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1.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 135-144, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Beginning with the concepts of stress developed by Selye, an approach to stress and pain management, known as neuro-emotional technique (NET), has been developed. It is a treatment approach based on the principle that the stressor effects of dormant and/or current unresolved issues or trauma are what determine one's bodily responses. These responses are relatively personalized to the conditioned, experiential and emotional reality of the individual.@*OBJECTIVE@#To determine the effect of NET on patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) over time.@*DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTIONS@#In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study conducted in a single clinic, NET or control treatments were given twice weekly for 4 weeks in a population of 112 patients.@*MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES@#Outcome measures, including Oswestry Disability Index, Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale, the psychoneuroimmunology markers of blood serum levels of C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and IL-10, and 10 dimensions of the Short Form Health Survey scale, were assessed at baseline and at 1, 3 and 6 months following the intervention period.@*RESULTS@#Compared to placebo, NET produced clinical and statistical significance (P < 0.001) via declines of virtually all physiological, pain and disability markers, accompanied by gains in quality-of-life indicators at 0 (baseline), 1, 3 and 6 months. Reductions of the percentages of patients whose 5 biomarkers lay outside the normative range were achieved at 1, 3 and 6 months by NET but not control interventions.@*CONCLUSION@#A randomized, controlled trial of CLBP patients indicated that 8 NET interventions, compared to placebo, produced clinically and statistically significant reductions in pain, disability and inflammatory biomarkers, and improvements in quality-of-life measures.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#The trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (No. ACTRN12608000002381).


Subject(s)
Australia , Chronic Pain/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Low Back Pain/therapy , Pain Measurement , Treatment Outcome
4.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(2): 64-71, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1339323

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the dental displacement in dentures included in different flasks and processed by the Australian cycle modified or by microwave. Metal pins were placed on the teeth as reference for measurements: a) Incisal edge of maxillary and mandibular central incisors, buccal cusp of maxillary and mandibular vestibular first premolars, and mesiobuccal maxillary and mandibular cusps of second molars; b) Incisor to incisor, premolar to premolar and molar to molar; c) Left incisor to left molar and right incisor to right molar, and d) Vertical. Dentures were divided according to flasks (n=10): G1- Metal; G2- HH bimaxillary metal; G3-Microwaves; G4- HH bimaxillary microwaves. For G1 and G2, polymerization at 65ºC/30 min, flame quenched for 30 min, heating at 65ºC/30 min, boiling water for 1 h. For G3 and G4, microwave (20 min/140 W and 5 min/560 W). Comparator microscope with digital camera and analytical unit assessed the measurements before and after denture polymerization. The final distance was made subtracting the distance before the denture processing from the distance of the dental displacement after processing. The value of the difference was submitted to 2-way ANOVA, considering the flask type and denture type. Maxillary denture showed greater displacement when compared to mandibular denture. Flask types and interaction with denture types showed similar difference between before and after polymerization. In conclusion, displacement promoted by flask types in dentures cured by polymerization cycles promoted similar effect on the distance between teeth. Greater value for distance between teeth occurred for maxillary denture.


Resumo O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar o deslocamento dental em próteses totais incluídas em diferentes tipos de muflas e polimerizadas pelo ciclo australiano ou por micro ondas. Pinos metálicos foram colocados nos dentes como pontos de referência para as medidas: a) Borda incisal dos incisivos centrais maxilares e mandibulares, cúspide vestibular dos primeiros pré molares maxilares e mandibulares e cúspides mésiovestibulares dos segundos molares maxilares e mandibulares; b) Distâncias látero-laterais incisivo a incisivo, pré-molar a pré-molar e molar a molar; c) Distâncias horizontais anteroposterior incisivo esquerdo a molar esquerdo e incisivo direito a molar direito, e d) Vertical. As próteses foram separadas de acordo com o tipo de mufla (n=20): G1- Metálica; G2-HH bi-maxilar metálica; G3- Micro-ondas; G4- HH bi-maxilar micro ondas. Ciclo de polimerização para G1 e G2, água a 65ºC por 30 minutos, aquecimento interrompido por 30 minutos, reaquecimento a 65ºC por 30 minutos, seguido de água fervente por 1 hora. Para G3 e G4, micro ondas (20 minutos a 140 W e 5 minutos a 560 W). As medidas foram avaliadas com microscópio comparador linear. A distância final entre os dentes foi obtida subtraindo o valor da distância antes do processamento da prótese do valor da distância resultante do deslocamento dentário após o processamento. A diferença obtida entre essas distâncias foi submetida à ANOVA de 2 fatores, considerando como variáveis tipo de mufla e tipo de prótese. A prótese maxilar apresentou maior deslocamento dental quando comparada à mandibular. Os tipos de muflas e a interação com os tipos de próteses mostraram movimentos dentais similares antes e depois da polimerização. Em conclusão, o deslocamento dental promovido por diferentes tipos de frascos em próteses curadas por diferentes ciclos de polimerização promoveu efeito semelhante na alteração da distância entre os dentes. Maior valor para a mudança de distância entre os dentes ocorreu na prótese maxilar.


