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1.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e842, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289454

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La etiología de las enfermedades autoinmunes aún se desconoce, aunque se plantean diferentes causas. Objetivo: Describir el rol de factores como las hormonas, alimentación, estrés, enfermedades infecciosas y cáncer en las enfermedades autoinmunes. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando Google Académico y artículos de libre acceso en la base de datos PubMed y SciELO, publicados entre enero del 2014 y junio del 2020. Se consultó la bibliografía nacional e internacional relevante y actualizada, con un total de 51 referencias, de estas, tres libros básicos de la especialidad de Inmunología y 48 artículos (12 en idioma español y 36 en inglés). Se utilizaron los términos de búsqueda según los descriptores del DeCS y MeSH. Resultados: Las hormonas femeninas incrementan el riesgo de las enfermedades autoinmunes. Un desbalance en la neurohormona melatonina puede generar linfocitos autorreactivos. El estrés puede mantener respuestas inflamatorias crónicas que causen daño tisular. Una adecuada alimentación permite que los comensales de la microbiota intestinal mantengan la homeostasis del sistema inmune. Las infecciones en ocasiones desarrollan respuestas autoinmunitarias. La causalidad entre el cáncer y la autoinmunidad es bidireccional producto de procesos inflamatorios. Conclusiones: Las enfermedades autoinmunes son más frecuentes en las mujeres. Una alimentación adecuada permite que la microbiota intestinal no se altere y que mantenga la homeostasis inmunológica. Situaciones de estrés e infecciones pueden iniciar respuestas autoinmunes. El cáncer puede favorecer el desarrollo de manifestaciones autoinmunes, y estas últimas por el predominio inflamatorio, favorecen la tumorogénesis(AU)


Introduction: The etiology of autoimmune diseases is still unknown, though several causes have been suggested. Objective: Describe the role of hormones, eating, stress, infectious diseases and cancer in immune diseases. Methods: A bibliographic review was conducted using Google Scholar and open access papers published in the databases Pubmed and SciELO from January 2014 to June 2020. Relevant updated national and international bibliography was consulted, for a total 51 references: three basic books from the specialty of immunology and 48 papers (12 in Spanish and 36 in English). The search terms used were obtained from the descriptors DeCS and MeSH. Results: Feminine hormones increase the risk of autoimmune diseases. Imbalance in the neurohormone melatonin may generate autoreactive lymphocytes. Stress may maintain chronic inflammatory responses causing tissue damage. Appropriate eating habits allow gut microbiota commensals to maintain the homeostasis of the immune system. Infections occasionally develop autoimmune responses. Causality between cancer and autoimmunity is bidirectional, due to the presence of inflammatory processes. Conclusions: Autoimmune diseases are more common among women. Appropriate eating habits prevent alterations of the gut microbiota, allowing it to maintain immune homeostasis. Stress situations and infections may trigger autoimmune responses. Cancer may foster the development of autoimmune manifestations, and these, due to the inflammatory predominance, may foster tumorigenesis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases , Autoimmunity , Eating , Allergy and Immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Immune System , Immune System Diseases , Neurotransmitter Agents
2.
Infectio ; 25(1): 59-62, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154404

ABSTRACT

Resumen La neumonía en el paciente inmunocomprometido es un reto diagnóstico al cual el clínico se enfrenta cada vez con más frecuencia , al momento de hablar de infiltrados en vidrio esmerilado es menester tener siempre en cuenta la posibilidad de neumonía por Pneumocystis Jirovecii, que por mucho tiempo se pensó como una enfermedad propia del huésped inmunosuprimido con VIH, a través del tiempo se ha manifestado en pacientes con trasplantes de órgano sólido y de precursores hematopoyéticos, asociado a autoinmunidad, al uso crónico de corticoesteroides y más recientemente al uso de terapia biológicas. La descripción de esta enfermedad y sus métodos diagnósticos en huéspedes inmunosuprimidos no VIH no es del todo claro, sabemos que el tratamiento de elección en estos casos es el trimetropin-sulfametoxazol (TMP-SMX) el cual no cuenta con evidencia de alta calidad al momento de plantear una dosis ni un tiempo de duración establecidos. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con diagnóstico de glomerulonefritis por enfermedad de cambios mínimos corticodependiente y quien desarrolló neumonía por Pneumocystis Jirovecii confirmada por histopatología quien recibió tratamiento y tuvo un desenlace positivo.


