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Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 147-150, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280062


ABSTRACT Introduction: The indiscriminate use of androgenic steroids may have deleterious effects on human tissue. Objectives: Evaluate the effects of chronic administration of the steroid nandrolone decanoate (DECA) on autonomic cardiovascular modulation, kidney morphometry and the association between these variables in Wistar rats subjected to physical training with swimming. Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats aged 20 weeks were distributed among four experimental groups according to the training received: sedentary control (SC), sedentary treated with DECA (SD), trained control (TC) and trained treated with DECA (TD). The hemodynamic parameters, including blood pressure and variations in systolic blood pressure (SBPV) and diastolic blood pressure (DBPV), and kidney morphometry were evaluated. The level of significance adopted was 5%. Results: The SD group had higher baseline SBP and DBP values when compared to the SC, TC and TD groups, which were similar to each other. The rats in the SD group had higher systolic blood pressure (SBPV) and diastolic blood pressure (DBPV) variation values and higher absolute and normalized values in the LF band of the DBPV when compared to the animals in the SC, TC and TD groups. The animals in the SD group had a significantly higher rate of kidney fibrosis compared to the SC, TC and TD groups. There were no significant differences between the sympathetic modulation of SBPV through the LF component and kidney fibrosis. Conclusions: Physical training with swimming was effective in preventing the increase in blood pressure levels and lowering the occurrence of kidney fibrosis in animals treated with anabolic steroids. Level of Evidence IV; Series of cases .

RESUMEN Introducción: El uso indiscriminado de esteroides androgénicos puede tener consecuencias nocivas para el organismo. Objetivo: Evaluar los efectos de la administración crónica del esteroide decanoato de nandrolona (DECA) en ratones Wistar sometidos a entrenamiento físico con natación, sobre la modulación autonómica cardiovascular, morfometría renal y asociación entre esas variables. Métodos: Fueron utilizados 32 ratones Wistar machos con edad de 20 semanas, distribuidos en 4 grupos experimentales de acuerdo con el tratamiento recibido: sedentarios controles (SC), sedentarios que recibieron el DECA (SD), entrenados controles (EC) y entrenados que recibieron el DECA (ED). Se evaluaron parámetros hemodinámicos, como presión arterial y variación de la presión arterial sistólica (VPAS) y diastólica (VPAD) y morfometría renal. El nivel de significancia adoptado fue de 5%. Resultados: El grupo SD presentó valores basales mayores de PAS y PAD cuando comparados a los grupos SC, EC y ED, los cuales fueron semejantes entre sí. Los animales del grupo SD tuvieron valores mayores de la variancia de VPAS y VPAD y valores absolutos mayores y normalizados de la banda LF de la VPAD, en comparación con los animales de los grupos SC, EC y ED. El grupo SD tuvo tasa significativamente mayor de fibrosis renal en comparación con los animales de los grupos SC, EC y ED. No se evidenciaron diferencias considerables entre la modulación simpática de la VPAS a través del componente LF y fibrosis renal. Conclusiones: El entrenamiento físico con natación fue efectivo en prevenir el aumento de niveles presóricos y disminuir la ocurrencia de fibrosis renal en animales tratados con esteroide anabolizante. Nivel de Evidencia IV; Serie de casos .

RESUMO Introdução: O uso indiscriminado de esteroides androgênicos pode ter consequências deletérias no organismo. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da administração crônica do esteroide decanoato de nandrolona (DECA) em ratos Wistar submetidos a treinamento físico com natação sobre a modulação autônoma cardiovascular, morfometria renal e associação entre essas variáveis. Métodos: Foram utilizados 32 ratos Wistar machos com idade de 20 semanas, distribuídos em 4 grupos experimentais de acordo com o tratamento recebido: sedentários controles (SC), sedentários que receberam o DECA (SD), treinados controles (TC) e treinados que receberam o DECA (TD). Avaliaram-se parâmetros hemodinâmicos, como pressão arterial e variação da pressão arterial sistólica (VPAS) e diastólica (VPAD) e morfometria renal. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resultados: O grupo SD apresentou valores basais maiores de PAS e PAD quando comparado aos grupos SC, TC e TD, os quais foram semelhantes entre si. Os animais do grupo SD tiveram valores maiores da variância da VPAS e VPAD e valores absolutos maiores e normalizados da banda LF da VPAD, em comparação com os animais dos grupos SC, TC e TD. O grupo SD teve taxa significativamente maior de fibrose renal em comparação com os animais dos grupos SC, TC e TD. Não se evidenciaram diferenças consideráveis entre a modulação simpática da VPAS através do componente LF e fibrose renal. Conclusões: O treinamento físico com natação foi efetivo em prevenir o aumento de níveis pressóricos e diminuir a ocorrência de fibrose renal em animais tratados com esteroide anabolizante. Nível de Evidência IV; Série de casos .

