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1.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(4): 199-207, dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145501

ABSTRACT

La encefalitis límbica es una enfermedad infrecuente y potencialmente grave, que puede o no ser paraneoplásica y se caracteriza por déficit de la memoria reciente, alteraciones psiquiátricas y convulsiones. De origen autoinmunitario, está asociada a anticuerpos séricos e intratecales contra antígenos neuronales intracelulares y de superficie, con especial afectación de zonas límbicas. En este artículo se revisan aspectos históricos y epidemiológicos, patogenia, síndromes más frecuentes y mejor delimitados, histopatología y estudios complementarios. Se repasan también las dificultades del diagnóstico diferencial y la necesidad de descartar siempre un tumor subyacente. La detección de autoanticuerpos neuronales es importante para el diagnóstico, la planificación terapéutica y el pronóstico. La inmunoterapia y, si corresponde, el tratamiento de la neoplasia son cruciales para lograr una recuperación neurológica sustancial. La encefalitis límbica es una entidad probablemente subdiagnosticada, con un pronóstico más favorable si se trata de forma temprana. El actual conocimiento de su patogenia puede además aportar claridad para la mejor comprensión de otros síndromes neurológicos y psiquiátricos que puedan compartir mecanismos autoinmunitarios, como algunos trastornos psicóticos y epilepsias farmacorresistentes. (AU)


Limbic encephalitis is a rare and potentially serious disease, which may or may not be paraneoplastic and is characterized by recent memory deficits, psychiatric disturbances and seizures. Of autoimmune origin, it is associated with serum and intrathecal antibodies against intracellular and surface neuronal antigens, with special involvement of limbic areas. This article reviews historical and epidemiological aspects, pathogenesis, more frequent and better defined syndromes, histopathology and complementary studies. The difficulties of differential diagnosis and the need to always rule out an underlying tumor are also reviewed. Detection of neuronal autoantibodies is important for diagnosis, therapeutic planning and prognosis. Immunotherapy and, if appropriate, neoplasm treatment, are crucial to achieve substantial neurological recovery. Limbic encephalitis is probably an underdiagnosed entity, with a more favorable prognosis if treated early. The current knowledge of its pathogenesis may also provide clarity for a better understanding of other neurological and psychiatric syndromes that may share autoimmune mechanisms, such as some psychotic disorders and drug-resistant epilepsies. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoantibodies/metabolism , Autoimmune Diseases/pathology , Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System/pathology , Limbic Encephalitis/pathology , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Review Literature as Topic , Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System/diagnosis , Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System/etiology , Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System/therapy , Limbic Encephalitis/diagnosis , Limbic Encephalitis/etiology , Limbic Encephalitis/history , Limbic Encephalitis/therapy , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/etiology
2.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(5): 400-404, oct. 31, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179031

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem that can be a risk factor for a broad range of diseases such as some autoimmune diseases. Due to the autoimmune base of lichen planus, it seems that a reduction of the serum level of vitamin D is related to lichen planus. In this study, we investigate the relation between serum level of vitamin D and oral lichen planus patients (OLP). Material and Methods: In this case-control study, 35 patients with OLP (including 15 men and 20 women) and 70 healthy volunteers (including 35 men and 35 women), aged between 30-60 years old, referred to Qazvin University of Medical Sciences were investigated. None of these volunteers had systemic diseases. Vitamin D levels were measured with ELFA (Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay) and the data was analyzed using the chi-squared test and t-test. Results: The mean serum level of vitamin D in the control group was 23.7±9ng/ml and in the case group was 18.12±8/7ng/ml. The results show that the serum level of vitamin D in patients with OLP is significantly less than in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: According to the results, the serum level of vitamin D in patients with OLP was significantly lower than that of healthy people.


