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1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(4): 395-404, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132615

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Cortical auditory evoked potentials have been increasingly used in research and audiological routines. However, there is a lack of studies with a large number of children who are stratified by age group. These would help clarify the variations in latency and amplitude of cortical auditory evoked potentials, and thus help establish reference values in children of different ages. Objective To identify the variation in latency and amplitude of the cortical auditory evoked potentials and to establish reference values for the pediatric population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Subjects were born at term and presented with no auditory complaints. A total of 105 children, of up to 6 years and eleven months old, who were divided into 7 age groups, named 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, participated in the study. The tests were carried out using Biologic Navigator Pro. Initially, brainstem auditory evoked potential testing was performed in order to investigate the electrophysiological threshold of the subjects. Then, cortical auditory evoked potentials were elicited through oddball paradigm with tone burst differing in frequency, 750 Hz (frequent) and 1000 Hz (rare), and stimuli differing in speech: /ba/ (frequent) and /da/ (rare). In this study, descriptive and comparative analyzes of tonal and speech stimuli were performed for the age groups. Results Significant differences were observed when comparing cortical auditory evoked potentials with speech stimulus in the right ear for P2 amplitude, for P1 latency the left ear, for P2 amplitude of the left ear; and for P1 amplitude of the left ear when performed with tonal stimuli. Conclusion The obtained results can be considered as reference values of latency and amplitude of cortical auditory potentials in infants and children, and be used for monitoring their cortical auditory development.


Resumo Introdução Os potenciais evocados auditivos corticais têm sido cada vez mais usados em pesquisas e rotinas audiológicas. É importante que mais pesquisas sejam realizadas com maior número de crianças por faixa etária, a fim de contribuir para o conhecimento e descrever a variação das medidas de latência e amplitude, permitir estabelecer valores de referência desse potencial para crianças de diferentes grupos etários. Objetivo Identificar a variação das medidas de latência e amplitude e estabelecer os valores de referência desse potencial para a população pediátrica. Método Estudo do tipo transversal. Os indivíduos nasceram a termo, com ausência de queixas auditivas. Participaram do estudo 105 crianças de até 6 anos e 11 meses, divididas em 7 grupos de idade, denominados 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 e 7. Os testes foram feitos com o Biologic Navigator Pro. Inicialmente, foi realizado o potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico para investigar o limiar eletrofisiológico dos indivíduos. Em seguida, o potencial evocado auditivo cortical foi feito através do paradigma de oddball com toneburst diferindo em frequência, 750 Hz (frequente) e 1.000 Hz (raro) e o estímulo na fala: / ba / (frequente) e / da / (raro). Neste estudo, foram realizadas análises descritivas e comparativas dos estímulos tonais e de fala para os grupos etários. Resultados Diferenças significantes foram observadas na comparação do potencial evocado auditivo cortical com estímulo de fala da orelha direita para amplitude de P2, para latência de P1 da orelha esquerda, para amplitude de P2 da orelha esquerda e para amplitude de P1 da orelha esquerda quando feita com estímulo tonal. Conclusão Os resultados obtidos podem ser usados como medidas de referência de latência e amplitude dos potenciais auditivos corticais em lactentes e crianças, bem como para monitorar o desenvolvimento auditivo cortical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Auditory Cortex , Speech Perception , Evoked Potentials, Auditory , Speech , Acoustic Stimulation , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(2): 206-212, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001547

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The evaluation of cortical auditory evoked potential has been the focus of scientific studies in infants. Some authors have reported that automated response detection is effective in exploring these potentials in infants, but few have reported their efficacy in the search for thresholds. Objective: To analyze the latency, amplitude and thresholds of cortical auditory evoked potential using an automatic response detection device in a neonatal population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, observational study. Cortical auditory evoked potentials were recorded in response to pure-tone stimuli of the frequencies 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz presented in an intensity range between 0 and 80 dB HL using a single channel recording. P1 was performed in an exclusively automated fashion, using Hotelling's T2 statistical test. The latency and amplitude were obtained manually by three examiners. The study comprised 39 neonates up to 28 days old of both sexes with presence of otoacoustic emissions and no risk factors for hearing loss. Results: With the protocol used, cortical auditory evoked potential responses were detected in all subjects at high intensity and thresholds. The mean thresholds were 24.8 ± 10.4 dB NA, 25 ± 9.0 dB NA, 28 ± 7.8 dB NA and 29.4 ± 6.6 dB HL for 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz, respectively. Conclusion: Reliable responses were obtained in the assessment of cortical auditory potentials in the neonates assessed with a device for automatic response detection.


Resumo Introdução: O potencial evocado auditivo cortical tem sido o foco de estudos científicos. Alguns autores observaram que a detecção automatizada de respostas é eficaz na exploração desses potenciais em lactentes, mas poucos relataram sua eficácia na busca de limiares. Objetivo: Analisar a latência, a amplitude e os limiares do potencial evocado auditivo cortical em recém-nascidos, com o uso de um dispositivo de detecção automática de resposta. Método: Estudo transversal, observacional. Os potenciais evocados auditivos corticais foram registrados em resposta a estímulos de tons puros nas frequências de 500, 1000, 2000 e 4000 Hz e apresentados em uma faixa de intensidade entre 0-80 dBNA, com o uso de gravação de canal único. O P1 foi feito de forma exclusivamente automática, com o uso do teste estatístico T2 de Hotelling. A latência e a amplitude foram obtidas manualmente por três examinadores. O estudo incluiu 39 recém-nascidos com até 28 dias de ambos os sexos, com presença de emissões otoacústicas e sem fatores de risco para perda auditiva. Resultados: Com o protocolo usado, as respostas dos PEAC foram detectadas em todos os indivíduos em alta intensidade e limiares. Os limiares médios foram 24,8 ± 10,4 dBNA, 25 ± 9,0 dBNA, 28 ± 7,8 dBNA e 29,4 ± 6,6 dBNA para 500, 1000, 2000 e 4000 Hz, respectivamente. Conclusão: Foram obtidas respostas confiáveis na avaliação dos potenciais auditivos corticais em recém-nascidos com um dispositivo para detecção de resposta automática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Auditory Cortex/physiology , Infant, Newborn/physiology , Evoked Potentials, Auditory/physiology , Reference Values , Auditory Threshold/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analysis of Variance , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous/physiology , Statistics, Nonparametric
3.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 24: e2156, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038756