Subject(s)
Denture, Complete , Australia , Polymerization
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(12): 4875-4886, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142710

ABSTRACT

Resumo Comemorando os 25 anos da Revista Ciência & Saúde Coletiva (C&SC), o presente artigo analisou 375 documentos publicados entre 2000-2019 neste periódico, como parte integrante da editoria de saúde bucal coletiva. A análise da produção visou compreender como o núcleo de saúde bucal aparece nas publicações e como poderia ter contribuído com o conhecimento sobre a saúde-doença da população, as políticas públicas específicas, o ensino e a gestão dos serviços de saúde bucal no SUS. O processo privilegiou a análise bibliométrica e a de documentos. Foi possível explicitar a distribuição institucional dos autores, sua expressiva rede de colaboradores e a dimensão das citações das publicações inclusive no plano internacional. Os estados brasileiros mais presentes nas publicações foram São Paulo e Minas Gerais, seguidos por autores de Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina. As citações foram mais frequentemente do Brasil (85,14%), seguido por Estados Unidos (2,31%), Portugal (1,34%) e Austrália (1,34%). Conclui-se que, mesmo com limitações, C&SC se mostrou, inequivocamente, um potente instrumento de divulgação da produção científica na perspectiva da saúde bucal coletiva, possibilitando a divulgação e o intercâmbio de informações, facilitando a integração entre os pesquisadores e possibilitando um caminho da sua consolidação.


Abstract Celebrating the 25 years of existence of the Journal Ciência & Saúde Coletiva (C&SC), this paper analyzed 375 documents published between 2000-2019 as an integral part of the editorial of collective oral health. The production analysis aimed to understand how oral health core appears in publications and how it could have contributed to knowledge on the population's health-disease, specific public policies, education, and management of oral health services in the SUS. The process employed bibliometric and documental analysis. We could show the authors' territorial distribution, their extensive collaboration network, and the dimension of citations in publications, including the international plan. The Brazilian states most present in the publications were São Paulo and Minas Gerais, followed by authors from Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina. Citations were more frequent in Brazil (85.14%), followed by the United States (2.31%), Portugal (1.34%), and Australia (1.34%). We concluded that, despite the limitations, the C&SC showed unequivocally a powerful instrument for the dissemination of scientific production from the perspective of collective oral health, enabling the exchange of information and facilitating the integration between researchers and enabling a path to its consolidation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Writing , Oral Health , Portugal , Australia , Brazil
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 717-726, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142534

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Australian red-claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, has been introduced for aquaculture purposes worldwide and consequently colonized natural environments, where it might cause ecosystem services losses or adversely affect native species and the local environment. This species was first found in Pequenos Libombos Reservoir in Maputo Province, Southern Mozambique in the late 2009 and is linked to reduction in tilapia fisheries. This study, conducted in 2015 under controlled conditions, aimed to assess the interspecific relationships between the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and the alien crayfish. For both species, no significant differences in growth and survival rates were found between animals reared in the presence versus the absence of heterospecifics, indicating no direct deleterious interspecific effects. Behavioural observations revealed that fish and crayfish competed for shelter and food. Both species reduced the foraging in the presence of heterospecifics during feeding period, in the daytime. Crayfish seemed to have an advantage in competition for shelter, suggesting that they may interfere with tilapia sheltering activity and make tilapia vulnerable to predators in natural habitats.


Resumo O lagostim australiano, Cherax quadricarinatus, tem sido introduzido para fins de aquicultura em todo o mundo e, consequentemente, colonizado ambientes naturais, onde pode coexistir com a biota local sem causar perdas nos serviços dos ecossistemas ou afetar negativamente as espécies nativas e o meio ambiente local. Esta espécie foi encontrada pela primeira vez na Albufeira dos Pequenos Libombos, na Província de Maputo, sul de Moçambique, no final de 2009 e foi relacionada à redução da pesca de tilápias registrada na mesma localidade. Este estudo, conduzido em 2015 sob condições controladas, teve como objetivo avaliar as relações interespecíficas entre a tilápia de Moçambique (Oreochromis mossambicus) e o lagostim invasor (C. quadricarinatus). Para ambas espécies, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas taxas de crescimento e sobrevivência entre animais criados na presença versus ausência de heteroespecíficos, indicando ausência de efeitos deletérios interespecíficos diretos. Observações comportamentais revelaram que peixes e lagostins competiam por abrigo e comida. Ambas espécies reduziram o forrageamento na presença de heteroespecíficos durante o período de alimentação, no período diurno. O lagostim parece ter uma vantagem na competição por abrigos, sugerindo que, em habitats naturais eles podem provocar o deslocamento de tilápias de seus abrigos, e deste modo tornar as tilápias vulneráveis aos predadores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Tilapia , Astacoidea , Australia , Ecosystem , Aquaculture
7.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 30(3): 344-354, Sept.-Dec. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1134674