Abstract The pneumonia in the immunocompromised patient is a diagnostic challenge that the clinician faces more and more frequently, every time we talk about ground glass infiltrates it is necessary to always take into account the possibility of pneumonia due to Neumocystis Jirovecii, which for a long time was thought as a disease of the immunosuppressed host with HIV, but that across the time it has manifested itself in patients with solid organ transplants and hematopoietic precursors, associated with autoimmunity, the chronic use of corticosteroids and more recently the use of biological therapy. The description of this disease and the diagnostic methods in non-HIV immunosuppressed hosts is not entirely clear, we know that the treatment of choice in these cases is trimethropin-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), which does not have high-quality evidence at the time of a dose or a time of established duration. We present the case of a patient diagnosed with glomerulonephritis due to corticodependent minimal change disease and who suffers from pneumocystis Jirovecii pneumonia confirmed by histopathology, which received treatment and had a positive outcome


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Pneumonia , Autoimmunity , HIV , Immunocompromised Host , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Glass
3.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61: 8, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152738

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Sjögren's Syndrome compromises the exocrine function, producing xerostomia and xerophthalmia. It can appear as an isolated condition or associated with other autoimmune diseases (polyautoimmunity). The Unstimulated Salivary Flow rate (UWSF) is used to quantify saliva production. There is no objective evidence to differentiate the values in patients with Sjögren's versus healthy people or patients with non-Sjögren's sicca. The objective of the present review was to evaluate the UWSF in patients with Sjögren's syndrome in comparison to controls (healthy and non-Sjögren's sicca patients). Methods: A systematic literature review was carried out (PRISMA guidelines). Analytical observational studies of cases and controls, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and randomized clinical trials (including healthy controls) were considered. The Medline/OVID, Lilacs, Embase, and Cochrane/OVID databases were consulted. MeSH, DeCS, keywords, and Boolean operators were used. The meta-analysis (RevMan 5.2) was done through the random-effects model [mean difference (MD)]. Level and quality of evidence were evaluated by the Oxford Center Levels of Evidence and Joanna Brigs list respectively. Results: Thirty-two articles were included (20 were case-control studies,6 were cross-sectional,2 prospective cohort,2 retrospective cohort, and2 studies were abstracts) and 28 were meta-analyzed. The unstimulated whole salivary flow rate in the Sjögren's group was lower than in controls (healthy and patients with non-Sjögren Sicca syndrome) (MD-0.18 ml/min; 95% CI, −0.24 to −0.13; chi2-P-value <0.00001). Heterogeneity was 97% and there was publication bias (funnel plot). The level of evidence was mostly3 or 4. The quality of evidence was met (97% of items valued). Conclusion: For the first time, the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate is found to be lower in patients with Sjögren's syndrome compared to controls (healthy and non-SS sicca) through a meta-analysis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Salivary Glands/metabolism , Xerostomia/metabolism , Sjogren's Syndrome/physiopathology , Autoimmunity
4.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 104-117, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1352998

ABSTRACT

La autoinmunidad es la consecuencia de la pérdida de control y regulación de la respuesta inmune. Se re-porta que ocurre entre 5 y 9% de patologías a nivel mundial. A las enfermedades con esta anomalía se les denomina autoinmunes y se clasifican de acuerdo con el órgano o sistema afectado. Las reumáticas involucran al tejido conectivo y las articulaciones. Los factores asociados a su aparición incluyen: edad, género, medioam-biente y genéticos. La susceptibilidad genética indica la presencia de uno o varios genes asociados al desarrollo de determinada enfermedad, cuya expresión podría ser el producto de la migración, selección, recombinación y adaptación de genes entre las poblaciones, lo que explica la variación fenotípica y la expresión clínica resultan-te. Los estudios de asociación del genoma completo (GWAS por sus siglas en inglés) han permitido identificar múltiples genes involucrados con enfermedades reumáticas, destacan el lupus eritematoso sistémico y artritis reumatoide, asociadas con más de 60 alelos, y otras como la espondilitis anquilosante, en donde la asociación ha sido primordialmente con un gen y sus polimorfismos. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo informar el estado de la susceptibilidad determinada genéticamente para estas enfermedades y el impacto que tiene sobre la expresión clínica. Se realizó una búsqueda en PubMed y la base de datos de la biblioteca Cochrane, se incluyeron artículos relacionados con las palabras clave propuestas desde el 2000. La revisión identifica genes y la asociación con estas enfermedades, expone la diversidad existente y justifica continuar la búsqueda de genes en todas las poblaciones.


Autoimmunity is the consequence of the loss of control and regulation of the immune response. It is reported that between 5 and 9% of pathologies occur worldwide. Diseases with this abnormality are called autoimmune and are classified according to the organ or system affected. Rheumatic diseases involve connective tissue and joints. Factors associated with its appearance include age, gender, environment, and genetics. Genetic suscepti-bility indicates the presence of one or more genes associated with the development of a certain disease, whose expression could be the product of migration, selection, recombination and adaptation of genes between popu-lations, which explains the phenotypic variation and the resulting clinical expression. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have allowed the identification of multiple genes involved with rheumatic diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, associated with more than 60 alleles, and others such as ankylosing spondylitis, where the association has been primarily with a gene and its polymorphisms. This review aims to report the status of genetically determined susceptibility to these diseases and the impact it has on clinical expression. A search was carried out in PubMed and the Cochrane library database, articles related to the proposed keywords from the year 2000 were included. The review identifies genes and the association with these diseases, exposes the existing diversity and justifies continuing the search for genes in all populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/congenital , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Genetic Research , Autoimmunity/immunology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genes , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/congenital
5.
Alger. J. health sci. (Online. Oran) ; 3(3): 49-58, 2021. Tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1292603