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Verificar a associação entre musicalização infantil e habilidades auditivas de ordenação temporal e localização sonora em pré-escolares de 5 e 6 anos. Métodos Participaram do estudo 60 crianças de ambos os sexos, de 5 anos a 6 anos e 11 meses, sendo 30 do grupo com treinamento musical e 30 do grupo sem treinamento musical. Os participantes de ambos os grupos foram submetidos à triagem auditiva, avaliação simplificada do processamento auditivo e ao teste Padrão de Frequência, em campo livre. Os desempenhos de cada um dos procedimentos foram tabulados, analisando-se as possíveis correlações e associações entre eles, como variáveis dependentes e variáveis independentes, como grupo, sexo e idade. Resultados O grupo com treinamento musical apresentou média de acertos superior ao grupo sem treinamento musical, nos testes de memória sequencial não verbal e verbal, teste Padrão de Frequência não verbal e verbal. Sujeitos de 5 anos do grupo com treinamento musical obtiveram melhor desempenho, em relação aos sujeitos de 5 anos do grupo sem treinamento musical, acertando mais sequências. No teste de localização sonora, não houve diferença entre a idade e o grupo. Conclusão Pré-escolares de 5 e 6 anos que participavam de musicalização infantil apresentaram melhor desempenho nos testes que avaliaram as habilidades de memória sequencial não verbal e verbal e de ordenação temporal de três sons, quando comparados aos pré-escolares que não participavam de musicalização. Portanto, a musicalização infantil influenciou positivamente as habilidades auditivas de pré-escolares de 5 e 6 anos.


ABSTRACT Purpose Verify the association between children's music learning and listening skills of temporal ordering and sound localization in preschoolers from 5 to 6 years old. Methods 60 children of both genders, from 5 to 6 years and 11 months, participated in the study, 30 of the group with music training and the other 30 of the group with no music training. The participants of both groups were submitted to hearing screening, simplified auditory processing assessment and to the Pitch Pattern Sequence. The performance of each of the procedures was tabulated, being analyzed the possible correlations and associations between them, as, for example, dependent and independent variables such as group, gender and age. Results The group with music training presented higher mean of scores than the one with no music training in the verbal and nonverbal sequential memory tests and on the verbal and nonverbal Pitch Pattern Sequence. The 5-year-old children of the group with music training got better results than the 5-year-old ones with no music training, getting right in more sequences. In the sound localization test, there was no difference between ages and groups. Conclusion Preschoolers from 5 to 6 years old who participated in children's music learning presented better performance in the tests that evaluate the abilities of the verbal and non-verbal sequential memory and of the temporal ordering of three sounds when compared to the preschoolers who did not participate in the music learning. Therefore, the children's music learning positively influenced the listening skills of preschoolers from 5 to 6 years old.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Auditory Perception , Triage , Hearing Tests , Music/psychology , Auditory Cortex , Sound Localization , Acoustic Stimulation , Loudness Perception
4.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 495-503, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763778

ABSTRACT

Memantine, a noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, suppresses the release of excessive levels of glutamate that may induce neuronal excitation. Here we investigated the effects of memantine on salicylate-induced tinnitus model. The expressions of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (ARC) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF α)genes; as well as the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) gene and protein, were examined in the SH-SY5Y cells and the animal model. We also used gap-prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (GPIAS) and noise burst prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and the auditory brainstem level (electrophysiological recordings of auditory brainstem responses, ABR) and NR2B expression level in the auditory cortex to evaluate whether memantine could reduce salicylate-mediated behavioral disturbances. NR2B was significantly upregulated in salicylate-treated cells, but downregulated after memantine treatment. Similarly, expression of the inflammatory cytokine genes TNFα and immediate-early gene ARC was significantly increased in the salicylate-treated cells, and decreased when the cells were treated with memantine. These results were confirmed by NR2B immunocytochemistry. GPIAS was attenuated to a significantly lesser extent in rats treated with a combination of salicylate and memantine than in those treated with salicylate only. The mean ABR threshold in both groups was not significant different before and 1 day after the end of treatment. Additionally, NR2B protein expression in the auditory cortex was markedly increased in the salicylate-treated group, whereas it was reduced in the memantine-treated group. These results indicate that memantine is useful for the treatment of salicylate-induced tinnitus.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Animals , Auditory Cortex , Brain Stem , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Genes, Immediate-Early , Glutamic Acid , Immunohistochemistry , Integrin alpha2 , Memantine , Models, Animal , N-Methylaspartate , Neurons , Noise , Prepulse Inhibition , Rats , Reflex, Startle , Tinnitus , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In the developing auditory cortex, maturation of electrophysiological properties and cell types before and after hearing onset has been reported previously. However, the exact timing of firing pattern change has not been reported. In this study, firing pattern change was investigated from postnatal day 3 (P3) to P12 in auditory cortical layer II/III neurons to investigate whether firing pattern changes dramatically after a specific point during development. METHODS: ICR mice pups aged from P3 to P12 were sacrificed to obtain 300-mm-thick brain slices containing the primary auditory cortex. From cortical layer II/III neurons, the patterns of action potential firing generated by current injection were examined using whole cell current clamp technique and the characteristics of Na⁺ currents involved in action potential firing were investigated using whole cell voltage clamp technique. RESULTS: From P3 to P6, most cells did not show action potential firing (29 of 46 cells), and some cells responding to current injection showed a single action potential at the initial depolarizing current step (17 of 46 cells). This firing pattern changes from P7. From P7 to P9, cells begin to show regular spiking to current injection. The spiking frequency increased after P10. In studying Na⁺ current with whole cell voltage clamp, Na⁺ current densities increased gradually (32.0±2.0 pA/pF [P3–P6, n=7], 51.2±2.0 pA/pF [P7–P9, n=13], and 69.5±3.7 pA/pF [P10–P12, n=13]) in low external [Na⁺] condition. Na⁺ current recovery was accelerated and inactivation curves shifted to hyperpolarization with age. CONCLUSION: As regular spiking cells were observed from P7 but never from P3 to P6, P7 might be regarded as an important milestone in the development of auditory cortical layer II/III neurons. This change might mainly result from the increase in Na⁺ current density.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Auditory Cortex , Brain , Fires , Hearing , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Neurons
6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764216

