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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(4): 386-389, Aug. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288593

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The generation of individual behavior is closely related to the environment in which it is located and is easily affected by environmental factors. Objective: The thesis takes the social ecology model theory as the starting point, applies the five different levels of influencing factors in the theoretical model to the field of youth physical exercise behavior, and seeks the interrelationship between the various influencing factors. Methods: Using questionnaire surveys, interviews, and other research methods, the paper makes a simple theoretical combing and analysis of the healthy behavior ecology model, seeks the interrelationship between the influencing factors, propose complementary intervention strategies, and promote the development of adolescents' physical exercise habits through effective ways. Results: The motivation of sports participation, the protection of physical health, family health awareness, economic and educational environment, professional quality of physical education teachers and school exercise environment and community facilities affect the direction of the development of adolescents' physical exercise behavior. Conclusions: Only by comprehensively considering the relationship between various related factors can we better understand adolescent physical exercise development characteristics, propose complementary intervention strategies, and promote physical exercise habits effectively. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A geração do comportamento individual está intimamente relacionada ao ambiente em que está inserida e é facilmente afetada por fatores ambientais. Objetivo: A tese toma como ponto de partida a teoria do modelo da ecologia social, aplica os cinco diferentes níveis de fatores influenciadores do modelo teórico ao campo do comportamento de exercício físico juvenil e busca a inter-relação entre os vários fatores influenciadores. Métodos: Utilizando questionários, entrevistas e outros métodos de pesquisa, o artigo faz uma análise teórica simples do modelo de ecologia do comportamento saudável, busca a inter-relação entre os fatores que influenciam, propõe estratégias de intervenção complementares e promove o desenvolvimento físico dos adolescentes. hábitos de exercício através de formas eficazes. Resultados: A motivação para a prática de esportes, a proteção da saúde física, a conscientização sobre a saúde da família, o ambiente econômico e educacional, a qualidade profissional dos professores de educação física e o ambiente de exercício escolar e as instalações comunitárias afetam a direção do desenvolvimento do comportamento de exercício físico dos adolescentes. Conclusões: Somente considerando de forma abrangente a relação entre vários fatores relacionados podemos entender melhor as características do desenvolvimento de exercícios físicos em adolescentes, propor estratégias de intervenção complementar e promover hábitos de exercícios físicos de forma eficaz. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos: investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Antecedentes: La generación del comportamiento individual está íntimamente relacionada con el entorno en el que se ubica y es fácilmente afectado por factores ambientales. Objetivo: La tesis toma como punto de partida la teoría del modelo de ecología social, aplica los cinco niveles diferentes de factores de influencia en el modelo teórico al campo de la conducta de ejercicio físico juvenil y busca la interrelación entre los diversos factores de influencia. Métodos: Mediante cuestionarios, entrevistas y otros métodos de investigación, el trabajo realiza un simple peinado y análisis teórico del modelo de ecología del comportamiento saludable, busca la interrelación entre los factores influyentes, propone estrategias de intervención complementarias y promueve el desarrollo de la física de los adolescentes. Hábitos de ejercicio de forma eficaz. Resultados: La motivación de la participación deportiva, la protección de la salud física, la conciencia de la salud familiar, el entorno económico y educativo, la calidad profesional de los profesores de educación física y el entorno de ejercicio escolar y las instalaciones comunitarias afectan la dirección del desarrollo de la conducta de ejercicio físico de los adolescentes. Conclusiones: Solo considerando de manera integral la relación entre varios factores relacionados podemos comprender mejor las características del desarrollo del ejercicio físico en los adolescentes, proponer estrategias de intervención complementarias y promover los hábitos de ejercicio físico de manera efectiva. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Exercise/physiology , Adolescent Behavior/physiology , Healthy Lifestyle/physiology , Social Environment , Students , Attitude to Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Models, Theoretical
2.
Rev. inf. cient ; 100(3): e3458, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289642

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La insuficiencia renal crónica terminal constituye uno de los problemas de salud más complejos por las afectaciones que provoca a la calidad de vida de los pacientes y por las dificultades que entraña la adherencia del paciente al tratamiento. Objetivo: Identificar la relación entre la calidad de vida percibida y la adherencia al tratamiento de los pacientes portadores de insuficiencia renal crónica terminal que reciben hemodiálisis. Método: Estudio de tipo correlacional realizado en el servicio de Hemodiálisis del Hospital General Docente "Juan B. Viñas González" de Palma Soriano, Santiago de Cuba. Del universo de 32 pacientes se trabajó con la población constituida por 16 pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión/exclusión. Las técnicas utilizadas fueron: cuestionario de calidad de vida de la OMS, revisión de documentos, entrevistas y la observación. Se realizó análisis estadístico descriptivo (análisis de frecuencias) y se aplicó el método no paramétrico de correlación de Spearman. Resultados: Más de la mitad (56,25 %) de la población reflejó una calidad de vida percibida regular, el 25 % buena y el 18,75 % mala. La dimensión de salud física se mostró dentro de las más afectadas, observándose una valoración negativa con respecto a la enfermedad, pues más del 85 % de los encuestados la consideró como grave o muy grave. Se apreciaron afectaciones al sueño, donde más del 60 % de los pacientes se sintió insatisfecho con este aspecto. Los síntomas de la enfermedad son valorados, por la mayoría (81,25 %) como severos o muy severos. Conclusiones: Los pacientes poseen adherencia media al tratamiento y una calidad de vida percibida regular, y existe correlación fuerte y directa entre la adherencia al tratamiento y la calidad de vida percibida.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The end-stage chronic renal disease, due to how it affects the patient´s quality of life and the difficulties involved in the adherence of patient to treatment, is one of the most complex health problems. Objective: To identify the relationship between perceived quality of life and adherence to treatment in patients with end-stage chronic renal disease receiving hemodialysis. Method: A correlative study was conducted in the hemodialysis service room at the Hospital General Docente "Juan B. Viñas González" in Palma Soriano, Santiago de Cuba. The universe studied included 32 patients and 16 (met inclusion/exclusion criteria) were selected to work with. The techniques used were: World Health Organization quality of life questionnaire, document review, interviews and observation. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed (frequency analysis) and the nonparametric method applied was the Spearman's correlation coefficient using the SPSS 19.0 data processing program. Results: More than half of the population (56.25%) reported a fair quality of life, good (25%), and bad (18.75%). The physical health dimension was one of the most affected and it was found a negative assess of the disease in which more than 85% of those polled considered it as serious or very serious. Some sleep disorders was found and more than 60% of patients were unsatisfied related this issue. Most of the patients (81.25%) characterized the disease symptoms as severe or very severe. Conclusions: Patients studied had an adherence to treatment in a medium level and a perceived fair quality of life. There is also a correlation between the patient adherences to treatment and perceived quality of life.


