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Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 308-316, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970924


OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) for the diagnosis of children with intellectual disability (ID), developmental delay (DD), and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD).@*METHODS@#Forty patients with ID/DD/ASD referred to Nanshan Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital from September 2018 to January 2022 were enrolled. G-banded karyotyping analysis was carried out for the patients. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and subjected to CNV-Seq analysis to detect chromosome copy number variations (CNVs) in such patients. ClinVar, DECIPHER, OMIM and other database were searched for data annotation.@*RESULTS@#Among the 40 patients (including 30 males and 10 females), 16, 15 and 6 were diagnosed with ID, DD and ASD, respectively. One patient had combined symptoms of ID and DD, whilst the remaining two had combined ID and ASD. Four patients were found with abnormal karyotypes, including 47,XY,+mar, 46,XY,inv(8)(p11.2q21.2), 46,XX,del(5)(p14) and 46,XX[76]/46,X,dup(X)(p21.1q12). Chromosome polymorphism was also found in two other patients. CNV-seq analysis has detected 32 CNVs in 20 patients (50.0%, 20/40). Pathogenic CNVs were found in 10 patients (25.0%), 15 CNVs of uncertain clinical significance were found in 12 patients (30.0%), and 7 likely benign CNVs were found in 4 patients (10.0%).@*CONCLUSION@#Chromosome CNVs play an important role in the pathogenesis of ID/DD/ASD. CNV-seq can detect chromosomal abnormalities including microdeletions and microduplications, which could provide a powerful tool for revealing the genetic etiology of ID/DD/ASD patients.

Pregnancy , Child , Male , Humans , Female , DNA Copy Number Variations , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Developmental Disabilities/genetics , Abnormal Karyotype
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 701-705, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981811


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic basis of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in conjunct with congenital heart disease (CHD).@*METHODS@#A child who was hospitalized at the Third People's Hospital of Chengdu on April 13, 2021 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the child were collected. Peripheral blood samples of the child and his parents were collected and subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES). A GTX genetic analysis system was used to analyze the WES data and screen candidate variants for ASD. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR) was carried out to compare the expression of mRNA of the NSD1 gene between this child and 3 healthy controls and 5 other children with ASD.@*RESULTS@#The patient, an 8-year-old male, has manifested with ASD, mental retardation and CHD. WES analysis revealed that he has harbored a heterozygous c.3385+2T>C variant in the NSD1 gene, which may affect the function of its protein product. Sanger sequencing showed that neither of his parent has carried the same variant. By bioinformatic analysis, the variant has not been recorded in the ESP, 1000 Genomes and ExAC databases. Analysis with Mutation Taster online software indicated it to be disease causing. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the variant was predicted to be pathogenic. By qPCR analysis, the expression level of mRNA of the NSD1 gene in this child and 5 other children with ASD was significantly lower than that of the healthy controls (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#The c.3385+2T>C variant of the NSD1 gene can significantly reduce its expression, which may predispose to ASD. Above finding has enriched the mutational spectrum the NSD1 gene.

Male , Child , Humans , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Heart Defects, Congenital/genetics , Computational Biology , Genomics , Mutation , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/genetics
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 696-700, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981810


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical characteristics and genetic basis of a child with Mental retardation autosomal dominant 51 (MRD51).@*METHODS@#A child with MRD51 who was hospitalized at Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center on March 4, 2022 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data of the child was collected. Peripheral blood samples of the child and her parents were collected and subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES). Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing and bioinformatic analysis.@*RESULTS@#The child, a 5-year-and-3-month-old girl, had manifested autism spectrum disorder (ASD), mental retardation (MR), recurrent febrile convulsions and facial dysmorphism. WES revealed that she has harbored a novel heterozygous variant of c.142G>T (p.Glu48Ter) in the KMT5B gene. Sanger sequencing confirmed that neither of her parents has carried the same variant. The variant has not been recorded in the ClinVar, OMIM and HGMD, ESP, ExAC and 1000 Genomes databases. Analysis with online software including Mutation Taster, GERP++ and CADD indicated it to be pathogenic. Prediction with SWISS-MODEL online software suggested that the variant may have a significant impact on the structure of KMT5B protein. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the variant was predicted to be pathogenic.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.142G>T (p.Glu48Ter) variant of the KMT5B gene probably underlay the MRD51 in this child. Above finding has expanded the spectrum of KMT5B gene mutations and provided a reference for clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling for this family.

Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Mutation
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 29-46, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922666


A large number of putative risk genes for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported. The functions of most of these susceptibility genes in developing brains remain unknown, and causal relationships between their variation and autism traits have not been established. The aim of this study was to predict putative risk genes at the whole-genome level based on the analysis of gene co-expression with a group of high-confidence ASD risk genes (hcASDs). The results showed that three gene features - gene size, mRNA abundance, and guanine-cytosine content - affect the genome-wide co-expression profiles of hcASDs. To circumvent the interference of these features in gene co-expression analysis, we developed a method to determine whether a gene is significantly co-expressed with hcASDs by statistically comparing the co-expression profile of this gene with hcASDs to that of this gene with permuted gene sets of feature-matched genes. This method is referred to as "matched-gene co-expression analysis" (MGCA). With MGCA, we demonstrated the convergence in developmental expression profiles of hcASDs and improved the efficacy of risk gene prediction. The results of analysis of two recently-reported ASD candidate genes, CDH11 and CDH9, suggested the involvement of CDH11, but not CDH9, in ASD. Consistent with this prediction, behavioral studies showed that Cdh11-null mice, but not Cdh9-null mice, have multiple autism-like behavioral alterations. This study highlights the power of MGCA in revealing ASD-associated genes and the potential role of CDH11 in ASD.

Animals , Mice , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Brain , Cadherins/genetics , Gene Expression , Mice, Knockout
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 428-432, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928435


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child manifesting with intellectual disability, language delay and autism spectrum disorder.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the child and his family members, and subjected to whole exome sequencing. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing and interpreted according to the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.@*RESULTS@#The child was found to harbor a heterozygous c.568C>T (p.Q190X) nonsense variant of the ADNP gene, which was not detected in either parent by Sanger sequencing.@*CONCLUSION@#The clinical and genetic testing both suggested that the child has Helsmoortel-van der Aa syndrome due to ADNP gene mutation, which is extremely rare in China.

Child , Humans , Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Autistic Disorder/genetics , Heterozygote , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Mutation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Rare Diseases
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 297-300, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928405


OBJECTIVE@#To carry out genetic testing for a patient with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples of the patient and his parents were collected for the extraction of genomic DNA. Trio-based whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were carried out thereafter.@*RESULTS@#The proband and his father were found to harbor a heterozygous c.4781G>A (p.Arg1594Gln) variant of the CACNA1I gene. In addition, the proband was also found to harbor a de novo c.268C>T (p.Arg90Trp) missense variant of the MTRR gene. Based on guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the c.4781G>A (p.Arg1594Gln) variant of the CACNA1I gene was predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1, PM1, PM2, PP3), while the c.268C>T (p.Arg90Trp) variant of the MTRR gene was predicted to be of uncertain significance.@*CONCLUSION@#Variants of the CACNA1I and MTRR genes, together with the chromosomal mosaicism, may have predisposed to the susceptibility to the ASD in this patient.

Humans , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Genomics , Heterozygote , Mosaicism , Exome Sequencing
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 103-107, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928372


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of neurodevelopmental disorders. Patients usually exhibit certain degree of social interaction impairment in accompany with impairment in language development as well as repetitive behaviors or interests. In recent years, ASD-related variants, genes, functional pathways, and expression patterns in the brain have been discovered, along with advance in sequencing techniques. This article reviews various aspects of genetic research in association with ASD.

Humans , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Cognition , Genetic Research , Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 16(2): 101-107, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525495


Las N-terminal acetiltransferasas (NaT) son fundamentales en el desarrollo, funcionamiento y vida media celular, acetilando gran parte del proteoma humano. Entre las ocho NaT identificadas, N-terminal acetiltransferasa A (NaTA) acetila a un mayor número de sustratos, teniendo además un rol fundamental en el neurodesarrollo. Previamente, estudios han demostrado que mutaciones en la subunidad catalítica de NaTA, NAA10, se asocian con trastornos del neurodesarrollo. Sin embargo, nuevas líneas investigativas sugieren que mutaciones de la subunidad auxiliar, NAA15, también tendrían un rol importante en el desarrollo de estos trastornos. Esta revisión se realiza con el objetivo de recopilar evidencia sobre variantes de NAA15 relacionadas con Discapacidad Intelectual (DI) y Trastorno de Espectro Autista (TEA). Se consultaron fuentes actualizadas sobre acetilación N-terminal, NaT, DI y TEA y mutaciones reportadas de NAA15 y sus expresiones fenotípicas, publicadas entre 2011 y 2022. Se concluye que, aun cuando existe relación entre mutaciones de NAA15, DI y TEA, todavía es necesario esclarecer los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de estos trastornos, el rol de NaTA y el impacto de variantes de sus subunidades en las vías moleculares y el fenotipo, lo que se dificulta por razones que van desde la complejidad de estas vías hasta el elevado costo de análisis genéticos. Se sugiere continuar la investigación en esta área, para comprender las bases moleculares subyacentes a estos trastornos y el rol de las mutaciones en subunidades de NaTA, con el fin último de estudiar potenciales tratamientos que mejoren la calidad de vida de las personas con estos trastornos y sus familias.

