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Nurses
2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e47321, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1116094

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a produção científica nacional e internacional, buscando as interfaces existentes entre os princípios bioéticos e os cuidados em saúde prestados ao fim da vida às pessoas idosas. Método: revisão integrativa, cuja busca ocorreu entre outubro e novembro de 2019 nas bases de dados Medline via Pubmed, Lilacs e Scopus com os descritores: "Palliative Care", "Aged" e "Bioethics" de 2014-2019. Resultados: a partir dos artigos selecionados, emergiram as seguintes categorias: condutas terapêuticas frente aos cuidados ao fim da vida; tomada de decisão nos cuidados ao fim da vida; e desafios nos cuidados ao fim da vida. Conclusão: destaca-se a relevância dos profissionais manterem o compromisso com a pessoa idosa e sua família de forma a considerar suas subjetividades e preferências e os instrumentalizar para que os cuidados sejam pautados em princípios bioéticos, para assim proporcionar um processo de morte e de morrer com dignidade.


Objective: to examine the Brazilian and international scientific production for connections between bioethical principles and the health care provided to older adults at the end of their lives. Method: between October and November 2019 this integrative review searched the Medline (Pubmed), Lilacs, and Scopus databases using the descriptors: "Palliative Care", "Aged", and "Bioethics" for the period 2014-2019. Results: the following categories emerged from the selected articles: therapeutic conducted with regard to end-of-life care; decision making on end-of-life care; and challenges in end-of-life care. Conclusion: of particular importance is for health professionals to uphold their commitment to older adults and their families, consider their subjectivities and preferences, and empower and equip them so that care is guided by bioethical principles in order to assure a dignified process of dying and death.


Objetivo: examinar la producción científica brasileña e internacional en busca de conexiones entre los principios bioéticos y la atención médica brindada a los adultos mayores al final de sus vidas. Método: entre octubre y noviembre de 2019, esta revisión integradora buscó en las bases de datos Medline (Pubmed), Lilacs y Scopus utilizando los descriptores: "Cuidados paliativos", "Envejecido" y "Bioética" para el período 2014-2019. Resultados: las siguientes categorías surgieron de los artículos seleccionados: terapéutico realizado con respecto a la atención al final de la vida; toma de decisiones sobre la atención al final de la vida; y desafíos en la atención al final de la vida. Conclusión: es de particular importancia que los profesionales de la salud mantengan su compromiso con los adultos mayores y sus familias, consideren sus subjetividades y preferencias, y los empoderen y equipen para que la atención se guíe por principios bioéticos para asegurar un proceso digno de muerte y muerte.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attitude of Health Personnel , Hospice Care/ethics , Bioethical Issues , Personhood , Death , Professional-Family Relations/ethics , Professional-Patient Relations/ethics , Attitude to Death , Value of Life
3.
Rev. SOBECC ; 25(3): 159-170, 30-09-2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122703

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Discutir a implementação dos protocolos para o cuidado ao paciente na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica, considerando a disposição afetiva da equipe de enfermagem no seu cotidiano, em um hospital da região oeste de Santa Catarina. Método: Pesquisa qualitativa, com base na etnografia e na observação participante. Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram nove profissionais da enfermagem. Os dados foram coletados no primeiro semestre de 2019, considerando-se a análise de conteúdo de Bardin, de onde emergiram três categorias. Resultados: Os profissionais de enfermagem compreendem a importância da disposição afetiva no cuidado aos pacientes na recuperação, elencando a alta demanda de atividades e cirurgias e o número de funcionários insuficiente como dificuldades para um cuidado afetivo, efetivo e empático em seu cotidiano. Há baixa adesão aos protocolos assistenciais disponibilizados no setor, apesar do reconhecimento de sua importância no cuidado direcionado aos pacientes. Conclusão: Como fatores determinantes apresentaram-se a alta demanda diária do setor, o quantitativo de funcionários inadequado e o atendimento a pacientes críticos por longos períodos na recuperação anestésica


Objective: The aim of this study was to discuss the implementation of protocols for patient care in the postanesthesia care unit, considering the provision of compassionate care by the nursing team in their daily routine, in a hospital in the western region of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Method: Qualitative study based on ethnography and participant observation. The research subjects were nine nursing professionals. Data were collected in the first half of 2019, considering Bardin's content analysis, from which three categories emerged. Results: Nursing professionals understand the importance of providing compassion in patient care during recovery, listing the high demand for activities and surgeries and the insufficient staff as difficulties for providing compassionate and effective care in their daily routine. There is low adherence to the assistance protocols available in this unit, despite the recognition of their importance in patient care. Conclusion: Limiting factors for compassionate care of patients in postanesthesia recovery were the high daily demand in this unit, inadequate staff and care of critical patients for long periods.