RESUMO Introdução: A insuficiência renal crônica terminal constitui um dos problemas de saúde mais complexos pelos efeitos que causa na qualidade de vida dos pacientes e pelas dificuldades que a adesão do paciente ao tratamento acarreta. Objetivo: Identificar a relação entre a percepção de qualidade de vida e a adesão ao tratamento em pacientes com doença renal terminal em hemodiálise. Método: Estudo do tipo correlacional realizado no serviço de Hemodiálise do Hospital Geral de Ensino "Juan B. Viñas González" em Palma Soriano, Santiago de Cuba. Do universo de 32 pacientes, trabalhamos com a população composta por 16 pacientes que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão / exclusão. As técnicas utilizadas foram: questionário de qualidade de vida da Organização Mundial da Saúde, revisão documental, entrevistas e observação. Foi realizada análise estatística descritiva (análise de frequência) e aplicado o método não paramétrico. Resultados: Mais da metade (56,25%) da população apresentou percepção de qualidade de vida regular, 25% boa e 18,75% ruim. A dimensão saúde física esteve entre as mais afetadas, com avaliação negativa em relação à doença, uma vez que mais de 85% dos inquiridos a consideraram grave ou muito grave. Além disso, foram notados distúrbios do sono, onde mais de 60% dos pacientes se sentiram insatisfeitos com esse aspecto. Os sintomas da doença são avaliados, pela maioria (81,25%), como graves ou muito graves. Conclusões: Os pacientes apresentam média de adesão ao tratamento e percepção de qualidade de vida regular, havendo forte e direta correlação entre adesão ao tratamento e percepção de qualidade de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Quality of Life , Renal Dialysis/methods , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Kidney Failure, Chronic/psychology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/drug therapy , Attitude of Health Personnel , Attitude to Health , Indicators of Quality of Life
3.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 71(1): 36-44, mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1283249

ABSTRACT

Determinar la asociación entre la percepción de los consejos prácticos y los mensajes educativos de las guías alimentarias en estudiantes de una universidad privada de Perú. Estudio transversal. La población correspondió a estudiantes que cursan el primero a décimo semestre de las carreras de una universidad privada de Lima-Perú. La muestra fue de 480 universitarios quienes aceptaron voluntariamente participar en el estudio. Los datos fueron recolectados en el periodo octubre a noviembre del año 2019. Se aplicó un cuestionario para recoger la percepción de estudiantes universitarios sobre los mensajes de las guías alimentarias y medios de difusión donde les gustaría conocer información sobre mensajes educativos. El 46,5% corresponde a estudiantes de las carreras de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Los mensajes 1, 3, 4, 6, 9 y 11 de las guías alimentarias peruanas mostraron asociación estadística evidente (p<0,05). Los medios de difusión con mayor proporción por los cuales les gustaría conocer mensajes educativos sobre alimentación saludable, fueron la Televisión (28,5%), Instagram (27,7%) y Facebook (19,0%). Se deberían diseñar e implementar publicidad diferenciada en televisión, Instagram y Facebook sobre alimentación saludable para contribuir a la mejora del estado de salud y nutrición de los universitarios peruanos(AU)


To determine the association between the perception of practical advice and the educational messages of the food guides in students of a private university in Peru. Cross-sectional study. The population corresponded to undergrads who are from the first to tenth semester of their degrees in a private university of Lima-Peru. The sample was 480 university students who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. The data were collected in the period from october to november of the year 2019. A questionnaire was applied to collect the perception of university students about the messages of the dietary guidelines and the media where they would like to know information about educational messages. 46.5% correspond to undergrads of the Faculty of Health Sciences. Messages 1, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 11 of the Peruvian GABAS showed an evident statistical association (p <0.05). The media with the highest proportion by which they would like to know educational messages about healthy eating were Television (28.5%), Instagram (27.7%) and Facebook (19.0%). Differentiated advertising should be designed and implemented on television, Instagram and Facebook on healthy eating to contribute to the improvement of the health and nutrition status of Peruvian university students(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Students , Universities , Attitude to Health , Counseling , Educational and Promotional Materials , Food Guide , Peru , Food and Nutrition Education , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Healthy Lifestyle
4.
Niger. j. med. (Online) ; 30(4): 394-399, 2021. Tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1290637

ABSTRACT

Background: Maternal attitude to health-seeking behavior of their under-five children in the COVID-19 pandemic is not well-known. Objectives: This study is aimed at determining mothers' perception of COVID-19 pandemic among their under-five children and associated factors. Methodology: This is a prospective and observational study carried out in two health institutions in South-East Nigeria. Results: Most subjects, 243 (65.3%) noted that someone without showing symptoms of COVID-19 could transmit the virus. Of the mothers of children under-five, 271 (72.8%) highlighted the possibility of COVID-19 infection in the under-five. A small number of participants 53 (14.2%) showed awareness that people should cough into their elbows as a way of preventing the transmission of COVID-19. A small number of participants, 160 (43.0%) had a good perception of COVID-19. Majority of mothers who were married, 148 (44.7%) showed a good perception of COVID-19 when compared with those who were single, 12 (29.3%); however, this is not significant, (χ2 = 3.550, P = 0.060). A large number of participants who have attained tertiary education, 92 (48.9%) had a good perception of COVID-19 which is higher than that seen in mothers with secondary education 68 (37.0%) (χ2 = 5.444, P = 0.020). Participants who were 30­34 years had 1.8 times higher odds of good perception of COVID 19 compared with mothers who were more than 35 years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.803, 95% confidence interval = 1.026­3.170). Conclusion: Although most mothers affirm that a child could be infected by COVID-19, a small number of them actually had a good perception of COVID-19 infection. Good perception of COVID-19 among the under-five is enhanced by the high level of education and age of 32­34 years.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Perception , Maternal Health , Maternal Behavior , Mothers
5.
Medwave ; 21(1): e8103, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282817

