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1.
Rev. Soc. Argent. Diabetes ; 56(suple. 2): 15-18, may. - ago. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1396180

ABSTRACT

La diabetes mellitus (DM) es una enfermedad heterogénea que presenta fenotipos clínicos diversos, todos con hiperglucemia. Históricamente se han utilizado cuatro factores para identificar esta diversidad: la edad de inicio, la gravedad de la enfermedad o grado de pérdida de la función de la célula beta, el grado de resistencia a la insulina y la presencia de autoanticuerpos asociados a la enfermedad. Actualmente, los parámetros empleados para clasificar los diferentes tipos de DM dificultan el diagnóstico y tratamiento de los pacientes. Las distintas presentaciones clínicas requieren una clasificación diagnóstica más eficaz para un abordaje terapéutico más preciso, valiéndose del avance de la inmunogenética y la bioquímica clínica. Esta guía está orientada a clasificar con precisión las presentaciones clínicas que a menudo generan incertidumbre dentro de los dos tipos principales de DM.


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous disease, with diverse clinical phenotypes, all with hyperglycemia. Historically, four factors have been used to identify this diversity: the age at onset, the severity of the disease, that is, the degree of loss of beta cell function and insulin resistance, and the presence of circulating autoantibodies. Currently, the parameters used to classify the different types of DM make it difficult to diagnose and treat patients. The different clinical manifestations require an accurate diagnosis to achieve an effective therapeutic approach through the use of immunogenetics and clinical biochemistry. This practical guide aims to accurately classify the often uncertain clinical presentations within the two main types of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Autoantibodies , Autoimmunity , Genetics
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 42(2): 342-354, ene.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403586

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El hipertiroidismo es una condición heterogénea caracterizada por la producción excesiva de hormonas tiroideas. Su aparición en la edad pediátrica representa un reto diagnóstico y terapéutico. Objetivo. Describir las características clínicas y paraclínicas, así como la evolución y las diferencias entre las principales causas etiológicas de los pacientes con hipertiroidismo atendidos por el Servicio de Endocrinología Pediátrica del Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación en Medellín, Colombia, entre el 1° de julio de 2015 y el 30 de junio de 2020. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio observacional transversal con recolección retrospectiva de la información. Resultados. Se incluyeron 54 pacientes con una edad media de 11,9 años, 72,2 % de ellos mujeres. El 11,1 % tenía antecedentes familiares de enfermedad de Graves y 29,6 % de otras enfermedades tiroideas. El bocio fue la manifestación clínica más frecuente (83,3 %). El 92,6 % había recibido terapia con metimazol, el 79,6 % requirió betabloqueador y el 11,2 % necesitó una terapia farmacológica adicional. Se presentaron reacciones adversas a la medicación en el 16,7 %. En el 20,4 % de los pacientes hubo resolución del hipertiroidismo (espontánea: 9,3 %; posterior a la ablación con yodo radiactivo: 9,3 %, y después de la cirugía: 1,9 %). Conclusión. El hipertiroidismo es una enfermedad con manifestaciones clínicas diversas. La causa más frecuente es la enfermedad de Graves, seguida por la hashitoxicosis. En este estudio, la hashitoxicosis fue más frecuente que en estudios previos. La duración y los efectos secundarios del tratamiento farmacológico fueron similares a los reportados previamente, pero es de resaltar la mayor frecuencia de agranulocitosis en nuestra población.


Introduction: Hyperthyroidism is a heterogeneous condition characterized by the excessive production of thyroid hormones. It represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Objective: To describe the clinical and paraclinical characteristics and the evolution and differences between the main etiologies in patients with hyperthyroidism treated by the Pediatric Endocrinology Service at the Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación in Medellín, Colombia, between July 1st., 2015, and June 30th., 2020. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study with retrospective data collection. Results: We included 54 patients with a mean age of 11.9 years, 72.2% of whom were female; 85.2% had no history of comorbidities related to autoimmunity; 11.1% had a family history of Graves' disease, and 29.6% of other thyroid diseases. Goiter was the most frequent clinical manifestation (83.3%) and 92.6% of the patients received treatment with methimazole, 79.6% required beta-blockers, and 11.2% additional drug therapy. Adverse drug reactions occurred in 16.7% of the patients and in 20.4% there was a resolution of hyperthyroidism (spontaneous: 9.3%; after radio-iodine ablation: 9.3%, and after surgery: 1.9%). Conclusion: Hyperthyroidism is a disease with diverse clinical manifestations. Its most frequent cause is Graves' disease followed by hashitoxicosis, which in this study had a higher frequency than that reported in the literature. The duration and side effects of pharmacological treatment were similar to those previously reported, but the higher frequency of agranulocytosis is noteworthy.


Subject(s)
Child , Adolescent , Hyperthyroidism , Thyrotoxicosis , Autoimmunity , Graves Disease
3.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 38(2): 106-116, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407767

ABSTRACT

Resumen El trasplante pulmonar implica una serie de desafíos, que como lo ha demostrado la historia, no sólo depende de un adecuado desarrollo de técnicas quirúrgicas, sino también de la comprensión de una serie de complejas interacciones inmunológicas celulares y humorales que serán las responsables del tipo de respuesta (innata y/o adquirida) fisiológica y que pudiesen desencadenar las complicaciones asociadas al trasplante (rechazo hiperagudo, agudo o crónico). Cada una de las cuales tiene su potencial prevención y/o tratamiento. El poder conocer esta serie de respuestas, permite al clínico anticiparse a algunos de estos eventos y evitar de mejor forma el daño y las consecuencias que pueden producir en los casos de trasplante pulmonar.