Objetivo: Discutir la implementación de protocolos para el cuidado del paciente en la sala de recuperación postanestésica, considerando la disposición afectiva del equipo de enfermería en su vida diaria, en un hospital en el oeste de Santa Catarina. Método: Investigación cualitativa, basada en etnografía y observación participante. Los sujetos de investigación fueron nueve profesionales de enfermería. Los datos se recopilaron en la primera mitad de 2019, considerando el análisis de contenido de Bardin, del cual surgieron tres categorías. Resultados: Los profesionales de enfermería entienden la importancia de la disposición afectiva en la atención al paciente en recuperación, enumerando la alta demanda de actividades y cirugías y el número insuficiente de empleados, como dificultades para la atención afectiva, efectiva y empática en su vida diaria; baja adherencia al uso de protocolos de atención disponibles en el sector, a pesar del reconocimiento de su importancia en la atención dirigida a los pacientes. Conclusión: Como factores determinantes fueron la alta demanda diaria en el sector, el número inadecuado de empleados y la atención de pacientes críticos durante largos períodos en la recuperación anestésica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Recovery Room , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Attitude of Health Personnel , Affect , Nurse Practitioners/psychology , Nursing Care/standards
5.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(4): 351-357, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138631

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La atención en salud a personas de la diversidad sexual (LGBT+), se ve afectada negativamente por la heternormatividad que ha regido históricamente nuestra sociedad. Se destaca la marginalización de este grupo de la población en el sistema de salud, debido a distintas discriminaciones y vulneraciones de derechos, que se convierten en barreras de salud. El objetivo de esta investigación es conocer la experiencia en atención en salud que reciben personas adultas LGBT+ del Gran Concepción. Para esto, se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas, enmarcadas en una investigación de tipo cualitativa, por medio del uso de Teoría Fundamentada. Cuatro categorías principales emergieron desde la codificación de las 6 entrevistas realizadas, correspondientes a "Heteronormatividad", "Desinformación de profesionales de la salud", "Desinformación sobre deberes y derechos de los y las pacientes" y "Reconocimiento de la diversidad". Se concluye que la formación de profesionales de la salud es de gran relevancia, en conjunto a la participación social de la comunidad LGBT+. Ambos aspectos actúan como estrategias para superar las desigualdades y la marginalización de la población LGBT+ en salud.


ABSTRACT Health care for people who identify themselves as part of the LGBT+ community is negatively affected by heteronormativity, which has historically ruled our society. The marginalization of this group of society in our health care system stands out. Its causes are different discriminations and violations of LGBT+ people's rights, which become health barriers. The objective of this research was to know the health care experience of LGBT+ adults from Concepción. Semi-structured interviews were carried out, in the context of a qualitative research, through the use of Grounded Theory. Four main categories emerged from the coding of the 6 interviews, corresponding to "Heteronormativity", "Disinformation from health care professionals", "Disinformation about patients' rights and duties" and "Diversity acknowledgement". It is concluded that health care professionals' training is of the upmost importance, as much as social participation of the LGBT+ community. Both together act as strategies to overcome LGBT+ population inequalities and marginalization, in the context of health care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Delivery of Health Care , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Prejudice , Chile , Interviews as Topic , Communication , Patient Rights , Qualitative Research , Social Discrimination , Gender Diversity , Health Services Accessibility
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(7): 930-938, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139394

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: From a patient's point of view, an 'ideal' doctor could be defined as one having personal qualities for interpersonal relationships, technical skills and good intentions. However, doctors' opinions about what it means to be a 'good' patient have not been systematically investigated. Aim: To explore how patients define the characteristics of a 'good' and a 'bad' doctor, and how doctors define a 'good' and a 'bad' patient. Material and Methods: We surveyed a cohort of 107 consecutive patients attending a community teaching hospital in February 2019, who were asked to define the desirable characteristics of a good/bad doctor. Additionally, a cohort of 115 physicians working at the same hospital was asked to define the desirable characteristics of a good/bad patient. Responses were subjected to content analysis. Simultaneously, an algorithm in Python was used to automatically categorize responses throughout text-mining. Results: The predominant patients' perspective alluded to desirable personal qualities more importantly than proficiency in knowledge and technical skills. Doctors would be satisfied if patients manifested positive personality characteristics, were prone to avoid decisional and personal conflicts, had a high adherence to treatment, and trusted the doctor. The text-mining algorithm was accurate to classify individuals' opinions. Conclusions: Ideally, fusing the skills of the scientist to the reflective capabilities of the medical humanist will fulfill the archetype of what patients consider to be a 'good' doctor. Doctors' preferences reveal a "paternalistic" style, and his/her opinions should be managed carefully to avoid stigmatizing certain patients' behaviors.