ABSTRACT

Les produits d?origine naturelle sont considérés comme une source précieuse de substances médicamenteuses et constituent une grande diversité structurelle et fonctionnelle. Les venins, de par les propriétés de leurs composés représentent pour l?animal venimeux un moyen de défense contre des prédateurs et d?immobilisation de leurs proies. Ces venins sont responsables des effets néfastes induits lors d?une envenimation en induisant une stimulation du système nerveux autonome par des peptides toxiques, une libération massive des neurotransmetteurs et une réponse inflammatoire systémique excessive. Ces processus sont à l?origine des dommages tissulaires et d?une défaillance multiviscérale. Par ailleurs, certains des composants des venins représentent un potentiel pharmacologique d?intérêt dans le développement de nouveaux médicaments pouvant être utilisés dans plusieurs pathologies telles que la COVID-19. La COVID-19 est une maladie infectieuse transmissible. Lors d?une infection, le virus SARS-CoV-2 induit une réaction immunitaire inadaptée associée à un orage cytokinique et à une coagulopathie, responsables d?un syndrome de détresse respiratoire dans les cas les plus graves. La pandémie de la COVID-19 a causé à travers le monde et ce depuis fin 2019, une crise sanitaire sans précédent et d'énormes pertes économiques. Dans cette revue bibliographique, les principales avancées scientifiques concernant essentiellement la réponse immunitaire et les mécanismes immunopathologiques induits lors d?une infection avec le SARS-CoV-2 seront décrites. Le rôle bénéfique des biomolécules isolées à partir des venins sera également rapporté pour une éventuelle utilisation de nouvelles biomolécules contre la COVID-19.


Natural products are considered as an excellent source of novel drugs and continue to provide greater structural and functional diversity. Venoms, by the properties of their compounds, are used by venomous animal for their defense against predators and to immobilize the prey. These venoms are responsible for the harmful effects induced during envenomation by inducing stimulation of the autonomic nervous system by toxic peptides, massive release of neurotransmitters and an excessive systemic inflammatory response. These processes cause tissue damage and multiple organ failure. However, some of the components of the venoms represent a valuable pharmacological potential in the development of new drugs that can be used in several pathologies such as COVID-19. The infectious, COVID-19 disease, caused by SARS-CoV-2, can lead to an inappropriate immune response, consequently causing cytokine storm and coagulopathy, responsible for respiratory distress syndrome in the most severe cases. Since its onset, the COVID-19 pandemic has spread over the world; it has not only impacted human health, but also the individual behavior, the functioning of society and the economy of all countries. This review provides an overview of the current evidence regarding immune response and the immune-pathological mechanisms involved during infection with SARS-CoV-2. The beneficial role of biomolecules isolated from venoms will be also presented as potential candidate molecules against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Scorpion Venoms , Therapeutics , COVID-19 , Autoimmunity , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(3): e206, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156395

ABSTRACT

La diabetes insípida es el resultado de una secreción o acción reducidas de la hormona vasopresina, expresada clínicamente por un cuadro de poliuria-polidipsia. Los arbovirus pueden tener afinidad por el sistema nervioso y se ha demostrado que el Zika desencadena un trastorno autoinmune que ataca a las células nerviosas, lo que puede traer como consecuencia una diabetes insípida central. En la literatura médica nacional e internacional revisada no se reportan casos anteriores donde se vincule la diabetes insípida con el virus del Zika. Se presenta un caso a propósito de esta asociación: paciente femenina de 53 años, diagnosticada con infección por el virus del Zika dos semanas antes de comenzar con los síntomas sugestivos de diabetes insípida. El potencial neurotrópico del virus, así como los resultados en la resonancia magnética nuclear y la determinación de marcadores de autoinmunidad anti-ADNdc positivos, son elementos que apoyan la hipótesis de que la paciente presentó una posible hipofisitis autoinmune, como respuesta inflamatoria post-infección, desarrollando diabetes insípida central transitoria(AU)


Diabetes insipidus is the result of reduced secretion or action of the vasopressin hormone, which is clinically expressed by a polyuria-polydipsia picture. Arboviruses can have a nervous system affinity and Zika has been shown to trigger an autoimmune disorder that attacks nerve cells, which can result in central diabetes insipidus. The reviewed national and international medical literatures does not report previous cases linking diabetes insipidus with Zika virus. It is presented a case about this association: 53-year-old female patient diagnosed with Zika virus infection two weeks before starting symptoms suggestive of diabetes insipidus. The neurotropic potential of the virus, as well as the results in nuclear MRI and the determination of positive anti-ADNdc autoimmunity markers are elements that support the hypothesis that the patient had a possible autoimmune hypophysis, as a post-infection inflammatory response, developing transient central diabetes insipidus(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Autoimmunity , Diabetes Insipidus/etiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Arboviruses/immunology , Review Literature as Topic , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods
7.
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 31(3): e203, sept.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156393