Lung transplantation involves a series of challenges, which as history has shown, depends not only on an adequate development of surgical techniques, but also on the understanding of a series of complex cellular and humoral immunological interactions that will be responsible for the type of physiological response (innate - acquired) and that could trigger the complications associated with transplantation (hyperacute, acute or chronic rejection). Each of which has its potential prevention and treatment. Being able to know this series of responses, allows the clinician to anticipate some of these events and to avoid in a better way the damage and the consequences that can occur in cases of lung transplantation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Transplantation Immunology/immunology , Lung Transplantation , Graft Rejection/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Autoimmunity , Nuclear Factor 45 Protein , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Innate , Immunosuppressive Agents
4.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(1): 111-114, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389936

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Durante la infección aguda por el SARVS-CoV-2 se produce una desregulación del sistema inmune que puede durar hasta ocho meses después de controlado el cuadro agudo. Esto, sumado a otros factores, posiblemente este asociado con un aumento del riesgo de aparición y concurrencia de enfermedades autoinmunes. La aparición simultanea del síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) y púrpura trombocitopénica (PTI) se ha reportado poco en la literatura, y el SGB raramente se asocia con otra enfermedad autoinmune. Presentamos el caso de un varón que luego de un mes de tener un cuadro agudo de COVID-19 moderado, presentó concurrentemente SGB y PTI con respuesta adecuada al tratamiento.


ABSTRACT During acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, there is persistent deregulation of the immune system that can last up to 8 months after the acute condition is controlled. This, added to other factors, is possibly associated with an increased risk of the appearance and concurrence of autoimmune diseases. The simultaneous occurrence of GBS and ITP has been rarely reported in the literature, and GBS is rarely associated with another autoimmune disease. We present the case of a man who, one month after his recovery from acute moderate COVID-19, presented concurrent GBS and ITP with an adequate response to treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Autoimmune Diseases , Thrombocytopenia , Autoimmunity , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System , Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS
6.
repert. med. cir ; 31(1): 79-83, 2022. tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367068

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Constantin von Economo reportó en 1917 múltiples casos de manifestaciones neurológicas secundarias a la pandemia de la gripe española, clasificándolos en tres grandes grupos: forma somnolienta-oftalmopléjica, mutismo y la hipercinética, con secuelas similares a la enfermedad de Parkinson. Objetivo: presentar un caso de reciente aparición de patología rara en Cali, Colombia con manejo adecuado en unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI). Presentación del caso: paciente de 9 años con disminución de la fuerza en extremidades, disartria y somnolencia, que inició deterioro neurológico progresivo requiriendo manejo en UCI. El equipo multidisciplinario diagnosticó encefalitis letárgica e iniciaron manejo con plasmaféresis e inmunosupresión con mejoría significativa. Discusión y conclusiones: como la prevalencia es escasa, el diagnóstico exige un alto índice de sospecha como la ocurrencia de un cuadro infeccioso previo al inicio de los síntomas, ya que se considera una reacción autoinmune cruzada contra antígenos de la sustancia nigra. En algunos casos hay alteraciones en los estudios imagenológicos o en citoquímico de líquido cefalorraquídeo. El manejo con pulsos de metilprednisolona y filtración de plasma con plasmaféresis brinda mejoría significativa con disminución de las secuelas a futuro.


Introduction: In 1917, Constantin von Economo reported multiple cases of neurological manifestations secondary to the Spanish flu pandemic. He classified them into three main clinical forms: somnolent-ophthalmoplegic, mutism and hyperkinetic, causing sequelae resembling Parkinson ́s disease. Objective: to present a case of a recent appearance rare disease entity, in Cali Colombia, receiving appropriate management in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Case presentation: 9-year-old patient presenting with limb muscle weakness, dysarthria and somnolence, evidencing progressive neurological deterioration requiring admission to the ICU for management. A diagnosis of encephalitis lethargica (EL) was made by the attending multidisciplinary team and management with plasmapheresis and immunosuppression was started, obtaining significant improvement. Discussion and conclusions: as the prevalence is low, the diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion in cases presenting with infectious conditions prior to the development of symptoms, since it is considered an autoimmune cross-reaction against substantia nigra antigens. Alterations in brain imaging or in cerebrospinal fluid cytometry may be found in some cases. Management with methylprednisolone pulse therapy and filtration plasmapheresis provides significant improvement with a decrease in future sequelae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Parkinson Disease, Postencephalitic , Encephalitis, St. Louis , Fever , Autoimmunity , Influenza, Human
7.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408409