Antecedentes: Desde la perspectiva del paciente, un médico "ideal" podría definirse como aquel que tiene cualidades para las relaciones interpersonales, habilidades técnicas y buenas intenciones. Sin embargo, las opiniones de los médicos sobre lo que significa ser un "buen" paciente no se han investigado sistemáticamente. Objetivo: Explorar cómo los pacientes definen las características de un "buen" y "mal" médico, y cómo los médicos definen un "buen" y "mal" paciente. Material y Métodos: Encuestamos a una cohorte de 107 pacientes consecutivos que asistieron a un hospital comunitario en febrero de 2019, a quienes se les pidió que definieran las características deseables de un médico bueno/malo. Además, se pidió a una cohorte de 115 médicos que trabajaban en el mismo hospital que definieran las características deseables de un paciente bueno/malo. Las respuestas se sometieron a un análisis de contenido. Simultáneamente, se utilizó un algoritmo en Python para clasificar automáticamente las respuestas mediante minería de texto. Resultados: Los pacientes aludieron que las cualidades personales del médico eran más importantes que la competencia en conocimiento y las habilidades técnicas. Los médicos estarían satisfechos si los pacientes mostraran características positivas de personalidad, fueran propensos a evitar conflictos, tuvieran una alta adherencia al tratamiento y confiaran en el médico. El algoritmo de minería de texto clasificó las opiniones de los encuestados en forma precisa. Conclusiones: Idealmente, fusionar las habilidades del científico con las capacidades reflexivas del médico humanista cumplirá con el arquetipo de lo que los pacientes consideran un "buen" médico. Las preferencias de los médicos revelan un estilo "paternalista", y sus opiniones deben manejarse con cuidado para evitar estigmatizar los comportamientos de ciertos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patients/psychology , Physician-Patient Relations , Physicians/psychology , Attitude of Health Personnel , Attitude to Health , Chile , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cohort Studies , Hospitals, Community , Hospitals, Teaching
7.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(2): e1414, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126863

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La satisfacción laboral en el contexto de la salud es importante porque su ausencia se asocia a trastornos mentales o psicosociales e influye de forma negativa en los servicios prestados, en el bienestar del paciente y disminuyen el rendimiento del sistema de salud. Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre el índice de ruralidad del distrito donde se ubica el establecimiento de salud y la satisfacción laboral en médicos y enfermeros que laboran en estos establecimientos en Perú. Métodos: Se realizó un análisis secundario de la Encuesta Nacional de Satisfacción de Usuarios en Salud, 2016. Esta encuesta se realizó a 5098 profesionales de la salud, el 43,5 por ciento eran médicos La ruralidad fue medida como la densidad poblacional (habitantes/km2) del distrito donde se ubica el establecimiento de salud. Para evaluar la asociación de interés, se utilizó un modelo lineal generalizado de la familia de Poisson para estimar razones de prevalencia crudas y ajustadas. Resultados: El porcentaje de médicos y enfermeros con satisfacción laboral fue de 75,1 por ciento y 76,7 por ciento, respectivamente. Entre los médicos no se encontró asociación entre el índice de ruralidad y satisfacción laboral en el modelo crudo (1,01 IC 95 por ciento: 0,96 a 1,05) ni ajustado (1,01 IC 95 por ciento: 0,97 a 1,05). En enfermeros tampoco se encontró asociación en el modelo crudo (98 IC 95 por ciento: 0,95 a 1,00) ni ajustado (0,97 IC 95 por ciento: 0,93 a 1,00). Se encontró asociación entre la satisfacción con ciertas características laborales y el índice de ruralidad. Conclusiones: Se evidencia que no existe asociación entre la satisfacción laboral del personal de salud y el índice de ruralidad del distrito donde se ubica el establecimiento de salud(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Work satisfaction in the health context is important because its absence is associated with mental or psychosocial disorders and adversely affects the services provided, the well-being of the patient and also decrease the performance of the health system. Objective: To assess the association between the rurality index of the district where it is located the health institution and the work satisfaction in doctors and nurses working in these institutions in Peru. Methods: It was made a secondary analysis of the National Survey of Health Users Satisfaction, 2016. This survey was conducted to 5098 health professionals, 43.5 percent of them were physicians. Rurality was measured as population density (inhabitants/km2) of the district where the health facility is. To evaluate the association of interest, it was used a Poisson´s generalized linear model of the family to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios. Results: The percentage of doctors and nurses with work satisfaction was 75.1 percent and 76.7 percent, respectively. Among the physicians no association was found between the rurality index and job satisfaction in the crude model (1.01 CI 95 percent: 0.96 1.05 to 1.05) nor the adjusted one (1,01 IC 95 percent: 0.97 to 1.05). In nurses association was not found in the crude model (98 CI 95 percent: 0.95 to 1.00) nor in the adjusted one (0.97 IC 95 percent: 0.93 to 1.00). An association was found between satisfaction with certain characteristics and the rurality index. Conclusions: There is evidence that there is no association between work satisfaction of health personnel and the rurality index of the district where the health facility is(AU)


Subject(s)
Working Conditions , Attitude of Health Personnel , Job Satisfaction , Peru
8.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(2): 160-166, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090669