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las bases fisiopatológicas del Síndrome de ovario poliquístico pueden predisponer a mayor riesgo de autoinmunidad a las mujeres que tienen esta condición y existen evidencias, aunque escasas, de mayor prevalencia de autoinmunidad tiroidea en ellas. Objetivos: Determinar la frecuencia de marcadores serológicos de autoinmunidad tiroidea en mujeres con Síndrome de ovario poliquístico e identificar si existe asociación entre la presencia de ellos y las concentraciones de progesterona y testosterona. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio en 50 mujeres con Síndrome de ovario poliquístico y 50 sin el síndrome. Se realizaron determinaciones de autoanticuerpos tiroideos (anti tiroglobulina (Anti-Tg) y anti peroxidasa (anti-TPO) a las mujeres de ambos grupos de estudio. Se realizaron determinaciones de hormonas (testosterona y progesterona) solo al grupo de estudio de mujeres con SOP. Se crearon categorías por anticuerpos: Positivo si los títulos fueron superior al rango de referencia y negativo dentro del rango. Se consideró respuesta autoinmune positiva, cuando al menos uno de los anticuerpos se encontró elevado. Para la asociación entre la presencia de autoinmunidad y las variables independientes se hicieron análisis bivariados mediante comparación de medias y test no paramétricos. Se consideró un nivel de significancia de α = 0,05. Resultados: En las mujeres con Síndrome de ovario poliquístico, 62 por ciento mostraron anticuerpos positivos y 14 por ciento en las sin el síndrome. En las mujeres sin síndrome, de las 7 mujeres con marcadores de autoinmunidad positivos, en 6 (85,7 por ciento) el anti-Tg fue el que dio positivo. No hubo diferencias significativas en cuanto a la asociación con los niveles de testosterona y progesterona. Conclusiones: Las mujeres con Síndrome de ovario poliquístico tienen mayor frecuencia de desarrollar respuesta autoinmune tiroidea, independiente de los niveles de progesterona y testosterona(AU)


Introduction: The physio-pathological bases of polycystic ovary syndrome may predispose women with this condition to a higher risk of autoimmunity and there is evidence, albeit scarce, of higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in them. Objectives: Determine the frequency of serological markers of thyroid autoimmunity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and identify whether there is an association between the presence of them and progesterone and testosterone concentrations. Methods: A study was conducted in 50 women with polycystic ovary syndrome and 50 without the syndrome. Determinations of thyroid autoantiantibodies (anti-thyroglobulin (Anti-Tg) and anti-peroxidase (anti-TPO) were made to women in both study groups. Hormone determinations (testosterone and progesterone) were made only to the study group of women with PCOS. Categories were created by antibodies: Positive if the titles were greater than the reference range, and negative if within the range. It was considered a positive autoimmune response when at least one of the antibodies was found increased. For the association between the presence of autoimmunity and independent variables, bivariate analyses were performed by means comparison and non-parametric tests. It was considered a significance level of α =0.05. Results: In women with polycystic ovary syndrome, 62 percent showed positive antibodies and 14 percent in those without the syndrome. In women without the syndrome, of the 7 women with positive autoimmune markers, in 6 (85.7 percent) the anti-Tg was the one that tested positive. There were no significant differences in the association with testosterone and progesterone levels. Conclusions: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome are more often able to develop thyroid autoimmune response, independently from the progesterone and testosterone levels(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/epidemiology , Thyroid Gland/physiopathology , Autoimmunity/physiology , Hormones/analysis , Antibodies , Testosterone/analysis , Thyroglobulin/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies
8.
Rev. argent. reumatolg. (En línea) ; 31(4): 7-7, dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288204

ABSTRACT

La búsqueda constante para mejorar la calidad de vida de la población nos conduce a la obtención de medicamentos para así prevenir y tratar mejor las enfermedades. En esa búsqueda, sustancias ya conocidas por otras propiedades, adquieren relevancia cuando puede demostrarse su efectividad para mejorar la evolución de algunas patologías. Con motivo de la promulgación de la Ley de Uso Medicinal de la Planta de Cannabis y su actual reglamentación, la problemática en el uso de los derivados de la misma en el tratamiento de afecciones médicas dolo- rosas y enfermedades autoinmunes adquiere particular importancia. En ese sentido es oportuno que las sociedades médicas en general y en este caso, la Sociedad Argentina de Reumatología en particular, dé lugar a un espacio de publicación y discusión de este tema. En esta edición, Scublinsky D et al publican un estudio realizado sobre la conducta de los médicos frente a la prescripción de cannabis terapéutico. Resulta de interés saber lo que piensan los médicos por ser los efectores directos de la Salud y a quienes más escuchan los pacientes. También en esta edición se presenta una puesta al día del tema con la evidencia disponible y la discusión del tema, que resulta interesante su lectura.