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: CoV infections can potentially cause from a simple cold to a severe respiratory syndrome, such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV). The COVID-19 created a new reality for global healthcare modelsOBJETIVE: To evaluate trends in case-fatality rates of COVID-19 in the WorldMETHODS: We conducted a population-based time-series study using public and official data of cases and deaths from COVID-19 in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand, Nigeria, Peru, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States and Russian, between December, 2019 and August, 2020. Data were based on reports from European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. COVID-19 was defined by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (U07.1). A Prais-Winsten regression model was performed and the Daily Percentage Change (DPC) calculated determine rates as increasing, decreasing or flatRESULTS: During the study period, trends in case-fatality rates in the world were flat (DPC = 0.3; CI 95% [-0.2: 0.7]; p = 0.225). In Africa, Morocco had decreasing trends (DPC = -1.1; CI 95% [-1.5: -0.7]; p < 0.001), whereas it were increasing in South Africa (p < 0.05) and flat in Nigeria (p > 0.05). In the Americas, Argentina showed a decreasing trend in case-fatality rates (DPC = -0.6; CI 95% [-1.1: -0.2]; p = 0.005), the U.S. had flat trends (p > 0.05) and all other American countries had increasing trends (p < 0.05). In Asia, Iran had decreasing trends (DPC = -1.5; CI 95% [-2.6 : -0.2]; p = 0.019); China and Saudi Arabia showed increasing trends (p < 0.05), while in India, Japan and South Korea they were flat (p > 0.05). European countries had mostly increasing trends (p < 0.05): Germany, Italy, Spain, the UK and Russia; France and Switzerland had flat trends (p > 0.05). Finally, in Oceania, trends in case-fatality rates were flat in Australia (p > 0.05) and increasing in New Zealand (p < 0.05CONCLUSION: Trends in case-fatality rates of COVID-19 in the World were flat between December, 31 and August, 31. Argentina, Iran and Morocco were the only countries with decreasing trends. On the other hand, South Africa, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, China, Saudi Arabia, Germany, Spain, United Kingdom, Russian and New Zealand had increasing trends in case-fatality rate. All the other countries analyzed had flat trends. Based on case-fatality rate data, our study supports that COVID-19 pandemic is still in progress worldwide


INTRODUÇÃO: As infecções por CoV podem causar desde um simples resfriado até uma síndrome respiratória grave, como a Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave e a Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio (MERS-CoV). O COVID-19 impôs uma nova realidade em termos de modelos globais de saúdeOBJETIVO: Avaliar as tendências das taxas de letalidade do COVID-19 no mundoMÉTODO: Estudo de séries temporais de base populacional usando dados públicos e oficiais de casos e mortes por COVID-19 na Argentina, Austrália, Brasil, Chile, China, Colômbia, França, Alemanha, Índia, Irã, Itália, Japão, México, Marrocos, Nova Zelândia, Nigéria, Peru, Arábia Saudita, África do Sul, Coreia do Sul, Espanha, Suíça, Reino Unido, Estados Unidos (EUA) e Rússia, entre 31 dezembro de 2019 e 31 agosto de 2020. Os dados foram baseados nos relatórios do Centro Europeu de Prevenção e Controle de Doenças. COVID-19 foi definido pela Classificação Internacional de Doenças, 10ª revisão (U07.1). Para análise estatística, foi realizado o modelo de regressão de Prais-Winsten, a partir do qual foi possível calcular a variação percentual de mudança diária (DPC) das taxas, classificadas como crescentes, decrescentes ou estacionáriasRESULTADOS: Durante o período do estudo, as taxas de letalidade no mundo permaneceram estacionárias (DPC = 0,3; IC 95% [-0,2: 0,7]; p = 0,225). Na África, Marrocos teve tendência decrescente (DPC = -1,1; IC 95% [-1,5: -0,7]; p <0,001), enquanto na África do Sul houve tendência crescente (p < 0,05) e estacionária na Nigéria (p > 0,05). Em relação às Américas, a Argentina revelou tendência decrescente nas taxas de letalidade (DPC = -0,6; IC 95% [-1,1: -0,2]; p = 0,005), os EUA demonstraram tendência estacionária (p > 0,05) e todos os outros países americanos demonstraram tendências crescentes (p < 0,05). Na Ásia, o Irã apresentou tendência decrescente (DPC = -1,5; IC 95% [-2,6: -0,2]; p = 0,019); China e Arábia Saudita apresentaram tendências crescentes (p <0,05), enquanto Índia, Japão e Coreia do Sul mantiveram tendência estacionária (p > 0,05). A maioria dos países europeus apresentaram tendências crescentes (p <0,05): Alemanha, Itália, Espanha, Reino Unido e Rússia; França e Suíça demonstraram tendências estacionárias (p > 0,05). Por fim, na Oceania, a tendência nas taxas de letalidade na Austrália foi estacionária (p > 0,05) e aumentou na Nova Zelândia (p < 0,05CONCLUSÃO: A tendência nas taxas de letalidade por COVID-19 no mundo permaneceu estacionária entre 31 de dezembro de 2019 e 31 de agosto de 2020. Argentina, Irã e Marrocos foram os únicos países com tendências decrescentes. Por outro lado, África do Sul, Brasil, Canadá, Chile, Colômbia, México, Peru, China, Arábia Saudita, Alemanha, Espanha, Reino Unido, Rússia e Nova Zelândia apresentaram tendências crescentes de letalidade. Todos os outros países analisados demonstraram tendências estacionárias. De acordo com dados de letalidade, nosso estudo confirma que a pandemia de COVID-19 ainda está em fase de progressão em todo o mundo