Introducción: La deficiencia de vitamina D es un problema de salud global que puede ser un factor de riesgo para una amplia gama de enfermedades, como algunas enfermedades autoinmunes. Debido a la base autoinmune del liquen plano, parece que una reducción del nivel sérico de vitamina D está relacionada con el liquen plano. En este estudio, investigamos la relación entre el nivel sérico de vitamina D y los pacientes con liquen plano oral (LPO). Material y Métodos: En este estudio de casos y controles, 35 pacientes con LPO (incluidos 15 hombres y 20 mujeres) y 70 voluntarios sanos (incluidos 35 hombres y 35 mujeres), con edades comprendidas entre 30 y 60 años, remitieron a la Universidad de Medicina de Qazvin. Se investigaron las ciencias. Ninguno de estos voluntarios padecía enfermedades sistémicas. Los niveles de vitamina D se midieron con ELFA (ensayo fluorescente ligado a enzimas) y los datos se analizaron utilizando la prueba de chi-cuadrado y la prueba t. Resultados: El nivel sérico medio de vitamina D en el grupo de control fue de 23,7 ± 9 ng / ml y en el grupo de casos fue de 18,12 ± 8/7 ng / ml. Los resultados muestran que el nivel sérico de vitamina D en pacientes con OLP es significativamente menor que en el grupo de control (p<0.05). Conclusión: De acuerdo con los resultados, el nivel sérico de vitamina D en pacientes con LPO fue significativamente menor que en personas sanas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Lichen Planus, Oral/etiology , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Case-Control Studies , Chi-Square Distribution , Intervention Studies , Serum
3.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 54(1): 39-45, jan.-mar. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-882453

ABSTRACT

A síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) é uma polineuropatia inflamatória desmielinizante aguda, geralmente pós-infecciosa e mediada pelo sistema imune, levando a graus variados de fraqueza progressiva e ascendente, podendo atingir os membros superiores e a face. A SGB é a causa mais frequente de paralisia flácida aguda e subaguda desde a erradicação da poliomielite. Estudos mostram a associação de SGB e diversas vacinas do calendário vacinal brasileiro. Este artigo tem por objetivo estabelecer as vacinas como fator desencadeante de SGB que compõem o Programa Nacional de Imunização. Com o emprego em larga escala das vacinas em nosso meio, estudos mostram a associação temporal significante com a SGB. Recomenda-se, portanto, a descrição dos casos suspeitos dessa associação. A vacina continua sendo o método mais efetivo para prevenir doenças graves e morte.(AU)


Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a post-infectious, immune-mediated, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, leading to varying degrees of progressive and ascending weakness, reaching the upper limbs and a face. GBS is the most frequent cause of acute and subacute flaccid paralysis since poliomyelitis eradication. Studies show an association between GBS and several vaccines of the Brazilian vaccine calendar. This article aims to establish GBS as a triggering factor for some vaccines that make up the National Immunization Program. With the large-scale use of vaccines in our country, studies show a significant temporal association with a GBS, it is therefore recommended a description of the suspected cases of the association. The vaccine continues to be the most effective method to prevent grave diseases and death.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child , Adult , Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunization Programs , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Disease Prevention , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Brazil , Review Literature as Topic , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine/adverse effects
4.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(3): 224-228, May-June 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899417

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. Autoimmunity in patients with demyelinating disease and in their families has been broadly investigated and discussed. Recent studies show a higher incidence of rheumatic autoimmune diseases among adult patients with MS or NMO and their families, but there are no studies in the pediatric population. Objective: To evaluate an association of MS and NMO with autoimmune rheumatic diseases in pediatric patients. Method: 22 patients younger than 21 years old with MS or NMO diagnosed before the age of 18 years were evaluated regarding epidemiological data, clinical presentation, association with autoimmune diseases, family history of autoimmune diseases, laboratory findings, imaging studies and presence of auto-antibodies. Results: Among the patients studied, there was a prevalence of females (68.1%). The mean age of symptoms onset was 8 years and 9 months and the mean current age was 16 years and 4 months. Two patients (9%) had a history of associated autoimmune rheumatic disease: one case of juvenile dermatomyositis in a patient with NMO and another of systemic lupus erythematosus in a patient with MS. Three patients (13%) had a family history of autoimmunity in first-degree relatives. Antinuclear antibody was found positive in 80% of patients with NMO and 52% of patients with MS. About 15% of antinuclear antibody-positive patients were diagnosed with rheumatologic autoimmune diseases. Conclusion: Among patients with demyelinating diseases diagnosed in childhood included in this study there was a high frequency of antinuclear antibody positivity but a lower association with rheumatologic autoimmune diseases than that observed in studies conducted in adults.