ABSTRACT

Introducción La migración internacional es un determinante social de la salud que puede influir en los resultados de salud de un individuo y su comunidad. La última década ha experimentado un gran éxodo desde Venezuela a otros países de la región, incluido Chile. En los últimos meses, el mundo se ha enfrentado a la pandemia de coronavirus del SARS-CoV-2 y su enfermedad respiratoria COVID-19. Objetivo Explorar qué factores están asociados con sentirse preparado para enfrentar la pandemia de COVID-19 entre la población venezolana que reside en Chile. Métodos Estudio cuantitativo transversal, siguiendo el diseño de una encuesta de opinión. Encuesta auto-aplicada en línea en español y Creol haitiano, que fue diseñada y puesta a prueba con expertos y migrantes internacionales. Se difundió a varios grupos internacionales de migrantes a través de redes de organizaciones de migrantes y pro-migrantes, así como a través de la red chilena de atención de salud pública en todo el territorio nacional. Tamaño de muestra de 1690 participantes, de los cuales 1008 (60%) eran de Venezuela y se incluyeron en este análisis descriptivo. Se analizó en forma descriptiva la variable principal sentirse preparado para enfrentar la pandemia de COVID-19 (sí/no) así como las variables sexo, nivel educacional, tiempo de estadía en Chile, tipo de previsión de salud, ansiedad o depresión debido a COVID-19, cumplimiento de confinamiento y evaluación de calidad de la información sobre COVID-19 que se ha recibido de autoridades y equipos de salud. Resultados 65% de los participantes venezolanos informaron no sentirse preparados para la pandemia. En comparación con los migrantes venezolanos que se sienten preparados para enfrentar la pandemia de COVID-19, los migrantes venezolanos que reportaron no sentirse preparados eran en mayor proporción mujeres, con nivel de educación secundaria, habían llegado a Chile en el último año, no tienen trabajo pero quieren trabajar, y pertenecer a la prestación sanitaria pública. Discusión Recibir información de buena calidad sobre la pandemia y la salud mental son factores importantes asociados con sentirse preparado para enfrentar COVID-19 en migrantes venezolanos en Chile, lo cual sugiere que se necesita más atención en la salud física y mental de los migrantes venezolanos en Chile y en la región.


Introduction International migration is a social determinant of health. The past decade has seen a large exodus of Venezuelans within Latin America, including Chile. In the past months, the world has been facing the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic and its respiratory disease COVID-19. Objective To explore what factors are associated with feeling prepared to face the COVID-19 pandemic among the Venezuelan population residing in Chile. Methods Cross-sectional quantitative study with an opinion poll design. An online self-reported survey in Spanish and Creole was designed and piloted with experts and international migrants. It was disseminated to various international migrant groups through networks of migrant and pro-migrant organizations and the Chilean public health care network across the national territory. An effective sample size for analysis of 1690 participants was reached, of which 1008 (60%) were from Venezuela and included in this analysis. Feeling prepared to face the COVID-19 pandemic (yes/no) among Venezuelan migrants was described, as well as relevant variables like sex, level of education, length of stay, healthcare provision, anxiety or depression due to COVID-19, confinement, and evaluation of the quality of the information provided by the COVID-19 government. Results 65% of the Venezuelan participants reported not feeling prepared for the pandemic. Compared to Venezuelan migrants who feel prepared to face the COVID-19 pandemic, migrants who reported not feeling prepared were in a higher proportion female, with secondary education level, had arrived in Chile in the past year, do not have a job but want to work, and belong to the public healthcare provision. Discussion Receiving good quality information on the pandemic and mental health symptoms are important factors associated with feeling prepared to face COVID-19 in Venezuelan migrants in Chile, suggesting that increased attention towards the physical and mental health of Venezuelan migrants in Chile and the region is needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Transients and Migrants/psychology , Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Public Opinion , Venezuela/ethnology , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Public perceptions and personal characteristics are heterogeneous between countries and subgroups, which may have different impacts on health-protective behaviors during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To assess whether self-reported perceptions of COVID-19 and personal characteristics are associated with protective behaviors among general adults and to compare patterns in six different countries.@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study uses the secondary data collected through an online survey between 15 and 23 April 2020 across six countries (China, Italy, Japan, Korea, the UK, and the USA). A total of 5945 adults aged 18 years or older were eligible for our analysis. A logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of three recommended behaviors (wearing a mask, handwashing, and avoiding social gatherings).@*RESULTS@#In most countries except for China, the participants who perceived wearing a mask as being extremely effective to curtail the pandemic were more likely to wear a mask (OR, 95%CI: Italy: 4.14, 2.08-8.02; Japan: 3.59, 1.75-7.30; Korea: 7.89, 1.91-31.63: UK: 9.23, 5.14-17.31; USA: 4.81, 2.61-8.92). Those who perceived that handwashing was extremely effective had higher ORs of this preventive behavior (OR, 95%CI: Italy: 16.39, 3.56-70.18; Japan: 12.24, 4.03-37.35; Korea: 12.41, 2.02-76.39; UK: 18.04, 2.60-152.78; USA: 10.56, 2.21-44.32). The participants who perceived avoiding social gathering as being extremely effective to curtail the pandemic were more likely to take this type of preventive behavior (OR, 95%CI: China: 3.79, 1.28-10.23; Korea: 6.18, 1.77-20.60; UK: 4.45, 1.63-11.63; USA: 4.34, 1.84-9.95). The associations between personal characteristics, living environment, psychological status, and preventive behaviors varied across different countries. Individuals who changed their behavior because of recommendations from doctors/public health officials were more likely to take preventive behaviors in many countries.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that higher perceived effectiveness may be a common factor to encourage preventive behaviors in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These results may provide a better understanding of the homogeneity and heterogeneity of factors related to preventive behaviors and improve public health policies in various countries and groups.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Disinfection , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Social Conformity , Young Adult
7.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e45261, jan.-dez. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1146354