Subject(s)
Epidemiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19/mortality , Peru , Argentina , Saudi Arabia , Australia , South Africa , Spain , Switzerland , United States , Brazil , Chile , China , Russia , Colombia , Republic of Korea , France , Germany , United Kingdom , India , Iran , Italy , Japan , Mexico , Morocco , New Zealand , Nigeria
8.
Acta ortop. mex ; 34(1): 22-26, ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345080

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: En un reemplazo total de cadera primario (RTC), diferentes materiales son los que se usan para las superficies de apoyo. En nuestro medio, las cabezas de metal o cerámica con polietileno altamente entrecruzado (PA) son los más utilizados. Estas combinaciones tienen buenos resultados, pero no es claro cuál es superior clínicamente. Basados en una revisión sistemática de la literatura y de los registros nacionales de artroplastía, el objetivo de este estudio es determinar si existe alguna diferencia significativa desde el punto de vista clínico. Material y métodos: Realizamos una revisión sistemática de la literatura y de los registros nacionales de artroplastía. Buscamos estudios en los que se compararan los tipos de superficie de contacto: cerámica-polietileno altamente entrecruzado (CP) y metal-polietileno altamente entrecruzado (MP), además de los registros nacionales de artroplastía que describieran, con un seguimiento mínimo de 10 años, la tasa de revisión según el tipo de superficie. El desenlace evaluado fue: tasa de revisión por cualquier causa según el tipo de superficie. Resultados: Dos de quince registros nacionales fueron incluidos: el registro australiano muestra una diferencia en la tasa de revisión a 15 años, comparando CP: 6.3 (IC 5.8, 6.7) contra MP: 5.1 (IC 4.6, 5.7). El registro de Nueva Zelanda no muestra diferencias en la tasa de revisión/100 componentes/año: CP de 0.54 (0.48-0.61) en comparación con MP de 0.61 (0.57-0.66). No encontramos estudios clínicos con los criterios de inclusión que respondan la pregunta de investigación. Conclusión: Los resultados de esta revisión muestran una alta supervivencia cuando se usa polietileno altamente entrecruzado; asimismo, los resultados son similares cuando se utilizan cabezas de cerámica o metálicas.


Abstract: Introduction: In primary hip replacement, different materials are used for bearing surfaces. In our medium metal or ceramic heads with highly crossed-linked polyethylene (PA) are the most used. These combinations have good results, but it is not clear which is clinically superior. The objective of this study is to determine whether there is any clinically significant difference based on a systematic review of the literature and national registries of arthroplasty. Material and methods: We conduct a systematic review of the literature and national registries of arthroplasty and we were looking for studies comparing bearing surfaces: ceramic-highly cross-linked polyethylene (CP) and metal-highly cross-linked polyethylene (MP); describing the revision rate according to the surface type with a minimum 10-year follow-up. The outcome evaluated was: review rate for any cause depending on surface type. Results: Two out of fifteen national registries were included. The Australian registry shows a difference in the 15-year revision rate: CP: 6.3 (IC 5.8, 6.7) vs MP: 5.1 (IC 4.6, 5.7). The New Zealand registry shows no differences in revision rate/100 components/year: CP 0.54 (0.48-0.61) vs MP 0.61 (0.57-0.66). We do not find clinical studies with inclusion criteria that answer the research question. Conclusion: The results of this review show a high survival rate with the use of highly cross-linked polyethylene, the results are similar when using ceramic or metal heads.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Hip Prosthesis , Prosthesis Design , Reoperation , Australia , Prosthesis Failure , Ceramics , Polyethylene
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811267

