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1.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 22(39): 54-63, junio 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1380372

ABSTRACT

Describir e identificar las razones por las cuales los padres o tutores no completaron el calendario de vacunación infantil en un Centro de Atención Primaria de Salud de la Ciudad de Corrientes en el año 2021. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo, transversal. Población: padres o tutores de niños con esquemas incompletos. Recolección de datos mediante encuesta validada en prueba piloto. Los datos plasmados en una matriz fueron sometidos a análisis descriptivos. Se contó con aval del Comité de Ética. Resultados: La muestra se integró con 53 unidades de análisis. Edad media 28 años; 79% eran las madres; 62% ya tenían dos o más hijos; 74% eran soltero/as; 47% no había concluido el secundario o la primaria; la mayoría eran desempleados o percibían planes sociales. El 66% pensaba que las vacunas curaban enfermedades;89% que las prevenían y 89% pensaban que eran seguras. Fuentes de información: el equipo médico y enfermería, 17% de familiares o amigos, 30% en internet o medios de comunicación. En motivosde incumplimiento, lo más frecuente falta de vacunas (31%), horarios de trabajo de padres o tutor (15%), enfermedades del infante (10%). Conclusión: La información sobre vacunas era brindada por equipo de salud, familias y medios de comunicación. Aunque afirmaban que prevenían enfermedades y eran seguras muchos sostenían que curaban enfermedades. Se señalaron como motivos del incumplimiento falta de vacunas, horarios laborales de los entrevistados y enfermedades del menor, restricciones horariasdel vacunatorio y por la pandemia[AU]


Describe and identify the reasons why parents or guardians did not complete the childhood vaccination schedule in a Primary Health Care Center of the City of Corrientes in the year 2021. Methodology: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Population: parents or guardians of children with incomplete schemes. Data collection through a survey validated in a pilot test. The data captured in a matrix were subjected to descriptive analysis. It was endorsed by the Ethics Committee. Results: The sample was integrated with 53 units of analysis. Mean age 28 years; 79% were mothers; 62% already had two or more children; 74% were single; 47% had not completed secondary or primary school; most were unemployed or received social plans. 66% thought that vaccines cured diseases; 89% prevented them and 89% thought they were safe. Sources of information: the medical and nursing team, 17% from family or friends, 30% on the internet or the media. In non-compliance reasons, the most frequent lack of vaccines (31%), parent or guardian work schedules (15%), infant diseases (10%). Conclusion: The information on vaccines was provided by the health team, families and the media. Although they claimed that they prevented diseases and were safe, many maintained that they cured diseases. Reasons for non-compliance were noted as lack of vaccines, work schedules of the interviewees and illnesses of the minor, time restrictions of the vaccination and those given by the pandemic[AU]


Descrever e identificar os motivos pelos quais os pais ou responsáveis não completaram o calendário de vacinação infantil em um Centro de Atenção Primária à Saúde da Cidade de Corrientes no ano de 2021. Metodologia: Estudo descritivo, transversal. População: pais ou responsáveis de crianças com esquemas incompletos. Coleta de dados por meio de questionário validado em teste piloto. Os dados capturados em uma matriz foram submetidos à análise descritiva. Foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética. Resultados: A amostra foi integrada com 53 unidades de análise. Idade média 28 anos; 79% eram mães; 62% já tinham dois ou mais filhos; 74% eram solteiros; 47% não concluíram o ensino médio ou fundamental; a maioria estava desempregada ou recebia planos sociais. 66% achavam que as vacinas curavam doenças; 89% os preveniram e 89% acharam que eram seguros. Fontes de informação: equipe médica e de enfermagem, 17% de familiares ou amigos, 30% na internet ou na mídia. Nos motivos de não conformidade, a falta de vacinas mais frequente (31%), horários de trabalho dos pais ou responsáveis (15%), doenças infantis (10%). Conclusão: As informações sobre vacinas foram fornecidas pela equipe de saúde, famílias e mídia. Embora afirmassem que preveniam doenças e eram seguros, muitos sustentavam que curavam doenças. Os motivos da não adesão foram apontados como falta de vacinas, horários de trabalho dos entrevistados e doenças do menor, restrições de horário da vacinação e as dadas pela pandemia[AU]


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care , Attitude to Health , Parenting , Immunization Programs , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Psicol. rev ; 31(1): 51-66, jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1399127

ABSTRACT

Na conjuntura atual, a COVID- 19 representa uma séria ameaça ao bem-estar físico e psicológico da comunidade global. Por se tratar de um vírus com elevado potencial de transmissão, as orientações da Organização Mundial de Saúde para reduzir sua proliferação envolvem medidas sanitárias e ações de isolamento social. Dentre os aspectos de cunho psicológico que podem afetar as decisões de conformidade com as ações de isolamento social, pode-se consi-derar a crença em teorias da conspiração. Considerando a influência que tais teorias exercem sobre o comportamento das pessoas, o presente artigo teórico teve como objetivo delinear o panorama vigente sobre o estudo das crenças em teorias da conspiração no contexto da pandemia da COVID-19, bem como discutir o impacto que as mesmas exercem sobre a saúde e a conduta dos indivíduos. Em suma, este trabalho fornece subsídios para a ampliação dessa discussão a nível teórico e para o desenvolvimento de estudos empíricos consi-derando a realidade brasileira.


In the actual scenario, COVID-19 represents a serious threat to the physical and psychological well-being of the global population. The new coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) is highly contagious and easily transmitted; in this sense, the guidelines provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce this contamination involve sanitary actions and measures such as social isolation. Amongst the psychological aspects that might affect decisions on whether to follow such measures, we can highlight conspiracy theories beliefs. Considering the influence that such theories have on people's behaviors, the current theo-retical paper aims to provide an overview of studies on beliefs in conspiracy theories in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to discuss the impact that they have over people's health and behavior. In summary, this paper provides resources to amplify this discussion on a theoretical level and to develop empirical studies considering the Brazilian reality.


En la coyuntura actual, la COVID-19 representa una seria amenaza para el bienestar físico y psicológico de la comunidad global. El nuevo coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) tiene un alto potencial de transmisión, en este sentido, los lineamientos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para reducir su prolife-ración involucran medidas sanitarias y acciones de aislamiento social. Entre los aspectos psicológicos que pueden afectar las decisiones para cumplir con las acciones de aislamiento social, se puede considerar la creencia en teorías de la conspiración. Considerando la influencia que tales teorías tienen en el comportamiento de las personas, este artículo teórico tuvo como objetivo esbozar el panorama imperante en el estudio de las creencias en las teorías conspirativas en el contexto de la pandemia de COVID-19, así como el impacto que tienen en la salud y la conducta de las personas. En definitiva, el trabajo brinda apoyo para ampliar las discusiones a nivel teórico y para el desarrollo de estudios empíricos considerando la realidad brasileña.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Health Behavior , Culture , Psychosocial Impact
3.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 109-117, abr.-jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391929