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome de Behcet, o enfermedad de Behcet, es un proceso autoinflamatorio crónico, poco frecuente, de etiología desconocida. Es una vasculitis que afecta arterias y venas de todos los calibres, con alteración de la función endotelial, que se expresa clínicamente con lesiones orgánicas variadas. En su fisiopatogenia intervienen factores genéticos, microbianos e inmunológicos. Los síntomas más comunes son las úlceras orales y genitales, inflamaciones oculares (uveítis, retinitis e iritis), lesiones de piel y artritis. Objetivo: Evaluar diversos marcadores de la respuesta inmune en paciente con síndrome de Behcet. Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino. 39 años de edad, con diagnóstico clínico de enfermedad de Behcet con reactantes de fase aguda y marcadores serológicos de autoinmunidad negativa. Las subpoblaciones linfocitarias están dentro de los valores referenciales, sin evidencias de activación linfocitaria. La presencia de una doble población de linfocitos B y los antecedentes familiares, sugieren la existencia de una población de linfocitos B de autoreconocimiento y la posible presencia de factores genéticos, respectivamente. El paciente respondió favorablemente a la terapia con esteroides. Conclusiones: El estudio apoya el criterio de que, en condiciones basales, no se detectan marcadores humorales de autoinmunidad, alteraciones de los valores de las subpoblaciones linfocitarias, ni evidencias de activación linfocitaria, pero no se puede excluir la presencia de una población de linfocitos B de autoreconocimiento(AU)


Introduction: Behcet's syndrome, also known as Behcet's disease is a chronic autoinflammatory process of low frequency and unknown etiology. It's an all sizes arteries and veins affecting vasculitis that causes an alteration of endothelial function and is expressed clinically by organ damage at various levels. Its pathogenesis involves genetic, microbial and immunological factors. The most common symptoms are oral and genital ulcers, eye inflammation (uveitis, iritis and retinitis), skin lesions and arthritis. Objective: to evaluate several inmunological markers in a patient with Behcet syndrome. Case presentation: 39 years old masculine patientwith clinical diagnosis of Behcet disease with negative acute phase reactants and serological authoinmunity markers and lymphocyte populations within referential range, without evidences of lymphocyte activation. The presence of a double B lymphocyte population and familial background, suggest the presence of a self recognitionB lymphocyte population and the probable presence of genetic factors, respectively. There was a good response to steroids treatment. Conclusions: The study supports the idea that at baseline, not humoral autoimmunity markers, changes in the values of lymphocyte subpopulations, and evidence of lymphocyte activation is detected, but can not exclude the presence of a population of B lymphocytes self-recognition(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arthritis , Uveitis , Vasculitis , Autoimmunity , Behcet Syndrome , Genetics, Microbial , Immunologic Factors , Clinical Diagnosis
8.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(4)dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408584

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El esquema nacional de vacunación cubano presenta coberturas superiores al 99 por ciento que incluye la vacuna contra parotiditis, rubéola y sarampión. Así, cuando existe un proceso neuroinflamatorio se produce una amplia síntesis intratecal de anticuerpos antiparotiditis, antirubéola y antisarampión, que permite realizar evaluaciones neuroepidemiológicas de las campañas de vacunación y el sesgo de casos extremos, desde el punto de vista inmunológico. Objetivos: Correlacionar el índice de anticuerpos antirubéola, antiparotiditis y antisarampión con procesos autoinmunes asociados y en la identificación de posibles pacientes con inmunodeficiencias en la muestra estudiada. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio aplicado y descriptivo de corte transversal en 42 niños evaluados en los servicios de cuerpo de guardia de los hospitales pediátricos de La Habana del 2015 al 2018. La muestra fue dividida según los tres intervalos del índice de anticuerpos (menor o igual a 0,6; de 0,6 a 1,5 y mayor o igual a 1,5). Se procedió a detectar en los segmentos extremos pacientes con posible autoinmunidad (mayor o igual a 1,5) e inmunodeficiencia (se tomó el intervalo inferior a una desviación estándar). Resultados: En el grupo con índice de anticuerpos mayor o igual a 1,5, el 75 por ciento fue positivo a la reacción MRZ, indicativo de una enfermedad autoinmune activa. En el grupo con índice de anticuerpos menor o igual a 0,6 preponderó una clínica con prevalencia de enfermedades tumorales e infecciosas asociadas a un alto índice de hospitalización, test de inmunodeficiencia positivo y bajos niveles de IgG en suero. Conclusiones: Es posible identificar pacientes pediátricos con desórdenes autoinmunes y sospecha de inmunodeficiencias, a partir de la estrategia de la evaluación neuroepidemiológica de los índices de anticuerpos antiparotiditis, antirubéola y antisarampión(AU)


Introduction: The Cuban national vaccination scheme has a coverage of more than 99 percent of the population, and includes the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Therefore, in the presence of a neuroinflammatory process, a broad intrathecal synthesis of measles, mumps and rubella antibodies takes place which makes it possible to conduct neuroepidemiological evaluations of the vaccination campaigns and the bias of extreme cases, from an immunological perspective. Objectives: Correlate the measles, mumps and rubella antibody index with associated autoimmune processes and in the identification of patients with possible immunodeficiencies in the study sample. Methods: An applied cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted of 42 children attending the emergency services of Havana children's hospitals in the period 2015-2018. The sample was divided according to the three antibody index intervals: smaller than or equal to 0.6, from 0.6 to 1.5, and greater than or equal to 1.5. Extreme segments were examined to detect patients with possible autoimmunity (greater than or equal to 1.5) and immunodeficiency (the interval below a standard deviation was taken as reference). Results: 75 percent of the group with an antibody index greater than or equal to 1.5 was positive to the MRZ reaction, indicative of an active autoimmune disease. In the group with an antibody index lower than or equal to 0.6, the prevailing clinical status showed a prevalence of tumoral and infectious diseases associated to a high hospitalization index, a positive immunodeficiency test and low serum IgG levels. Conclusions: It is possible to identify pediatric patients with autoimmune disorders and suspicion of immunodeficiencies applying the strategy of neuroepidemiological evaluation of the measles, mumps and rubella antibody indices(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Autoimmune Diseases , Measles Vaccine , Rubella Vaccine , Vaccines , Autoimmunity , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Antibodies , Mumps , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
9.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 396-401, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350809