Nt-acetyltransferases (NaT) are essential in cell development, function and half-life, catalyzing most of the human proteome. Among the eight NaTs identified, N-terminal acetyltransferase A (NaTA) acetylates a greater number of substrates, also having a fundamental role in neurodevelopment. Previously, studies have shown that mutations in the catalytic subunit of NaTA, NAA10, are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. However, new research lines suggest that mutations of the NAA15 helper subunit also plays an important role in the development of these disorders. This review is carried out with the objective of gathering evidence on NAA15 variants related to Intellectual Disability (ID) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Updated sources on N-terminal acetylation, N-acetyltransferases, DI and TEA and reported mutations of NAA15 and their phenotypic expressions, published between 2011 and 2022 were consulted. It is concluded that even though there is a relationship between mutations of NAA15, ID and ASD exists, it is still necessary to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms of these disorders, the role of NaTA and the impact of variants of its subunits in the molecular pathways and in the phenotype, for reasons ranging from the complexity of these pathways to the high cost of genetic testing. It is suggested to continue research in this area, to understand the molecular bases underlying these disorders and the role of mutations in NatA subunits, with the ultimate aim of studying potential treatments that improve the quality of life of people with these disorders and their families.

Humans , N-Terminal Acetyltransferase A/genetics , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Genetic Variation , N-Terminal Acetyltransferase A/metabolism , Mutation/genetics
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e727, ene.-mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289446


Introducción: Los trastornos de espectro autista se caracterizan por presentar un déficit en la interacción y comunicación social con presencia de patrones repetitivos y restrictivos de comportamiento, intereses y actividades. En ellos estarían implicadas causas genéticas, ambientales y del desarrollo del sistema nervioso central. Un mayor conocimiento de la neuroanatomía y la neurofisiología ayudaría a comprender mejor este trastorno del neurodesarrollo. Objetivo: Profundizar en el conocimiento neuroanatómico y neurofisiológico de los trastornos del espectro autista. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica acerca del tema en las bases de datos LILACS, Scopus, SciELO, Pubmed, Medigraphic. Se escogieron 13 documentos, todos correspondientes a artículos originales que abordan el tema desde diferentes aristas. De los documentos, dos fueron localizados en Scopus, uno en Pubmed, cuatro en Medigrafhic, dos en LILACS y cuatro en SciELO. Resultados: Los trastornos de espectro autista se producen por una alteración estructural y funcional de la corteza cerebral. Los estudios de neuroimágenes han demostrado las alteraciones estructurales, fundamentalmente en la corteza prefrontal y sus conexiones, principal región encefálica implicada en la regulación de la conducta social. Las técnicas de secuenciación genómica de nueva generación muestran el origen genético en casos donde los estudios previamente señalados han resultado ser normales. Conclusiones: La profundización del conocimiento neuroanatómico y neurofisiológico de los trastornos de espectro autista permiten comprenderlos mejor(AU)

Introduction: Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by social deficits and communication difficulties, as well as restrictive, repetitive behavior patterns, interests and activities. Their causes may be genetic, environmental or related to the development of the central nervous system. Broader knowledge about neuroanatomy and neurophysiology could lead to a better understanding of this neurodevelopmental disorder. Objective: Gain insight into the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of autism spectrum disorders. Methods: A bibliographic search about the topic was conducted in the databases LILACS, Scopus, SciELO, Pubmed and Medigraphic. A total 13 documents were selected, all of which were original papers approaching the topic from different perspectives. Two of the documents were obtained from Scopus, one from Pubmed, four from Medigraphic, two from LILACS and four from SciELO. Results: Autism spectrum disorders are caused by a structural and functional alteration of the cerebral cortex. Neuroimaging studies have shown the structural alterations, which mainly occur in the prefrontal cortex and its connections, the principal encephalic region involved in social behavior regulation. New generation genomic sequencing techniques reveal a genetic origin in cases where previous studies have been normal. Conclusions: Broader knowledge about the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of autism spectrum disorders lead to their better understanding(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Social Behavior , Social Control, Formal , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/genetics , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Neuroanatomy/education , Neurophysiology/education
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1228-1232, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922030