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Pain , Autoimmunity
9.
Rev. colomb. reumatol ; 27(3): 218-223, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251662

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Existe una relación compleja, dinámica y bidireccional entre la autoinmunidad y el cáncer. Si bien los mecanismos carcinogénicos y fisiopatológicos de las enfermedades autoinmunes no están claramente dilucidados, existe una base inmunológica común relacionada con la expresión de autoantígenos por parte de las células tumorales que desencadenan una respuesta antitumoral, facilitando el desarrollo de síndromes paraneoplásicos reumáticos y enfermedades autoinmunes reumáticas en población genéticamente susceptible. Se presenta un caso de un hombre que debutó con un síndrome pulmón riñón y se diagnosticó cáncer de pulmón y lupus eritematoso sistémico de forma simultánea.


A B S T R A C T There is a complex, dynamic, and bidirectional connection between autoimmunity and cancer. The underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis and physiopathological aspects of autoimmune diseases are not fully understood. However, there is a common immunological base related to expression of autoantigens by tumour cells that cause an anti-cancer immune response, thereby, triggering the development of paraneoplastic rheumatic syndromes and autoimmune rheumatic diseases in a genetically predisposed population. The case is reported of a 57 year-old man presenting with pulmonary renal syndrome, and who was diagnosed lung cancer and systemic lupus erythematosus at the same time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma , Autoimmunity , Lung , Diagnosis , Kidney , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
10.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 22(2): e828, mayo.-ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126810

ABSTRACT

Las inmunodeficiencias primarias constituyen un grupo de más de 300 enfermedades frecuentemente graves y a menudo mortales que reflejan un déficit cuantitativo o cualitativo en uno o más componentes del sistema inmunitario. Son el resultado de defectos genéticos heredados que suelen afectar a 1 de cada 8000 a 10 000 nacidos vivos. Las manifestaciones clínicas suelen ser muy variadas, debido a que en su mayoría presentan una amplia heterogeneidad genética: infecciones (comunes recurrentes, comunes graves, o raras y graves), inflamación, autoinmunidad, malignidad o alergia. Teniendo en cuenta que a los profesionales médicos de diversas especialidades les resulta difícil identificar cuándo están en presencia de una IDP, nos proponemos describir las características clínicas, epidemiológicas, inmunitarias y genéticas de las inmunodeficiencias primarias. Para la realización de la revisión bibliográfica se utilizaron 27 referencias bibliográficas(AU)


Primary immunodeficiencies constitute a group of more than 300 frequently serious and often fatal diseases that reflect a quantitative and / or qualitative deficit in one or more components of the immune system. They are the result of inherited genetic defects that usually affect 1 in 8,000 to 10,000 live births. The clinical manifestations are usually very varied, because they mostly have a wide genetic heterogeneity, they can be caused by infections (common recurring, common serious, or rare and serious), inflammation, autoimmunity, malignancy, or allergy. Given that medical professionals of various specialties find it difficult to identify when they are in the presence of an primary immunodeficiency, it is proposed as an objective: to describe the clinical, epidemiological, immunological and genetic characteristics of Primary immunodeficiency. For the literature review, 27 bibliographic references were used(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/diagnosis , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/genetics , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/epidemiology , Immunogenetics , Autoimmunity
11.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 22(2): e762, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126804

ABSTRACT

La esclerosis sistémica (ES) es una enfermedad de causa desconocida, que se caracteriza por una producción exagerada de moléculas que componen la matriz extracelular. La disminución en la producción de óxido nítrico por las células endoteliales de la microvasculatura parece desempeñar un papel central en la patogenia de la enfermedad. Los resultados alcanzados en un estudio de serie de casos de un universo de 44 pacientes y muestra de 31, con baja incidencia de las causas neoplásicas en la muerte y como reacciones secundarias a tratamiento inmunosupresor con ciclofosfamida, según la conducta terapéutica aplicada, fue el motivo para la presentación de este trabajo, que reflejó la posible relación entre la esclerosis sistémica y las neoplasias. Se concluyó que la relación entre autoinmunidad y cáncer puede ser el resultado de un origen etiológico común (genético, hormonal, metabólico o factores ambientales) o un mecanismo de síndrome paraneoplásico. La enfermedad es terreno de riesgo para la ocurrencia de neoplasias, así como las neoplasias pueden inducir ES(AU)


The systemic sclerosis (SS) is a disease of unknown cause, that the fact that they fix the extra-cell womb characterizes itself for a production exaggerated of molecules. The decrease in the production of nitric oxide for the microvasculature's endothelial cells seems to play a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The results attained in 44 patients' study of series of cases of universe and inmunosupresor with cyclophosphamide according to therapeutic applied conduct shows of 31, with low incidence of the causes neoplastic in the death like secondary reactions and to treatment you went from motivation for the presentation of this work, that you reflected the possible relation between the systemic sclerosis and the neoplastic. It was concluded that the relation between auto-immunity and cancer can stem from an etiological common origin (genetic, hormonal, metabolic or environmental factors) or a mechanism of syndrome paraneoplastic. The disease is earthly of risk for neoplastic funny remark, the same way that the neoplastic can induce SS(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Scleroderma, Systemic/complications , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Neoplasms/complications , Autoimmunity
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 66-70, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088765