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar o conhecimento e o enfrentamento do diabetes junto a pessoas com diabetes em diálise. Método: estudo transversal, realizado com pacientes com diabetes tipo 2. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Diabetes Knowledge Scale Questionnaire (DKN-A) e o Diabetes Attitude Questionnaire (ATT-19). Resultados: participaram 71 pacientes, com idade média de 61,81±14,93 anos. A retinopatia diabética foi a complicação prevalente (81,69%); hipertensão arterial sistêmica foi a comorbidade (83,09%). A glicemia em jejum apresentou mediana de 152 (124-228,5) mg/dl e a hemoglobina glicada de 7,5 (6,42-8,27) mg/dl. O DKN-A apresentou escore médio de 7,84±2,55 pontos; seu item com maior número de acertos foi a conduta em caso de hipoglicemia; enquanto o com menor número de acertos foi em relação à cetonúria e substituições alimentares. O instrumento ATT-19 obteve média de 50,26±11,7 pontos. Conclusão: pessoas com diabetes, em diálise, apresentam conhecimento deficiente em relação ao diabetes, assim como baixo enfrentamento da doença.


Objective: to identify knowledge of, and coping with, diabetes mellitus among diabetics undergoing dialysis. Method: in this cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes, the instruments used were the Diabetes Knowledge Scale Questionnaire (DKN-A) and Diabetes Attitude Questionnaire (ATT-19). Results: mean age of the 71 participants was 61.81 ± 14.93 years. The most prevalent complication was diabetic retinopathy (81.69%), and the most prevalent comorbidity was systemic arterial hypertension (83.09%). Median fasting glycemia and glycated hemoglobin were 152 (124-228.5) mg/dl and 7,5 (6,42-8,27) mg/dl, respectively. Average DKN-A score was 7.84 ± 2.55; the highest success rate was on how to respond to hypoglycemia; the lowest was about ketones in urine and substitute foods. Mean ATT-19 score was 50.26 ± 11.7. Conclusion: the diabetics in dialysis showed deficient knowledge of diabetes and had negative attitudes to the disease.


Objetivo: identificar el conocimiento y el afrontamiento de la diabetes mellitus entre los diabéticos en diálisis. Método: en este estudio transversal de pacientes con diabetes tipo 2, los instrumentos utilizados fueron el Diabetes Knowledge Scale Questionnaire (DKN-A) y Diabetes Attitude Questionnaire (ATT-19). Resultados: la edad media de los 71 participantes fue de 61,81 ± 14,93 años. La complicación más prevalente fue la retinopatía diabética (81,69%) y la comorbilidad más prevalente fue la hipertensión arterial sistémica (83,09%). La mediana de la glucemia en ayunas y la hemoglobina glucosilada fueron 152 (124- 228,5) mg / dl y 7,5 (6,42-8,27) mg / dl, respectivamente. La puntuación promedio de DKN-A fue de 7,84 ± 2,55; la tasa de éxito más alta fue sobre cómo responder a la hipoglucemia; el más bajo fue sobre las cetonas en la orina y los alimentos sustitutos. La puntuación media de ATT-19 fue 50,26 ± 11,7. Conclusión: los diabéticos en diálisis mostraban un conocimiento deficiente de la diabetes y actitudes negativas hacia la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Adaptation, Psychological , Attitude to Health , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Peritoneal Dialysis/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/psychology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/psychology , Self Care , Socioeconomic Factors , Health Profile , Brazil/epidemiology , Health Education , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Peritoneal Dialysis/nursing , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/nursing , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/nursing
8.
Arq. bras. psicol. (Rio J. 2003) ; 72(2): 25-42, maio-ago. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149109

ABSTRACT

Este programa de pesquisa objetivou testar um conjunto de hipóteses de modo a evidenciar como Posicionamentos Atitudinais e Políticos, Atitudes em face das Doenças, Traços de Personalidade e a Religiosidade de brasileiros relacionam-se com sua Percepção de Vulnerabilidade e Preocupação em contrair a COVID-19. Para tanto, realizaram-se dois estudos. No primeiro, identificou-se o Posicionamento Atitudinal de internautas em 2.000 comentários sobre um pronunciamento do Presidente do Brasil acerca do novo coronavírus e da COVID-19. Já o estudo 2 resultou na proposição de um modelo explicativo com bons índices de ajustes [x² = 67,72; g = 24; x²/gl = 2,6; CFI = 0,94; TLI = 0,9; RMSEA = 0,06 (IC90%: 0,04-0,08)], demonstrando que Posicionamentos Políticos, Atitudes em face das Doenças e Consienciosidade predizem a Percepção de Vulnerabilidade e a Preocupação em contrair a COVID-19. Em suma, tais achados podem subsidiar estudos futuros e modelos interventivos na dinâmica social para contenção da atual pandemia


This research program aimed to test a set of hypotheses in order to show how Attitudinal and Political Positions, Attitudes towards Diseases, Personality Traits and the religiosity of Brazilians are related to their perception of vulnerability and concern in contracting COVID-19. To do this, two studies were carried out. In the first, the Attitude Positioning of internet users was identified in 2.000 comments on a statement made by the President of Brazil about the new coronavirus and COVID-19. Study 2, on the other hand, resulted in the proposition of an explanatory model with good adjustment rates [x² = 67.72; g = 24; x²/gl = 2.6; CFI = 0.94; TLI = 0.9; RMSEA = 0.06 (CI90%: 0.04-0.08)], demonstrating that Political Positions, Attitudes towards Diseases and Conscientiousness predict the perception of vulnerability and the concern to get COVID-19. In short, such findings may support future studies and interventional models in social dynamics to contain the current pandemic


Esta investigación buscó probar un conjunto de hipótesis sobre cómo las posiciones actitudinales y políticas, las actitudes hacia las enfermedades, los rasgos de personalidad y la religiosidad de los brasileños están relacionadas con su percepción de vulnerabilidad y preocupación en contraer la COVID-19. Para esto, se realizaron dos estudios. En el primero, se identificó el posicionamiento actitudinal de los usuarios de Internet en 2.000 comentarios en una declaración del presidente de Brasil sobre el nuevo coronavirus y la COVID-19. El estudio 2, resultó en un modelo explicativo con buenas tasas de ajuste [x² = 67,72; g = 24; x²/gl = 2,6; CFI = 0,94; TLI = 0,9; RMSEA = 0,06], demostrando que las Posiciones políticas, las actitudes hacia las enfermedades y la conciencia predicen la percepción de vulnerabilidad y la preocupación en contraer la COVID-19. En resumen, tales hallazgos pueden respaldar futuros estudios y modelos de intervención en la dinámica social para contener esta pandemia