ABSTRACT

Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infection in humans. The disease is endemic in some parts of the world, including Africa, Australia, and Asia, where cattle grazing is common; the disease is spread by an enteric route following the consumption of food contaminated with the eggs of the parasite. Failure to identify this parasite results in delayed diagnosis and increased morbidity to the patient. Upon diagnosis, every possible step should be taken, both surgical and medical, to prevent anaphylactic reactions from the cystic fluid. Postsurgical long-term follow up along with periodical ultrasonography of the liver and computed tomography scan of the abdomen is essential to rule out possible recurrence.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Africa , Anaphylaxis , Animals , Asia , Australia , Cattle , Delayed Diagnosis , Diagnosis , Echinococcosis , Eggs , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver , Ovum , Parasites , Recurrence , Ultrasonography , Zoonoses
11.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 20(supl.1): e0131, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135584

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To describe and compare how three dental schools from different countries (Australia, Brazil, and the USA) have managed experiences in dental education during the COVID-19 crisis. Material and Methods: It is a descriptive study reporting the experience that three distinct dental schools faced during the COVID-19 pandemic. They represent countries that adopted different measures to tackle the pandemic and were undergoing different stages of the disease. Results: After the WHO declared the COVID-19 pandemic, the Federal University of Paraíba suspended all on-site teaching, research, and service activities. For the return to teaching activities, the use of information and communications technology resources for distance learning was recommended. At the School of Dental Medicine (University of Pittsburgh), all research activities were suspended or, otherwise, could not be interrupted because of the employment of unique materials or supplies. When the pandemic started, Australia was one of the first countries to introduce strong regulations related to social distancing, travel restrictions, testing and tracking of infected patients. As such, the universities started to be closed from mid-March, cancelling all clinical and pre-clinical activities, maintaining online theoretical activities, such as seminars, lectures, and journal clubs. Conclusion: Numerous and critical difficulties have arisen as a result of the pandemic for individuals, communities and institutions that will have long-lasting effects. Our students face disruption to their education and career; our professional colleagues will be challenged rebuilding their practices, while staff at all Dental Schools are experiencing various hardships.


Subject(s)
Social Isolation/psychology , Coronavirus/immunology , Educational Technology/methods , SARS Virus , Education, Dental , Schools, Dental , Australia/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , World Health Organization , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Education, Distance/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control
12.
Salud colect ; 16: e2553, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139504

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Este estudio etnográfico fue diseñado para explorar las condiciones de vida de un grupo de familias aborígenes residentes en un contexto urbano, beneficiarias de un programa sociorecreativo en Sídney, Australia. El objetivo fue explorar la satisfacción vital mediante el análisis de sus condiciones de vida y del capital cultural inscrito en sus actitudes, percepciones y conocimientos establecidos. El trabajo de campo se estructuró en dos fases complementarias: en la fase 1, entre mayo de 2008 y diciembre de 2010, se inició con el ingreso del primer autor como voluntario en la asociación responsable del programa y, en la fase 2, entre enero de 2011 y febrero de 2013 se intensificó el proceso de observación participante y las entrevistas semiestructuradas. Los resultados muestran que el proceso de desarraigo cultural está en la base de las experiencias vitales de desigualdad social experimentadas y apunta a un efecto de cohorte que llega hasta nuestros días. Dicho proceso de (des)consonancia cultural debe ser tenido en cuenta como un factor clave a la hora de analizar las condiciones de vida y bienestar de estas minorías étnicas, así como a la hora de desarrollar programas e intervenciones.


ABSTRACT This ethnographic study was designed to explore living conditions among a group of aboriginal families residing in an urban context, who participated in a recreational social program. The aim of the study was to explore life satisfaction by analyzing their living conditions and cultural capital inscribed in established attitudes, perceptions, and lay knowledge. Fieldwork was carried out in two complementary phases: phase 1, between May 2008 and December 2010, began when the first listed author initiated volunteer work with the organization responsible for the program; in phase 2, which extended from January 2011 to February 2013, participant observation was intensified and semi-structured interviews were carried out. The results indicate that the process of cultural uprooting underscores the experience of social inequality, and suggest a cohort effect that continues to this day. This process of cultural (in)consonance must be taken into account as a key factor when analyzing the living conditions and well-being of ethnic minorities, as well as when developing programs and interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Personal Satisfaction , Social Conditions , Urban Population , Acculturation , Quality of Life , Australia/ethnology , Social Dominance , Socioeconomic Factors , Activities of Daily Living , Program Evaluation , Community-Institutional Relations , Personal Autonomy , Qualitative Research , Social Discrimination , Social Determinants of Health , Life Style , Anthropology, Cultural
13.
CoDAS ; 32(5): e20190204, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133532