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disorder that is frequently seen in the eastern Mediterranean region. The thyroid gland can be affected in FMF patients through autoimmunity or amyloidosis. Here, we aimed to evaluate the structure and functions of the thyroid gland in addition to possible autoimmunity in FMF patients. Subjects and methods The study was conducted by the Endocrinology and Metabolism and Internal Medicine Departments. Thirty FMF patients and 30 age and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Free thyroxin (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) autoantibodies were investigated. Detailed thyroid grayscale and Doppler Ultrasonography examinations and shear-wave elastosonography (SWE) were performed in the patient and control groups. Results Anti-TPO was detected in 24% (n = 7) of the patients. On the grayscale US, mean thyroid volumes were similar between the FMF and the control groups (p > 0.05). By Doppler US, thyroid vascularity observed was detected in 10.3% (n = 3) of the patients. SWE revealed that the mean velocity value of right vs. left lobe in the patient group was 1.77 ± 0.45 m/s and 1.95 ± 0.51 m/s, respectively. Compared to the control group, the mean velocity values were significantly higher in the right (p = 0.004) and left (p = 0.01) lobes of the patient group. The mean stiffness value in the patient group was also significantly higher in the right and left lobes [10.13 ± 5.65 kPa (p = 0.005) and 12.24 ± 6.17 kPa (p = 0.02), respectively]. Conclusion Recognizing the complications of FMF early in the course of the disease is as important as the early diagnosis of the disorder. Based on this, thyroid functions and changes in its structure should be evaluated carefully for early diagnosis of a possible coexisting thyroid disorder. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):66-70


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Familial Mediterranean Fever/physiopathology , Familial Mediterranean Fever/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoimmunity/immunology , Familial Mediterranean Fever/diagnostic imaging , Autoantibodies/blood , Thyroid Gland/immunology , Triiodothyronine/immunology , Triiodothyronine/blood , Thyrotropin/immunology , Thyrotropin/blood , Case-Control Studies , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Iodide Peroxidase/immunology , Iodide Peroxidase/blood
13.
Immune Network ; : 6-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811176

ABSTRACT

IL-17 is produced by RAR-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt)-expressing cells including Th17 cells, subsets of γδT cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). The biological significance of IL-17-producing cells is well-studied in contexts of inflammation, autoimmunity and host defense against infection. While most of available studies in tumor immunity mainly focused on the role of T-bet-expressing cells, including cytotoxic CD8⁺ T cells and NK cells, and their exhaustion status, the role of IL-17-producing cells remains poorly understood. While IL-17-producing T-cells were shown to be anti-tumorigenic in adoptive T-cell therapy settings, mice deficient in type 17 genes suggest a protumorigenic potential of IL-17-producing cells. This review discusses the features of IL-17-producing cells, of both lymphocytic and myeloid origins, as well as their suggested pro- and/or anti-tumorigenic functions in an organ-dependent context. Potential therapeutic approaches targeting these cells in the tumor microenvironment will also be discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autoimmunity , Child , Child, Orphaned , Friends , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-17 , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocytes , Mice , T-Lymphocytes , Th17 Cells , Tumor Microenvironment
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 710-712, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054894

ABSTRACT

Abstract Although the association of multiple autoimmune diseases has already been widely described, no reports of the association between vitiligo, primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjogren's syndrome were retrieved in the SciELO and PubMed databases. The authors describe the case of a female patient who was diagnosed with primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjogren's syndrome at age 54. At age 58, she developed vitiligo restricted to the face, associated with significant impairment of self-esteem and quality of life. Antinuclear antibody was negative at the onset of the condition, but became positive after phototherapy initiation. In general, the occurrence of multiple autoimmune diseases in the same patient is known as a mosaic of autoimmunity. However, specific mechanisms appear to interconnect primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjogren's syndrome, such as PDC-E2-mediated generalized epithelitis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Vitiligo/complications , Sjogren's Syndrome/complications , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/complications , Vitiligo/pathology , Sjogren's Syndrome/pathology , Autoimmunity , Chronic Disease , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/pathology
15.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(2): 133-146, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001150