ABSTRACT

Lots of neuroimaging and animal studies have revealed that tinnitus and hyperacusis share the same patterns in the bottom up central auditory process. The aim was to identify the abnormal central patterns commonly observed in both tinnitus and hyperacusis in humans. We investigated two cases of normal hearing: a tinnitus patient and a hyperacusis patient. We compared the differences between the severe temporal hyper-activated state (STHS), with spikes, fast beta and gamma frequencies after noise exposure, and the mild temporal hyper-activated state (MTHS), in no sound exposed condition. The power of the gamma band in the two cases was increased in both auditory cortices compared to the other brain regions. Our results of human with normal hearing were the first to identify how tinnitus and hyperacusis caused by sound are abnormally active and how they maintain constant pathological states.


Subject(s)
Animals , Auditory Cortex , Brain , Electroencephalography , Hearing , Humans , Hyperacusis , Neuroimaging , Noise , Tinnitus
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cochlear implant (CI) changes the way that sound inputs are processed in the brain, possibly causing brain reorganization. Given that the pattern and degree of reorganization are known to be related to speech perception skill, information regarding hemispheric asymmetry can be used to predict behavioral performances in CI users. The current study investigated the hemispheric asymmetry of N1 dipole cortical activity in response to the temporally varied speech sounds and its relationship to speech perception abilities in adult CI users. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: The cortical activity was recorded from 64 scalp electrodes in 10 CI users and 11 normal-hearing controls. Speech stimuli were synthesized consonant-vowels, the /ba/-/pa/ continuum that ranged from 0 to 50 ms with a 6-step voice onset time (VOT). N1 dipole amplitudes, latencies, and locations were analyzed as a function of VOT and the direction of implantation. Also investigated was the relationship between N1 dipole lateralization and speech perception. RESULTS: For the N1 dipole location, significant location differences between CI and normal hearing groups were seen at 40 ms VOT in the anterior-posterior direction. For hemispheric asymmetry, the N1 dipole activity in good CI performers was higher in the auditory cortex contralateral to the stimulated ear, while poor CI performers showed greater ipsilateral activity. In addition, a lateralization index at 20 ms VOT showed significant correlation with the /ba/-/pa/ consonant perception scores in noise. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the hemispheric asymmetry of N1 dipole activity in response to stimuli of temporally varied speech has a substantial clinical value, and that this can be used to estimate CI speech perception.


Subject(s)
Adult , Auditory Cortex , Brain , Cochlear Implants , Ear , Electrodes , Hearing , Humans , Methods , Noise , Phonetics , Scalp , Speech Perception , Voice
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775853

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of electrical stimulation at auricular points (EAS) combined with sound masking on the expression of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) in the auditory cortex of tinnitus rats.@*METHODS@#A total of 27 adult male SD rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group and an EAS group. The rats in the model group and the EAS group were intervened with intraperitoneal injection of sodium salicylate to induce tinnitus model, while the rats in the control group were intervened with injection of 0.9% NaCl solution. After the model was successfully established, the rats in the EAS group were treated with electrical stimulation at "Shenmen" (TF) and "Yidan" (CO), combined with sound masking; the treatment was given once a day for 15 days. The gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) testing were performed using the acoustic startle reflex starter package for rats. The expression of BDNF, TrkB, CREB and p-CREB in the auditory cortex of each group were measured with Western Blot analysis.@*RESULTS@#① Compared with the control group, the GPIAS values in 12 kHz, 16 kHz, 20 kHz and 28 kHz were significantly decreased in the model group (all 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EAS could improve the GPIAS values of high-frequency background sound in tinnitus rats, which may be related with the upregulation of the BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway in the auditory cortex, leading to the reversion of the maladaptive plasticity.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Animals , Auditory Cortex , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Metabolism , Electric Stimulation , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, trkB , Metabolism , Tinnitus , Metabolism , Therapeutics
9.
Distúrb. comun ; 30(2): 364-375, jun. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-911136