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Adaptar lingüística y culturalmente el protocolo australiano de voz cantada Evaluation of Ability to Sing Easily (EASE) al español chileno. Método: Fue realizada la traducción al español chileno del EASE y posteriormente la retrotraducción; ambas fueron revisadas por un comité compuesto por 4 fonoaudiólogos quienes crearon la primera versión en español chileno (EASE-CL). El EASE-CL está compuesto, al igual que el original, por 22 ítems que se contestan de acuerdo con una escala de Likert de frecuencia, a la que, durante la adaptación, se le sumó la alternativa "no aplicable" para poder identificar las consignas no comprendidas o inapropiadas para el vocabulario de los cantantes chilenos. Esta versión se aplicó a 21 cantantes profesionales de la región de Valparaíso. Durante esta aplicación no existieron sugerencias para el cambio de alguna consigna. Resultado: El EASE-CL refleja la versión original del inglés, tanto en la cantidad de ítems como en dominios. Conclusión: Queda demostrada la equivalencia cultural y lingüística del protocolo EASE al español chileno, originándose la versión EASE-CL.


ABSTRACT Purpose: To adapt the Australian singing voice protocol, Evaluation of Ability to Sing Easily (EASE) to Chilean Spanish. Methods: A translation of the EASE to Chilean Spanish was performed and later back translated; these were reviewed by a committee made up of 4 Speech-Language pathologists who created the first version in Chilean Spanish (EASE-CL). The EASE-CL is made up of 22 items, the same as the original, which are answered according to a Likert frequency scale, to which, during its adaptation, the option 'not applicable' was added in order to identify the instructions that were not understood or inappropriate for the vocabulary of Chilean singers. This version was applied to 21 professional singers in the Valparaiso Region. During this application there were no suggestions to change any of the instructions. Results: The EASE-CL reflects the original English both in the number of items and in the domains. Conclusion: The cultural and linguistic equivalence of the EASE protocol in Chilean Spanish was demonstrated and the EASE-CL version came to be.


Subject(s)
Humans , Voice Disorders/diagnosis , Singing , Australia , Translations , Chile , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Saúde debate ; 43(spe5): 286-298, Dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS | ID: biblio-1101951

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Este estudo objetivou analisar os desafios do acesso a medicamentos em quatro sistemas universais de saúde da Austrália, do Brasil, do Canadá e do Reino Unido. Estudo qualitativo crítico-reflexivo por meio de revisão integrativa da literatura. Um dos grandes desafios dos sistemas estudados é o da incorporação de medicamentos de alto custo, via análises de custo-efetividade para cumprir a difícil tarefa de conciliar a justiça social e a equidade no acesso com sustentabilidade econômica. Particularmente o Canadá, mesmo sendo um país desenvolvido, ainda vive o dilema de como financiar um sistema de saúde no qual o acesso a medicamentos também seja universal. O Brasil convive com duas realidades problemáticas: primeiro, dar acesso a medicamentos, já padronizados pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), diante de um financiamento diminuto, segundo, de maneira semelhante aos sistemas australiano, canadense e inglês, vive o dilema de como incorporar novos medicamentos eficazes e com viabilidade econômica, além da questão da judicialização da saúde, um fenômeno complexo resultante da fragilidade pública na organização, financiamento, consolidação do SUS.


ABSTRACT This study aimed to analyze the challenges of access to medicines in four universal health systems in Australia, Brazil, Canada and the United Kingdom. Critical-reflexive qualitative study through Integrative Literature Review. The great challenge of the systems studied is the incorporation of high-cost drugs, through cost-effectiveness analyses to fulfill the difficult task of reconciling social justice and access equity with economic sustainability. Canada, in particular, despite being a developed country, still deals with the dilemma of how to finance a health system in which access to medicines is also universal. Brazil deals with two problematic realities: first, to grant access to medicines that are already standardized by the Unified Health System (SUS), in the face of insufficient funding. Secondly, similarly to the Australian, Canadian, and English systems, the dilemma of how to incorporate new efficient medicines considering its economic feasibility, as well as the issue of health judicialization, a complex phenomenon resulting from public fragility in the organization, financing, and consolidation of the SUS.