ABSTRACT

El maltrato, abuso y la negligencia a los niños constituyen un fenómeno social que desafortunadamente está extendido por todo el mundo sin barreras étnicas, geográficas ni de contexto social. En Chile, hasta el año 2012 el 71 % de los niños sufría algún tipo de maltrato al interior de su familia. Las lesiones cráneo-faciales y de cuello ocurren en más de la mitad de los casos. El Odontólogo tiene la obligación legal, moral y ética como ciudadano y profesional de la salud de notificar a las autoridades competentes los casos sospechosos de maltrato. Objetivo: Evaluar cuál es el conocimiento del cirujano dentista sobre maltrato infantil y cuál ha sido su actitud frente a la detección y reporte del maltrato infantil. Búsqueda bibliográfica en PUBMED utilizando palabras clave: "child abuse" and "dentistry". Se encontraron 132 artículos, de los cuales fueron 15 atingentes con texto completo. Estudios realizados en varios países informaron de las dificultades de los odontólogos en el diagnóstico, la documentación y la denuncia de casos con sospecha de abuso a las autoridades, además de la necesidad de mayor formación en el tema. Dada la importancia del tema, el papel del odontólogo al trabajar directamente con niños y adolescentes, y el aumento en el reporte de casos sospechosos de violencia, se sugiere fuertemente realizar una vigilancia respecto a conocimiento y actitudes entre los odontólogos en Chile.


Abuse and neglect of children constitutes a social phenomenon that unfortunately is spread throughout the world without ethnic, geographical or social context barriers. In Chile, until 2012, 71 % of children suffered some type of abuse within their family. Skull-facial and neck injuries occur in more than half of the cases. The Dentist has a legal, moral and ethical obligation as a citizen and health professional to notify the authorities of suspected cases of abuse. The objective of the study was to evaluate the extent of the dental surgeons´ knowledge regarding child abuse and their attitude towards the detection and reporting of child abuse. Bibliographic search in PUBMED using keywords: "child abuse" and "dentistry". In the study, 132 articles were found, of which 15 were full text. Studies in several countries reported the difficulties of dentists in the diagnosis, documentation and reporting of cases of suspected abuse to the authorities, in addition to the need for further training in the subject. Given the importance of this issue, the role of the dentist working directly with children and adolescents, and the increase in the reporting of suspected cases of violence, it is strongly suggested to monitor the knowledge and attitudes among dentists in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Child Abuse/diagnosis , Child Abuse/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Dentists , Attitude of Health Personnel , Mandatory Reporting , Dentistry
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(4): 1433-1444, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089505

ABSTRACT

Resumo O parto domiciliar planejado (PDP) tem crescido cada vez mais no Brasil, especialmente nos grandes centros urbanos, frente à crescente insatisfação das mulheres com o sistema obstétrico hospitalar vigente. Estudos internacionais demonstram a segurança do PDP, porém a produção nacional ainda é limitada nesta área. Desta maneira, este estudo objetivou revisar a produção bibliográfica nacional acerca de parto domiciliar entre os anos de 2008 e 2018, a fim de compilar dados relacionados ao PDP no Brasil. Após levantamento, 18 estudos foram incluídos na revisão, sendo subdivididos nas seguintes categorias: "Desfechos maternos e neonatais dos PDP", "Sentimentos, motivação e perfis associados à escolha pelo PDP", "Percepção dos profissionais que atendem PDP" e "Abordagem teórica do PDP". Concluiu-se que o PDP tem crescido entre parcelas privilegiadas da população, representando importante prática de exercício da autonomia da mulher em contraponto ao modelo obstétrico vigente, apresentando-se como alternativa segura de local de parto, com alto grau de satisfação para as mulheres e famílias. Este modelo de assistência, entretanto, apresenta-se como opção limitada, uma vez que o PDP não é oferecido pelo Sistema Único de Saúde, ainda inacessível para a maioria das mulheres no país.


Abstract Planned home birth (PHB) has grown in Brazil, especially in large urban centers, in the face of women's dissatisfaction with the current obstetric system. International studies have demonstrated the security of PHB, but national production about this area is still limited. Thus, this study aimed to review the national bibliographic production about PHB between 2008 and 2018, in order to compile data related to PHB in Brazil. After survey, 18 studies were included in the review, and then subdivided into the following categories: "Maternal and neonatal outcomes of PHB", "Feelings, motivation and personal characteristics of women that choose PHB", "Perception of professionals that practice PHB" and "Theoretical approach to PHB". It was concluded that the PHB has grown between privileged portions of Brazilian population, representing the important practice of women's autonomy, presenting itself as a safe alternative place of birth, with a high degree of satisfaction of women and families. However, this model of assistance presents itself as a limited option, since the PHB is not offered by the Health System, still unaccessible to most of women in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Bibliometrics , Home Childbirth/statistics & numerical data , Parity , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Pregnancy Outcome , Attitude of Health Personnel , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Patient Satisfaction , Personal Autonomy , Episiotomy/statistics & numerical data , Patient Preference/statistics & numerical data , Home Childbirth/psychology , Motivation
10.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (34): 90-107, jan.-abr. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139631

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este artículo indaga sobre la construcción del saber y la práctica médica en ginecobstetricia. Se centra específicamente en las transformaciones de los significados sociales y médicos sobre el cuerpo gestante y parturiente que se dieron desde finales del siglo XIX y en el transcurso del siglo XX, y que posibilitan el proceso de medicalización, patologización y hospitalización del parto. Así mismo, se exploran los efectos que tiene el modelo médico tecnocrático de atención al binomio embarazo/parto, en cuanto a la experiencia de dichos procesos en las mujeres. El artículo concluye en la necesidad de profundizar en los elementos del paradigma médico, la formación de los profesionales y las condiciones laborales del sector de la salud, que intervienen en la problemática de la deshumanización de la atención del parto.