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Desde la última década se ha evidenciado el aumento de la población de personas mayores en Chile. Muchos de ellos son usuarios regulares del sistema público de salud el cual se caracteriza por entregar una atención de tipo integral. En este sentido, resulta relevante conocer los requerimientos en salud desde la perspectiva de las experiencias de las personas mayores con respecto al uso de este servicio. OBJETIDO: El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las expectativas de las personas mayores que asisten a los centros de APS. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este es un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo, donde la muestra fue de 13 personas mayores de 65 años y más, autovalentes, de tres centros APS, los cuales fueron entrevistados mediante instrumento semiestructurado, con análisis cualitativo de datos método que incluyó codificación abierta y focalizada. RESULTADOS: Las expectativas de las personas mayores fueron categorizadas como requerimiento de una atención profesional integral, oportunidad de atención, accesibilidad de la atención, promoción de salud sobre el autocuidado, explicación de cambios en el envejecimiento con enfoque biológico y alfabetización en salud. CONCLUSIONES: Las expectativas de las personas mayores en este estudio dan cuenta de una atención profesional integral poco efectiva, además de la necesidad de un trato especializado al grupo poblacional específico, no sólo de los profesionales, sino también del personal administrativo de los centros de APS, considerándolos una barrera en la calidad de la atención.


INTRODUCTION: Since the last decade there has been evidence of an increase in the population of older people in Chile. Many of them are regular users of the public health system (PHS) which is characterized by providing comprehensive care. In this sense, it is relevant to know the health requirements from the perspective of the experiences of the older people regarding the use of this health service. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the needs and expectations of older people attending PHS centers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It were a qualitative and descriptive study. The sample was compounded by 13 people over 65 years and over, self-sufficient, from three PHS centers. It was used a semi-structured instrument. RESULTS: The main needs of the elderly were categorized as a requirement for comprehensive professional care, the opportunity for care, accessibility of care, health promotion on self-care, explanation of changes in aging with a biological focus and health literacy. CONCLUSIONS: The needs and expectations of the older people in this study account for an ineffective comprehensive professional care, in addition to the need for specialized treatment of the specific population group, not only of professionals but also of the administrative staff of the centers of PHS, considering them a barrier in the quality of care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Primary Health Care , Aged/psychology , Attitude to Health , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Perception , Self Care/psychology , Aging/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Satisfaction , Qualitative Research , Health Literacy , Noncommunicable Diseases/psychology
4.
Afr. j. health sci ; 35(3): 269-278, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1380464

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Cervical cancer is the fourth most fatal and common disease globally among women of reproductive age in Kenya; it ranks the second most frequent type of cancer after breast cancer. Due to the high burden, cryotherapy treatment services, which are effective for the treatment of precancerous lesions are available in selected health facilities in Kenya, however, barriers to the treatment services are poorly understood. Nonetheless, understanding these barriers is critical for enhanced service delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS :A descriptive facility-based cross-sectional study design was carried out to determine the barriers to cryotherapy treatment services among 60 women of reproductive age on a one-year therapy at Migosi Sub County Hospital in Western Kenya. The participants were selected purposively and interviewed via telephone calls using pre-coded semi-structured questionnaires. However, data from 5 nurses working in the cryotherapy section were collected through face-to-face interviews at the health facility. Data were entered in an excel sheet and then exported to SPSS version 23.0 for analysis. Both descriptive and inferential statistics (Chi-square) were used and data were presented in form of tables. RESULTS :Overall, 52 (85.4%) respondents adhered to post-care treatment instructions and reported no adverse reactions. However, 28 (46.7%) experienced unavailability of cryotherapy services at the time of the appointment and got the services later, 24 (40%) got the services at the time of the appointment but waited for a long time before being served, 37 (61.7%) did not know why they were being treated and 46 (76.7%) had misconceptions and myths about the therapy. In addition, there was a statistically significant association between knowing both the benefits of screening and cryotherapy [X 2 (1, N = 60) = 5.90, p = .02]. Also, the knowledge of the benefits of cryotherapy did not influence one's decision to wait for cryotherapy treatment services, [X 2(1, N = 60) = 3.98, p = .46]. CONCLUSION : The study shows very good adherence to post-treatment instruction but inadequate availability of cryotherapy treatment services. Also, the misconceptions and myths about cryotherapy are public health concerns. Therefore, the study recommends improved awareness campaigns and service delivery for the enhanced uptake of cryotherapy treatment services.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Precancerous Conditions , Attitude to Health , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Cryotherapy , Therapeutic Misconception , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
5.
South African Family Practice ; 64(1): 1-6, 21 September 2022. Figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1396907

ABSTRACT

Women often do not receive support from their partners with regards to familyplanning (FP), which can lead to hesitancy and inconsistent use. This study sought tounderstand the male attitudes that contribute to this.Methods: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted in 2019 using focus group discussions (FGDs) with purposively selected men aged ≥ 25 years and in a relationship with a woman of childbearing age. An open-ended question guide was used to explore men's perceptions regarding FP. The discussions were recorded, translated and transcribed verbatim, whereafter transcripts were coded and analysed thematically. Results: Three major themes were identified, namely: (1) the advantages of FP, including financial benefits and the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy; (2) the disadvantages of FP, including perceived adverse effects on men and women, as well as marital difficulties; and (3) the exclusion of men from FP by health workersand their partners. Conclusion: Men felt ambivalent towards FP. They were aware of the benefits thereof, but were hesitant to allow their female partners to use contraceptives, because of several misconceptions about the adverse effects. This underscores the need to involve men in FP programmes.


Subject(s)
Perception , Attitude to Health , Contraception , Family Planning Services , Communication , Clinical Decision-Making
6.
Med. j. Zambia ; 49(2): 118-127, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1402459

ABSTRACT

Introduction:Dentalcariesandperiodontaldiseases are the most common oral diseases globally. Early control of oral health behaviours is importantbecauselifestylesacquiredduringadolescence are powerful predictors of adult health. We conducted a study to determine knowledge, attitude and practices on oral hygiene among school-going adolescents in Choma district of Zambia.Methodology:Across-sectionalstudywasconducted among school-going adolescents in randomly selected schools in Choma District. Atotal of 335 participants were included in the study. Data were collected using a closed-end self-administered questionnaire. The sample size was distributed among the six schools in the ratio of their population. The study included anyone from grades 8-12. Data were analysed using IBM software for SPSS. We employedthe Chi-Squaretesttoinvestigate the association between variables. Ap-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The study had 173 males and 162 females in the age range of 12-19 years. The majority (87.8%) had good knowledge, 69.4% had good attitude and 87.5% had good practice on oral -hygiene. Practice was influenced by sex with females having good oral hygiene as compared to their male counterparts. About 97.2% thought that dental health education is essential in schools. 34% indicated that they had visited the dentist when they experienced a toothache. However, parental advice to regularly visit the dentist was low (n=39).The majority 49.9% (n=167) indicated that they had not visited the dentist due to fear of the dental equipment set up.Conclusion and recommendation: Despite the majority having good knowledge and attitude on oral hygiene, there is a need to acquaint children with milling and dental units found in most dental offices. This may instil confidence in children to seek specialist dental treatment whenever they develop any dental disease. Further,parents need to be incorporated as partners in promoting oral health hygiene among school-going adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent Health , Dental Caries , Periodontal Abscess , Attitude to Health , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Oral Health , Dental Arch , General Practice, Dental
7.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE0243345, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1374006