RESUMO Introdução: Esclerose múltipla (EM) e neuromielite óptica (NMO) são doenças desmielinizantes do sistema nervoso central. A autoimunidade entre pacientes com doenças desmielinizantes e seus parentes tem sido amplamente investigada e discutida. Estudos recentes demonstram maior incidência de doenças reumáticas autoimunes entre pacientes adultos com EM e NMO e seus parentes, mas não há estudos na população pediátrica. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação de EM e NMO com doenças reumáticas autoimunes em pacientes pediátricos. Método: Foram incluídos 22 pacientes menores de 21 anos com diagnóstico de EM ou NMO antes dos 18 anos e avaliados dados epidemiológicos, clínicos, associação com doenças autoimunes, história familiar de doenças autoimunes, exames laboratoriais, exames de imagem e presença de autoanticorpos. Resultados: Entre os pacientes estudados, houve prevalência do sexo feminino (68,1%). A média de idade de início dos sintomas foi de oito anos e nove meses e a média de idade dos pacientes na avaliação foi 16 anos e quatro meses. Dois pacientes (9%) apresentaram doença reumática autoimune associada, um caso de dermatomiosite juvenil em paciente com NMO e outro de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico juvenil em paciente com EM. Três pacientes (13%) apresentaram história familiar de autoimunidade em parentes de primeiro grau. Anticorpo antinuclear (ANA) positivo foi encontrado em 80% dos pacientes com NMO e em 52% dos pacientes com EM. Cerca de 15% dos pacientes com ANA positivo apresentaram diagnóstico definitivo de doença autoimune reumática associada. Conclusão: Entre os pacientes com doenças desmielinizantes diagnosticadas durante a infância incluídos nesta pesquisa houve uma alta frequência de ANA positivo, mas uma menor taxa de associação com doenças reumáticas autoimunes do que a encontrada em trabalhos conduzidos em adultos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Rheumatic Diseases/etiology , Neuromyelitis Optica/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Autoimmune Diseases , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(1): 30-33, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838023

ABSTRACT

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms is a severe adverse drug reaction, with a reported mortality of 10%. Long-term outcomes involve organic failure and autoimmune diseases in some populations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical prognosis of patients with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review at a referral hospital in Mexico City in a period of 22 years (1992-2013), looking up for records with diagnosis of DRESS according to RegiSCAR criteria. Clinical characteristics, organ failures, culprit drugs, treatment, and short and long-term sequelae were analyzed. RESULTS: We found 11 patients with diagnosis of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome, 7 female and 4 male, with a median age of 22 years-old; 9 had maculopapular rash and 2 were erythrodermic. Affected organs were liver (8/11), kidney (6/11) and hematologic disorders (8/11). The most common culprit drugs were antiepileptic (63%). Systemic corticosteroids were given to 8 patients, being pyelonephritis (1/8) and pneumonia (2/8) the adverse events of this therapy. Long-term sequelae were 1 patient with renal failure, 1 patient with chronic anemia; and 2 patients developed autoimmune diseases (one autoimmune thyroid disease and another one with autoimmune thyroid disease and autoimmune hemolytic anemia). Study limitations: The retrospective nature of the study and the limited number of patients with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome has been linked to the development of chronic organ failure. We found two young patients who developed autoimmune diseases in the short term. Patients with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms should have a long-term monitoring for signs or symptoms suggestive of an autoimmune disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/etiology , Prognosis , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/immunology , Mexico
6.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 32(1): 64-68, 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1009615

ABSTRACT

El penfigoide ampolloso (PA), es la enfermedad ampollosa autoinmune más frecuente en el mundo occidental, con incidencia estimada de 10 casos por millón. Afecta a pacientes mayores de 60 años. Se ha relacionado con una larga lista de fármacos; se desconoce el mecanismo por el que ocurre, una hipótesis es que estos fármacos modifican la respuesta inmune o alteran los antígenos de la membrana basal en pacientes con predisposición genética. Los diagnósticos diferenciales incluyen dermatitis herpetiforme y dermatosis lineal por IgA. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 76 años, con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial tratada con amlodipino, quien presenta lesiones tipo ampollas extensas que confluyen, ubicadas en región anterior de ambas piernas hasta tercio medio de muslos, y región anterior de miembros superiores hasta tercio proximal de brazos, incluyendo superficies flexoras, no descamativas, de superficie lisa, sin secreción, signo de Nikolsky negativo. La biopsia de piel reporta dermatitis de patrón vesicoampollar, presencia de bula sup-epidérmica con escasa celularidad, dermis papilar y reticular con edema e infiltrado constituido por eosinófilos. El tratamiento tiene como finalidad suprimir dicha respuesta, el objetivo es la cicatrización y los corticoides sistémicos son el fármaco de elección. Los fármacos de uso habitual y frecuente, son los desencadenantes más frecuentes de esta patología, especialmente en pacientes de edad avanzada(AU)