Abstract This article investigates the construction of medical knowledge and practice in gynecology and obstetrics. Specifically, it focuses on the transformations of social and medical meanings in the pregnant body that occurred since the end of the 19th century and during the 20th century, and which make possible the process of medicalization, pathologization and hospitalization of childbirth. Likewise, the effects that the technocratic medical model of care for the pregnancy / childbirth binomial has in terms of the experience of these processes in women are explored; concluding on the need to deepen the elements of the medical paradigm, the training of health professionals and the working conditions in the health sector that intervene in the problem of dehumanization of care.


Resumo Este artigo investiga a construção do conhecimento e da prática médica em ginecologia e obstetrícia. Especificamente, concentra-se nas transformações dos significados sociais e médicos no corpo gestante ocorridas desde o final do século XIX e durante o século XX, e que possibilitam o processo de medicalização, patologização e hospitalização do parto. Da mesma forma, são explorados os efeitos que o modelo médico tecnocrático de atenção ao binômio gravidez / parto tem em termos da experiência desses processos em mulheres; concluindo sobre a necessidade de aprofundar os elementos do paradigma médico, a formação dos profissionais de saúde e as condições de trabalho no setor da saúde que intervêm no problema da desumanização da assistência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Violence , Attitude of Health Personnel , Delivery, Obstetric , Dehumanization , Pregnant Women , Medicalization , Women's Health , Colombia , Parturition , Qualitative Research , Reproductive Rights , Gynecology/history , Midwifery
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): 125-: I-129, I, abr. 2020. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100167

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Investigadores canadienses desarrollaron un cuestionario autoadministrado para indagar sobre la intención de los participantes de actividades de desarrollo profesional continuo (DPC) de transferir los conocimientos adquiridos en ámbitos áulicos a la práctica clínica. Su uso podría facilitar los procesos de mejora de la calidad en dichas actividades de DPC.Objetivo. Realizar la traducción y adaptación transcultural y validación del cuestionario REACTION (A theoRy-basEd instrument to assess the impACT of continuing profesional development activities on profesional behavIOr chaNge) para su uso en la Argentina, a partir de la versión original en inglés.Población y métodos. Se realizó la traducción y adaptación transcultural de los 12 ítems del instrumento, con un proceso de cinco pasos. La validez de constructo se exploró mediante el análisis factorial exploratorio, y la confiabilidad, a través del coeficiente de Cronbach y el coeficiente G.Resultados. La versión final del cuestionario se aplicó a una muestra de 133 médicos asistentes a 9 actividades presenciales de DPC de un hospital universitario de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (edad promedio: 38 años; el 23,3 %, hombres; el 76 %, médicos de familia). El análisis factorial exploratorio arrojó 3 factores (influencia social, confianza en las capacidades propias y criterio ético). El coeficiente de Cronbach fue 0,82 y el coeficiente G fue 0,72.Conclusiones. Se realizó la adaptación y validación de la versión argentina del instrumento REACTION para evaluar el impacto del DPC enfocado en el entrenamiento de habilidades clínicas en la intención de los médicos de implementarlo en su práctica.


Introduction. Canadian researchers developed a self-administered questionnaire to ask participants of continuing professional development (CPD) activities about their intention to translate the knowledge acquired in the classroom into clinical practice. The questionnaire may facilitate quality improvement processes in such CPD activities.Objective. To translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the original English REACTION questionnaire (A theoRy-basEd instrument to assess the impACT of continuing professional development activities on professional behavIOr chaNge) for its use in Argentina.Population and methods. The 12 questionnaire items were translated and cross-culturally adapted using a five-step process. The construct validity was assessed using an exploratory factor analysis, whereas reliability, with Cronbach's coefficient and the G coefficient.Results. The final questionnaire version was administered to a sample of 133 physicians who attended 9 CPD activities at a teaching hospital in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (average age: 38 years; 23.3 %, men; 76 %, family physicians). The exploratory factor analysis showed 3 factors (social influence, confidence in one's abilities, and ethical judgment). Cronbach's coefficient was 0.82 and the G coefficient, 0.72.Conclusions. The Argentine version of the REACTION questionnaire was adapted and validated to assess the impact of CPD centered on clinical skills training on physicians' intention to implement it in their practice


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Physicians/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Education, Medical, Continuing , Translating , Attitude of Health Personnel , Data Collection , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Adaptation
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(1): 159-168, jan. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055794