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Compreender as experiências de ser adolescente com a doença falciforme. Métodos Estudo qualitativo, realizado em unidade de referência no estado da Bahia entre março e junho de 2018. Participaram dez adolescentes com doença falciforme, os dados foram obtidos mediante desenhos-estória com tema e entrevistas semiestruturadas e submetidos à análise embasada na Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados. Resultados A experiência do adolescente com doença falciforme é representada pela categoria central "Buscando ser um adolescente normal, apesar das restrições e da discriminação impostas pela doença falciforme" e mais cinco categorias: "Sentindo-se diferente dos outros adolescentes", ao perceberem seu crescimento alterado, vivenciarem problemas clínicos e se compararem aos demais adolescentes; "Vivendo com restrições em sua rotina diária", de ordem física e alimentar demandadas no autocuidado e manejo da doença para o alcance de qualidade de vida; "Vivenciando situações ruins", na experiência de dor, constantes hospitalizações, medo da morte e incerteza quanto ao futuro; "Sentindo-se um adolescente normal", quando podiam manter suas atividades sociais com escola, amigos e família; e "Percebendo o estigma", ao temerem a discriminação e adotarem modos de ocultar que possuíam a doença. Conclusão Ao buscar ser um adolescente normal os participantes aspiraram assumir o controle sobre a própria vida, evitar rupturas na rotina e atender às expectativas sociais, protegendo sua identidade de rótulos e discriminação.


Resumen Objetivo Entender las experiencias de ser adolescente con la enfermedad de células falciformes. Métodos Estudio cualitativo, realizado en una unidad de referencia en el estado de Bahia entre marzo y junio de 2018. Participaron diez adolescentes con la enfermedad de células falciformes, se obtuvieron los datos por medio de dibujos-historia con tema y entrevistas semiestructuradas y sometidos a análisis con base a la Teoría Fundamentada en Datos. Resultados La experiencia del adolescente con enfermedad de células falciformes está representada por la categoría central "Busca ser un adolescente normal, pese a las restricciones y a la discriminación impuestas por la enfermedad de células falciformes" y otras cinco categorías: "Se sienten diferentes de los demás adolescentes", cuando se dan cuenta de su crecimiento alterado, vivencian problemas clínicos y se comparan a los demás adolescentes; "Viven con restricciones en su rutina diaria", de orden físico y alimentario que se demandan en el autocuidado y en la gestión de la enfermedad para lograr la calidad de vida; "Vivenciando malas situaciones", en la experiencia del dolor, constantes ingresos a hospitales, miedo a la muerte e incertidumbre con relación al futuro; "Sentirse un adolescente normal", cuando podían mantener sus actividades sociales en la escuela, amigos y familia; y "Percatándose del estigma", al sentir temor de la discriminación y adoptar formas de ocultar que padecen la enfermedad. Conclusión Al intentar ser un adolescente normal, los participantes aspiraron a asumir el control sobre sus propias vidas, evitar rupturas en la rutina y atender a las expectaciones sociales, protegiendo su identidad de clasificaciones y de discriminación.


Abstract Objective Understand the experiences of being an adolescent with sickle cell disease. Methods Qualitative study, conducted at a reference service in the state of Bahia, Brazil between March and June 2018. Ten adolescents with sickle cell disease participated. The data were obtained through drawings-and-stories with a theme and semi-structured interviews and analyzed based on Grounded Theory. Results The experience of adolescents with sickle cell disease is represented by the core category of "trying to be a normal adolescent, despite the restrictions and discrimination the sickle cell disease imposes", and five other categories: "Feeling different from other adolescents", when they see that their growth has altered, that they experience medical problems and compare themselves to other adolescents, "Living with restrictions in their daily routine", of physical and food-related restrictions, required in self-care and disease management to achieve quality of life, "Living in bad situations", in the experience of pain, constant hospital visits, fear of death and uncertainty about the future, "Feeling like a normal adolescent", when they were able to maintain their social activities, including school, friends, and family, and "Realizing the stigma", when they fear the discrimination and adopt ways to hide that they have the disease. Conclusion By seeking to be a normal adolescent, the participants aspired to take control over their own lives, avoid breaks from the routine and meet social expectations, protecting their identity from labels and discrimination.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude to Health , Adolescent Behavior , Social Stigma , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Anemia, Sickle Cell/psychology , Interviews as Topic , Social Discrimination
8.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE01326, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1393710

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Analisar as características associadas aos pais de crianças e adolescentes que ouviram falar sobre o Papillomavirus humano, bem como o conhecimento sobre a infecção e a intenção de vacinar seus filhos. Métodos Estudo transversal com abordagem quantitativa, realizado por meio de entrevista utilizando instrumento estruturado. Entrevistaram-se 376 pais de crianças e adolescentes que aguardavam atendimento pediátrico em unidades de saúde de Três Lagoas/MS. Os dados coletados (características sociodemográficas; características reprodutivas e sexuais; conhecimento sobre o Papillomavirus humano e intenção de vacinar o/a filho/a) foram analisados por meio de técnica de estatística descritiva, teste de associação Qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e Teste T Student. Resultados Dentre os entrevistados, 327 (87,0%) afirmaram ter ouvido falar sobre o Papillomavirus humano. Identificou-se associação entre os pais que nunca ouviram falar sobre a infecção e sexo masculino, idade entre 18 e 25 anos e ensino fundamental incompleto. Dentre os pais que ouviram falar sobre o Papilomavírus Humano, 152 (46,5%) afirmaram que é uma infecção sexualmente transmissível, 245 (74,9%) garantiram que a transmissão ocorre através da relação sexual desprotegida, 275 (75,5%) desconhecem seus sinais e sintomas, 218 (66,7%) afirmaram erroneamente que tal infecção tem cura e 283 (86,5%) sabem da existência da vacina. Dentre todos os entrevistados, 98,1% levariam seu(ua) filho(a) para vacinar contra o vírus. Conclusão Observaram-se lacunas no conhecimento dos pais de crianças e adolescentes sobre o Papillomavirus humano, mostrando a necessidade de educação em saúde e divulgação de ações de enfrentamento à infecção em meios de comunicação e redes sociais.