Subject(s)
Social Justice/legislation & jurisprudence , Health Systems/organization & administration , Coverage Equity , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Australia , Brazil , Canada , United Kingdom
15.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 8(4): 275-281, nov. 5, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145348

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe self-reported oral health-care visits and associated factors in older adults in Melbourne, Australia. Material and Methods: 201 older adults, 79-96 years, took part in the Melbourne Longitudinal Studies on Healthy Ageing (MELSHA) in 2008. Participants who visited a dentist within 12-months prior were identified. Logistic regression examined factors associated with the 12-month visits. Results: 47.7% reported visits to the dentist in the previous 12 months. Multivariate analyses showed dentate participants (OR=11.27; 95% CI: 4.38-29.00) were more likely to have a 12-month visit, and; those receiving a government pension or benefit were less likely to have a 12-month visit (OR=0.38; 95% CI 0.18-0.79). Conclusion: Compared with existing data on the oral health of older Australians, MELSHA participants appear to have lower dental attendance. Findings highlight the need to increase older people sl eeking oral health-care, and the need to collect information to identify influencers of oral health service usage.


Objetivo: Describir las visitas de atención de salud bucal autoreportadas y los factores asociados en adultos mayores en Melbourne, Australia. Métodos: 201 adultos mayores, de 79 a 96 años, participaron en los Estudios longitudinales de Envejecimiento Saludable en Melbourne (MELSHA) en 2008. Se identificaron los participantes que visitaron a un dentista dentro de los 12 meses anteriores. La regresión logística examinó los factores asociados con haber visitado el dentists en los ultimos 12 meses. Resultados: el 47,7% informó visitas al dentista en los 12 meses anteriores. Los análisis multivariados mostraron que los participantes dentados (OR=11.27; IC 95%:4.38-29.00) tenían más probabilidades de haber visitado al dentista en los ultimos 12 meses; y aquellos que recibieron una pensión o beneficio del gobierno tenían menos probabilidades de haber reportado una visita en los ultimos 12 meses (OR=0,38; IC del 95%:0,18 a 0,79). Conclusión: en comparación con los datos existentes sobre la salud oral de los australianos adultos mayores, los participantes de MELSHA reportaron una menor asistencia dental. Los resultados resaltan la necesidad de aumentar que adultos mayores busquen atención de salud bucal, y la necesidad de recopilar información para identificar influyentes en el uso de servicios de salud bucal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dental Care/statistics & numerical data , Dental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Australia , Oral Health , Longitudinal Studies
16.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(3): 245-253, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011490

ABSTRACT

Objective: Bipolar depression is characterized by neurobiological features including perturbed oxidative biology, reduction in antioxidant levels, and a concomitant rise in oxidative stress markers. Bipolar depression manifests systemic inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and changes in brain growth factors. The depressive phase of the disorder is the most common and responds the least to conventional treatments. Garcinia mangostana Linn, commonly known as mangosteen, is a tropical fruit. The pericarp's properties may reduce oxidative stress and inflammation and improve neurogenesis, making mangosteen pericarp a promising add-on therapy for bipolar depression. Methods: Participants will receive 24 weeks of either 1,000 mg mangosteen pericarp or placebo per day, in addition to their usual treatment. The primary outcome is change in severity of mood symptoms, measured using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), over the treatment phase. Secondary outcomes include global psychopathology, quality of life, functioning, substance use, cognition, safety, biological data, and cost-effectiveness. A follow-up interview will be conducted 4 weeks post-treatment. Conclusion: The findings of this study may have implications for improving treatment outcomes for those with bipolar disorder and may contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology of bipolar depression. Clinical trial registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry, ACTRN12616000028404.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Garcinia mangostana/chemistry , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Fruit/chemistry , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Placebos/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Australia
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764481

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Optimal methods for communication skills training (CST) are an active research area, but the effects of CST on communication performance in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) has not been closely studied. Student roleplay (RP) for CST is common, although volunteer simulated patient (SP) CST is cost-effective and provides authentic interactions. We assessed whether our volunteer SP CST program improved OSCE performance compared to our previous RP strategy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, quasi-experimental study of 2 second-year medical student cohorts' OSCE data in Australia. The 2014 cohort received RP-only CST (N=182) while the 2016 cohort received SP-only CST (N=148). The t-test and analysis of variance were used to compare the total scores in 3 assessment domains: generic communication, clinical communication, and physical examination/procedural skills. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of groups (scores on the Australian Tertiary Admission Rank, Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test, and medicine program interviews) showed no significant differences between groups. For each domain, the SP-only CST group demonstrated superior OSCE outcomes, and the difference between cohorts was significant (P<0.01). The superiority of volunteer SP CST over student RP CST in terms of OSCE performance outcomes was found for generic communication, clinical communication, and physical examination/procedural skills. CONCLUSION: The better performance of the SP cohort in physical examination/procedural skills might be explained by the requirement for patient compliance and cooperation, facilitated by good generic communication skills. We recommend a volunteer SP program as an effective and efficient way to improve CST among junior medical students.