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo resulta de uma pesquisa cujo objeto é o saber-fazer dos trabalhadores de enfermagem. O objetivo principal foi investigar os usos da inteligência prática, em uma equipe de enfermagem de uma enfermaria oncológica no Rio de Janeiro. Partimos do pressuposto de que, a despeito do sofrimento inerente ao trabalho em saúde, este pode conter uma dimensão criativa e potente no exercício do cuidar, mesmo diante dos desafios colocados pelas precárias condições de trabalho, pela demanda crescente de pacientes e pelas exigências de produtividade. Foram realizadas observação participante, entrevistas em profundidade e entrevistas em grupo com trabalhadores da enfermaria selecionada. Observamos duas principais formas de manifestação da inteligência prática. A primeira, como exercício da palavra e da escuta. A segunda, como exercício da produção de conforto. Tais formas de inteligência prática se interpenetram e não são passíveis de captura por números, indicadores e métodos de avaliação do desempenho. São invisíveis para instrumentos que não passem pela palavra dos trabalhadores. Conclui-se pela necessidade de criação de espaços coletivos em que gestores e trabalhadores possam expressar e validar socialmente o saber-fazer e as experiências dos trabalhadores.


Abstract This article brings the results of a research of which main goal was to investigate the use of practical intelligence by an oncology nurse team in an oncological ward, in a hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We assume that, in spite of the suffering inherent to health care work, it can have a creative and potent dimension in the exercise of care, even in the presence of the challenges faced by the precarious working conditions, the growing demand of patients and the demands of productivity. Participant observation, in-depth interviews and group interviews were carried out with a selected nursing staff. We observed two main forms of practical intelligence manifestations. The first is the exercise of speaking and listening. The second, as an exercise in the production of comfort. Such forms of practical intelligence interpenetrate and cannot be captured by numbers, indicators, and methods of performance evaluation. They are invisible to instruments that do not go through the word of the workers. We conclude that it is necessary to create collective spaces in health organizations where managers and workers can express and dialogue on such issues, socially validating this know-how and those workers'experiences.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Oncology Nursing , Attitude of Health Personnel , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Oncology Service, Hospital , Intelligence
13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(1): 211-222, jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055768

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar o perfil e as percepções dos secretários municipais de saúde sobre as agendas e os desafios para o SUS para o ciclo 2017-2020, com ênfase na participação dos enfermeiros na gestão. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário eletrônico aplicado via web, contendo questões fechadas, respondido por gestores municipais, no âmbito da Pesquisa Nacional dos Secretários Municipais de Saúde, um estudo de abrangência nacional, realizado em 26 estados nos anos de 2017 e 2018. Pode-se compreender em que medida, no processo de gestão, os enfermeiros gestores percebem os principais desafios, a atuação de atores estratégicos, a dinâmica dos espaços intergestores e as agendas federativas que são necessárias ao fortalecimento da gestão do SUS.


Abstract This paper aims to analyze the profile and perceptions of the municipal health secretaries on the agendas and challenges for the SUS in the 2017-2020 cycle, with emphasis on the participation of nurses in management. The data were collected through an online electronic questionnaire, containing closed-ended questions, answered by municipal managers, within the National Survey of Municipal Health Secretaries, a national study carried out in 26 states in 2017 and 2018. We could understand to what extent nurse managers perceive the main challenges, the performance of strategic actors, the dynamics of interagency spaces, and federative agendas necessary to strengthen SUS management in the management process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Nurse Administrators , Time Factors , Brazil , Middle Aged
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the attitudes and skills of grief counseling in the front-line medical workers from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) designated hospitals in Wuhan for the bereaved family members and to provide the basis for proper hospital management strategies.@*METHODS@#The convenience sampling method was applied to select 422 medical workers who kept touch with the bereaved family members in five COVID-19 designated hospitals in Wuhan from January to February 2020. Questionnaire regarding grief counseling attitudes and questionnaire regarding grief counseling skills were used to evaluate the attitudes and skills of grief counseling in medical workers. The scores of grief counseling attitudes and skills in group of different characteristics were further compared. Pearson correlation was used to analyze the attitudes and skills of grief counseling in medical workers.@*RESULTS@#The scores of grief counseling attitudes in medical workers were 15-46 (33.00±9.31). Length of service, professional title, whether or not receiving relevant training, frequency of contact with bereaved family members contributed to impacting the medical workers' attitudes of grief counseling (all <0.05). The scores of grief counseling skills in medical workers were 9-30 (19.30±4.42). Length of service, professional title, religion, whether or not receiving relevant training, frequency of contact with bereaved family members contributed to impacting the medical workers' skills of grief counseling (all <0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the attitudes and skills of grief counseling in the medical workers (=0.608, <0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The attitudes and skills of grief counseling in the medical workers from COVID-19 designated hospitals in Wuhan still need to be improved. Grief counseling group and a long-term, comprehensive training system are recommended.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections , Psychology , Counseling , Grief , Health Personnel , Psychology , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827362