Resumen Objetivo Analizar las características asociadas a padres de niños y adolescentes que escucharon hablar sobre el virus del papiloma humano, así como el conocimiento sobre la infección y la intención de vacunar a sus hijos. Métodos Estudio transversal, con enfoque cuantitativo, realizado por medio de encuesta con instrumento estructurado. Se encuestaron 376 padres de niños y adolescentes que esperaban atención pediátrica en unidades de salud de Três Lagoas, estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Los datos recopilados (características sociodemográficas, características reproductivas y sexuales, conocimiento sobre el virus del papiloma humano e intención de vacunar al hijo/a) se analizaron por medio de técnica de estadística descriptiva, prueba de asociación ji cuadrado o prueba exacta de Fisher y test-T Student. Resultados Entre los encuestados, 327 (87,0 %) afirmaron haber escuchado hablar sobre el virus del papiloma humano. Se identificó relación entre los padres que nunca escucharon hablar sobre la infección y el sexo masculino, edad entre 18 y 25 años y educación primaria incompleta. De los padres que escucharon hablar sobre el virus del papiloma humano, 152 (46,5 %) afirmaron que es una infección de transmisión sexual, 245 (74,9 %) aseguraron que la transmisión ocurre a través de las relaciones sexuales sin protección, 275 (75,5 %) desconocen sus signos y síntomas, 218 (66,7 %) afirmaron erróneamente que tal infección tiene cura, y 283 (86,5 %) saben de la existencia de la vacuna. Entre los encuestados, el 98,1 % llevaría a su hijo/a vacunarse contra el virus. Conclusión Se observaron vacíos de conocimiento en los padres de niños y adolescentes sobre el virus del papiloma humano, lo que muestra la necesidad de educación para la salud y difusión de acciones para enfrentar la infección en medios de comunicación y redes sociales.


Abstract Objective Analyze the characteristics associated with the parents of children and adolescents who have heard about the human papillomavirus, as well as the knowledge about the infection and the intention to vaccinate their children. Methods Cross-sectional study with quantitative approach, conducted through a structured interview. We interviewed 376 parents of children and adolescents who were awaiting pediatric care at health services in Três Lagoas/MS. The collected data (sociodemographic characteristics; reproductive and sexual characteristics; knowledge about human papillomavirus and intention to vaccinate the child) were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact test or the chi-square association test and Student's t-test. Results Among the respondents, 327 (87.0%) said they had heard about the human papillomavirus. An association was identified between parents who had never heard of the infection and male sex, age between 18 and 25 years and unfinished primary education. Among the parents who had heard about the human papillomavirus, 152 (46.5%) stated that it is a sexually transmitted infection, 245 (74.9%) assured that the transmission occurs through unprotected sexual intercourse, 275 (75.5%) are unaware of its signs and symptoms, 218 (66.7%) mistakenly stated that this infection is curable and 283 (86.5%) know of the existence of the vaccine. Among all respondents, 98.1% would take their child to get vaccinated against the virus. Conclusion Gaps were observed in the knowledge of the parents of children and adolescents about the human papillomavirus, showing the need for health education and dissemination of actions to cope with the infection in the media and social networks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Papillomaviridae , Parents/psychology , Attitude to Health/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Knowledge , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interviews as Topic , Adolescent
9.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 70(4): 330-337, out.-dez.2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350962

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Evidenciar a influência dos aspectos subjetivos na adesão ao tratamento do transtorno bipolar. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada revisão sistemática com base nas diretrizes PRISMA. A identificação dos estudos foi realizada por meio da busca nos bancos de dados PubMed, Scopus e SciELO, com base nos descritores "Bipolar Disorder" AND "Treatment Adherence and Compliance" AND "Mental Health". A busca contemplou todos os artigos publicados até o ano 2020, sem restrição de idioma. RESULTADOS: Foram localizados 743 artigos, 714 foram excluídos no processo de seleção, 29 foram lidos na íntegra e 11 foram elegíveis para a composição da amostra. A influência dos aspectos subjetivos na adesão ao tratamento foi associada (1) às atitudes resultantes das percepções do sujeito sobre o transtorno e o tratamento e (2) as atitudes por influência de pessoas próximas. Os estudos apontam para a ocorrência de atitudes negativas em ambas as esferas, tendo a má adesão ao tratamento como desfecho. Na esfera da percepção do sujeito, evidenciam-se: presença de comportamentos intencionais e não intencionais; percepção de consequências; medo dos efeitos colaterais; sentimentos negativos; falta de compreensão sobre o transtorno e negação do diagnóstico. Na esfera da influência das pessoas próximas, destacam-se a baixa qualidade da aliança terapêutica e o suporte ineficaz oferecido pela família. CONCLUSÕES: Para melhorar a adesão ao tratamento do transtorno bipolar, é salutar que os esforços terapêuticos estejam centrados na experiência particular do sujeito, na sua satisfação e na colaboração pactuada com o tratamento.


OBJECTIVE: Evidence the influence of subjective aspects on adherence to the treatment of bipolar disorder. METHODS: A systematic review was performed based on the PRISMA guidelines. The identification of studies was performed by searching the PubMed, Scopus and Scielo databases based on the descriptors "Bipolar Disorder" AND "Treatment Adherence and Compliance" AND "Mental Health". The selection included all articles published up to the year 2020 and without language restrictions. RESULTS: A total of 743 articles were found, 714 were excluded from the selection process, 29 articles were read in full and 11 were eligible for sample composition. The influence of subjective aspects on treatment adherence was associated (1) with attitudes resulting from the subject's perceptions about the disorder and treatment and (2) attitudes influenced by people close to them. Studies point to the occurrence of negative attitudes in both spheres, with poor adherence to treatment as an outcome. In the sphere of the subject's perception, they show the presence of intentional and unintentional behaviors; perception of consequences; fear of side effects; negative feelings; lack of understanding about the disorder and denial of diagnosis. In the sphere of influence of those close to them, they highlight the low quality of the therapeutic alliance and the ineffective support offered by the family. CONCLUSIONS: To improve adherence to treatment for bipolar disorder, it is beneficial that therapeutic efforts are centered on the individual's particular experience, on their satisfaction and on the agreed collaboration with the treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bipolar Disorder/psychology , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Attitude to Health , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/psychology , Social Support , Antipsychotic Agents/pharmacology , Lithium Carbonate/pharmacology
11.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(4): 386-389, Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288593