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Investigar o que a literatura revela sobre a influência da prática musical em habilidades do Processamento Auditivo Central (PAC), e se o tempo de exposição à música atua de alguma maneira nestas competências. Método: A coleta dos artigos foi realizada a partir das bases de dados PubMed, Science Direct e Lilacs, com a combinação de descritores indexados no Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Critérios de seleção: Foram selecionados artigos em inglês e português, publicados entre os anos de 2010 e 2016, cujo título, ou resumo, ou corpo do trabalho, tivessem relação com o objetivo do presente estudo. Foram excluídos os artigos repetidos e os que não possuíam o resumo ou texto completo, artigos de revisão, dissertações e teses. Análise dos dados: Após a leitura dos artigos na íntegra, foram extraídos os seguintes dados: título, ano de publicação, país de origem, idade e características dos indivíduos da amostra, tipo de estudo, tempo de experiência dos músicos, objetivo da pesquisa, habilidades do PAC avaliadas, resultados encontrados e conclusão. Resultados: A pesquisa realizada gerou o total de 1445 artigos, sendo que 896 deles estavam contidos na Pubmed, 518 na base ScienceDirect e 31 na Lilacs. Ao final da análise, os juízes selecionaram 17 estudos. Conclusão: Os artigos mencionados demonstraram que a prática musical influencia positivamente as habilidades do PAC, não havendo um consenso quanto à atuação do tempo de exposição sobre essas competências, mas evidenciando um melhor resultado de indivíduos com maior experiência musical.


Objective: To investigate what the literature reveals about the influence of the musical practice on Central Auditory Processing (CAP) skills, and whether the time of exposure to music acts in some way in these skills. Method: The collection of the articles was carried out from the databases PubMed, Science Direct and Lilacs, with the combination of indexed descriptors in the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Selection criteria: Articles were selected in English and Portuguese, published between 2010 and 2016, whose title, or abstract, or work content, were related to the objective of the present study, that is to verify the influence of music in the CAP. The repeated articles and those that did not have the abstract or full text, revision articles, dissertations and theses were excluded. Data analysis: After reading the articles in full, the data were extracted: title, year of publication, country of origin, age and characteristics of the examples, type of study, musicians' experience time, research objective, CAP skills assessed, results found and conclusion. Results: The research carried out generated a total of 1445 articles, 896 of them were contained in Pubmed, 518 in the base ScienceDirect and 31 in Lilacs. At the end of the analysis the judges selected 17 studies. Conclusion: The articles mentioned demonstrate that the musical practice positively influences the abilities of the CAP. There was no consensus regarding the performance of the exposure time on these skills, but it was shown a better result for individuals with greater musical experience.


Objetivo: Investigar lo que la literatura revela sobre la influencia de la práctica musical en habilidades del Procesamiento Auditivo Central (PAC), y si el tiempo de exposición a la música actúa de alguna manera en estas competencias. Método: La recolección de los artículos se realizó a partir de las bases de datos PubMed, ScienceDirect y Lilacs, con la combinación de descriptores indexados en el Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Criterios de selección: Se seleccionaron artículos en inglés y portugués, publicados entre los años de 2010 a 2016, cuyo título, resumen, cuerpo del trabajo, tuvieran relación con el objetivo del presente estudio. Se excluyeron los artículos repetidos, los que no poseían el resumen o texto completo, artículos de revisión, disertaciones y tesis. Análisis de los datos: Después de la lectura de los artículos en su totalidad, se extrajeron los siguientes datos: título, año de publicación, país de origen, edad y características de los individuos de la muestra, tipo de estudio, tiempo de experiencia de los músicos, objetivo de la investigación, habilidades del PAC evaluadas, resultados encontrados y conclusión. Resultados: La encuesta realizada generó el total de 1445 artículos, 896 de ellos estaban en la base Pubmed, 518 en ScienceDirect y 31 en Lilacs. Al final del análisis, los jueces seleccionaron 17 estudios. Conclusión: Los artículos mencionados demostraron que la práctica musical influye positivamente en las habilidades del PAC, no habiendo un consenso cuanto a la actuación del tiempo de exposición sobre esas competencias, pero evidenciando un mejor resultado de individuos con mayor experiencia musical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Auditory Cortex , Auditory Perception , Databases, Bibliographic , Hearing Tests , Music
10.
CoDAS ; 30(4): e20170142, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952862