OBJECTIVE@#To study the genetic variants of a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) combined with epilepsy, and explore its possible pathogenic mechanism.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the child were collected and evaluated, whole-exome sequencing (WES) technology was used to explore the genetic variants sites of the child and his parents and candidate genes were filtered out. Sanger sequencing were performed to verify the variants identified by WES and PolyPhen2 was utilized to predict the function of these variants. qPCR was carry out to determine the expression of the variant gene.@*RESULTS@#The proband carried a compound heterozygous mutation in the SIK3 gene (Chr11 q23.3, NM_025164.6), which contains a missense mutation c.1295A>G (p.N432S) inherited from the father and a deletion [c.2389_2391del(p.797del)] inherited from the mother. Both mutation sites are highly conservative, and PolyPhen2 predicted (c.1295A>G [p.N432S]) to be harmful. Compared to the mother, expression of SIK3in mRNA level in the peripheral blood of the proband and his father were both significantly decreased; compared to normal child, SIK3 expression in the peripheral blood of the proband and two other children with ASD were all decreased significantly too. In addition, studies on mice found that Sik3 gene has a marked higher level of expression in the brain.@*CONCLUSION@#The SIK3 gene variants may probably be associated with ASD. The detailed mechanism needs to be studied further, which may involve lipid metabolism dysfunction in the brain.

Animals , Male , Mice , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Epilepsy/genetics , Mutation , Mutation, Missense , Protein Kinases , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Exome Sequencing
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 917-920, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921969


Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS)(OMIM#606232) is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 22q13 involving a variety of clinical features with considerably heterogeneous degrees of severity. This syndrome is characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, absent or severely delayed speech, minor dysmorphic features and autism spectrum disorder. PMS is easy to be misdiagnosed due to the lack of specific clinical manifestations. SHANK3 has been identified as the critical candidate gene for the neurological features of this syndrome. However, some studies have shown that other genes located in the 22q13 region may have a role in the formation of symptoms in individuals with PMS. This article provides a review for recent progress made in research on PMS including etiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and treatment, with a particular emphasis on clinical diagnosis and treatment.

Humans , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosome Disorders/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 620-625, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888360


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the pathogenic variants of the KIF1A gene and its corresponding protein structure in an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) family trio carrying harmful missense variants in the KIF1A gene.@*METHODS@#The peripheral blood DNA of the patient and his parents was extracted and sequenced using whole exome sequencing (WES) technology and verified by Sanger sequencing. Bioinformatics software SIFT, PolyPhen-2, Mutation Taster, and CADD software were used to analyze the harmfulness and conservation of variants. The Human Brain Transcriptome (HBT) database was used to analyze the expression of the KIF1A gene in the brain. PredictProtein and SWISS-MODEL were further used to predict the secondary structure and tertiary structure of KIF1A wild-type protein and variant protein. PyMOL V2.4 was utilized to investigate the change of hydrogen bond connection after protein variant.@*RESULTS@#The WES sequencing revealed a missense variant c.664A>C (p.Asn222His) in the child's KIF1A gene, and this variant was a de novo variant. The harmfulness prediction results suggest that this variant is harmful. By analyzing expression level of KIF1A gene in the brain. It is found that KIF1A gene widely expressed in various brain regions during embryonic development. By analyzing the variant protein structure, the missense variant of KIF1A will cause many changes in the secondary structure of protein, such as alpha-helix, beta-strand, and protein binding domain. The connection of hydrogen bond and spatial structure will also change, thereby changing the original biological function.@*CONCLUSION@#The KIF1A gene may be a risk gene for ASD.

Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Kinesins/genetics , Mutation , Mutation, Missense , Protein Domains , Exome Sequencing
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(supl.2): 26-30, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125102


Los avances en la genética han podido apoyar la sospecha que aportaba la experiencia clínica sobre el gran componente hereditario de la mayor parte de estos trastornos del neurodesarrollo (TND). Los estudios iniciales de heredabilidad, ligamiento o asociación evidenciaron desde los inicios la gran contribución de la variación genotípica a la clínica en general, y a los TND en particular. No debe obviarse la utilidad de los estudios genéticos en el ejercicio clínico, encaminados al diagnóstico etiológico. La mayor parte de los mismos están protocolizados en el estudio de trastornos como la discapacidad intelectual y el autismo; dentro de éstos, la hibridación por arrays cromosómicos ha aportado una mayor rentabilidad diagnóstica respecto a técnicas citogenéticas históricas (3 vs. 10% respectivamente). Sin embargo, la irrupción y rentabilidad de técnicas de genética molecular por secuenciación, particularmente la exómica y genómica en trío, analizando a padres, (tasas diagnósticas del 30-50%), están condicionando la modificación de los algoritmos genéticos en el diagnóstico de trastornos graves del neurodesarrollo. El mayor conocimiento de variantes causales de discapacidad intelectual y autismo está igualmente modificando los modelos teóricos poligénicos establecidos hasta la fecha.