This illness es the most frequent autoimmune disease in the western hemisphere (estimated incidence 10/1 milion cases). It affects patients older than 60 years and has been related to many drugs. The mechanism is unknown, but one hypothesis is that these drugs modify the immune answer or alter the basal membrane antigens in patients with a genetic predisposition. The differential diagnosis include herpetiform dermatitis and linear dermatosis caused by IgA. We present a male patient, 76 years old and treated with amlodipine for high blood pressure. He consulted for ampoulous extense lesions in his lowrer limbs and arms, Nikolsky sign was negative. Skin biopsy was reported a vesicoampoular dermatitis, subepidermal bulla,edema and eosinophil infiltrate. The treatment is aimed to supress this immune answer and are basically, steroids(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Pemphigoid, Bullous/physiopathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Antigens , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Internal Medicine
7.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(6): 554-558, Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767928

ABSTRACT

Diabetes insipidus is a disease in which large volumes of dilute urine (polyuria) are excreted due to vasopressin (AVP) deficiency [central diabetes insipidus (CDI)] or to AVP resistance (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus). In the majority of patients, the occurrence of CDI is related to the destruction or degeneration of neurons of the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. The most common and well recognized causes include local inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, vascular disorders, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), sarcoidosis, tumors such as germinoma/craniopharyngioma or metastases, traumatic brain injuries, intracranial surgery, and midline cerebral and cranial malformations. Here we have the opportunity to describe an unusual case of female patient who developed autoimmune CDI following ureaplasma urealyticum infection and to review the literature on this uncommon feature. Moreover, we also discussed the potential mechanisms by which ureaplasma urealyticum might favor the development of autoimmune CDI.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Arthritis, Reactive/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/microbiology , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic/microbiology , Ureaplasma urealyticum , Ureaplasma Infections/immunology , Autoantibodies , Arthritis, Reactive/microbiology , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic/etiology , Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic/immunology , Neurophysins/immunology , Protein Precursors/immunology , Ureaplasma Infections/complications , Vasopressins/immunology
8.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 25(3): 191-197, sep.-dic. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-736993

ABSTRACT

La insuficiencia suprarrenal crónica es una enfermedad que se caracteriza por el déficit de las hormonas de la corteza adrenal. Necesita tratamiento sustitutivo de por vida para lograr suplir ese déficit y así poder desarrollar una vida normal y con calidad. Para el éxito del tratamiento sustitutivo es muy importante conocer sus pautas y variantes, lo que resulta un arma en el trabajo diario de los galenos. Conocer las tendencias actuales resulta algo imprescindible, por lo que el propósito del siguiente trabajo es revisar las diferentes variantes del tratamiento que se pueden usar en este grupo de enfermos(AU)


Chronic adrenal failure is a disease characterized by shortage of adrenal cortex hormones. It requires lifelong replacement treatment to overcome this shortage in order to enjoy quality normal life. For the replacement treatment to be successful, it is very important to learn about its guidelines and variants, which is a useful tool in the daily work of physicians. Knowing the present trends is indispensable; therefore, the objective of this paper was to review the different treatment variants that may be used in this group of patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adrenal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Drug Substitution/methods , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology
9.
Iatreia ; 27(3): 309-319, jul.-set. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-720253

ABSTRACT

En muchas enfermedades dermatológicas se presentan ampollas, pero no todas son de etiología autoinmune. Para el estudio de las enfermedades ampollosas se deben tener en cuenta las manifestaciones clínicas, la historia de cómo y cuándo empezaron las ampollas, las características epidemiológicas e histológicas (por ejemplo, el nivel de la piel en el que se producen las ampollas) y la presencia o no de infiltrados inflamatorios. Para corroborar la etiología autoinmune de la enfermedad ampollosa es importante contar con los resultados de pruebas como la inmunofluorescencia directa e indirecta, el inmunoblotting, el ensayo inmunoenzimático (ELISA), la inmunoprecipitación y la microscopía electrónica. La información sobre los títulos séricos de autoanticuerpos ayuda a orientar mejor el tratamiento inmunosupresor.