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The generation of individual behavior is closely related to the environment in which it is located and is easily affected by environmental factors. Objective: The thesis takes the social ecology model theory as the starting point, applies the five different levels of influencing factors in the theoretical model to the field of youth physical exercise behavior, and seeks the interrelationship between the various influencing factors. Methods: Using questionnaire surveys, interviews, and other research methods, the paper makes a simple theoretical combing and analysis of the healthy behavior ecology model, seeks the interrelationship between the influencing factors, propose complementary intervention strategies, and promote the development of adolescents' physical exercise habits through effective ways. Results: The motivation of sports participation, the protection of physical health, family health awareness, economic and educational environment, professional quality of physical education teachers and school exercise environment and community facilities affect the direction of the development of adolescents' physical exercise behavior. Conclusions: Only by comprehensively considering the relationship between various related factors can we better understand adolescent physical exercise development characteristics, propose complementary intervention strategies, and promote physical exercise habits effectively. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A geração do comportamento individual está intimamente relacionada ao ambiente em que está inserida e é facilmente afetada por fatores ambientais. Objetivo: A tese toma como ponto de partida a teoria do modelo da ecologia social, aplica os cinco diferentes níveis de fatores influenciadores do modelo teórico ao campo do comportamento de exercício físico juvenil e busca a inter-relação entre os vários fatores influenciadores. Métodos: Utilizando questionários, entrevistas e outros métodos de pesquisa, o artigo faz uma análise teórica simples do modelo de ecologia do comportamento saudável, busca a inter-relação entre os fatores que influenciam, propõe estratégias de intervenção complementares e promove o desenvolvimento físico dos adolescentes. hábitos de exercício através de formas eficazes. Resultados: A motivação para a prática de esportes, a proteção da saúde física, a conscientização sobre a saúde da família, o ambiente econômico e educacional, a qualidade profissional dos professores de educação física e o ambiente de exercício escolar e as instalações comunitárias afetam a direção do desenvolvimento do comportamento de exercício físico dos adolescentes. Conclusões: Somente considerando de forma abrangente a relação entre vários fatores relacionados podemos entender melhor as características do desenvolvimento de exercícios físicos em adolescentes, propor estratégias de intervenção complementar e promover hábitos de exercícios físicos de forma eficaz. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos: investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Antecedentes: La generación del comportamiento individual está íntimamente relacionada con el entorno en el que se ubica y es fácilmente afectado por factores ambientales. Objetivo: La tesis toma como punto de partida la teoría del modelo de ecología social, aplica los cinco niveles diferentes de factores de influencia en el modelo teórico al campo de la conducta de ejercicio físico juvenil y busca la interrelación entre los diversos factores de influencia. Métodos: Mediante cuestionarios, entrevistas y otros métodos de investigación, el trabajo realiza un simple peinado y análisis teórico del modelo de ecología del comportamiento saludable, busca la interrelación entre los factores influyentes, propone estrategias de intervención complementarias y promueve el desarrollo de la física de los adolescentes. Hábitos de ejercicio de forma eficaz. Resultados: La motivación de la participación deportiva, la protección de la salud física, la conciencia de la salud familiar, el entorno económico y educativo, la calidad profesional de los profesores de educación física y el entorno de ejercicio escolar y las instalaciones comunitarias afectan la dirección del desarrollo de la conducta de ejercicio físico de los adolescentes. Conclusiones: Solo considerando de manera integral la relación entre varios factores relacionados podemos comprender mejor las características del desarrollo del ejercicio físico en los adolescentes, proponer estrategias de intervención complementarias y promover los hábitos de ejercicio físico de manera efectiva. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Exercise/physiology , Adolescent Behavior/physiology , Healthy Lifestyle/physiology , Social Environment , Students , Attitude to Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Models, Theoretical
12.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 70(2): 141-148, abr.-jun. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279308

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze, from the perspective of self-report of antecedents and consequences, how the COVID-19 pandemic decrease the health of men living in Brazil. METHODS: Qualitative study, conducted with 200 men living in all regions of Brazil through the application of a semi-structured instrument, hosted on an online platform. The data were analyzed with the Collective Subject Discourse method and anchored in the theoretical framework of Dialectical Historical Materialism. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic decrease men's mental health because it worsened the history of personal, affective, family, occupational, dysfunctional and/or morbid problems, causing consequences of psychic somatization, family dissolution, end of affective relationship, marital conflicts, social isolation, financial difficulty, vulnerability of the work situation and occupational exhaustion, sudden changes in behavior, barriers in access to health care and impaired experiences of death and grief. CONCLUSION: Social support networks need to be strengthened in order to minimize the direct and indirect impacts caused by the pandemic materiality for mental health and the various dimensions of life affected.


OBJETIVO: Analisar, sob o prisma do autorrelato de antecedentes e consequentes, como a pandemia da COVID-19 piora a saúde de homens residentes no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo, realizado com 200 homens residentes em todas as regiões do Brasil, mediante a aplicação de instrumento semiestruturado, hospedado em plataforma on-line. Os dados foram analisados com o método do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo e ancorados no referencial teórico do Materialismo Histórico Dialético. RESULTADOS: A pandemia da COVID-19 piorou a saúde mental dos homens, porque aprimorou a história problemática pessoal, afetiva, familiar, ocupacional, disfuncional e/ou mórbida, e causa consequências de somatização psíquica, dissolução familiar, fim do relacionamento afetivo, conflitos conjugais, isolamento social, dificuldade financeira, vulnerabilidade da situação de trabalho e desgaste ocupacional, mudanças repentinas de comportamento, barreiras no acesso aos cuidados de saúde e experiências de morte e luto prejudicadas. CONCLUSÃO: É necessário fortalecer redes de apoio social, a fim de minimizar os impactos diretos e indiretos causados pela materialidade da pandemia para a saúde mental e as várias dimensões da vida afetadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Social Isolation/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Men/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Attitude to Health , Qualitative Research , Mental Disorders/diagnosis
13.
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(3): e3458, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289642

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La insuficiencia renal crónica terminal constituye uno de los problemas de salud más complejos por las afectaciones que provoca a la calidad de vida de los pacientes y por las dificultades que entraña la adherencia del paciente al tratamiento. Objetivo: Identificar la relación entre la calidad de vida percibida y la adherencia al tratamiento de los pacientes portadores de insuficiencia renal crónica terminal que reciben hemodiálisis. Método: Estudio de tipo correlacional realizado en el servicio de Hemodiálisis del Hospital General Docente "Juan B. Viñas González" de Palma Soriano, Santiago de Cuba. Del universo de 32 pacientes se trabajó con la población constituida por 16 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión/exclusión. Las técnicas utilizadas fueron: cuestionario de calidad de vida de la OMS, revisión de documentos, entrevistas y la observación. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo (análisis de frecuencias) y se aplicó el método no paramétrico de correlación de Spearman. Resultados: Más de la mitad (56,25 %) de la población reflejó una calidad de vida percibida regular, el 25 % buena y el 18,75 % mala. La dimensión de salud física se mostró dentro de las más afectadas, observándose una valoración negativa con respecto a la enfermedad, pues más del 85 % de los encuestados la consideró como grave o muy grave. Se apreciaron afectaciones al sueño, donde más del 60 % de los pacientes se sintió insatisfecho con este aspecto. Los síntomas de la enfermedad son valorados, por la mayoría (81,25 %) como severos o muy severos. Conclusiones: Los pacientes poseen adherencia media al tratamiento y una calidad de vida percibida regular, y existe correlación fuerte y directa entre la adherencia al tratamiento y la calidad de vida percibida.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The end-stage chronic renal disease, due to how it affects the patient´s quality of life and the difficulties involved in the adherence of patient to treatment, is one of the most complex health problems. Objective: To identify the relationship between perceived quality of life and adherence to treatment in patients with end-stage chronic renal disease receiving hemodialysis. Method: A correlative study was conducted in the hemodialysis service room at the Hospital General Docente "Juan B. Viñas González" in Palma Soriano, Santiago de Cuba. The universe studied included 32 patients and 16 (met inclusion/exclusion criteria) were selected to work with. The techniques used were: World Health Organization quality of life questionnaire, document review, interviews and observation. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed (frequency analysis) and the nonparametric method applied was the Spearman's correlation coefficient using the SPSS 19.0 data processing program. Results: More than half of the population (56.25%) reported a fair quality of life, good (25%), and bad (18.75%). The physical health dimension was one of the most affected and it was found a negative assess of the disease in which more than 85% of those polled considered it as serious or very serious. Some sleep disorders was found and more than 60% of patients were unsatisfied related this issue. Most of the patients (81.25%) characterized the disease symptoms as severe or very severe. Conclusions: Patients studied had an adherence to treatment in a medium level and a perceived fair quality of life. There is also a correlation between the patient adherences to treatment and perceived quality of life.