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose To assess the potential association between psychological risk and limited auditory pathway maturation. Methods In this longitudinal cohort study, 54 infants (31 non-risk and 23 at-risk) were assessed from age 1 to 12 months. All had normal hearing and underwent assessment of auditory maturation through cortical auditory evoked potentials testing. Psychological risk was assessed with the Child Development Risk Indicators (CDRIs) and PREAUT signs. A variety of statistical methods were used for analysis of results. Results Analysis of P1 and N1 latencies showed that responses were similar in the both groups. Statistically significant differences between-groups were observed only for the variables N1 latency and amplitude at 1 month. Significant maturation occurred in both groups (p<0.05). There was moderate correlation between P1 latency and Phase II CDRIs, which demonstrates that children with longer latencies at age 12 months were more likely to exhibit absence of these indicators in Phase II and, therefore, were at greater psychological risk. The Phase II CDRIs also correlated moderately with P1 and N1 latencies at 6 months and N1 latencies at 1 month; again, children with longer latency were at increased risk. Conclusion Less auditory pathway maturation correlated with presence of psychological risk. Problems in the mother-infant relationship during the first 6 months of life are detrimental not only to cognitive development, but also to hearing. A fragile relationship may reflect decreased auditory and linguistic stimulation.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a associação entre risco psíquico e maturação da via auditiva. Método Neste estudo de coorte longitudinal, 54 crianças ouvintes (31 sem risco e 23 em risco psíquico) de 1 a 12 meses foram avaliadas. Todas foram submetidas à avaliação da maturação auditiva através dos Potenciais Evocados Auditivos Corticais. O risco psíquico foi avaliado com os Indicadores de Risco de Desenvolvimento Infantil (IRDI) e Sinais PREAUT. Uma variedade de métodos estatísticos foi utilizada para análise de resultados. Resultados A análise das latências de P1 e N1 mostraram respostas similares entre os grupos. Diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos foram observadas somente para as variáveis latência e amplitude de N1 no primeiro mês. A maturação auditiva foi significante nos dois grupos (p<0,05). Houve correlação moderada entre latência de P1 e a fase II dos IRDI, demonstrando que crianças com maior latência aos 12 meses apresentaram maior probabilidade de exibir a ausência desses indicadores na Fase II, estando em maior risco psíquico. A fase II dos IRDI também teve correlação moderada com as latências de P1 e N1 aos 6 meses e latências de N1 ao 1 mês; novamente, crianças com latência mais longa estavam em maior risco. Conclusão A menor maturação auditiva correlacionou-se com a presença de risco psíquico. Problemas na relação mãe-filho durante os primeiros 6 meses de vida são prejudiciais não apenas ao desenvolvimento cognitivo, mas também à audição. Um relacionamento frágil pode refletir diminuição da estimulação auditiva e linguística.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Auditory Cortex/physiopathology , Auditory Pathways/physiology , Autistic Disorder/diagnosis , Hearing/physiology , Auditory Cortex/growth & development , Autistic Disorder/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Child Development , Risk Factors , Evoked Potentials, Auditory/physiology
11.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 23: e1987, 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-983911

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo O objetivo desse estudo foi comparar a latência e amplitude do potencial evocado auditivo cortical P1i entre neonatos em estado de alerta e durante o sono leve. Métodos Vinte e cinco neonatos com emissões otoacústicas evocadas transientes presentes foram testados, por meio do potencial evocado auditivo cortical (PEAC), sendo dez em estado de alerta e 15 durante o sono leve. Para pesquisa dos potenciais corticais, utilizou-se o equipamento Hearlab System, de um canal, no módulo Cortical Tone Evaluation (CTE). O potencial P1i foi pesquisado de forma monoaural, na intensidade de 80 dBnNA, para as frequências de 500, 1000, 2000 e 4000Hz. A detecção do P1i foi feita de maneira automática pelo equipamento. A marcação da latência e amplitude foi realizada por três juízes. Resultados Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os dois grupos de neonatos para os valores de amplitude e latência, nas quatro frequências testadas. Conclusão Não houve influência do estado comportamental dos neonatos na avaliação do potencial cortical P1i.


ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of the present study was to compare latency and amplitude of the cortical auditory evoked response P1i among newborns in an alert state and during light sleep. Methods Twenty-five neonates with normal transient evoked otoacoustic emissions were tested with cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEP): 10 were in an alert state and 15 in light sleep during testing. For the investigation of cortical potentials, a single-channel Hearlab System equipment, Cortical Tone Evaluation module (CTE), was used. The P1i potential was investigated monoaurally at an 80dBnHL intensity at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz. P1i was automatically detected by the equipment. Latency and amplitude were marked by three judges. The responses of the newborn in an alert state were compared with those in light sleep. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups of neonates for the amplitude and latency values at the four tested frequencies. Conclusion There was no influence of the neonates' behavioral state on the evaluation of the P1i auditory cortical potential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Auditory Cortex , Sleep , Evoked Potentials, Auditory , Auditory Threshold , Cochlear Implants , Electroencephalography , Hearing Loss , Noise
12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 291-302, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777062

ABSTRACT

Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to a decreased response to a startling stimulus when another weaker stimulus precedes it. Most PPI studies have focused on the physiological startle reflex and fewer have reported the PPI of cortical responses. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in four monkeys and investigated whether the PPI of auditory cortical responses (alpha, beta, and gamma oscillations and evoked potentials) can be demonstrated in the caudolateral belt of the superior temporal gyrus (STGcb). We also investigated whether the presence of a conspecific, which draws attention away from the auditory stimuli, affects the PPI of auditory cortical responses. The PPI paradigm consisted of Pulse-only and Prepulse + Pulse trials that were presented randomly while the monkey was alone (ALONE) and while another monkey was present in the same room (ACCOMP). The LFPs to the Pulse were significantly suppressed by the Prepulse thus, demonstrating PPI of cortical responses in the STGcb. The PPI-related inhibition of the N1 amplitude of the evoked responses and cortical oscillations to the Pulse were not affected by the presence of a conspecific. In contrast, gamma oscillations and the amplitude of the N1 response to Pulse-only were suppressed in the ACCOMP condition compared to the ALONE condition. These findings demonstrate PPI in the monkey STGcb and suggest that the PPI of auditory cortical responses in the monkey STGcb is a pre-attentive inhibitory process that is independent of attentional modulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Auditory Cortex , Physiology , Evoked Potentials, Auditory , Physiology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Prepulse Inhibition , Physiology , Temporal Lobe , Physiology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in children is associated with neurocognitive morbidity. The cause of SNHL is a loss of hair cells in the organ of Corti. There are currently no reparative treatments for SNHL. Numerous studies suggest that cord blood mononuclear cells (human umbilical cord blood, hUCB) allow at least partial restoration of SNHL by enabling repair of a damaged organ of Corti. Our objective is to determine if hUCB is a safe treatment for moderate to severe acquired SNHL in children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eleven children aged 6 months to 6 years with moderate to severe acquired SNHL were treated with intravenous autologous hUCB. The cell dose ranged from 8 to 30 million cells/kg body weight. Safety was assessed by measuring systemic hemodynamics during hUCB infusion. Infusion-related toxicity was evaluated by measuring neurologic, hepatic, renal and pulmonary function before and after infusion. Auditory function, auditory verbal language assessments and MRI with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were obtained before and after treatment. RESULTS: All patients survived, and there were no adverse events. No infusionrelated changes in hemodynamics occurred. No infusion-related toxicity was recorded. Five subjects experienced a reduction in auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds. Four of those 5 subjects also experienced an improvement in cochlear nerve latencies. Comparison of MRI with DTI sequences obtained before and after treatment revealed increased fractional anisotropy in the primary auditory cortex in three of five subjects with reduced ABR thresholds. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) reductions in ABR thresholds were identified. CONCLUSIONS: TIntravenous hUCB is feasible and safe in children with SNHL.