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CD28 null T helper (Th) cells are rare in healthy individuals, but they are increased in various inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. In this study, we determined the size of the CD4+/CD28 null T lymphocyte compartment in the peripheral blood of 40 autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) patients (idiopathic and secondary) and 20 healthy control subjects, using tri-color flow cytometry. The frequency and absolute count of CD4+/CD28 null T helper (Th) cells was significantly higher in idiopathic AIHA patients, compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001 and 0.001, respectively) and to patients with secondary AIHA (p = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). The percentage of CD4+/CD28 null Th cells was also negatively correlated to the hemoglobin (Hb) level (p = 0.03). These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the expansion of this phenotypically-defined population of T lymphocytes in patients with idiopathic AIHA and indicate that it likely plays an etiological role in the development of this disease. However, establishing the use of this marker for diagnosis or monitoring treatment of such patients needs further studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , T-Lymphocytes , CD4 Antigens , Autoimmunity , CD28 Antigens , Th1 Cells , Flow Cytometry
10.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(4): 422-425, out.dez.2021. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399807

ABSTRACT

A reativação da BCG pode ocorrer em diversos contextos: associada a quadros infecciosos, imunossupressão, autoimunidade e pós-vacinações. Além disso, especialmente em crianças abaixo de 5 anos de idade, deve ser valorizada como um achando presente em cerca de 50% dos casos de Doença de Kawasaki. Neste artigo, relatamos o primeiro caso publicado na literatura de uma paciente adulta jovem, a qual manifestou uma reativação de BCG após receber a primeira dose de vacina contra COVID-19 (AztraZeneca/Oxford/Biomanguinhos). Dentro das primeiras 24h após a administração da vacina, a paciente desenvolveu febre alta, sudorese, dor local, mialgia difusa e cefaleia. Após dois dias, iniciou eritema e enduração no local da cicatriz da vacina BCG. Ela tem como comorbidade a urticária crônica espontânea, porém estava assintomática sem crises há mais de 1 ano. Tem como antecedente familiar relevante o óbito materno por síndrome complexa de sobreposição de autoimunidade (lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, síndrome de Sjögren e síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolípide). Após ser medicada com anti-inflamatórios não esteroides (AINE) e corticoterapia tópica de moderada potência por 3 dias, houve resolução completa da reativação da BCG. A paciente, após 3 meses, recebeu a segunda dose da vacina e não manifestou nenhum sintoma. Acredita-se que a reativação da BCG ocorra devido a um mecanismo de reação cruzada entre HSP do indivíduo, elicitadas como mediadores da imunidade inata frente à inflamação vacinal, com alguns epítopos do M. bovis. Recomendase que seja investigada alguma condição imunossupressora ou autoimune nos pacientes que manifestem reativação da BCG, principalmente em adultos, na qual a doença de Kawasaki é bastante rara. As vacinas, incluindo as contra COVID-19, também podem desencadear o surgimento deste fenômeno imunológico ainda pouco compreendido.


BCG reactivation can occur in different contexts: associated with infectious conditions, immunosuppression, autoimmunity and post-vaccinations. Also, especially in children below of 5 years of age, should be valued as a finding present in about 50% of cases of Kawasaki disease. In this article, we report the first case published in the literature of a young adult patient, who manifested a reactivation of BCG after receiving the first dose of vaccine against COVID-19 (AztraZeneca/Oxford/Biomanguinhos). Within the first 24 hours after the administration of the vaccine, the patient developed high fever, sweating, local pain, diffuse myalgia and headache. After 2 days, erythema and induration at the site of the BCG vaccine scar began. she has how comorbidity to chronic spontaneous urticaria, but she was asymptomatic without crises for more than 1 year. The relevant family history is maternal death due to the complex syndrome of autoimmunity overlap (systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögrens syndrome, and anti-phospholipid antibody). After being medicated with NSAID and moderate topical corticosteroid therapy potency for 3 days, there was complete resolution of BCG reactivation. The patient, after 3 months, received the 2nd dose of the vaccine and had no symptoms. It is believed that the reactivation of BCG occurs due to a cross-reaction mechanism between the individuals HSP, elicited as mediators of innate immunity against vaccine inflammation, with some epitopes of M. bovis. It is recommended that any immunosuppressive or autoimmune condition be investigated in patients that manifest BCG reactivation, especially in adults, in which Kawasaki disease is quite rare. Vaccines, including those against COVID-19, can also trigger of this immunological phenomenon still poorly understood.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , BCG Vaccine , Autoimmunity , Cicatrix , COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Pain , Signs and Symptoms , Sjogren's Syndrome , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Antiphospholipid Syndrome , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Erythema , Fever , Chronic Urticaria , COVID-19 Vaccines , Headache , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Mycobacterium bovis
11.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 5(2): 142-150, abr.jun.2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398835