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Bullous pemphigoid is the most frequent autoimmune bullous disease and mainly affects elderly individuals. Increase in incidence rates in the past decades has been attributed to population aging, drug-induced cases and improvement in the diagnosis of the nonbullous presentations of the disease. A dysregulated T cell immune response and synthesis of IgG and IgE autoantibodies against hemidesmosomal proteins (BP180 and BP230) lead to neutrophil chemotaxis and degradation of the basement membrane zone. Bullous pemphigoid classically manifests with tense blisters over urticarial plaques on the trunk and extremities accompanied by intense pruritus. Mucosal involvement is rarely reported. Diagnosis relies on (1) the histopathological evaluation demonstrating eosinophilic spongiosis or a subepidermal detachment with eosinophils; (2) the detection of IgG and/or C3 deposition at the basement membrane zone using direct or indirect immunofluorescence assays; and (3) quantification of circulating autoantibodies against BP180 and/or BP230 using ELISA. Bullous pemphigoid is often associated with multiple comorbidities in elderly individuals, especially neurological disorders and increased thrombotic risk, reaching a 1-year mortality rate of 23%. Treatment has to be tailored according to the patient's clinical conditions and disease severity. High potency topical steroids and systemic steroids are the current mainstay of therapy. Recent randomized controlled studies have demonstrated the benefit and safety of adjuvant treatment with doxycycline, dapsone and immunosuppressants aiming a reduction in the cumulative steroid dose and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Pemphigoid, Bullous/diagnosis , Steroids/therapeutic use , Autoimmunity/physiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique/methods , Pemphigoid, Bullous/classification , Pemphigoid, Bullous/etiology , Pemphigoid, Bullous/drug therapy , Diagnosis, Differential
16.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 38(1): e164, Jan.-Mar. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093384

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The etiology of autoimmune diseases is still unknown, but different causes arise. Objective: To describe the role of hormones, diet, stress and infections in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. Methods: A bibliographic review was made using the Google Scholar and articles of free access in the Pubmed and Scielo database from 2015 to 2019. The search terms were used according to the DeCS and MeSH descriptors. Development: It is well known that female hormones increase the risk of autoimmune diseases. Stress can maintain low-grade chronic inflammatory responses that cause tissue damage, initiating or aggravating the clinical manifestations of autoimmunity. An adequate diet allows the guests of the intestinal microbiota to maintain the homeostasis of the immune system. Today, glutamate is used as a flavor enhancer, especially in developed countries. Perhaps it is one of the causes of the higher incidence of autoimmune diseases in these regions. Conclusions: Autoimmune diseases are more frequent in women. Adequate nutrition allows the gut microbiota not to be altered and to maintain immunological homeostasis. Infections and stress situations can trigger or exacerbate the clinical manifestations of autoimmunity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Autoimmune Diseases , Autoimmunity , Glutamic Acid/genetics , Nutritional Sciences
17.
CorSalud ; 11(1): 1-10, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089704

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La prueba del peso sostenido (PPS) es un ejercicio isométrico cubano, similar a la de handgrip, de mucha utilidad para inducir modificaciones hemodinámicas que permiten identificar la hiperreactividad cardiovascular en poblaciones de riesgo. Sin embargo, los cambios en la respuesta autonómica cardiovascular durante la PPS no se encuentran totalmente dilucidados. Objetivo: Determinar la respuesta autonómica cardiovascular durante la prueba isométrica cubana del peso sostenido. Método: Estudio cuasi-experimental (crossover) con 16 sujetos sanos, donde se evaluaron la presión arterial y la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca, 5 minutos antes (reposo) y durante la PPS (2 minutos de maniobra y 3 minutos de recuperación), a través del análisis frecuencial (Fourier) y en tiempo-frecuencia (wavelet) de las bandas de altas (HF: 0,15-0,4 Hz) y bajas frecuencias (LF: 0,04-0,15 Hz), así como el análisis temporal y no-lineal (entropía de Shannon) de la serie de intervalos RR. Resultados: Aunque no existieron diferencias significativas (p>0,05) en los indicadores temporales (SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50), ni en los frecuenciales (LF, HF, LF/HF), se encontraron incrementos (p<0,05) de la presión arterial y una disminución significativa (p<0,05) de la complejidad (entropía) en la PPS con respecto al reposo, asociados con un pico en la LF y la relación LF/HF alrededor de los 2 minutos reflejados con los métodos en tiempo-frecuencia. Conclusiones: Existió un incremento dinámico en la respuesta simpática cardiovascular durante la PPS que se asocian a una disminución de la complejidad de este proceso fisiológico, lo que no es evidente con los métodos lineales tradicionales de la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The dynamic weight-bearing test (WBT) is a Cuban isometric exercise, similar to the hand grip test, which is very useful to induce hemodynamic modifications to identify cardiovascular hyperreactivity in at-risk populations. However, changes in the cardiovascular autonomic response during weight-bearing test are poorly understood. Objective: To determine the cardiovascular autonomic response during the Cuban dynamic WBT. Method: Quasi-experimental crossover trial with 16 healthy subjects; blood pressure and heart rate variability were assessed, 5 minutes before (rest) and during the WBT (2 minutes for maneuver and 3 minutes for recovery), through the frequency (Fourier) and time-frequency (Wavelet) analysis of high-frequency (HF: 0.15-0.4 Hz) and low-frequency (LF: 0.04-0.15 Hz) bands, as well as temporal and non-linear analysis (Shannon entropy) of the RR interval series. Results: Although temporal indicators (SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50) showed no significant differences (p>0.05) nor the frequencies (LF, HF, LF/HF); we found an increase (p<0.05) in blood pressure and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in complexity (entropy) in the WBT with respect to rest, associated with an HF peak and LF/HF ratio at nearly 2 minutes reflected with the time-frequency methods. Conclusions: There was a dynamic increase in the cardiovascular sympathetic response during the WBT associated with a decrease in the complexity of this physiological process, which is not evident with the traditional linear methods of heart rate variability.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity , Cardiovascular System
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719514