Subject(s)
Anisotropy , Auditory Cortex , Body Weight , Child , Cochlear Nerve , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Fetal Blood , Hair , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Hemodynamics , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Organ of Corti , Umbilical Cord
14.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 22: e1788, 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-950644

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Introdução Os potenciais evocados auditivos são respostas elétricas que ocorrem nas vias auditivas centrais, resultantes de estimulação acústica. O uso de estímulos de fala para eliciar a resposta desses potenciais possibilita a compreensão de informações sobre codificação e decodificação da fala no sistema nervoso central. Objetivo Comparar o resultado do potencial evocado auditivo de latência longa com dois diferentes estímulos de fala. Métodos Participaram do estudo 30 escolares saudáveis, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 8 e 12 anos. Para os potenciais evocados auditivos, foram utilizados dois diferentes estímulos de fala para a discriminação auditiva: Teste 1 /ba/ x /da/ e Teste 2 /pa/ x /da/. Os estímulos foram aleatoriamente apresentados, sendo 20% raros e 80% frequentes. Os escolares participaram de uma tarefa auditiva ativa e disseram [da] para identificar os estímulos raros. A normalidade dos dados foi determinada utilizando o teste de Shapiro-Wilk. Para comparar a média com o Teste 1 e Teste 2, foi realizada a estimulação t de Student. Resultados Houve diferença significativa na latência P3 na orelha direita, amplitude P2 na orelha direita e amplitude P3 na orelha esquerda. Ocorreram valores mais longos com estímulo /ba/ x /da/. Conclusão As respostas dos potenciais evocados auditivos de latência longa variam em função do estímulo e do cuidado em sua análise, quando se utilizam estímulos de fala na avaliação.


ABSTRACT Introduction Auditory Evoked Potentials are electrical responses that occur in the central auditory pathways, resulting from acoustic stimulation. The use of speech stimuli to elicit the response of these potentials allows to understand information about speech coding and decoding in the central nervous system. Purpose To compare the Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potential of two different speech stimuli. Methods Thirty healthy school children of both genders, aged between 8 and 12 years, participated in the study. For the auditory evoked potentials, different speech stimuli were used for the auditory discrimination: Test 1 /ba/ x /da/ and Test 2 /pa/ x /da/. The stimuli were randomly presented: 20% infrequent and 80% frequent. The school children participated in an active auditory task and said [da] to identify the infrequent stimuli. The normality of the data was determined using the Shapiro-Wilk test. To compare the mean with Test 1 and Test 2, stimulation was performed using Student t test. Results There was a significant difference in P3 latency in the right ear, P2 amplitude in the right ear and P3 amplitude in the left ear. Longer values occurred with stimulus /ba/ x /da/. Conclusion The responses of long latency auditory evoked potentials vary depending on the stimulus and care in the analysis when using speech stimuli in the evaluation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Speech Perception , Acoustic Stimulation , Event-Related Potentials, P300 , Evoked Potentials, Auditory , Reaction Time , Auditory Cortex , Child Development , Cross-Sectional Studies
15.
CoDAS ; 28(5): 491-496, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-828571

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Mensurar os potenciais exógenos do potencial evocado auditivo cortical (PEAC) em neonatos nascidos a termo e pré-termo, além de compará-los, considerando as variáveis latência e amplitude dos componentes. Método Estudo transversal, prospectivo, contemporâneo e comparativo. Foram avaliados 127 neonatos; destes, foram considerados 96, após análise dos exames por três juízes, distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo Termo: 66 neonatos e Grupo Pré-termo: 30 neonatos. Os registros do PEAC foram feitos com os neonatos posicionados no colo da mãe e/ou responsável, em sono natural, por meio de eletrodos de superfície. Foram apresentados estímulos verbais binauralmente, sendo /ba/ o estímulo frequente e /ga/ o estímulo raro, na intensidade de 70 dBNA, por meio de fones de inserção. Foi analisada a presença ou ausência dos componentes exógenos em ambos os grupos, bem como, latência e amplitude de P1 e N1. Para análise dos dados, utilizaram-se os testes pertinentes. Resultados A latência da onda P1 bilateralmente e N1 na orelha esquerda foi menor no Grupo Termo. No entanto, não houve diferença estatisticamente significante quanto à amplitude de P1 e N1 entre os grupos. Na comparação entre presença e ausência dos componentes P2 e N2, também não foi observada diferença entre os grupos. Conclusão É possível mensurar os PEAC, em neonatos nascidos a termo e pré-termo. Verificou-se influência do processo maturacional apenas na medida da latência dos componentes P1 bilateralmente e N1 na orelha esquerda, sendo estas menores no Grupo Termo.