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the status and the related factors of nursing behaviors for pressure injury, and to provide the evidence for standardizing pressure injury management.@*METHODS@#A total of 1 039 clinical nursing staff from 4 general hospitals in Changsha from December 1 to 30, 2017 were selected by a stratified random sampling procedure. Nurses' demographic information such as age, gender, title, educational attainment, and department were collected. We investigated the status of nursing behaviors on pressure injury by a self-designed questionnaire, assessed nurses' knowledge of pressure injury and nurses' attitude of pressure injury using the Pressure Ulcer Knowledge Test and Attitude towards Pressure Ulcer Prevention Instrument, respectively, compared the nursing behaviors on pressure injury with different backgrounds, used multiple linear regression to analyze the influential factors for nursing behaviors on pressure injury, and conducted the Pearson correlation analysis for nurses' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors on the pressure injury.@*RESULTS@#The overall nursing behaviors score on pressure injury was 155.96±17.29. The 5 dimensional scores from high to low were: risk assessment (4.42±0.49), prevention actions (4.40±0.50), risk understanding (4.35±0.52), injury assessment and interventions (4.27±0.55), and health education (4.25±0.63). A significant difference was found in the nursing behavior scores of pressure injury among ages, lengths of service, education, and training times (all ˂0.05). There was no correlation between nurses' knowledge and behaviors (=0.606). The nurses' attitude was positively correlated with their behaviors (=0.307, ˂0.001), and the nurses' knowledge was also positively correlated with their attitudes (=0.212, ˂0.001). The results of multiple linear regression showed that the length of service (≤5 years), training times (1-2 times), education (diploma or below), the scores of nurses' knowledge, and the scores of nurses' attitude were independent influencial factors of nurses' behaviors on pressure injury.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The nursing staff in the general hospital of Changsha has a high level of nursing behaviors on pressure injury, and they has good sense of responsibility and confidence. However, personal competence in pressure injury is insufficient and still needs to be improved. The nursing managers should focus on the nurses' attitude and training frequency, increasing the experience in nursing the pressure injury and practical level, and arouse the highly educated nurses' enthusiasm and sense of accomplishment to prevent pressure injury, thus reducing the incidence of pressure injury.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , China , Epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hospitals, General , Humans , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Pressure Ulcer , Epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The Japanese health and welfare industry has a shortage of professional caregivers, and work-related accidents and injuries among this group are therefore especially critical issues. This study aimed to examine the factors associated with turnover intentions and work-related injuries and accidents among professional caregivers in Japan.@*METHODS@#Self-report questionnaires were distributed to care workers (N = 1396) at 26 geriatric-care facilities. The questionnaire addressed basic attributes, work and organizational characteristics, wage adequacy, and intrinsic motivations for work (e.g., "being suited to caring work"). Social-relational aspects of the work environment were assessed via three subscales of the Social Capital and Ethical Climate in the Workplace instrument (i.e., "Social Capital in the Workplace," "Exclusive Workplace Climate," and "Ethical Leadership"). Dependent variables were the experience of work-related accidents or injuries in the prior year and organizational and occupational turnover intentions. We used datasets of professional caregivers for analyses.@*RESULTS@#The response rate was 68% (N = 949). Among the 667 professional caregivers, 63% were female. On multivariable logistic regression analysis for work-related accidents and injuries for each sex, those with higher scores for "being suited to caring work" were found to experience significantly fewer work-related accidents and injuries (odds ratio [OR] = 0.78, p < 0.01) among female caregivers. Male caregivers who perceived an exclusive workplace climate experienced more work-related accidents and injuries (OR = 1.61, p < 0.01). However, experience of work-related accidents and injuries did not show significant relationships with organizational and occupational turnover intentions. Additionally, "being suited to caring work" (OR = 0.73, p < 0.01) and ethical leadership (OR = 0.76, p < 0.05) were found to be negatively associated with organizational turnover intentions. "Being suited to caring work" (OR = 0.61, p < 0.01), inadequacy of wage (OR = 2.22, p < 0.05), and marital status (OR = 2.69, p < 0.01) were also associated with occupational turnover intentions of professional caregivers.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings highlight the need to foster intrinsic motivations for work as well as providing a supportive and ethical work environment to reduce high turnover rates and work-related injuries and accidents among professional caregivers.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Occupational , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Caregivers , Psychology , Female , Humans , Intention , Japan , Job Satisfaction , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Injuries , Personnel Turnover , Self Report
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811232

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to construct and test a structural equation model on nursing work outcomes based on Youssef and Luthans' positive psychological capital and integrated conceptual framework of work performance.METHODS: This study used a structured questionnaire administered to 340 nurses. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.RESULTS: Positive psychological capital showed indirect and direct effects on job satisfaction, retention intention, organizational citizenship behavior, and nursing performance. While, the nursing work environment had direct and indirect effects on job satisfaction and nursing performance, it only had indirect effects on intention to work and organizational citizenship behavior. Additionally, a mediating effect on retention intention and organizational citizenship behavior was found between job satisfaction and nursing performance variables.CONCLUSION: The nursing organization needs to build a supportive work environment and reinforce positive psychological capital to improve nursing performance. Additionally, it needs to actively manage the necessary parameters involved in the stages of job satisfaction, retention intention, nursing performance, and organizational citizenship behavior of nurses. The findings propose the continuous management of nursing personnel based on nurses' attitude outcome, behavioral intention, behavioral outcome, and stage of role performance.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Intention , Job Satisfaction , Negotiating , Nursing , Psychology, Industrial , Task Performance and Analysis , Work Performance
18.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135521