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As reações cutâneas graves a medicamentos (RCGM) compreendem um grupo de doenças caracterizadas por hipersensibilidade tardia a um ou vários tipos de fármacos. Por ser uma doença potencialmente fatal, o diagnóstico precoce, bem como o início do tratamento, são de suma importância. Objetivo: Analisar a evolução das RCGM em pacientes pediátricos acompanhados em dois hospitais da cidade de São Paulo, SP. Método: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo baseado na análise de prontuários de pacientes atendidos no período de 2002 a 2018 em dois hospitais da capital paulista. Resultados: Não houve diferença entre os sexos, prevaleceu a faixa etária dos adolescentes, e os medicamentos mais implicados com o desenvolvimento das lesões cutâneas foram os anticonvulsivantes, sendo os principais a carbamazepina e fenitoína, sem diferença entre eles, seguidos dos antibióticos betalactâmicos. No tratamento, todos os pacientes fizeram uso de corticoides sistêmicos e anti-histamínicos, sendo que oito pacientes também receberam imunoglobulina intravenosa e um recebeu ciclosporina. A taxa de mortalidade foi baixa e, em relação às complicações e sequelas, a autoimunidade foi a mais encontrada. Conclusão: Os casos de RCGM são eventos raros na faixa etária pediátrica, todavia de alta morbimortalidade e risco de sequelas. O diagnóstico e tratamento precoces contribuem para um melhor prognóstico, sendo de suma importância a identificação da medicação associada, bem como a retirada da mesma.


Background: Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) comprise a group of diseases characterized by late hypersensitivity to one or more types of drugs. Because they are potentially fatal, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment are of paramount importance. Objective: To analyze the evolution of SCARs in pediatric patients followed up in two hospitals in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Methods: This is a retrospective study based on the analysis of medical records of patients treated between 2002 and 2018 in two hospitals in the state capital. Results: There was no difference between sexes, and the age group of adolescents prevailed. Anticonvulsants were the drugs most implicated in the development of skin lesions, especially carbamazepine and phenytoin, with no difference between them, followed by betalactam antibiotics. During treatment, all patients used systemic corticosteroids and antihistamines; eight patients also received intravenous immunoglobulin and one received cyclosporine. The mortality rate was low, and regarding complications and sequelae, autoimmunity was the most commonly found. Conclusion: Cases of SCAR are rare events in the pediatric age group, but morbidity, mortality, and risk of sequelae are high. Early diagnosis and treatment contribute to a better prognosis, and identification of the associated medication as well as its withdrawal are extremely important.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Carbamazepine , Autoimmunity , Drug Hypersensitivity , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Medical Records , Risk , Retrospective Studies , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Early Diagnosis , Histamine Antagonists , Anticonvulsants
13.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(supl.1): 24-33, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250231

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Classical immunodeficiencies are mainly characterized by infectious conditions. In recent years, manifestations related to allergy, inflammation, autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, and malignancies related to this group of diseases have been described. The text intends to make an update on the non-infectious manifestations of the primary defects of the immune system. Source of data: Searches were carried out in the PubMed database for review articles published in the last five years, in English, French, or Spanish, using the terms "allergy," "inflammation," "autoimmunity," "lymphoproliferation," "cancer," AND "immunodeficiency" or "primary immunodeficiency" or "inborn errors of immunity" NOT "HIV". Synthesis of data: Non-infectious manifestations characterize the primary defects in which there is dysregulation of the immune system. The most common manifestations of autoimmunity in this group of diseases are autoimmune cytopenias. Exacerbated inflammatory processes, benign lymphoproliferation, and propensity to malignancy of the lymphoreticular system are related to several diseases in this group. Severe manifestations of atopy or food allergy characterize some immunodeficiencies. Disorders of inborn immunity of the autoinflammatory type are characterized by an aseptic inflammatory process in the absence of autoimmunity, with fever and recurrent manifestations in different organs. Conclusions: Not only infectious conditions should raise the suspicion of immunodeficiencies, but also manifestations of allergy, inflammation, autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, or cancer, especially if they are recurrent, associated to each other, affecting young patients, or in severe and/or difficult to treat conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , Neoplasms/etiology , Autoimmunity , Inflammation
14.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 59(1): 56-65, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388378

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La epilepsia es un desorden neurológico crónico caracterizado por crisis convulsivas recurrentes, y constituye uno de los trastornos neurológicos con mayor prevalencia global. Una de las etiologías que ha cobrado mayor relevancia en el último tiempo es la autoinmunidad, la que ha venido a dar explicación a muchos casos de epilepsia idiopática o refractaria a tratamientos convencionales. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una búsqueda avanzada asociada a filtros en la plataforma PubMed con los términos "epilepsy" y "autoimmunity". Se seleccionaron 17 artículos de un total de 98 publicados desde el año 2010 en adelante, y que aportaban mas datos desde la fisiopatología. RESULTADOS: En base a la literatura, se describen los principales mecanismos de autoinmunidad que generan epilepsia entre los destacan generación de auto-anticuerpos, desregulación del perfil de citoquinas y pérdida del control de linfocitos T autorreactivos, fenómenos que redundan en neuroinflamación y que se originan en el contexto de infecciones, síndromes paraneoplásicos, autoinmunidad materna transferida a hijos, encefalitis autoinmune, entre otras. CONCLUSIONES: En los últimos años ha habido grandes avances en la comprensión de la epilepsia autoinmune, sin embargo, aún queda mucho por comprender. Pese a lo prometedor que es el descubrimiento de anticuerpos, existen muchos casos de epilepsia con seronegatividad, o casos con la presencia de anticuerpos, pero no la epilepsia autoinmune. Cabe destacar que se debe precisar mecanismos diagnósticos eficaces y específicos que permitan generar protocolos terapéuticos atingentes y resolutivos.