Subject(s)
Psychology, Social , Attitude to Health , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(7): 930-938, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139394

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: From a patient's point of view, an 'ideal' doctor could be defined as one having personal qualities for interpersonal relationships, technical skills and good intentions. However, doctors' opinions about what it means to be a 'good' patient have not been systematically investigated. Aim: To explore how patients define the characteristics of a 'good' and a 'bad' doctor, and how doctors define a 'good' and a 'bad' patient. Material and Methods: We surveyed a cohort of 107 consecutive patients attending a community teaching hospital in February 2019, who were asked to define the desirable characteristics of a good/bad doctor. Additionally, a cohort of 115 physicians working at the same hospital was asked to define the desirable characteristics of a good/bad patient. Responses were subjected to content analysis. Simultaneously, an algorithm in Python was used to automatically categorize responses throughout text-mining. Results: The predominant patients' perspective alluded to desirable personal qualities more importantly than proficiency in knowledge and technical skills. Doctors would be satisfied if patients manifested positive personality characteristics, were prone to avoid decisional and personal conflicts, had a high adherence to treatment, and trusted the doctor. The text-mining algorithm was accurate to classify individuals' opinions. Conclusions: Ideally, fusing the skills of the scientist to the reflective capabilities of the medical humanist will fulfill the archetype of what patients consider to be a 'good' doctor. Doctors' preferences reveal a "paternalistic" style, and his/her opinions should be managed carefully to avoid stigmatizing certain patients' behaviors.


Antecedentes: Desde la perspectiva del paciente, un médico "ideal" podría definirse como aquel que tiene cualidades para las relaciones interpersonales, habilidades técnicas y buenas intenciones. Sin embargo, las opiniones de los médicos sobre lo que significa ser un "buen" paciente no se han investigado sistemáticamente. Objetivo: Explorar cómo los pacientes definen las características de un "buen" y "mal" médico, y cómo los médicos definen un "buen" y "mal" paciente. Material y Métodos: Encuestamos a una cohorte de 107 pacientes consecutivos que asistieron a un hospital comunitario en febrero de 2019, a quienes se les pidió que definieran las características deseables de un médico bueno/malo. Además, se pidió a una cohorte de 115 médicos que trabajaban en el mismo hospital que definieran las características deseables de un paciente bueno/malo. Las respuestas se sometieron a un análisis de contenido. Simultáneamente, se utilizó un algoritmo en Python para clasificar automáticamente las respuestas mediante minería de texto. Resultados: Los pacientes aludieron que las cualidades personales del médico eran más importantes que la competencia en conocimiento y las habilidades técnicas. Los médicos estarían satisfechos si los pacientes mostraran características positivas de personalidad, fueran propensos a evitar conflictos, tuvieran una alta adherencia al tratamiento y confiaran en el médico. El algoritmo de minería de texto clasificó las opiniones de los encuestados en forma precisa. Conclusiones: Idealmente, fusionar las habilidades del científico con las capacidades reflexivas del médico humanista cumplirá con el arquetipo de lo que los pacientes consideran un "buen" médico. Las preferencias de los médicos revelan un estilo "paternalista", y sus opiniones deben manejarse con cuidado para evitar estigmatizar los comportamientos de ciertos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patients/psychology , Physician-Patient Relations , Physicians/psychology , Attitude of Health Personnel , Attitude to Health , Chile , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cohort Studies , Hospitals, Community , Hospitals, Teaching
10.
Rev. Soc. Odontol. La Plata ; 30(58): 5-5, jul. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118876
11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(4): 1519-1528, abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089534

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo objetivou compreender as percepções de homens trabalhadores rurais, residentes em um território do norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil, frente às práticas de cuidado desenvolvidas durante o seu processo produtivo. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, com aplicação da técnica de observação de campo, registros em um diário e realização de entrevistas individuais. Para a análise dos dados foi utilizado o método da hermenêutica-dialética, possibilitando a construção de três categorias temáticas. Os homens pesquisados possuem uma visão baseada no modelo assistencial curativo e na grande dependência pelo médico. Alguns relacionaram práticas de cuidado em saúde com hábitos e estilo de vida saudável, como a alimentação; hidratação e não consumir álcool e/ou tabaco. Importante destacar que a maioria dos homens considerou o trabalho como uma ferramenta para cuidar da saúde, tendo relação direta com a prevenção dos riscos ocupacionais. Nessa conjuntura, os profissionais da atenção primária à saúde devem incentivar o distanciamento desse modelo dito biomédico, prescritivo e não preventivo que ainda predomina na visão da população brasileira e principalmente na cultura masculina e nos territórios rurais, buscando um olhar integral para a promoção e manutenção da saúde.


Abstract This paper aimed to understand the perceptions of rural male workers, residents in a northern territory of Minas Gerais, Brazil, regarding care practices developed during their production process. This is a qualitative research, with the application of the field observation technique, with records on a diary and accomplishment of individual interviews. Data analysis used the hermeneutic-dialectic method, allowing for the construction of three thematic categories. The men surveyed have a vision based on curative care model and on great dependence on the physician. Some related healthcare practices with habits and healthy life style, such as nutrition; hydration and non-consumption of alcohol and/or tobacco. It is important to highlight that most of the men considered the job as a tool for health care, having a direct relationship with the prevention of occupational risks. In this context, the primary healthcare professionals should encourage the distancing from the biomedical, prescriptive and non-preventive model that still predominates in the vision of the Brazilian population and mainly in the male culture and in rural areas, seeking an integral look for health promotion and maintenance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Primary Health Care , Rural Population , Attitude to Health , Delivery of Health Care , Farmers/psychology , Work , Brazil , Rural Health , Qualitative Research , Feeding Behavior , Masculinity , Health Policy , Middle Aged
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(3): 909-918, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089482