RESUMO Introdução: A insuficiência renal crônica terminal constitui um dos problemas de saúde mais complexos pelos efeitos que causa na qualidade de vida dos pacientes e pelas dificuldades que a adesão do paciente ao tratamento acarreta. Objetivo: Identificar a relação entre a percepção de qualidade de vida e a adesão ao tratamento em pacientes com doença renal terminal em hemodiálise. Método: Estudo do tipo correlacional realizado no serviço de Hemodiálise do Hospital Geral de Ensino "Juan B. Viñas González" em Palma Soriano, Santiago de Cuba. Do universo de 32 pacientes, trabalhamos com a população composta por 16 pacientes que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão / exclusão. As técnicas utilizadas foram: questionário de qualidade de vida da Organização Mundial da Saúde, revisão documental, entrevistas e observação. Foi realizada análise estatística descritiva (análise de frequência) e aplicado o método não paramétrico. Resultados: Mais da metade (56,25%) da população apresentou percepção de qualidade de vida regular, 25% boa e 18,75% ruim. A dimensão saúde física esteve entre as mais afetadas, com avaliação negativa em relação à doença, uma vez que mais de 85% dos inquiridos a consideraram grave ou muito grave. Além disso, foram notados distúrbios do sono, onde mais de 60% dos pacientes se sentiram insatisfeitos com esse aspecto. Os sintomas da doença são avaliados, pela maioria (81,25%), como graves ou muito graves. Conclusões: Os pacientes apresentam média de adesão ao tratamento e percepção de qualidade de vida regular, havendo forte e direta correlação entre adesão ao tratamento e percepção de qualidade de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Quality of Life , Renal Dialysis/methods , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Kidney Failure, Chronic/psychology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/drug therapy , Attitude of Health Personnel , Attitude to Health , Indicators of Quality of Life
14.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(2): 117-126, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280113

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar por meio de questionários estruturados, o conhecimento sobre a doença, o manejo de colírios e a adesão ao tratamento de portadores de glaucoma pertencentes a dois públicos com nível de escolaridade e nível sócio econômico distintos. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal analítico aplicando-se questionários estruturados, com base em estudo exploratório para avaliação do nível de conhecimento dos portadores de Glaucoma em relação a doença em dois públicos diferentes: sistema único de saúde (SUS) e planos privados de saúde. Os questionários foram aplicados por médicos residentes em Oftalmologia. A amostra é composta de 202 pacientes dentre eles 100 atendidos pelo SUS e os outros 102 pacientes dos planos privados de saúde. Todos os questionários possuem termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido assinado pelo participante e pelo pesquisador responsável. Resultados: Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, compostos por: 100 pacientes SUS e 102 planos de saúde privado. Os resultados revelaram que: 58,6% dos pacientes do SUS tinham escolaridade nenhuma a fundamental incompleto e 25,5% dos pacientes de convênio tinham algum nível superior); 49% do grupo SUS tinham renda com menos de 2 salários mínimos enquanto que grupo convênio apresentou 39,4% com mais de 4 salários mínimos (p<0,001); 51,5% do grupo SUS não tem gastos com compra de colírios e 67,4% do grupo convênio gasta mais de R$30,00 (p<0,001) portanto 77% do grupo SUS recebe ajuda e 52,5% do grupo convenio não recebe ajuda (p<0,001); 63,6% do grupo convenio acredita que a quantidade de instilações a mais do colírios não obtêm uma melhora do glaucoma, enquanto aproximadamente 50% do grupo SUS relata que há uma melhora com aumento das instilações ou não tem ideia (p=0,030); Ambos os grupos obtiveram um nível de conhecimento geral da doença semelhante, sem diferença estatística. Conclusão: Concluímos que, independente do nível de escolaridade e nível socioeconômico, havendo boa relação médico-paciente, além de acompanhamento orientado e próximo, é possível transmitir conhecimento adequado sobre a doença elevando o nível de adesão ao tratamento pelo paciente.


ABSTRACT Objective: Compare, through structured questionnaires, the knowledge about disease, management of eye drops and adherence to treatment of glaucoma patients disposed in two groups according to educational levels and socioeconomic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out applying structured questionnaires based on an exploratory study to assess the level of Glaucoma patients' knowledge relationated with the disease in two different audiences: the single health system (SUS) and private health plans. The questionnaires were used by doctors residents in Ophthalmology. A sample was composed of 202 patients among which 100 were attended by SUS and the others 102 patients were holders of private health plans. All questionnaires have a free and informed consent form signed by the participant and the responsible researcher. Results: Patients were divided into two groups, consisting of: 100 SUS patients and 102 private health plans. The results revealed that: 58.6% of SUS patients had incomplete elementary schooling and 25.5% of private health insurance patients had some level of higher education; 49% of the SUS group had an income with less than 2 minimum wages while the health insurance group presented 39.4% with more than 4 minimum wages (p <0.001); 51.5% of the SUS group has no spending on eye drops and 67.4% of the health insurance group spends more than R $ 30.00 (p <0.001) so, 77% of the SUS group receives financial aid and 52.5% of the health insurance group does not receive any financial support (p <0.001); 63.6% of the health insurance group believes that the bigger amount of instillations than eyedrops does not improve glaucoma, while approximately 50% of the SUS group reports that there is an improvement when increasing instillations or has no idea (p = 0.030); Both groups obtained a similar level of general knowledge of the disease, with no statistical difference. Conclusion: We conclude that regardless of educational and socioeconomic level if prevails a good doctor-patient relationship, in addition to close monitoring, it is possible to transmit adequate knowledge about the disease, increasing levels of treatment adherence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Glaucoma/psychology , Glaucoma/drug therapy , Ophthalmic Solutions/administration & dosage , Physician-Patient Relations , Socioeconomic Factors , Attitude to Health , Demography , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Blindness/prevention & control , Patient Education as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Patient Compliance , Educational Status , Medication Adherence/psychology
15.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(1): 36-44, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1283249

ABSTRACT

Determinar la asociación entre la percepción de los consejos prácticos y los mensajes educativos de las guías alimentarias en estudiantes de una universidad privada de Perú. Estudio transversal. La población correspondió a estudiantes que cursan el primero a décimo semestre de las carreras de una universidad privada de Lima-Perú. La muestra fue de 480 universitarios quienes aceptaron voluntariamente participar en el estudio. Los datos fueron recolectados en el periodo octubre a noviembre del año 2019. Se aplicó un cuestionario para recoger la percepción de estudiantes universitarios sobre los mensajes de las guías alimentarias y medios de difusión donde les gustaría conocer información sobre mensajes educativos. El 46,5% corresponde a estudiantes de las carreras de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Los mensajes 1, 3, 4, 6, 9 y 11 de las guías alimentarias peruanas mostraron asociación estadística evidente (p<0,05). Los medios de difusión con mayor proporción por los cuales les gustaría conocer mensajes educativos sobre alimentación saludable, fueron la Televisión (28,5%), Instagram (27,7%) y Facebook (19,0%). Se deberían diseñar e implementar publicidad diferenciada en televisión, Instagram y Facebook sobre alimentación saludable para contribuir a la mejora del estado de salud y nutrición de los universitarios peruanos(AU)