Advances in genetics have been able to support the clinical suspicion on the large hereditary component of most of these neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). Initial studies on heritability, linkage or association showed from the beginning the great contribution of genotypic variation to the clinic in general, and to NDD in particular. The effectiveness of genetic studies in clinical practice, targeted to aetiological diagnosis, should not be ignored. Most of these are protocolized in the study of disorders such as intellectual disability and autism; within these, the array comparative genomic hybridization have supported a greater diagnostic effectiveness with respect to historical cytogenetic techniques (3 vs. 10% respectively). However, the irruption and success of molecular genetic sequencing techniques, particularly the exome and genome in trio, analyzing the parents (diagnostic rates of 30-50%), are conditioning the modification of the genetic algorithms in the diagnosis of different NDD. The greater knowledge of causal variants in intellectual disability and autism is also modifying the polygenic theoretical models established to date.

Humans , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/genetics , Models, Genetic , Comparative Genomic Hybridization/methods , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnosis , Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Exome Sequencing/methods , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Intellectual Disability/genetics
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057226


ABSTRACT Objective: For every 100 random children diagnosed with autism, at least 20 have morphological abnormalities, often associated with syndromes. Brazil does not have a standardized and validated instrument for morphological physical examination. This study aimed to translate into Brazilian Portuguese and culturally adapt the clinical signs described in the Autism Dysmorphology Measure, as well as validate the instrument in a sample of children with autism. Methods: The original instrument was translated, culturally adapted, and published in full, following traditional procedures for translation, back-translation, and terminology adaptation according to the Nomina Anatomica. The sample included 62 children from a published multicenter study, with intelligence quotient between 50-69, of both genders, with chronological age between 3-6 years. Two clinical geneticists performed the morphological physical examination, which consisted of investigating 82 characteristics assessing 12 body areas. We used Cohen's Kappa coefficient to evaluate the agreement between the two observers. Results: The final version of the instrument - translated into Brazilian Portuguese and culturally adapted - showed high agreement between the two observers. Conclusions: The translated instrument meets all international criteria, and minor anomalies and their clinical descriptions were standardized and are recognizable for physicians not specialized in genetics.

RESUMO Objetivo: Entre 100 crianças, não selecionadas, com diagnóstico de autismo, pelo menos 20 apresentam anomalias morfológicas, quase sempre associadas a síndromes. Não há no Brasil instrumento de exame físico morfológico padronizado e validado. O objetivo foi traduzir para o português do Brasil e adaptar culturalmente os sinais clínicos descritos no Autism Dysmorphology Measure, assim como procurar evidências de validade quando aplicado a uma amostra de crianças com autismo. Métodos: Foram feitas a tradução e a adaptação cultural do instrumento original, publicado na íntegra. Foram adotados os procedimentos tradicionais de tradução, retrotradução e adaptação da terminologia segundo a Nomina Anatomica. Foram incluídas na amostra 62 crianças com quociente de inteligência entre 50 e 69, de ambos os sexos, com idade cronológica entre três e seis anos, provenientes de estudo multicêntrico com os procedimentos metodológicos já publicados. O exame físico morfológico foi realizado por dois médicos geneticistas e consistiu na pesquisa de 82 características que avaliam 12 áreas corporais. Para avaliar a concordância entre os dois observadores foi utilizado o coeficiente Kappa de Cohen. Resultados: A versão final do instrumento traduzido e adaptado culturalmente ao português do Brasil mostrou alta concordância entre os dois observadores. Conclusões: O instrumento traduzido preenche todos os critérios propostos internacionalmente e o reconhecimento das anomalias menores e sua descrição clínica estão padronizados e são de fácil reconhecimento aos médicos não especialistas em genética.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Physical Examination/methods , Congenital Abnormalities/diagnosis , Congenital Abnormalities/genetics , Adaptation, Psychological/physiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , Translations , Brazil/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Cultural Characteristics , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/psychology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5335, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133770


ABSTRACT Chromosomal abnormalities are responsible for several congenital malformations in the world, some of these are associated to telomeric/subtelomeric deletions. The abnormalities involving the telomere of chromosome 12 are rare, with few reports of deletions involving 12q24.31 region in the literature, and, to our knowledge, only four of them in the 12q24.31-q24.33 region. We report a further case of interstitial deletion of bands 12q24.31-q24.33 associated with autism spectrum disorder. A 2-year-old boy with global developmental delay associated with multiple congenital anomalies. The Human Genome CGH Microarray 60K confirmed the diagnosis of 12q deletion syndrome. This study made a review of the current literature comparing our patient with previously reported cases. These detailed analyses contribute to the development of genotype/phenotype correlations for 12q deletions that will aid in better diagnosis and prognosis of this deletion.