Blisters may appear in many dermatological diseases, but they are not necessarily of autoimmune etiology. For the study of blistering diseases, it is necessary to take into account the clinical aspects, the history of when and how blisters appeared, the epidemiological and histological information (for instance, the skin level at which blisters are located), and whether inflammatory infiltrates are present. In order to corroborate the autoimmune etiology of blisters, it is important to have the results of confirmatory tests such as direct and indirect immunofluorescence, immune blotting, enzyme-linked immune-assay (ELISA), immune precipitation, and electronic microscopy. Information on autoantibodies serum titers may help to conduct a more precise immunosuppressive therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous/immunology , Pemphigus/diagnosis , Pemphigus/etiology
12.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 23(4): 464-472, jul. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145410

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades autoinmunes son patologías de gran complejidad clínica, difícil diagnóstico y complejo tratamiento cuya etiología permanece aún desconocida pese a los múltiples avances realizados en los últimos años. En la génesis de estas enfermedades participan múltiples factores que conflyen entre sí para dar origen a cada una de las patologías autoinmunes conocidas, sean estas órgano-específicas o sistémicas. Entre estos elementos se incluyen la pérdida de los mecanismos de tolerancia, factores de susceptibilidad genética (polimorfismos HLA, genes no HLA y mecanismos epigenéticos), factores ambientales (agentes vivos de enfermedad, agentes inorgánicos, hormonas y otros) y factores inmunológicos (linfocitos reguladores, citoquinas y moléculas coestimulatorias, entre otros). La identificación de estos factores permitirá mejorar el conocimiento de los variados mecanismos que median estas complejas enfermedades, facilitando no sólo el entendimiento de su etiología sino también perfeccionar las herramientas terapéuticas para enfrentarlas.


Autoimmune diseases are pathologies of great clinical complexity, difficult diagnosis and treatment complex which etiology still remains unknowns despite the many advances made in recent years. In the genesis of these diseases involves multiple factors that converge together to give rise to each of the autoimmune diseases knows, whether organ specific or systemic. These elements include loss of tolerance mechanisms, genetic susceptibility factors (HLA polymorphisms, genes non-HLA and epigenetic mechanisms), environmental factors (living agents of disease, inorganic agents, hormones, etc.) and immunologic factors (regulators lymphocyte, cytokines, costimulatory molecules and others). Identifying these factors will improve the knowledge of the various mechanisms that mediate these complex diseases facilitating not only the understanding of the etiology but also improve the therapeutic tools to address them.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Central Tolerance , Immune Tolerance
13.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 29(2): 265-271, abr.-jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-644013

ABSTRACT

La posible asociación entre vacunas y enfermedades autoinmunes es un tema controversial. Existen elementos a favor de esta relación basados en modelos teóricos, ensayos de laboratorio y varios casos clínicos publicados. En cambio, los estudios epidemiológicos no han confirmado esta asociación y, de ellos, puede inferirse que las vacunas no constituyen una causa demostrada de enfermedades autoinmunes. En este trabajo se analizan las evidencias a favor y en contra de esta controversial asociación, además, se aborda un nuevo síndrome asociado con la administración continuada de adyuvantes vacunales. Se concluye que debido al gran impacto en beneficio de la salud logrado con las vacunas, es necesario continuar desarrollando esta tecnología, pero también se debe seguir perfeccionando los diseños de las nuevas formulaciones y profundizando estudios básicos, preclínicos, ensayos clínicos y farmacovigilancia de los nuevos candidatos vacunales para establecer el riesgo real de desarrollo de un evento autoinmune posvacunación.


The occurrence and significance of autoimmune manifestations after administration of vaccines remain controversial. Evidence for immunization triggered autoimmunity come from several sources including theoretical models, animal studies, single and multiple case reports. In contrast, several epidemiological studies don’t report this association, which is reassuring and at least indicates that vaccines are not a major cause of autoimmune diseases. We analyzed current scientific data concluded that vaccines bring a positive impact on public health, so it is necessary to continue developing this technology. Evaluation methods should be improved to avoid or anticipate the possible autoimmune side effects that can be presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccines/immunology
14.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 75(2): 143-147, mar.-abr. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-640165

ABSTRACT

Ocular inflammation is one of the leading causes of blindness and loss of vision. Human uveitis is a complex and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by inflammation of intraocular tissues. The eye may be the only organ involved, or uveitis may be part of a systemic disease. A significant number of cases are of unknown etiology and are labeled idiopathic. Animal models have been developed to the study of the physiopathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis due to the difficulty in obtaining human eye inflamed tissues for experiments. Most of those models are induced by injection of specific photoreceptors proteins (e.g., S-antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, rhodopsin, recoverin, phosducin). Non-retinal antigens, including melanin-associated proteins and myelin basic protein, are also good inducers of uveitis in animals. Understanding the basic mechanisms and pathogenesis of autoimmune ocular diseases are essential for the development of new treatment approaches and therapeutic agents. The present review describes the main experimental models of autoimmune ocular inflammatory diseases.