To determine the association between the perception of practical advice and the educational messages of the food guides in students of a private university in Peru. Cross-sectional study. The population corresponded to undergrads who are from the first to tenth semester of their degrees in a private university of Lima-Peru. The sample was 480 university students who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. The data were collected in the period from october to november of the year 2019. A questionnaire was applied to collect the perception of university students about the messages of the dietary guidelines and the media where they would like to know information about educational messages. 46.5% correspond to undergrads of the Faculty of Health Sciences. Messages 1, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 11 of the Peruvian GABAS showed an evident statistical association (p <0.05). The media with the highest proportion by which they would like to know educational messages about healthy eating were Television (28.5%), Instagram (27.7%) and Facebook (19.0%). Differentiated advertising should be designed and implemented on television, Instagram and Facebook on healthy eating to contribute to the improvement of the health and nutrition status of Peruvian university students(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Students , Universities , Attitude to Health , Counseling , Educational and Promotional Materials , Food Guide , Peru , Food and Nutrition Education , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Healthy Lifestyle
16.
Niger. j. med. (Online) ; 30(4): 394-399, 2021. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1290637

ABSTRACT

Background: Maternal attitude to health-seeking behavior of their under-five children in the COVID-19 pandemic is not well-known. Objectives: This study is aimed at determining mothers' perception of COVID-19 pandemic among their under-five children and associated factors. Methodology: This is a prospective and observational study carried out in two health institutions in South-East Nigeria. Results: Most subjects, 243 (65.3%) noted that someone without showing symptoms of COVID-19 could transmit the virus. Of the mothers of children under-five, 271 (72.8%) highlighted the possibility of COVID-19 infection in the under-five. A small number of participants 53 (14.2%) showed awareness that people should cough into their elbows as a way of preventing the transmission of COVID-19. A small number of participants, 160 (43.0%) had a good perception of COVID-19. Majority of mothers who were married, 148 (44.7%) showed a good perception of COVID-19 when compared with those who were single, 12 (29.3%); however, this is not significant, (χ2 = 3.550, P = 0.060). A large number of participants who have attained tertiary education, 92 (48.9%) had a good perception of COVID-19 which is higher than that seen in mothers with secondary education 68 (37.0%) (χ2 = 5.444, P = 0.020). Participants who were 30­34 years had 1.8 times higher odds of good perception of COVID 19 compared with mothers who were more than 35 years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.803, 95% confidence interval = 1.026­3.170). Conclusion: Although most mothers affirm that a child could be infected by COVID-19, a small number of them actually had a good perception of COVID-19 infection. Good perception of COVID-19 among the under-five is enhanced by the high level of education and age of 32­34 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Perception , Maternal Health , Maternal Behavior , Mothers
17.
Salud colect ; 17: e3358, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290042

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Entre los efectos sociales de la pandemia de COVID-19, el aumento de la pobreza, el desempleo y la desigualdad social en el país agravaron los problemas de salud, principalmente, de la población más pobre. Esta investigación buscó discutir potencialidades y limitaciones del proceso de trabajo en atención primaria de la salud, basado en la Estrategia de Salud Familiar. Para ello, entre enero y febrero de 2020, se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a cuatro mujeres residentes de una ocupación urbana del interior del estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Se encontró que presentan sufrimiento relacionado con la precariedad de las viviendas, la provisoriedad, el aislamiento social y el silenciamiento. El modo en que se organiza la atención primaria de la salud y el proceso de trabajo de las y los profesionales dificulta tanto el acceso de una parte de la población a los servicios de salud, como la percepción de las y los profesionales sobre el sufrimiento de la población. Los resultados de la investigación indican la necesidad de una nueva evaluación y perfeccionamiento de la Estrategia de Salud Familiar.


ABSTRACT Among the social effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, increased poverty, unemployment, and social inequality in Brazil have led to worsening health problems, especially in the poorest citizens. The purpose of this research was to discuss the potentialities and limitations of the work process in primary health care based on the Family Health Strategy. In order to do so, we conducted semi-structured interviews with four women living in an informal settlement in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between January and February 2020. We found that the women experienced suffering in relation to issues such as housing precariousness, transience, social isolation, and silencing. The way in which primary health care is organized and professionals' work processes make it difficult for this population to access health services and for professionals to perceive their suffering. The findings of this research point to the need to reevaluate and improve the Family Health Strategy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Primary Health Care , Brazil/epidemiology , Attitude to Health , Urban Health , Interviews as Topic , Women's Health , Vulnerable Populations , Pandemics , Housing
18.
Medwave ; 21(1): e8103, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282817

ABSTRACT

Introducción La migración internacional es un determinante social de la salud que puede influir en los resultados de salud de un individuo y su comunidad. La última década ha experimentado un gran éxodo desde Venezuela a otros países de la región, incluido Chile. En los últimos meses, el mundo se ha enfrentado a la pandemia de coronavirus del SARS-CoV-2 y su enfermedad respiratoria COVID-19. Objetivo Explorar qué factores están asociados con sentirse preparado para enfrentar la pandemia de COVID-19 entre la población venezolana que reside en Chile. Métodos Estudio cuantitativo transversal, siguiendo el diseño de una encuesta de opinión. Encuesta auto-aplicada en línea en español y Creol haitiano, que fue diseñada y puesta a prueba con expertos y migrantes internacionales. Se difundió a varios grupos internacionales de migrantes a través de redes de organizaciones de migrantes y pro-migrantes, así como a través de la red chilena de atención de salud pública en todo el territorio nacional. Tamaño de muestra de 1690 participantes, de los cuales 1008 (60%) eran de Venezuela y se incluyeron en este análisis descriptivo. Se analizó en forma descriptiva la variable principal sentirse preparado para enfrentar la pandemia de COVID-19 (sí/no) así como las variables sexo, nivel educacional, tiempo de estadía en Chile, tipo de previsión de salud, ansiedad o depresión debido a COVID-19, cumplimiento de confinamiento y evaluación de calidad de la información sobre COVID-19 que se ha recibido de autoridades y equipos de salud. Resultados 65% de los participantes venezolanos informaron no sentirse preparados para la pandemia. En comparación con los migrantes venezolanos que se sienten preparados para enfrentar la pandemia de COVID-19, los migrantes venezolanos que reportaron no sentirse preparados eran en mayor proporción mujeres, con nivel de educación secundaria, habían llegado a Chile en el último año, no tienen trabajo pero quieren trabajar, y pertenecer a la prestación sanitaria pública. Discusión Recibir información de buena calidad sobre la pandemia y la salud mental son factores importantes asociados con sentirse preparado para enfrentar COVID-19 en migrantes venezolanos en Chile, lo cual sugiere que se necesita más atención en la salud física y mental de los migrantes venezolanos en Chile y en la región.