ABSTRACT

Resumo A autopercepção do estado de saúde constitui relevante construto para a análise das condições de saúde da população idosa e deve ser reconhecida como instrumento norteador de ações de promoção da saúde. Objetivou-se verificar a prevalência e os fatores associados à autopercepção negativa da saúde em idosos assistidos em serviço de referência. Pesquisa transversal analítica, realizada em 2015, com amostra por conveniência. Investigou-se a associação entre autopercepção negativa da saúde e variáveis sociodemográficas e relacionadas à saúde. Para averiguar as variáveis associadas ao desfecho, processaram-se análises bivariadas, seguidas de análise múltipla por Regressão de Poisson. Foram avaliados 360 idosos. A prevalência de autopercepção negativa da saúde foi de 60,5%. No modelo final, identificaram-se os fatores associados: idade na faixa de 65 a 79 anos (RP=1; IC95%=0,648-0,974; p=0,027); fragilidade (RP=1,28; IC95%=1,07-1,54; p=0,007); sintomas depressivos (RP=1,40; IC95%=1,19-1,67; p=0,000); prestar cuidados a alguém (RP=1,49; IC95%=1,18-1,88; p=0,001). A elevada prevalência de autopercepção negativa da saúde e os fatores associados indicam a necessidade de ações efetivas de promoção da saúde e cuidados mais específicos aos idosos assistidos no centro de referência.


Abstract The negative self-perception of health is a relevant construct for the analysis of the elderly population health conditions and should be recognized as a guiding tool for health promotion actions. We aimed to verify the prevalence and the associated factors to a negative self-perception of health by elderly assisted in a reference center. This is an analytical cross-sectional study with convenience sampling conducted in 2015. The negative self-perception association with health-related sociodemographic variables was investigated. Bivariate analysis followed by multiple analysis by Poisson regression was performed to verify the variables associated with the outcome. Three hundred sixty elderly were evaluated. The negative self-perception of health prevalence was 60.5%. The following associated factors were identified in the final model: age range 65-79 years (PR=1; CI95%=0.648-0.974; p=0.027); frailty (PR=1.28; CI95%=1.07-1.54; p=0.007); depressive symptoms (PR=1.40; CI95%=1.19-1.67; p=0.000); and providing care to someone (PR=1.49; CI95%=1.18-1.88; p=0.001). The elevated prevalence of negative self-perception of health and the associated factors point to the need for effective health promotion actions and more specific care for the elderly assisted in the reference center.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Self Concept , Attitude to Health , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
13.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 8(1): 1-9, 01/01/2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104330

ABSTRACT

Background: On January 30, 2020, India reported its first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) positive case that led to the national lockdown, health surveillance, and travel restrictions. The Government of India (GoI) is advising personal hygiene practices as prophylaxis, however, remains poorly understood by the people. Too, believing in social media-based misinformation leading to pseudoscientific practices suggesting all from giving up non-vegetarian food to eating garlic is afflicting. This review sheds light on pseudoscientific beliefs and practices of the Indian public to prevent COVID-19. Methods: This narrative review gathered scientific evidence to describe the facts against pseudoscientific beliefs and practices in the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined available evidence from relevant research articles to present the facts about pseudoscientific practices. In particular, regarding the use of complementary and alternative medicine and its practice to prevent COVID-19, we searched the high-quality literature in PubMed, PubMed Central, and Cochrane Library databases for the determined outcomes. Results: Based on scientific shreds of evidence, it is apparent that social media-based misinformation and its pseudoscientific practices severely affecting the public health in the COVID-19 pandemic. The public must look into the facts rigorously before performing pseudoscientific practices and need to follow GoI instructions perpetually. The findings of this review suggest a high level of public awareness of evidence-based prophylactic measures. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for public health promotion initiatives to bring up awareness of the COVID-19 spread and its preventive hygiene practices. The dissemination of health awareness to the public across the nation is warranted.


Antecedentes: em 30 de janeiro de 2020, a Índia relatou seu primeiro caso positivo da doença de coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) que levou ao bloqueio nacional, vigilância em saúde e restrições de viagem. O governo da Índia (GI) está aconselhando práticas de higiene pessoal, pois a profilaxia continua sendo pouco compreendida pelo povo. Também, acreditar na desinformação baseada nas mídias sociais, levando a práticas pseudocientíficas, sugerindo tudo, desde desistir de alimentos não vegetarianos até comer alho, é aflitivo. Esta revisão lança luz sobre crenças e práticas pseudocientíficas do público indiano para prevenir o COVID-19. Métodos: Esta revisão narrativa reuniu evidências científicas para descrever os fatos contra crenças e práticas pseudocientíficas na pandemia do COVID-19. Examinamos as evidências disponíveis de artigos de pesquisa relevantes para apresentar os fatos sobre práticas pseudocientíficas. Em particular, com relação ao uso de medicina complementar e alternativa e sua prática para prevenir o COVID-19, pesquisamos a literatura de alta qualidade nos bancos de dados PubMed, PubMed Central e Cochrane Library para os resultados determinados. Resultados: Com base em fragmentos científicos de evidência, é aparente que a desinformação baseada nas mídias sociais e suas práticas pseudocientíficas afetam gravemente a saúde pública na pandemia do COVID-19. O público deve analisar os fatos rigorosamente antes de executar práticas pseudocientíficas e precisa seguir as instruções do GI perpetuamente. Os resultados desta revisão sugerem um alto nível de conscientização pública sobre medidas profiláticas baseadas em evidências. Conclusão: Há uma necessidade urgente de iniciativas de promoção da saúde pública para conscientizar sobre a disseminação do COVID-19 e suas práticas preventivas de higiene. A disseminação da conscientização da saúde ao público em todo o país é justificada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Attitude to Health , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Communication , Social Media , Betacoronavirus , Complementary Therapies , Pandemics , India
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the status of oral health knowledge, attitude, behavior of 12-15 years old children and provide a theoretical basis of prevention.@*METHODS@#Multi-stage stratified sampling method was used to extract four middle school students from Chongqing districts and counties (2 in the main urban area and 2 suburbs), and their oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were investigated through questionnaires. All data were entered using Epidata and statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 21.0 software.@*RESULTS@#A total of 3 902 valid questionnaires were collected. The proportion of people who had good brushing habits was 39.7% (1 548), the average oral health knowledge accuracy rate was 58.9%, and the average oral health positive attitude was 88.6%. The number of middle school students who attended the dental experience was 54.5% (2 127), and that of the school who received oral health education was 17.5% (681). There were gender and regional differences in brushing habits.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The knowledge and behavior of oral health among 12-15-year-old middle school students in Chongqing need to be improved. Oral health education for middle school students should be strengthened, especially in rural and suburban areas.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Attitude to Health , Child , Health Behavior , Health Education, Dental , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Oral Health , Rural Population , Surveys and Questionnaires , Toothbrushing
15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(9): 3481-3491, Mar. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133162