A inflamação ocular é uma das principais causas de perda visual e cegueira. As uveítes constituem um grupo complexo e heterogêneo de doenças caracterizadas por inflamação dos tecidos intraoculares. O olho pode ser o único órgão envolvido ou a uveíte pode ser parte de uma doença sistêmica. A etiologia é desconhecida em um número significativo de casos, que são considerados idiopáticos. Modelos animais têm sido desenvolvidos para estudar a fisiopatogênese da uveíte autoimune devido às dificuldades na obtenção de tecidos de olhos humanos inflamados para experimentos. Na maioria desses modelos, que simulam as uveítes autoimunes em humanos, a uveíte é induzida com proteínas específicas de fotorreceptores (antígeno-S, proteína ligadora de retinoide do interfotoreceptor, rodopsina, recoverina e fosducina). Antígenos não retinianos, como proteínas associadas à melanina e proteína básica de mielina, são também bons indutores de uveíte em animais. Entender os mecanismos básicos e a patogênese dessas doenças oculares é essencial para o desenvolvimento de novas formas de tratamento das uveítes autoimunes e de novos agentes terapêuticos. Nesta revisão serão abordados os principais modelos experimentais utilizados para o estudo de doenças inflamatórias oculares autoimunes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Autoimmune Diseases , Disease Models, Animal , Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate/immunology , Uveitis , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/pathology , Autoimmune Diseases/physiopathology , Eye Proteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Uveitis/etiology , Uveitis/immunology , Uveitis/physiopathology
15.
Femina ; 39(7): 365-372, jul. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-613337

ABSTRACT

Síndrome da dor vesical é a nomenclatura proposta para substituir o termo antigamente conhecido como cistite intersticial. Deve ser diagnosticada com base nas queixas de dor, pressão ou desconforto pélvico crônico, relacionados à bexiga acompanhados por pelo menos outro sintoma urinário como urgência ou aumento de frequência. A prevalência estimada é de 300 por 100.000 mulheres. A etiologia e a fisiopatologia ainda não foram elucidadas, mas mecanismos neurológicos centrais, fatores genéticos, imunológicos e infecciosos parecem estar envolvidos. O diagnóstico é de exclusão e deve ser baseado nos sintomas. O teste com cloridrato de potássio intravesical não deve ser usado como ferramenta diagnóstica. A cistoscopia com hidrodistensão e biópsia auxilia na documentação e classificação da doença. O tratamento deverá ser multidisciplinar e multimodal, associando-se medicações orais com intravesicais, modificações na dieta e no estilo de vida e medidas não farmacológicas


Bladder pain syndrome is the nomenclature proposed to replace the term formerly known as interstitial cystitis. It should be diagnosed based on complaints of pain, chronic pelvic pressure or discomfort related to bladder accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom, such as urgency or increased frequency. The estimated prevalence is 300 per 100,000 women. The etiology and pathophysiology have not been elucidated, but central neurologic mechanisms, genetic, immunological and infectious factors seem to be involved. The diagnosis is by exclusion and should be based on symptoms. The test with intravesical potassium chloride should not be used as a diagnostic tool. Cystoscopy with hydrodistenstion and biopsy assist in the documentation and classification of the disease. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and multimodal, associating intravesical and oral medications, changes in diet and in lifestyle and nonpharmacological measures


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Cystitis, Interstitial/classification , Cystitis, Interstitial/diagnosis , Cystitis, Interstitial/etiology , Cystitis, Interstitial/physiopathology , Cystitis, Interstitial/therapy , Diet Therapy , Pelvic Pain/etiology , Life Style , Patient Education as Topic , Administration, Intravesical , Administration, Oral , Amitriptyline/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Instillation, Drug , Neurogenic Inflammation/etiology
16.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 17(3): 230-232, dic. 2009.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-588844