RESUMO Anomalias cromossômicas são responsáveis por inúmeras malformações congênitas no mundo, algumas delas associadas a deleções teloméricas/subteloméricas. As anomalias que envolvem o telômero do cromossomo 12 são raras, com poucos relatos na literatura sobre deleções relacionados à região 12q24.31 e, até onde sabemos, apenas quatro deles na região 12q24.31-q24.33. Relatamos um outro caso de deleção intersticial das bandas 12q24.31-q24.33 associada ao transtorno do espectro do autismo. Trata-se de um menino de 2 anos de idade com atraso global no desenvolvimento associado a múltiplas anomalias congênitas. A utilização do Human Genome CGH Microarray 60K confirmou o diagnóstico da síndrome de deleção 12q. Este estudo fez uma revisão da literatura atual, comparando nosso paciente com casos previamente relatados. Estas análises detalhadas contribuem para o desenvolvimento de correlações genótipo/fenótipo para deleções 12q, que ajudam aos melhores diagnóstico e prognóstico desta deleção.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Autistic Disorder/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12/genetics , Chromosome Disorders/pathology , Rare Diseases/genetics , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Abnormalities, Multiple , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosome Deletion
Estilos clín ; 24(3): 384-392, set.-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1279029


Para responder, da perspectiva da psicanálise, à pergunta sobre quem serão os autistas de amanhã, busca-se, em primeiro lugar, traçar linhas de como se encontram os autistas no passado. Durante o século XIX, olhar médico não podia ainda diferenciar os débeis das crianças que já estavam provavelmente desenvolvendo aquilo que hoje chamamos de autismo. Mas ouvimos seus ecos em relatos de autores da época. Para refletir sobre o momento presente, apela-se para dois operadores conceituais: o discurso e a genética, concluindo que esse novo modo de ser autista combina hoje com as novas formas de dessubjetivação que estão surgindo. O presente revela ainda que as crianças autistas, escolarizadas pelos métodos comportamentais, perdem a chance de viver na escola a verdade de sua experiência, uma experiência peculiar e única. Perdem a chance de aprender a se dizer. Em relação ao futuro, afirma- se que são muitos os devires dos autistas. Mas haverá um ponto comum a todos eles: neles o sujeito freudiano não estará, em consonância com a supressão do sujeito no mundo contemporâneo.

Para responder, desde la perspectiva del psicoanálisis, la pregunta de quiénes serán los autistas del mañana, primero buscamos trazar líneas de cómo las personas autistas son en el pasado. Durante el siglo XIX, el ojo médico aún no podía diferenciar a los débiles de los niños que probablemente ya estaban desarrollando lo que ahora llamamos autismo. Pero escuchamos sus ecos en los informes de los autores de la época. Para reflexionar sobre el momento presente, recurrimos a dos operadores conceptuales: el discurso y la genética, concluyendo que esta nueva forma de ser autista se combina hoy con las nuevas formas de desubjetivación que están surgiendo. El presente también revela que los niños autistas, educados por métodos de comportamiento, pierden la oportunidad de vivir en la escuela la verdad de su experiencia, una experiencia peculiar y única. Pierden la oportunidad de aprender a decirse a sí mismos. Con respecto al futuro, se dice que hay muchos devires de autistas. Pero habrá un punto en común para todos ellos: en ellos el sujeto freudiano no estará presente, en línea con la supresión del sujeto en el mundo contemporáneo.

To answer, from the perspective of psychoanalysis, the question of who will be the autists of tomorrow, we first seek to draw lines of how autistic people are in the past. During the nineteenth century, the medical eye could not yet differentiate children with disabilities from children who were probably already developing what we now call autism. But we hear their echoes in reports by authors of that time. To reflect on the present moment, we appeal to two conceptual operators: discourse and genetics, concluding that this new way of being autistic combines today with the new forms of desubjectivation that are emerging. The present times also reveals that autistic children, educated by behavioral methods, lose the chance to live in school the truth of their experience, a peculiar and unique experience. They lose the chance to learn to say about themselves. Regarding the future, it is said that there are many becomings of autists. But there will be a common point to all of them: in them the Freudian subject will not be present, in line with the suppression of the subject in the contemporary world.