Epilepsy is a neurological chronic disorder which is characterized by recurrent seizures and constitutes one of the most prevalent neurological disorders worldwide. One of the etiologies that has gained a lot of strength is autoimmunity, which has explained a lot of cases of idiopathic epilepsy or epilepsies refractory to common treatment. METHODS: An advanced search was made in the PubMed platform using filters with the terms "epilepsy" and "autoimmunity", showing 98 publications from 2010 onwards, leaving only 17 selected articles because of their pathophysiological information. RESULTS: Based on the literature, we described the main mechanisms of autoimmunity as a cause of epilepsy, standing out the ones related to auto-antibodies production, cytokines disregulation and autoreactive T lymphocytes control alteration, phenomenons related to neuroinflammation that arise from the context of infections, paraneoplastic syndromes, maternal autoimmunity transmitted to their babies, autoimmune encephalitis, etc. CONCLUSIONS: Great advances has been made on the understanding of autoimmune epilepsy in the last years, but despite this there's a lot that we need to comprehend. Although how promising was the discovery of antibodies there's still a lot of seronegative cases or cases with antibodies but without the epilepsy. It is worth mentioning that it becomes necessary to establish efficient and specific diagnostic mechanisms that allow us to create suitable and resolutive therapeutic protocols.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmunity , Epilepsy/immunology , Seizures/immunology , Epilepsy/etiology , Antibodies
15.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e842, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289454

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La etiología de las enfermedades autoinmunes aún se desconoce, aunque se plantean diferentes causas. Objetivo: Describir el rol de factores como las hormonas, alimentación, estrés, enfermedades infecciosas y cáncer en las enfermedades autoinmunes. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando Google Académico y artículos de libre acceso en la base de datos PubMed y SciELO, publicados entre enero del 2014 y junio del 2020. Se consultó la bibliografía nacional e internacional relevante y actualizada, con un total de 51 referencias, de estas, tres libros básicos de la especialidad de Inmunología y 48 artículos (12 en idioma español y 36 en inglés). Se utilizaron los términos de búsqueda según los descriptores del DeCS y MeSH. Resultados: Las hormonas femeninas incrementan el riesgo de las enfermedades autoinmunes. Un desbalance en la neurohormona melatonina puede generar linfocitos autorreactivos. El estrés puede mantener respuestas inflamatorias crónicas que causen daño tisular. Una adecuada alimentación permite que los comensales de la microbiota intestinal mantengan la homeostasis del sistema inmune. Las infecciones en ocasiones desarrollan respuestas autoinmunitarias. La causalidad entre el cáncer y la autoinmunidad es bidireccional producto de procesos inflamatorios. Conclusiones: Las enfermedades autoinmunes son más frecuentes en las mujeres. Una alimentación adecuada permite que la microbiota intestinal no se altere y que mantenga la homeostasis inmunológica. Situaciones de estrés e infecciones pueden iniciar respuestas autoinmunes. El cáncer puede favorecer el desarrollo de manifestaciones autoinmunes, y estas últimas por el predominio inflamatorio, favorecen la tumorogénesis(AU)


Introduction: The etiology of autoimmune diseases is still unknown, though several causes have been suggested. Objective: Describe the role of hormones, eating, stress, infectious diseases and cancer in immune diseases. Methods: A bibliographic review was conducted using Google Scholar and open access papers published in the databases Pubmed and SciELO from January 2014 to June 2020. Relevant updated national and international bibliography was consulted, for a total 51 references: three basic books from the specialty of immunology and 48 papers (12 in Spanish and 36 in English). The search terms used were obtained from the descriptors DeCS and MeSH. Results: Feminine hormones increase the risk of autoimmune diseases. Imbalance in the neurohormone melatonin may generate autoreactive lymphocytes. Stress may maintain chronic inflammatory responses causing tissue damage. Appropriate eating habits allow gut microbiota commensals to maintain the homeostasis of the immune system. Infections occasionally develop autoimmune responses. Causality between cancer and autoimmunity is bidirectional, due to the presence of inflammatory processes. Conclusions: Autoimmune diseases are more common among women. Appropriate eating habits prevent alterations of the gut microbiota, allowing it to maintain immune homeostasis. Stress situations and infections may trigger autoimmune responses. Cancer may foster the development of autoimmune manifestations, and these, due to the inflammatory predominance, may foster tumorigenesis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases , Autoimmunity , Eating , Allergy and Immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Immune System , Immune System Diseases , Neurotransmitter Agents
16.
Infectio ; 25(1): 59-62, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154404

ABSTRACT

Resumen La neumonía en el paciente inmunocomprometido es un reto diagnóstico al cual el clínico se enfrenta cada vez con más frecuencia , al momento de hablar de infiltrados en vidrio esmerilado es menester tener siempre en cuenta la posibilidad de neumonía por Pneumocystis Jirovecii, que por mucho tiempo se pensó como una enfermedad propia del huésped inmunosuprimido con VIH, a través del tiempo se ha manifestado en pacientes con trasplantes de órgano sólido y de precursores hematopoyéticos, asociado a autoinmunidad, al uso crónico de corticoesteroides y más recientemente al uso de terapia biológicas. La descripción de esta enfermedad y sus métodos diagnósticos en huéspedes inmunosuprimidos no VIH no es del todo claro, sabemos que el tratamiento de elección en estos casos es el trimetropin-sulfametoxazol (TMP-SMX) el cual no cuenta con evidencia de alta calidad al momento de plantear una dosis ni un tiempo de duración establecidos. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con diagnóstico de glomerulonefritis por enfermedad de cambios mínimos corticodependiente y quien desarrolló neumonía por Pneumocystis Jirovecii confirmada por histopatología quien recibió tratamiento y tuvo un desenlace positivo.