ABSTRACT

Os herpesvírus têm sido vistos como potenciais agentes carcinogênicos e identificados em diversas malignidades. Acometem indivíduos imunossuprimidos e também indivíduos saudáveis e possuem elevada prevalência. A capacidade de permanecerem latentes nas células do hospedeiro garante aos vírus sua sobrevivência até serem reativados. Células infectadas por herpes supostamente não seriam destruídas por apoptose em portadores de alterações no gene TP53. Nossos estudos comprovam uma maior prevalência de herpesvírus tipo 6 em pacientes transplantados renais do que numa população controle e mostram que polimorfismos no gene TP53 poderiam influenciar na suscetibilidade à infecção por este vírus. Observamos que os herpesvírus também podem aumentar o risco para o desenvolvimento de carcinomas da pele e isso se associa ao perfil genotípico GSTM1-GSTT1+. Mais recentemente, estudando doenças auto-imunes, observamos que a infecção pelo herpesvírus 6 aumentou a susceptibilidade para o desenvolvimento da doença de Graves. Estes estudos poderão ter utilidade na prevenção de doenças. Por exemplo, pacientes em imunodepressão que tenham infecção por herpesvírus devem ser particularmente mais cuidadosos em relação à exposição solar.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Herpesviridae Infections/complications , Herpesviridae Infections/diagnosis , Herpesviridae Infections/epidemiology , Neoplasms/etiology
18.
Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab ; 46(1): 3-23, ene.-mar. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-641947

ABSTRACT

El déficit de vitamina D es una situación prevalente a nivel mundial y afecta a personas de cualquier edad. El rol más importante de la vitamina D es la regulación de la absorción intestinal de calcio y el metabolismo de calcio y fósforo para mantener la homeostasis ósea y muscular. Las enfermedades clásicamente asociadas al déficit de esta hormona son el raquitismo en los niños. En los adultos, el espectro varía desde osteomalacia hasta hiperparatiroidismo secundario, con pérdida de masa ósea, aumento del riesgo de caídas e incremento del riesgo de fractura según el grado de deficiencia. Además de estas acciones clásicas, la vitamina D: regula el crecimiento y la diferenciación de células musculares lisas de los vasos sanguíneos, el sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona, favorece la liberación de insulina, regula el crecimiento y estimula la diferenciación de monocitos-macrófagos, células presentadoras de antígenos, células dendríticas y linfocitos. En los últimos años, numerosos autores han vinculado a la hipovitaminosis D con enfermedades autoinmunes, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, enfermedades cardiovasculares, cáncer, etc. Estas afecciones no asociadas clásicamente al déficit de vitamina D serán el objeto de esta revisión.


Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent worlwide and affects people of all ages. Calcium intestinal absorption regulation along with calcium, phosphorous and bone homeostasis are most important vitamin D roles. Raquitism is commonly associated with vitamin D deficiency in children. Vitamin D deficiency related diseases varies from osteomalacia to hyperparathyroidism (with bone loss and increased risks of falls and fractures) in adults. Besides this well known actions, vitamin D regulates the growth and differentiation of smooth muscle cells, regulates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, promotes the release of insulin, regulates cell growth and stimulates the differentiation of monocytes-macrophages, antigen presenting cells, dendritic cells and lymphocytes. In recent years, many authors have linked to hypovitaminosis D with autoimmune diseases, Type2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer among others diseases. These not traditionally vitamin D deficiency associated conditions are going to be subjects for this review.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Avitaminosis/complications , Avitaminosis/physiopathology , Vitamin D/biosynthesis , Vitamin D Deficiency , Osteomalacia/physiopathology , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Hyperparathyroidism/physiopathology , Neoplasms/etiology
19.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 53(1): 5-14, fev. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-509860

ABSTRACT

A doença tiroidiana autoimune (DAIT), que afeta de 2 por cento a 5 por cento da população ocidental, é o transtorno autoimune órgão-específico mais comum. Sua apresentação clínica varia do hipertiroidismo da doença de Graves (DG) ao hipotiroidismo associado à tiroidite de Hashimoto (TH). A exata etiologia da DAIT permanece desconhecida, mas a interação entre suscetibilidade genética e fatores ambientais desencadeadores parece ser de fundamental importância no seu desenvolvimento. Postula-se que fatores genéticos responderiam por 79 por cento da suscetibilidade à DAIT e os ambientais por 21 por cento. Genes imunomoduladores, como o complexo maior de histocompatibilidade (MHC), antígeno-4 associado ao linfócito T citotóxico (CTLA-4), a molécula CD40 e a proteína tirosina fosfatase-22 (PTPN22) e os genes específicos da glândula tiróide, como receptor do TSH (TSHR) e tiroglobulina (TG) têm sido identificados. A natureza exata do envolvimento do meio ambiente no desenvolvimento da DAIT não é bem conhecida, mas vários fatores ambientais têm sido envolvidos, como o conteúdo de iodo na dieta, estresse, drogas e infecções. Entretanto, não há evidência clara de causalidade e os mecanismos pelos quais fatores ambientais desencadeariam a autoimunidade tiroidiana, em indivíduos geneticamente predispostos, ainda permanecem não completamente entendidos. O conhecimento dos mecanismos precisos de interação entre fatores ambientais e genes na indução da autoimunidade tiroidiana poderia resultar desenvolvimento de novas estratégias de prevenção e tratamento.


Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is the most common organ-specific autoimmune disorder affecting 2 percent to 5 percent of the population in Western countries. Clinical presentation varies from hyperthyroidism in Graves' Disease to hypothyroidism in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. While the exact etiology of thyroid autoimmunity is not known, interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors appears to be of fundamental importance to initiate the process of thyroid autoimmunity. It has been postulated that 79 percent of the susceptibility to develop AITD is attributed to genetic factors, while environmental factors contribute to 21 percent. The identified AITD susceptibility genes include immune-modulating genes, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), CD40 molecule, and protein tyrosine phosphatase-22 (PTPN22), and thyroid-specific genes, including TSH receptor (TSHR) and thyroglobulin (TG). The exact nature of the role environmental factors play in AITD is still not well known, but the involvement of several factors such as iodine diet content, stress, drugs and infections has been reported. However, there is no clear evidence of causality and the mechanisms by which environmental factors trigger thyroid autoimmunity in genetically predisposed individuals remain not fully understood. Knowledge of the precise mechanisms of interaction between environmental factors and genes in inducing thyroid autoimmunity could result in the development of new strategies for prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Graves Disease/etiology , Hypothyroidism/etiology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/etiology , Environment , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
20.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 79(5): 502-508, oct. 2008. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-518970

ABSTRACT

Background: Intermediate Uveitis (IU) is an important cause of uveitis in children. It is considered a chronic intraocular inflammation that mainly affects the anterior vitreous and peripheral retina. Pars Planitis is a subtype of IU, consisting of a white opacity that covers the pars plana and ora serrata plus vitreous condensations in the eye. Corneal endothelium disease is a rare clinical finding associated with pars planitis. Objective: Describe the corneal manifestations in IU and its associated treatment between ophthalmology and pediatric rheumatology. Case-report: A 5 years-old boy with autoimmune endotheliopathy and unilateral pars planitis in the right eye. Initially, he was treated topically, but evolved with intraocular complications that required systemic medication. Long-term follow-up was performed, searching for associated systemic diseases, until one of these entities appeared. Conclusion: It is very important to search for inflammation in the anterior vitreous and pars plana in all children with corneal endotheliopathy, considering that an early and integral management of IU could diminish the risk of visual impairment as a complication.


Introducción: La Uveitis Intermedia (UI) es una causa importante de uveitis infantil. Se considera como una inflamación intraocular crónica que afecta principalmente a la retina periférica y vitreo anterior. La Pars Planitis es un subtipo de UI caracterizada por opacidades blanquecinas sobre la pars plana y ora serrata más condensaciones vitreas. La enfermedad del endotelio corneal es un hallazgo clínico infrecuente asociado con la Pars Planitis. Objetivo: Destacar la manifestación corneal de una UI y el tratamiento de la enfermedad entre oftalmólogo y reumatólogo infantil. Caso clínico: Se presenta caso clínico de niño de 5 años de edad con endoteliopatía autoinmune asociada a Pars Planitis unilateral del ojo derecho, que en principio se trató localmente, pero evolucionó con complicaciones intraoculares que requirieron medicación sistémica y se efectuó un seguimiento clínico por varios años buscando enfermedades sistémicas asociadas a UI hasta que ella apareció. Conclusión: Es necesario buscar la presencia de inflamación de pars plana y vitreo en todo niño que se presente con endoteliopatía corneal, considerando que el tratamiento oportuno y manejo integral del paciente con UI puede disminuir el riesgo de pérdida visual asociado a las complicaciones de esta enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Corneal Diseases/etiology , Uveitis, Intermediate/complications , Uveitis, Intermediate/therapy , Endothelium, Corneal , Pars Planitis/complications , Pars Planitis/therapy , Treatment Outcome
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