ABSTRACT Purpose To measure the exogenous components of the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) in term and preterm newborns and compare them considering the variables latency and amplitude. Methods This is a cross-sectional, prospective, comparative, contemporary study. One hundred twenty-seven newborns were evaluated; 96 of these were included in the study after analysis of the exams by three referees. Participants were divided into two groups: Term Group: 66 infants and Preterm Group: 30 neonates. The recordings of CAEP were performed using surface electrodes with newborns comfortably positioned in the lap of their mothers and/or guardians in natural sleep. To this end, binaural verbal stimuli were presented with /ba/ as the frequent stimulation and /ga/ the rare stimulus, at an intensity of 70 dB HL, through insert earphones. The presence or absence of exogenous components and the latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were analyzed in both groups. Pertinent tests were used in the statistical analysis of data. Results The latency of the waves P1 and N1 was smaller in participants in the Term Group. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the amplitude of P1 and N1 between the groups. No difference between the groups was found when comparing the presence and absence of the components P2 and N2. Conclusion It is possible to measure the CAEP in term and preterm neonates. There was influence of the maturational process only on the measure of latency of the components P1, binaurally, and N1, in the left ear, which were smaller in participants in the Term Group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Auditory Cortex/physiology , Acoustic Stimulation , Infant, Premature/physiology , Evoked Potentials, Auditory/physiology , Reaction Time , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Term Birth , Electroencephalography
16.
Rev. bras. crescimento desenvolv. hum ; 26(3): 368-373, 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-843512

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The middle-latency auditory evoked potential is used to evaluate any abnormality that might impair the central auditory pathways, which are situated between the brain stem and the primary auditory cortex OBJECTIVE: To analyse the middle-latency auditory evoked potentials in children Methods : This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. Pure-tone audiometry was performed, and if no change was detected, Biologic's portable Evoked Potential System (EP) was used to measure auditory evoked potentials. The identification of the responses was performed using electrodes positioned at C3 and C4 (left and right hemispheres) in reference to ears A1 and A2 (left and right earlobe). These were ipsilaterally and contralaterally paired and landed at Fpz (forehead), in two steps, with alternating stimulation of the right and left ears. RESULTS: In this study, there was 100% detectability of the Na, Pa, and Nb components and interamplitude Na-Pa. This study compared different electrode leads, and there was no significant difference between the different electrode positions studied for the right and left ears in the studied population CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the examination of middle-latency evoked potential is steady and feasible for the studied age group regardless of electrode position


INTRODUÇÃO: O potencial evocado auditivo de média latência é utilizado na avaliação de qualquer anomalia que possa comprometer as vias auditivas centrais, situadas entre o tronco encefálico e córtex auditivo primário OBJETIVO: Analisar os potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência em escolares MÉTODO: Esse estudo é descritivo transversal. Como procedimento foi realizado a audiometria tonal, e caso não fosse detectada nenhuma alteração, foi utilizado o equipamento portátil de potencial evocado auditivo Biologic's Evoked Potencial System (EP). O registro das respostas foi efetuado com eletrodos posicionados em C3 e C4 (hemisfério esquerdo e direito, respectivamente) em referência às orelhas A1 (lóbulo da orelha esquerda) e A2 (lóbulo da orelha direita), pareados ipsilateralmente e contralateralmente e terra em Fp (fronte), em duas etapas, alternando as estimulações das orelhas direita e esquerda RESULTADOS: Neste estudo houve 100% de detectabilidade dos componentes Na, Pa, Nb e interamplitude Na-Pa. Foram comparadas diferentes derivações de eletrodo e não foi observada diferença significativa entre diferentes posições de eletrodos pesquisadas tanto para orelha direita quanto para orelha esquerda nesta população de estudo CONCLUSÃO: O exame de potencial evocado auditivo de média latência é estável e viável para faixa etária estudada independente da posição dos eletrodos


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Audiometry, Evoked Response , Auditory Cortex , Auditory Diseases, Central , Auditory Perceptual Disorders/diagnosis , Students , Therapeutics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Language Development Disorders
17.
Audiol., Commun. res ; 21: e1666, 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-950602

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar os resultados nas diferentes formas de respostas no teste melódico de ordenação temporal para frequência e duração. Métodos A amostra foi composta por 33 sujeitos, por conveniência, com idade entre 17 e 27 anos, normo-ouvintes, sem queixas de processamento auditivo e de histórico de risco para alterações auditivas, ausência de síndromes ou malformações craniofaciais, deficiência física (manual), bem como de alterações neurológicas e de linguagem e com escolaridade superior a nove anos de estudo. Os sujeitos foram submetidos ao teste de ordenação temporal com tom musical, a saber: Teste de Padrão de Duração (TPD) e Teste de Padrão de Frequência (TPF), aplicados sob três condições de respostas (verbal, humming e motor,) e realizados na mesma data. Para isso, os sujeitos foram solicitados, primeiramente, a reconhecer os estímulos verbalmente, em seguida a caracterizar os estímulos em um padrão imitativo e, por fim, a identificar os estímulos com respostas manuais. Resultados Não houve diferenças significativas entre as três formas de resposta para o TPD e TPF. No entanto, observou-se que, para o TPF, houve maior número de alterações que o TPD, independente da forma de resposta. Ainda, as formas motor e verbal tiveram mais alterações que o humming, no TPF. Conclusão As diferentes formas de respostas (verbal, humming e motor) para os testes TPD e TPF melódicos não alteram o seu resultado.