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é compreender como os sentimentos e as emoções de homens contribuem para o enquadramento da doença Covid-19 no Brasil. Estudo sócio-histórico, qualitativo, realizado com 200 homens residentes no Brasil, mediante pesquisa online em plataforma digital. Os dados apreendidos foram analisados pelo método do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo à luz do referencial de doença epidêmica proposto por Charles Rosemberg. Prevaleceram sentimentos negativos e ansiedade como consequência do conhecimento acerca do crescente número de hospitalizados e mortos pela pandemia veiculada nos noticiários. Para os homens, o otimismo é necessário para encorajar atitudes com responsabilidade e confiar de que a crise será superada. Na sequência os homens apresentam um conjunto de atitudes e comportamentos para o enfrentamento da pandemia. E, a aceitação sinaliza a emergência do quarto ato dramatúrgico do enquadramento da Covid-19. Os sentimentos e as emoções de homens, no presente contexto histórico, atravessam três dos quatro atos de enquadramento da Covid-19 no Brasil.


Abstract Objective: to understand how men's feelings and emotions contribute to the Covid-19 framing in Brazil. Method: Asocial-historical, qualitative study, carried out with 200 men resident in Brazil, through online search on digital platform.The grasped data were analyzed by the Collective Subject Discourse method in the light of the reference of epidemic disease proposed by Charles Rosemberg. Results: Negative feelings and anxiety prevailed due to the knowledge about the growing number of hospitalized patients and deaths from the pandemic conveyed in the news. For men, the optimism is necessary to encourage attitudes with responsibility and trust that the crisis will be overcome.Subsequently, men present a set of attitudes and behaviors for coping with the pandemic.Moreover,the acceptance signals the emergence of the fourth dramaturgical act of the Covid-19framing. Conclusion: Men's feelings and emotions, in this historic context, pervade three of the four acts of the Covid-19 framingin Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Men/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Brazil , Attitude to Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emotions , Pandemics , Middle Aged
16.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 116, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139460

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To adapt the Leisure Attitude Measurement to the Brazilian culture and to evaluate the face and content validity of the Brazilian version for older population. METHODS: Methodological study of cross-cultural adaptation in five stages: initial translation; synthesis of translations; back translation; evaluation by a committee of experts using a face and content validity assessment instrument; pre-test with 36 elderly, selected by convenience, with the application of a pre-test evaluation instrument. Data were analyzed descriptively and internal consistency measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. RESULTS: Evidenced face and content validity of the adapted version, as well as its equivalence with the original version. In the pretest, the elderly were 71.5 years old on average, 66.7% were women, 47.2% had a stable union, 66.7% lived with family members, 47.2% had 12 or more years of education and 58.3% received two minimum wages or more. The instrument revealed good internal consistency with a coefficient of 0.95 for the total global instrument and 0.88, 0.92 and 0.88 for the cognitive, affective and behavioral domains, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The instrument's adaptation to the Brazilian culture was successful and allows to assess the attitude of the elderly in relation to leisure in a reliable manner, even though the results are a preliminary version, to be concluded after the psychometric analysis. The instrument could be incorporated in various health fields in Brazil and will allow the production of standardized data, comparison between cultures and strategies to promote positive attitudes towards leisure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Translations , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Leisure Activities/psychology , Psychometrics , Brazil , Attitude to Health , Reproducibility of Results
17.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 38, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094417

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the implementation status of the Community-Based Rehabilitation in Chile. METHODS Quantitative, transversal and descriptive study. The scope was constituted by the 66 community-based rehabilitation centers in the Chilean Metropolitan Region that implemented Community-Based Rehabilitation until December 2016. The sampling was based on a census method, so all the community centers were contacted. A self-administered questionnaire designed based on the Community-Based Rehabilitation matrix defined by the World Health Organization was applied. The questionnaire was answered on-line by the coordinators of the strategy in their respective centers. The data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS A heterogeneous level of implementation of Community-Based Rehabilitation was identified, specifically in terms of the components of the matrix described by the World Health Organization. The most implemented component was Health; the Social, Livelihood and Empowerment components were moderately implemented; and the Education component was the least implemented. CONCLUSION The implementation of Community-Based Rehabilitation is mainly based on the Health component. The level implementation of the other components of the matrix needs to be increased, as well as interdisciplinary and intersectoral strategies to achieve greater social inclusion of people with disabilities.


RESUMEN OBJETIVO Describir el estado de implementación de la Rehabilitación Basada en la Comunidad en Chile. MÉTODOS Estudio cuantitativo, transversal y descriptivo. El universo estuvo conformado por los 66 centros comunitarios de rehabilitación de la Región Metropolitana de Chile que implementaron la Rehabilitación Basada en la Comunidad hasta diciembre de 2016. El muestreo tuvo intención censal, por lo que se contactaron todos los centros comunitarios. Se aplicó un cuestionario autoadministrado diseñado con base a la matriz de Rehabilitación Basada en la Comunidad definida por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El cuestionario fue respondido on-line por los coordinadores de la estrategia en sus respectivos centros. El análisis de datos se realizó utilizando estadígrafos descriptivos. RESULTADOS Se identificó un nivel heterogéneo de implementación de la Rehabilitación Basada en la Comunidad, específicamente en cuanto a los componentes de la matriz descrita por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El componente más implementado fue Salud; los componentes Social, Subsistencia y Fortalecimiento fueron medianamente implementados; y el componente Educación fue el menos implementado. CONCLUSIÓN La implementación de la Rehabilitación Basada en la Comunidad se basa principalmente en el componente Salud. Se requiere aumentar el nivel de implementación de los otros componentes de la matriz, así como de estrategias interdisciplinarias e intersectoriales para lograr una mayor inclusión social de las personas con discapacidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Rehabilitation/organization & administration , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Community Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Program Evaluation , Attitude to Health , Chile , Health Education , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility
18.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 36, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094406