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Immunoglobulin (Ig) E autoantibodies against thyroid antigens such as thyroid peroxidase (TPO) have been demonstrated in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) patients in higher frequency than healthy subjects. However, if these IgE autoantibodies can trigger urticaria is still a matter of study. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between concomitant IgE autoantibodies against thyroid antigens in CSU. METHODS: Patients with CSU, healthy subjects and patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) were recruited. Total IgE and specific anti-TPO IgE and IgG were assessed in all subjects. The basophil activation test and skin tests with TPO were performed to demonstrate whether this antigen could selectively induce urticaria reaction in subjects with positive anti-TPO IgE. RESULTS: Anti-TPO IgE was present in all 3 groups (CSU: 34.0%, ATD: 16.6%, healthy subjects: 8.1%). Anti-TPO IgE levels were higher in CSU patients, whereas anti-TPO IgG were higher in ATD patients. After exposure to TPO, CD203c expression from patients with CSU and anti-TPO IgE significantly increased in comparison to the other groups; 33.0% vs. 14.0% in ATD patients and 9.0% in control subjects (P < 0.05). Skin reactions with TPO were higher in patients with CSU according to the intradermal (CSU: 18.0%, ATD: 3.3%, control: 8.0%) and skin prick tests (12.0%, 0%, 0%, respectively). Passive transfer of anti-TPO IgE from a CSU patient to the skin of control subjects without anti-TPO IgE induced a positive skin reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-TPO IgE is not a specific biomarker for CSU. However, IgE against TPO plays a pathogenic role in inducing effector cell activation and skin exacerbation in some patients with CSU.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , Autoimmunity , Basophils , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hypothyroidism , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , In Vitro Techniques , Iodide Peroxidase , Skin , Skin Tests , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Gland , Urticaria
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze the association of low vitamin D status with thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction in the Korean population according to sex and menopausal status in women. METHODS: This study was based on the data acquired from the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We enrolled 4,356 subjects who had data of thyroid function, antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels. We excluded subjects who were pregnant and who had a history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer, and those with transient thyroid dysfunction who tested negative for TPOAb (TPOAb[−]). RESULTS: TPOAb positivity (TPOAb[+]) with thyroid dysfunction (subclinical and overt hypothyroidism) was more prevalent in the vitamin D deficient group than in the vitamin D insufficient and sufficient groups including premenopausal (P=0.046) and postmenopausal women (P=0.032), although no significant differences were observed in men. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was significantly lower in the TPOAb(+) with thyroid dysfunction group than in the TPOAb(+) with euthyroidism and TPOAb(−) groups of premenopausal women (P=0.001), although no significant differences were observed in men and postmenopausal women. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, body mass index, and current smoking status, showed that vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency were significantly associated with TPOAb(+) with thyroid dysfunction in premenopausal women (P<0.001), although no significant associations were observed in men and postmenopausal women. CONCLUSION: Low vitamin D status was significantly associated with thyroid autoimmunity and dysfunction in the Korean population, especially in premenopausal women.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity , Body Mass Index , Female , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Peroxidase , Premenopause , Smoke , Smoking , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , Vitamins
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763194

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Autoimmunity is an alternative etiology of gastric inflammation, the initiating event in the gastric carcinogenic cascade. This mechanism may be an increasingly important cause of gastric cancer with the waning prevalence of its primary etiologic factor, chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched up to September 2018. Autoimmunity and 96 specific manifestations were considered for associations with gastric cancer risk. Random effects analysis was used to calculate pooled relative risk estimates (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We found a total of 52 observational studies representing 30 different autoimmune diseases. Overall, the presence of an autoimmune condition was associated with a gastric cancer pooled RR of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.24 to 1.52). Among the 24 autoimmune conditions with two or more independent reports, nine were significantly associated with increased gastric cancer risk: dermatomyositis (RR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.74 to 7.79), pernicious anemia (RR, 2.84; 95% CI, 2.30 to 3.50), Addison disease (RR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.26 to 3.53), dermatitis herpetiformis (RR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.97; n=3), IgG4-related disease (RR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.87), primary biliary cirrhosis (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.37), diabetes mellitus type 1 (RR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.67), systemic lupus erythematosus (RR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.84), and Graves disease (RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.52). CONCLUSION: Our analysis documents the wide range of autoimmune diseases associated with gastric cancer. These associations may reflect unreported links between these conditions and autoimmune gastritis. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential causal mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Addison Disease , Anemia, Pernicious , Autoimmune Diseases , Autoimmunity , Dermatitis Herpetiformis , Dermatomyositis , Diabetes Mellitus , Epidemiology , Gastritis , Graves Disease , Helicobacter pylori , Inflammation , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Prevalence , Stomach Neoplasms
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