ABSTRACT Purpose Evaluate the results of the different forms of responses in the melodic temporal ordering test in relation to frequency and duration. Methods The sample was composed of 33 subjects, for convenience, aged between 17 and 27 years old, normal hearing individuals, presenting no complaints regarding auditory processing and having no hearing impairment, syndromes or craniofacial malformation history; no physical disability (manual), as well as no neurological and speech impairment and education level greater than nine years. They were subjected to the temporal ordering test with musical tone, called melodic Duration Pattern Test (DPT) and Frequency Pattern Test (FPT), applied under three response conditions (motor, humming and motor), performed on the same date. For that, at a first moment, the induvial were asked to recognize the stimuli verbally, then characterize the stimuli in an imitative pattern and, finally, to recognize the stimuli in manual responses. Results Statistically significant differences were not observed between the three forms of responses for DPT and FPT. However, it is remarkable that there was a greater number of changes for FPT than for DPT, regardless the form of response. Furthermore, motor and verbal responses presented more changes for humming, in FPT. Conclusion The different forms of response (motor, humming and motor) for the melodic DPT and FPT did not change the results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Auditory Cortex , Auditory Perception , Auditory Perceptual Disorders , Hearing Tests
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-254965

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the expressions of Calbindin(CB) and Parvalbumin (PV), the two calcium-binding protein, in auditory pathway in mice of wild type C57BL/6J and kit⁺/kitW⁻ ²Bao, a kit gene mutant.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Six mutated kit gene kit⁺/kitW⁻ ²Bao mice and 6 wild type C57BL/6J (B6) mice were anaesthetized i. p. with chloral hydrate. After the mice were fixed by heart perfusion, the brains were removed and coronal sections were cut with a freezing microtome.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>We found that wild type mice had significant expressions of PV on ventral cochlear nucleus, anterior part (AVCN), ventral cochlear nucleus, posterior part (PVCN), inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex (AC). CB was expressed in wild type mice on PVCN and nucleus of the trapezoid body (Tz). The mutant of kit gene induced the less expression of PV on PVCN, IC and AC (P < 0.01), but increased the expression of Tz (P < 0.01). CB could not be observed on PVCN in mutant mice, and the expression of AC was increased( P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>CB and PV has differential expression level in auditory pathway. Since mutated kit gene can affect expression of PV on PVCN, IC, Tz and AC, as well as CB on PVCN and AC, it suggests that the mutation of kit gene can affect the advanced function of central nervous system in auditory pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Auditory Cortex , Metabolism , Auditory Pathways , Metabolism , Calbindins , Metabolism , Inferior Colliculi , Metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mutation , Parvalbumins , Metabolism , Pons , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit , Genetics
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-645681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is a need for fast and reliable objective measures of cochlear implant (CI) performance, especially in young children. The aim of the study was to investigate the detection and characterization of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEP) of different types of sound stimulation in CI listeners using a commercially available system, HEARLab™. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Sound field CAEPs were obtained from 10 CI listeners, using three natural speech sounds (/m/, /g/, and /t/) presented at 55, 65, and 75 dB SPL. Detection rates, the latencies and amplitudes of CAEP waves were analyzed and compared with those of the normal hearing (NH) group. RESULTS: It was possible to detect CAEP responses in all CI listeners. Of the three stimuli (/m/, /g/, /t/), /g/ was the most robust waveform, although this was not statistically significant. Latencies for the /m/ stimulus were relatively longer than those for /t/ and especially for /g/, suggesting that CI listeners hear high-frequency sounds better than low-frequency sounds. When compared to the NH group, CAEP of CI listeners tended to show smaller amplitudes of various waves and longer latencies especially at P1 wave. CONCLUSION: CAEP responses could be obtained in all CI listeners and normal adults successfully, indicating that CAEP can be applied clinically as an objective assessment tool of hearing. Further studies are needed for CI listeners especially in infants and toddlers using this protocol to assess its clinical usefulness.


Subject(s)
Adult , Auditory Cortex , Child , Cochlear Implants , Evoked Potentials, Auditory , Hearing , Humans , Infant , Methods , Phonetics
20.
Clinics ; 70(9): 606-611, Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-759292

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:Temporal processing refers to the ability of the central auditory nervous system to encode and detect subtle changes in acoustic signals. This study aims to investigate the temporal resolution ability of individuals with mesial temporal sclerosis and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the gaps-in-noise test in identifying this type of lesion.METHOD:This prospective study investigated differences in temporal resolution between 30 individuals with normal hearing and without neurological lesions (G1) and 16 individuals with both normal hearing and mesial temporal sclerosis (G2). Test performances were compared, and the sensitivity and specificity were calculated.RESULTS:There was no difference in gap detection thresholds between the two groups, although G1 revealed better average thresholds than G2 did. The sensitivity and specificity of the gaps-in-noise test for neurological lesions were 68% and 98%, respectively.CONCLUSIONS:Temporal resolution ability is compromised in individuals with neurological lesions caused by mesial temporal sclerosis. The gaps-in-noise test was shown to be a sensitive and specific measure of central auditory dysfunction in these patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Auditory Cortex/physiopathology , Auditory Perceptual Disorders/physiopathology , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/physiopathology , Gyrus Cinguli/physiopathology , Auditory Perception , Case-Control Studies , Functional Laterality , Hearing Tests , Prospective Studies , Sclerosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
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