Psychoanalysis/history , Autism Spectrum Disorder/etiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Behavior Therapy/education
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 33-36, set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040547


El sueño es uno de los actos fisiológicos más importantes para la estructuración funcional y anatómica de áreas del sistema nervioso central. Las alteraciones del sueño durante la infancia y su relación con trastornos del neurodesarrollo es compleja y sumam ente interesante, donde destaca la multiplicidad de causas de estos trastornos. Bajo esta premisa se realiza una revisión sobre las alteraciones del sueño en los trastornos del neurodesarrollo (TND), por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) y del espectro autista (TEA). El sueño está presente desde la etapa fetal y va modificando su expresión en sintonía con la madurez del sistema nervioso central. Los trastornos del sueño y su relación con TDAH, TEA y otros TND son complejos, pero existen avances sobre la etiología de los mismos. Una mayor compresión de las funciones pleiotrópicas de los genes implicados en los trastornos del ciclo vigilia-sueño y en las desviaciones del desarrollo neurológico podría conducir a nuevas estrategias diagnósticas y terapéuticas de manera precoz con el fin de mejorar la calidad de vida del paciente, familiares y cuidadores.

The development and establishment of the normal sleep patterns are very important processes in the final anatomical and physiological architecture of the central nervous system. The relationship between sleep disturbances during childhood with neurodevelopmental disorders is complex and potentially synergistic. Sleep patterns are present since the fetal period but their structure and physiology is modified according with the maturation of the central nervous system. Sleep disorders and their relationship with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders(ADHD), autism spectrum disorders(ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders (TDN) are not well understood yet, but significant progresses have been made in understanding associations and potential etiological correlations. We reviewed sleep disturbances in NDT, in ADHD and in ASD. A greater understanding of the pleiotropic functions of the genes involved in sleep-wake cycle disorders and deviations from neurological developme nt could lead to new diagnostic and therapeut ic strategies in an early stage in order to improve the quality of life of the patient, relatives and caregivers.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/complications , Sleep Wake Disorders/complications , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/genetics , Sleep Wake Disorders/diagnosis , Sleep Wake Disorders/genetics , Circadian Rhythm , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1,supl.1): 16-21, abr. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002599


El autismo es un trastorno del neurodesarrollo caracterizado por compromiso en la interacción social y la comunicación, asociado a intereses restringidos y conductas estereotipadas con gran prevalencia poblacional, bases neurobiológicas y alta heredabilidad. Su etiología es heterogénea y se han reconocido numerosas bases genéticas, factores ambientales y mecanismos epigenéticos. Los avances en la genética molecular, así como los estudios epidemiológicos de grandes cohortes, han posibilitado identificar entidades médicas específicas, así como genes y factores ambientales vinculados parcial o totalmente en su patogenia. Estos conocimientos, conforme las características clínicas, permiten orientar los estudios complementarios, las conductas terapéuticas, inferir un pronóstico clínico y propiciar el asesoramiento genético familiar. En este trabajo analizamos las características clínicas de los trastornos del espectro del autismo, las entidades médicas específicas que están fuertemente relacionadas a los mismos, así como los genes reconocidos, los posibles factores ambientales y los resultados epidemiológicos que permiten el adecuado asesoramiento familiar.

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by commitment to social interaction and communication, associated with interests restricted and stereotyped behaviors with a high population prevalence, neurobiological bases and high heritability. Its etiology is heterogeneous, numerous genetic bases, environmental factors and epigenetic mechanisms have been recognized. Advances in molecular genetics, as well as epidemiological studies of large cohorts, have made it possible to identify specific medical entities, as well as genes and environmental factors partially or totally linked in their pathogenesis. This knowledge, according to the clinical characteristics, allows to guide the complementary studies, the therapeutic conducts, to infer a clinical prognosis and to propitiate the familiar genetic advice. In this work, the most prevalent clinical characteristics identified are described; the specific medical entities that are strongly related to autism are stated, as well as the recognized genes, the possible environmental factors and the epidemiological results that allow family counseling.

Humans , Autistic Disorder/genetics , Autistic Disorder/etiology , Autistic Disorder/physiopathology , Epigenesis, Genetic , Environment , Autism Spectrum Disorder/etiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/physiopathology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Genetic Counseling
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1,supl.1): 27-32, abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002601