Introduction International migration is a social determinant of health. The past decade has seen a large exodus of Venezuelans within Latin America, including Chile. In the past months, the world has been facing the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic and its respiratory disease COVID-19. Objective To explore what factors are associated with feeling prepared to face the COVID-19 pandemic among the Venezuelan population residing in Chile. Methods Cross-sectional quantitative study with an opinion poll design. An online self-reported survey in Spanish and Creole was designed and piloted with experts and international migrants. It was disseminated to various international migrant groups through networks of migrant and pro-migrant organizations and the Chilean public health care network across the national territory. An effective sample size for analysis of 1690 participants was reached, of which 1008 (60%) were from Venezuela and included in this analysis. Feeling prepared to face the COVID-19 pandemic (yes/no) among Venezuelan migrants was described, as well as relevant variables like sex, level of education, length of stay, healthcare provision, anxiety or depression due to COVID-19, confinement, and evaluation of the quality of the information provided by the COVID-19 government. Results 65% of the Venezuelan participants reported not feeling prepared for the pandemic. Compared to Venezuelan migrants who feel prepared to face the COVID-19 pandemic, migrants who reported not feeling prepared were in a higher proportion female, with secondary education level, had arrived in Chile in the past year, do not have a job but want to work, and belong to the public healthcare provision. Discussion Receiving good quality information on the pandemic and mental health symptoms are important factors associated with feeling prepared to face COVID-19 in Venezuelan migrants in Chile, suggesting that increased attention towards the physical and mental health of Venezuelan migrants in Chile and the region is needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Transients and Migrants/psychology , Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Public Opinion , Venezuela/ethnology , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Public perceptions and personal characteristics are heterogeneous between countries and subgroups, which may have different impacts on health-protective behaviors during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To assess whether self-reported perceptions of COVID-19 and personal characteristics are associated with protective behaviors among general adults and to compare patterns in six different countries.@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study uses the secondary data collected through an online survey between 15 and 23 April 2020 across six countries (China, Italy, Japan, Korea, the UK, and the USA). A total of 5945 adults aged 18 years or older were eligible for our analysis. A logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of three recommended behaviors (wearing a mask, handwashing, and avoiding social gatherings).@*RESULTS@#In most countries except for China, the participants who perceived wearing a mask as being extremely effective to curtail the pandemic were more likely to wear a mask (OR, 95%CI: Italy: 4.14, 2.08-8.02; Japan: 3.59, 1.75-7.30; Korea: 7.89, 1.91-31.63: UK: 9.23, 5.14-17.31; USA: 4.81, 2.61-8.92). Those who perceived that handwashing was extremely effective had higher ORs of this preventive behavior (OR, 95%CI: Italy: 16.39, 3.56-70.18; Japan: 12.24, 4.03-37.35; Korea: 12.41, 2.02-76.39; UK: 18.04, 2.60-152.78; USA: 10.56, 2.21-44.32). The participants who perceived avoiding social gathering as being extremely effective to curtail the pandemic were more likely to take this type of preventive behavior (OR, 95%CI: China: 3.79, 1.28-10.23; Korea: 6.18, 1.77-20.60; UK: 4.45, 1.63-11.63; USA: 4.34, 1.84-9.95). The associations between personal characteristics, living environment, psychological status, and preventive behaviors varied across different countries. Individuals who changed their behavior because of recommendations from doctors/public health officials were more likely to take preventive behaviors in many countries.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that higher perceived effectiveness may be a common factor to encourage preventive behaviors in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These results may provide a better understanding of the homogeneity and heterogeneity of factors related to preventive behaviors and improve public health policies in various countries and groups.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Disinfection , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Social Conformity , Young Adult
20.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 6(4): 283-290, oct.-dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1391317

ABSTRACT

Las actitudes reflejan los antecedentes y las experiencias de una persona, se adoptan en razón de un conjunto de fuerzas como la personalidad, valores y creencias de cada uno. La enfermedad de células falciformes es una patología genética, crónica que constituye la forma más frecuente y mejor conocida de hemoglobinopatía estructural. El objetivo, fue determinar las actitudes (en sus componentes cognitivo y afectivo) que presentan los pobladores de Masca y Pueblo Nuevo, en Omoa, Cortés hacia la anemia drepanocítica. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, no experimental, transeccional y alcance descriptivo. Población: 274 personas alfabetos, de 15 años o más, muestreo probabilístico: 148 personas, voluntarias anuentes a participar en la investigación. Se elaboró un instrumento tipo escala de Likert constituido por 20 ítems que midieron las actitudes hacia la anemia drepanocítica. El análisis estadístico se realizó con el programa Microsoft Excel. Los resultados ante el componente cognitivo indicaron que 65 personas, (44 %) consideraron tener conocimientos sobre la temática y reconocieron que es necesario se informe sobre la enfermedad. 19 personas (13 %) estaban inseguras de emitir una respuesta; 78 (53 %) manifestaron que, a pesar de tener algún tipo de conocimientos en torno a la enfermedad, requieren más información. En cuanto al componente afectivo, 58 (39 %) manifestaron experimentar temor ante la idea de enfrentarse a este tipo de enfermedad; 30 (20 %) se mostraron inseguras o indiferentes de emitir una respuesta y 61 (41 %) manifestaron que no sabrían que hacer o cómo actuar ante la idea de que ellos o alguien de su familia padezcan de la enfermedad. Se concluyó que existe la necesidad de informar a la población, sobre anemia drepanocítica para saber cómo enfrentarla, tanto a nivel individual como colectivamente.


Attitudes reflect the antecedents and experiences of a person, they are adopted due to a set of forces such as the personality, values and beliefs of each one. Sickle cell disease is a chronic, genetic pathology that is the most common and best known form of structural hemoglobinopathy. The objective was to determine the attitudes (in its cognitive and affective components) that the inhabitants of Masca and Pueblo Nuevo, in Omoa, Cortés have towards sickle cell anemia. A quantitative, non- experimental, transectional study with a descriptive scope was carried out. Population: 274 literate people, aged 15 or over, probability sampling: 148 people, volunteers willing to participate in the research. A Likert scale instrument was developed consisting of 20 items that measured attitudes towards sickle cell anemia. Statistical analysis was carried out with the Microsoft Excel program. The results regarding the cognitive component indicated that 65 people (44%) considered they had knowledge about the subject and recognized that it is necessary to inform themselves about the disease. 19 people (13%) were unsure about giving an answer; 78 (53%) stated that, despite having some kind of knowledge about the disease, they require more information. Regarding the affective component, 58 (39%) expressed fear at the idea of facing this type of illness; 30 (20%) were unsure or indifferent to issue a response and 61 (41%) stated that they would not know what to do or how to act when faced with the idea that they or someone in their family had the disease. It was concluded that there is a need to inform the population about sickle cell anemia in order to know how to deal with it, both individually and collectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Attitude to Health , Anemia, Sickle Cell/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Self Report
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