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the attitudes of health professionals towards Deafness and its association with sociodemographic and Deaf contact experience. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Concepcion, Chile. The sample size was estimated in 171 health professionals. The following variables were considered: sociodemographics, Deaf contact experience, and attitudes to deafness scale (ADS scale). To evaluate the association between the variables, t-test and Spearman correlation test were used (p<0.05). Results: People who had taken a LSCh course had significant more positive attitudes towards item 1 "Deaf people should learn to lipread", with a 2 points difference and in persons who do not know a Deaf person, with 1-point difference. Also, persons who have received some kind of formation in Deafness have a better attitude in item 3 "I would like to have more Deaf friends" with 1-point difference. An inverse correlation was observed within age (rho = -0.237; p=0.0014), years of academic service (rho = -0.323; p<0.0001) or PHC service (rho = -0.1085; p=0,364). Conclusion: The attitude of health professionals towards Deafness was neutral. This attitude is not modulated by sex, type of profession, type of relationship with Deaf people, type of training in hearing disability, Chilean Sign Language Courses or degree of frequency of healthcare delivery to Deaf patients. However, it is modulated by age and years of service.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Professional-Patient Relations , Attitude of Health Personnel , Chile/epidemiology , Persons With Hearing Impairments , Deafness , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hearing
19.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 11(3): 114-121, dez. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1146241

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar as atitudes dos enfermeiros da Estratégia Saúde da Família-ESF em relação ao álcool, ao alcoolismo e ao alcoolista e correlacionar as atitudes com as práticas, tempo de formação e atuação. Método: Estudo correlacional, observacional, corte transversal realizado nas ESF de oito municípios do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram aplicados o questionário de avaliação das práticas e a Escala de Atitudes frente ao Álcool, ao Alcoolismo e ao Alcoolista-EAFAAA. Os dados foram analisados por meio da correlação de Spearman. Resultados: 50 enfermeiros participaram do estudo e apresentaram escore total da EAFAAA de 3,1 (DP = 0,4). As correlações entre a EAFAA e o questionário de práticas foram negativas e de fraca intensidade (-0,23;p=0,107) e com tempo de formação (-0,60;p=0,679) e atuação (0,01;p=0,966) foram de fraca intensidade. Conclusão: Os enfermeiros apresentaram tendências a atitudes negativas e não foram evidenciadas correlações entre a EAFAAA com as características dos enfermeiros. (AU)


Objective: To assess the nurses' attitudes from Family Health Strategy-FHS regarding alcohol, alcoholism, and alcoholics and correlate these attitudes with the nurses' practices, time since graduation as a nurse and work at the FHS. Method: Correlational, observational and cross-sectional study performed at the FHS in eight cities in the state of Minas Gerais It was applied the practice assessment questionnaire and the Attitude Scale towards Alcohol, Alcoholism and Alcoholist-EAFAAA. Data were analyzed using Spearman correlation. Results: 50 nurses participated in the study and had a total EAFAAA score of 3.1 (SD = 0.4). The correlations between EAFAA and the practice questionnaire were negative and of low intensity (-0.23; p = 0.107) and with time of formation (-0.60; p = 0.679) and performance (0.01; p = 0.966) were of low intensity. Conclusion: Nurses showed tendencies towards negatives attitudes and no correlation was found between EAFAAA and nurses' characteristics. (AU)


Objetivo: Evaluar las actitudes de los enfermeros de la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia-ESF en relación con el alcohol, alcoholismo y alcoholista y correlacionar las actitudes con las prácticas de los enfermeros, el tiempo de formación y actuación en la ESF. Método: Estudio correlacional, observacional, transversal realizado en la EFS de ocho municipios del estado de Minas Gerais. Fue aplicado el cuestionario de evaluación de la práctica y la Escala de actitud hacia el alcoholismo, el alcoholismo y el alcoholismo-EAFAAA. Los datos se analizaron mediante la correlación de Spearman. Resultados: 50 enfermeros participaron en el estudio y tuvieron un puntaje EAFAAA total de 3.1 (DE = 0.4). Las correlaciones entre EAFAA y el cuestionario de práctica fueron negativas y de baja intensidad (-0.23; p = 0.107) y con tiempo de formación (-0.60; p = 0.679) y rendimiento (0.01; p = 0.966) fueron de baja intensidad. Conclusión: Los enfermeros presentaron tendencias a actitudes negativas y no se encontró correlación entre EAFAAA y las características de las enfermeras. (AU)


Subject(s)
Attitude , Primary Health Care , Attitude of Health Personnel , Nursing , Alcoholism
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