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the quality of adolescent friendly health services. METHODS Qualitative assessment using the simulated user technique in first level clinics of Health Services of Morelos, Mexico, during 2018. Ten out of 17 facilities with non-exclusive adolescent friendly services were randomly selected. An additional facility with exclusive adolescent friendly services was included as an intensive subsample. Four adolescents served as simulated users interpreting different cases in the clinics. The total of 43 semi-structured exit interviews were conducted, and two nominal groups were made to assess the perceived quality from the adolescents' perception of friendliness and experience. Thematic analysis of the data obtained was performed. RESULTS Staff attitude was highlighted as a key element in the adolescents' experience. Failures were found, such as the existence of bureaucratic barriers to access, lack of signage in clinics, lack of privacy and confidentiality, failure of physical examination during the appointment and lack of monitoring of the reasons for appointment. The exclusive clinic for adolescents offered more appropriate friendly services compared with nonexclusive clinics. CONCLUSION Although the service is accessible in most of the clinics visited, it is still far from being friendly according to international recommendations. The exclusive clinic for adolescents stood out for having better structured mechanisms that can be implemented in nonexclusive clinics to improve the care process.


RESUMEN OBJETIVO Evaluar la calidad de los servicios de salud amigables para adolescentes. MÉTODOS Evaluación cualitativa utilizando la técnica de usuario simulado en clínicas de primer nivel de los Servicios de Salud de Morelos, México durante 2018. Se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 10 de 17 establecimientos con servicios amigables no exclusivos para adolescentes. Se incluyó adicionalmente un centro con servicios amigables exclusivo para adolescentes como submuestra de tipo intensivo. Cuatro adolescentes fungieron como usuarios simulados interpretando diferentes casos de consulta en las clínicas. Se realizaron 43 entrevistas semiestructuradas de salida y se hicieron dos grupos nominales para evaluar la calidad percibida a partir de la percepción de amigabilidad y la experiencia de los adolescentes. Se realizó análisis temático de los datos obtenidos. RESULTADOS La actitud del personal destacó como un elemento clave para la experiencia de los adolescentes. Se encontraron fallas como la existencia de barreras burocráticas para el acceso, falta de señalamientos en las clínicas, falta de privacidad y confidencialidad, fallas en la exploración física durante la consulta y falta de seguimiento de los motivos de consulta. La clínica exclusiva para adolescentes ofreció servicios amigables más adecuados en comparación con las clínicas no exclusivas. CONCLUSIÓN Aunque en la mayoría de los establecimientos visitados el servicio es accesible, aun distan de cumplir con las características de amigabilidad de acuerdo con las recomendaciones internacionales. La clínica exclusiva para adolescentes destacó al contar con mecanismos mejor estructurados que pueden ser implementados en clínicas no exclusivas para mejorar el proceso de atención.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adolescent Health Services/organization & administration , Reproductive Health Services/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility , Preventive Health Services , Professional-Patient Relations , Quality of Health Care , Health Behavior , Program Evaluation , Attitude to Health , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Patient Simulation , Qualitative Research
19.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 41(spe): e20190145, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1058518

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the stress level of mothers of preterm infants with gestational age ≤34 weeks, hospitalized in neonatal intensive care. Method: A cross-sectional study with 74 mothers of premature infants in neonatal intensive care, who answered the "Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit" instrument, validated in Brazil. Results: The mean stress level was 4.41 (± 0.77) and the general stress level was 4.36 (± 0.76), with a significant difference (p <0.001) between the subscale "Alteration in parental roles" and other subscales, meaning that mothers were in a very stressful situation. Conclusion: All items in the subscale "Alteration in parental roles" of the "Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit" were identified as the main source of stress experienced by mothers. This study suggests carrying out further studies with other methodologies to increase the knowledge of maternal stress in the national context, applying care interventions involving the parents.


Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar el nivel de estrés de madres de recién nacidos prematuros con edad gestacional ≤34 semanas, internados en terapia intensiva neonatal. Metódo Estudio transversal con 74 madres de recién nacidos prematuros en unidad de terapia intensiva neonatal, que respondieron al instrumento "Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit" validado en Brasil. Resultados: Se obtuvo un promedio de nivel de ocurrencia de estrés 4,41 (± 0,77) y nivel general de estrés del ambiente 4,36 (± 0,76), con diferencia significativa (p <0,001) entre la subescala " Cambio en el papel de padres "y demás subescalas. Significando que las madres se encontraban en una situación muy estresante. Conclusión: Se identificaron todos los elementos de la subescala "Cambio del papel de padres" de "Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit" como la principal fuente de estrés experimentada por las madres. Se sugiere la realización de estudios con otras metodologías para ampliar el conocimiento del estrés materno en el contexto nacional, aplicando intervenciones de cuidado involucrando a los padres.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar o nível de estresse de mães de recém-nascidos pré-termo com idade gestacional ≤34 semanas, internados em terapia intensiva neonatal. Método: Estudo transversal com 74 mães de recém-nascidos pré-termo em unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal, que responderam ao instrumento "Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit", validado no Brasil. Resultados: Obteve-se média de nível de ocorrência de estresse 4,41 (±0,77) e nível geral de estresse do ambiente 4,36 (±0,76), com diferença significativa (p<0,001) entre a subescala "Alteração no papel de pais" e demais subescalas. Significando que as mães se encontravam numa situação muito estressante. Conclusão: Identificaram-se todos os itens da subescala "Alteração do papel de pais" da "Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit" como a principal fonte de estresse experimentada pelas mães. Sugere-se a realização de estudos com outras metodologias para ampliar o conhecimento do estresse materno no contexto nacional, aplicando intervenções de cuidado envolvendo os pais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Attitude to Health , Mothers/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cross-Sectional Studies
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