Subject(s)
Australia , Clinical Competence , Cohort Studies , Humans , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Patient Compliance , Patient Simulation , Retrospective Studies , Students, Medical , Volunteers
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741989

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research was to identify the top 10 most-cited articles on the management of fractured or broken instruments and to perform a bibliometric analysis thereof. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Published articles related to fractured instruments were screened from online databases, such as Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, and highly cited papers, with at least 50 citations since publication, were identified. The most-cited articles were selected and analysed with regard to publication title, authorship, the journal of publication, year, institution, country of origin, article type, and number of citations. RESULTS: The top 10 most-cited articles were from various journals. Most were published in the Journal of Endodontics, followed by the International Endodontic Journal, and Dental Traumatology. The leading countries were Australia, Israel, Switzerland, the USA, and Germany, and the leading institution was the University of Melbourne. The majority of articles among the top 10 articles were clinical research studies (n = 8), followed by a basic research article and a non-systematic review article. CONCLUSIONS: This bibliometric analysis revealed interesting information about scientific progress in endodontics regarding fractured instruments. Overall, clinical research studies and basic research articles published in high-impact endodontic journals had the highest citation rates.


Subject(s)
Australia , Authorship , Bibliometrics , Endodontics , Germany , Israel , Publications , Root Canal Preparation , Switzerland , Traumatology
19.
Ultrasonography ; : 67-75, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731039

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the awareness and inclusion of secondary sonographic signs of appendicitis, in combination with a structured evaluation as part of engagement and training for sonographers, improved appendix visualization rates and reduced equivocal findings in children with suspected acute appendicitis. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 230 children at a tertiary children's hospital in Australia referred for an ultrasound examination of suspected appendicitis. The ultrasound findings, radiology reports, histology, clinical results, and follow-up were collated. Secondary signs were used as an additional assessment of the likelihood of disease where possible, even in the absence of an identified appendix. RESULTS: The implementation of a structured evaluation as part of sonographer engagement and training resulted in a 28% improvement in appendix visualization (68.7%) compared with a prior retrospective study in a similar population (40.7%). The diagnostic accuracy was 91.7%, with likelihood ratios suggesting a meaningful influence of the pre-test probability of appendicitis in children studied (positive likelihood ratio, 11.22; negative likelihood ratio, 0.09.). Only 7.8% of the findings were equivocal. A binary 6-mm diameter cut-off did not account for equivocal cases, particularly lymphoid hyperplasia. CONCLUSION: Engagement of sonographers performing pediatric appendiceal ultrasound through training in the scanning technique and awareness of secondary signs significantly improved the visualization rate and provided more meaningful findings to referrers.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , Appendix , Australia , Child , Diagnostic Imaging , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperplasia , Pediatrics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography
20.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e35-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidemic thunderstorm asthma (ETSA) severely affected Melbourne, Australia in November 2016. There is scant literature on the natural history of individuals affected by ETSA. OBJECTIVE: A multicentre 12-month prospective observational study was conducted assessing symptomatology and behaviors of ETSA-affected individuals. METHODS: We used a structured phone questionnaire to assess asthma symptom frequency, inhaled preventer use, asthma action plan ownership and healthcare utilization over 12 months since the ETSA. Analysis of results included subgroup analyses of the “current,” “past,” “probable,“ and “no asthma” subgroups defined according to their original 2016 survey responses. RESULTS: Four hundred forty-two questionnaires were analyzed. Eighty percent of individuals reported ongoing asthma symptoms at follow-up, of which 28% were affected by asthma symptoms at least once a week. Risk of persistent asthma symptoms was significantly higher in those with prior asthma diagnosis, current asthma, and probable undiagnosed asthma (all p < 0.01). Of 442 respondents, 53% were prescribed inhaled preventers, of which 51% were adherent at least 5 days a week. Forty-two percent had a written asthma action plan and 16% had sought urgent medical attention for asthma in the preceding year. CONCLUSIONS: Following an episode of ETSA, patients experience a pivotal change in asthma trajectory with both loss of asthma control and persistence of de novo asthma. Suboptimal rates of inhaled preventer adherence and asthma action plan ownership may contribute to asthma exacerbation risk and susceptibility to future ETSA episodes. Longer-term follow-up is needed to determine the extent and severity of this apparent change.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Australia , Delivery of Health Care , Diagnosis , Environmental Exposure , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Natural History , Observational Study , Ownership , Prospective Studies , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Weather
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