Abstract The pneumonia in the immunocompromised patient is a diagnostic challenge that the clinician faces more and more frequently, every time we talk about ground glass infiltrates it is necessary to always take into account the possibility of pneumonia due to Neumocystis Jirovecii, which for a long time was thought as a disease of the immunosuppressed host with HIV, but that across the time it has manifested itself in patients with solid organ transplants and hematopoietic precursors, associated with autoimmunity, the chronic use of corticosteroids and more recently the use of biological therapy. The description of this disease and the diagnostic methods in non-HIV immunosuppressed hosts is not entirely clear, we know that the treatment of choice in these cases is trimethropin-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), which does not have high-quality evidence at the time of a dose or a time of established duration. We present the case of a patient diagnosed with glomerulonephritis due to corticodependent minimal change disease and who suffers from pneumocystis Jirovecii pneumonia confirmed by histopathology, which received treatment and had a positive outcome


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Pneumonia , Autoimmunity , HIV , Immunocompromised Host , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Glass
17.
Hepatología ; 2(2): 355-371, 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396510

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las enfermedades autoinmunes del hígado son un grupo de patologías caracterizadas por una respuesta autoinmune contra los hepatocitos y/o el epitelio biliar. Sus manifestaciones clínicas son variadas, con alteraciones en las pruebas de función hepática y presencia de autoanticuerpos. Metodología. Estudio observacional descriptivo con 101 pacientes atendidos en el Hospital Universitario de La Samaritana de Bogotá D.C., entre enero a diciembre de 2019, con los diagnósticos de hepatitis autoinmune, colangitis biliar primaria, colangitis esclerosante primaria y síndrome de sobreposición. Se evaluaron los parámetros clínicos y de laboratorio, con el fin de caracterizar su frecuencia en estas patologías, debido a la importancia de un diagnóstico precoz. Resultados. Se encontraron 54 casos de hepatitis autoinmune, 19 casos de colangitis biliar primaria, 4 casos de colangitis esclerosante primaria y 24 casos de síndrome de sobreposición. El 81% fueron mujeres y la edad promedio fue de 55 años. El 39% de los pacientes tenían cirrosis. En general, los resultados se ajustaron a lo descrito internacionalmente, como es el predominio en mujeres y la comorbilidad autoinmune. Conclusión. Los hallazgos indican que cualquier alteración del perfil bioquímico hepático debe ser considerado, y se debe descartar la presencia de hepatopatías autoinmunes para diagnosticarlas de manera precoz, evitando que lleguen a cirrosis y sus complicaciones, con la necesidad de un trasplante hepático como única alternativa terapéutica.


Introduction. Autoimmune liver diseases are a group of pathologies characterized by an autoimmune response against hepatocytes and/or the biliary epithelium. Their clinical manifestations are varied, with alterations in liver function tests and the presence of autoantibodies. Methodology. Descriptive study with 101 patients who attended at the Hospital Universitario de La Samaritana in Bogota D.C., between January and December 2019, with the diagnoses of autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and overlap syndrome. Clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated in order to characterize their frequency in these pathologies, due to the importance of an early diagnosis. Results. There were 54 cases of autoimmune hepatitis, 19 cases of primary biliary cholangitis, 4 cases of primary sclerosing cholangitis, and 24 cases of overlap syndrome. Of all patients, 81% were women, the average age was 55 years, and 39% had cirrhosis. In general, the findings were consistent with what has been described worldwide, such as a higher prevalence in women and autoimmune comorbidity. Conclusion. The findings indicate that any alteration in the liver biochemical profile should be considered to rule out an autoimmune liver disease for an early diagnosis, avoiding the possibility of cirrhosis and its complications, with the need for a liver transplant as the only therapeutic alternative.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoimmunity , Liver Diseases/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Syndrome , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/diagnosis , Cholangitis, Sclerosing/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/immunology , Octogenarians , Transaminases/blood , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary/immunology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis
18.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 104-117, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1352998

ABSTRACT

La autoinmunidad es la consecuencia de la pérdida de control y regulación de la respuesta inmune. Se re-porta que ocurre entre 5 y 9% de patologías a nivel mundial. A las enfermedades con esta anomalía se les denomina autoinmunes y se clasifican de acuerdo con el órgano o sistema afectado. Las reumáticas involucran al tejido conectivo y las articulaciones. Los factores asociados a su aparición incluyen: edad, género, medioam-biente y genéticos. La susceptibilidad genética indica la presencia de uno o varios genes asociados al desarrollo de determinada enfermedad, cuya expresión podría ser el producto de la migración, selección, recombinación y adaptación de genes entre las poblaciones, lo que explica la variación fenotípica y la expresión clínica resultan-te. Los estudios de asociación del genoma completo (GWAS por sus siglas en inglés) han permitido identificar múltiples genes involucrados con enfermedades reumáticas, destacan el lupus eritematoso sistémico y artritis reumatoide, asociadas con más de 60 alelos, y otras como la espondilitis anquilosante, en donde la asociación ha sido primordialmente con un gen y sus polimorfismos. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo informar el estado de la susceptibilidad determinada genéticamente para estas enfermedades y el impacto que tiene sobre la expresión clínica. Se realizó una búsqueda en PubMed y la base de datos de la biblioteca Cochrane, se incluyeron artículos relacionados con las palabras clave propuestas desde el 2000. La revisión identifica genes y la asociación con estas enfermedades, expone la diversidad existente y justifica continuar la búsqueda de genes en todas las poblaciones.