Los trastornos del espectro autista (TEA) son una alteración funcional de la corteza cerebral, que presenta anomalías estructurales del neurodesarrollo que afectan fundamentalmente a la función sináptica y el patrón de conexiones dentro y entre columnas corticales. Desde su aspecto etiológico, el TEA tiene una importante carga genética, considerándose un desorden derivado de una combinación de mutaciones "de novo", asociadas a una predisposición derivada de variaciones comunes heredadas. Las principales anomalías genéticas asociadas a TEA implican genes que codifican proteínas de la sinapsis. Así, en pacientes con TEA se han descrito alteraciones del desarrollo inicial de las sinapsis en los circuitos de conexión entre áreas corticales de procesamiento complejo. La complejidad molecular observada en la predisposición a desarrollar un TEA, junto con la diversidad de fenotipos estructurales neuronales, ha hecho que los modelos animales reproduzcan solo parcialmente el TEA. Para avanzar en el estudio experimental se hace pues necesario desarrollar modelos más representativos, como son los modelos celulares derivados de células humanas. En las últimas décadas, el desarrollo de la biología de las células madre nos da medios para acceder a paradigmas experimentales sobre células derivadas de individuos con TEA. Actualmente, los modelos de células plutipotentes inducidas (IPs) derivadas de células humanas permiten profundizar en el estudio de las bases moleculares y celulares del TEA. Sin embargo, presentan problemas inherentes derivados de la manipulación experimental que conlleva la reprogramación de la expresión génica, por lo que otros modelos celulares se están también postulando como válidos.

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a functional alteration of the cerebral cortex, which presents structural neurodevelopmental anomalies that affect synaptic function and the pattern of connections within and between cortical columns. From its etiological aspect, ASD has an important genetic load, considering a polygenic disorder, derived from a combination of "de novo" genetic mutations, associated to a predisposition derived from common inherited variations. The main genetic anomalies associated with ASD involve genes that encode proteins of the synapse. Thus, in patients with ASD, alterations in the initial development of the synapses have been described in the connection circuits between complex processing cortical areas. The molecular complexity observed in the predisposition to develop an ASD, together with the diversity of structural phenotypes, has made animal models reproduce only partially the ASD. To advance in the experimental study it is therefore necessary to develop representative models, such as cellular models derived from human cells. In recent decades, the advances in stem cell biology give us a way to apply experimental paradigms in cells derived from individuals with ASD. Currently, induced pluripotent cells (IPs) derived from human adult cells allow deepening the study of molecular and cellular bases of the neuronal development in humans, as well as the anomalies in this development, which give rise to disorders such as ASD. However, they present inherent problems derived from the experimental manipulation that involves the reprogramming of gene expression, therefore other models are also been explored.

Humans , Autism Spectrum Disorder/physiopathology , Models, Biological , Synapses/physiology , Synapses/genetics , Gene Expression , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/physiopathology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(supl.2): 63-68, set. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-955017


Nunca dejará de ser interesante y relevante el tema de las discapacidades que abarcan la cognición y la adaptabilidad. La etiología genética tiene cada día más peso. La relación con otros trastornos del neurodesarrollo como el trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) y el trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), es de importancia clínica, diagnóstica y terapéutica. Realizamos una revisión sobre el trastorno del desarrollo intelectual (TDI) y su implicación con el TEA y el TDAH. Desde Hipócrates hasta la actualidad los trastornos que afectan las habilidades de aprendizaje, conducta y socialización han sido sujeto de estudios y han variado sobre todo en la denominación como entidad y su percepción desde el punto de vista humano y social. La etiología del TDI en la mayoría de los casos es un enigma y los avances genéticos son la piedra angular para dilucidar el origen de este trastorno del neurodesarrollo, así como su relación con otros como el TEA y el TDAH. El trastorno del desarrollo intelectual, el más antiguo con respecto a definición, estudio y abordaje, aún presenta incógnitas sobre todo de origen etiológico. Su relación con otros trastornos del neurodesarrollo como el TEA y el TDAH es evidente por poseer áreas comunes de afectación, pudiendo ser diagnósticos coincidentes.

The subject of disabilities that include cognition and adaptability will never cease to be interesting and relevant. The genetic etiology has more weight every day. The relationship with other neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic importance. The objective was to conduct a review of intellectual development disorder and its implication with ASD and ADHD. From Hippocrates to the present the disorders that affect learning, behavior and socialization skills have been the subject of studies and have varied, above all, in the denomination as an entity and its perception from the human and social point of view. The etiology of intellectual development disorders in most cases is an enigma and genetic advances are the cornerstone to elucidate the origin of this neurodevelopmental disorder, as well as its relationship with others such as ASD and ADHD. The disorder of intellectual development, the oldest one with respect to definition, study and approach, still presents mysteries above all of etiological origin. Its relationship with other neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASD and ADHD is evident by having common areas of involvement, which may be coincident diagnoses.

Humans , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/genetics , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Cognition , Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis , Autism Spectrum Disorder/physiopathology , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Intellectual Disability/physiopathology