Autoimmunity is the consequence of the loss of control and regulation of the immune response. It is reported that between 5 and 9% of pathologies occur worldwide. Diseases with this abnormality are called autoimmune and are classified according to the organ or system affected. Rheumatic diseases involve connective tissue and joints. Factors associated with its appearance include age, gender, environment, and genetics. Genetic suscepti-bility indicates the presence of one or more genes associated with the development of a certain disease, whose expression could be the product of migration, selection, recombination and adaptation of genes between popu-lations, which explains the phenotypic variation and the resulting clinical expression. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have allowed the identification of multiple genes involved with rheumatic diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, associated with more than 60 alleles, and others such as ankylosing spondylitis, where the association has been primarily with a gene and its polymorphisms. This review aims to report the status of genetically determined susceptibility to these diseases and the impact it has on clinical expression. A search was carried out in PubMed and the Cochrane library database, articles related to the proposed keywords from the year 2000 were included. The review identifies genes and the association with these diseases, exposes the existing diversity and justifies continuing the search for genes in all populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/genetics , Autoimmunity/immunology , Genome-Wide Association Study
19.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(5): 562-569, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345194

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: People with Down's syndrome (DS) have a higher risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and may have specific clinical features compared to T1D patients without DS. This study evaluated the clinical and laboratory aspects of T1D in children and adolescents with DS in an admixed population. Subjects and methods: A case-control study comparing patients with T1D and DS (T1D+DS) to patients with T1D without DS (T1D controls) from two tertiary academic Hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil. Results: The sample consisted of 9 patients with T1D+DS and 18 T1D age and sex-matched controls. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 antibodies were positive in 7/7 of the 9 T1D+DS patients, confirming the presence of diabetes autoimmunity in this group. Mean age at diagnosis of T1D was 4.9 ± 3.9 years in the T1D+DS group and 6.4 years ± 3 in the T1D control group; early diagnosis (<2 years old) occurred in three T1D+DS patients but only in one T1D control patients, both suggesting lower age of diagnosis in T1D+DS group, although without statistical significance (p = 0.282 and p = 0.093, respectively). The T1D+DS group presented lower total insulin dose (0.7 IU/kg/day ± 0.2) and HbA1c (7.2% ± 0.6) than the control group (1.0 IU/kg/day ± 0.3 and 9.1% ± 0.7, respectively) (p = 0.022 and p = 0.047, respectively). Conclusion: We confirmed the autoimmune etiology of diabetes in people with DS in this admixed population. T1D+DS patients developed diabetes earlier and achieved better metabolic control with a lower insulin dose than T1D controls. These findings are in agreement with previous studies in Caucasian populations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Down Syndrome/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Autoimmunity , Case-Control Studies
20.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61: 8, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152738

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Sjögren's Syndrome compromises the exocrine function, producing xerostomia and xerophthalmia. It can appear as an isolated condition or associated with other autoimmune diseases (polyautoimmunity). The Unstimulated Salivary Flow rate (UWSF) is used to quantify saliva production. There is no objective evidence to differentiate the values in patients with Sjögren's versus healthy people or patients with non-Sjögren's sicca. The objective of the present review was to evaluate the UWSF in patients with Sjögren's syndrome in comparison to controls (healthy and non-Sjögren's sicca patients). Methods: A systematic literature review was carried out (PRISMA guidelines). Analytical observational studies of cases and controls, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and randomized clinical trials (including healthy controls) were considered. The Medline/OVID, Lilacs, Embase, and Cochrane/OVID databases were consulted. MeSH, DeCS, keywords, and Boolean operators were used. The meta-analysis (RevMan 5.2) was done through the random-effects model [mean difference (MD)]. Level and quality of evidence were evaluated by the Oxford Center Levels of Evidence and Joanna Brigs list respectively. Results: Thirty-two articles were included (20 were case-control studies,6 were cross-sectional,2 prospective cohort,2 retrospective cohort, and2 studies were abstracts) and 28 were meta-analyzed. The unstimulated whole salivary flow rate in the Sjögren's group was lower than in controls (healthy and patients with non-Sjögren Sicca syndrome) (MD-0.18 ml/min; 95% CI, −0.24 to −0.13; chi2-P-value <0.00001). Heterogeneity was 97% and there was publication bias (funnel plot). The level of evidence was mostly3 or 4. The quality of evidence was met (97% of items valued). Conclusion: For the first time, the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate is found to be lower in patients with Sjögren's syndrome compared to controls (healthy and non-SS sicca) through a meta-analysis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Salivary Glands/metabolism , Xerostomia/metabolism , Sjogren's Syndrome/physiopathology , Autoimmunity
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