Animals , Male , Rats , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Swimming , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Nandrolone Decanoate/adverse effects , Anabolic Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Kidney Diseases/prevention & control
Clinics ; 73: e226, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890749


OBJECTIVES: Misuse of anabolic androgenic steroids in athletes is a strategy used to enhance strength and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, its abuse leads to an imbalance in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, increased vascular resistance, and increased blood pressure. However, the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still unknown. Therefore, we tested whether anabolic androgenic steroids could impair resting baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac sympathovagal control. In addition, we evaluate pulse wave velocity to ascertain the arterial stiffness of large vessels. METHODS: Fourteen male anabolic androgenic steroid users and 12 nonusers were studied. Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were recorded. Baroreflex sensitivity was estimated by the sequence method, and cardiac autonomic control by analysis of the R-R interval. Pulse wave velocity was measured using a noninvasive automatic device. RESULTS: Mean spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, baroreflex sensitivity to activation of the baroreceptors, and baroreflex sensitivity to deactivation of the baroreceptors were significantly lower in users than in nonusers. In the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, high frequency activity was lower, while low frequency activity was higher in users than in nonusers. Moreover, the sympathovagal balance was higher in users. Users showed higher pulse wave velocity than nonusers showing arterial stiffness of large vessels. Single linear regression analysis showed significant correlations between mean blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity and pulse wave velocity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence for lower baroreflex sensitivity and sympathovagal imbalance in anabolic androgenic steroid users. Moreover, anabolic androgenic steroid users showed arterial stiffness. Together, these alterations might be the mechanisms triggering the increased blood pressure in this population.

Humans , Male , Adult , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Vagus Nerve/drug effects , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Baroreflex/drug effects , Anabolic Agents/adverse effects , Androgens/adverse effects , Autonomic Nervous System/physiology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena/drug effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Baroreflex/physiology , Vascular Stiffness/drug effects , Pulse Wave Analysis
Acta cir. bras ; 31(5): 338-345, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783802


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion with sevoflurane anesthetic preconditioning (APC) would present beneficial effects on autonomic and cardiac function indexes after the acute phase of a myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats were allocated in three groups: control (CON, n=10), myocardial infarction with sevoflurane (SEV, n=5) and infarcted without sevoflurane (INF, n=5). Myocardial ischemia (60 min) and reperfusion were performed by temporary coronary occlusion. Twenty-one days later, the systolic and diastolic function were evaluated by echocardiography; spectral analysis of the systolic arterial pressure (SAPV) and heart rate variability (HRV) were assessed. After the recording period, the infarct size (IS) was evaluated. RESULTS: The INF group presented greater cardiac dysfunction and increased sympathetic modulation of the SAPV, as well as decreased alpha index and worse vagal modulation of the HRV. The SEV group exhibited attenuation of the systolic and diastolic dysfunction and preserved vagal modulation (square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals and high frequency) of HRV, as well as a smaller IS. CONCLUSION: Sevoflurane preconditioning better preserved the cardiac function and autonomic modulation of the heart in post-acute myocardial infarction period.

Animals , Male , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial/methods , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Pulse , Autonomic Nervous System/physiology , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Echocardiography , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Models, Animal , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Rate/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e29, 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951991


Abstract Dental treatment promotes psychosomatic change that can influence the procedure and compromise the general well-being of the patient. In this context, it highlights the importance of evaluating the function of the autonomic nervous system in individuals undergoing endodontic treatment. Thus, this manuscript aimed to analyse cardiac autonomic modulation, through non-linear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) during endodontic treatment. Analysis of 50 subjects of either sex aged between 18 and 40 years diagnosed with irreversible pulp necrosis of lower molars undergoing endodontic treatment was undertaken. We carried out fractal and symbolic analysis of HRV, which was recorded in the first session of the endodontic treatment at four intervals: T1: 0-10 min before the onset of the treatment session; T2: 0-10 min after the application of anaesthesia; T3: throughout the period of treatment; and T4: 0-30 min after the end of the treatment session. There was reduction of α1 in T2 compared to T1 and T4 (p < 0.0001). The α2 index also reduced in T2 compared to T3 (p = 0.0035). There was an increase in the α1/α2 ratio in T4 compared to T2 and T3 (p = 0.0003). It was found that 0V% was significantly lower in T2 (p = 0.002), while 2UV% was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) when compared to other points in time. In conclusion, HRV is reduced during endodontic treatment, and after applying local anaesthetic the parasympathetic component of HRV increases. These data indicate that endodontic treatment acutely overcharges the heart, supporting the stress involved in this situation.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Root Canal Therapy/psychology , Heart Rate/physiology , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Autonomic Nervous System/physiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Time Factors , Analysis of Variance , Dental Anxiety/physiopathology , Fractals , Statistics, Nonparametric , Heart Rate/drug effects , Anesthesia, Local
Acta cir. bras ; 29(11): 703-710, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728647


PURPOSE: To verify the effects of different catecholamines on volemic expansion and on the autonomic nervous system in rabbits that were subjected to hemorrhage. METHODS: Twenty four rabbits subjected to hemorrhage (with a 25% loss of blood volume) and were randomly divided into four experimental groups: 1) HEMO Group underwent replacement with their own blood in an equal volume; 2) SS Group underwent replacement with saline solution (SS) in a volume that corresponded to three times the removed blood volume; 3) ISP Group underwent replacement with SS and isoprenaline; 4) FNL Group underwent replacement with SS and phenylephrine. Spectral Analysis of the heart rate and heart rate variability were performed from the recorded data. Hematocrit was measured throughout the experiment. RESULTS: Replacement with SS and an α- or β-agonist did not produce differences in the intravascular retention compared to replacement with SS alone. An analysis of HRV showed that the FNL group maintained the LF/HF ratio better than ISP and SS. CONCLUSIONS: No difference in vascular retention when α- or β- agonists were added to SS during post-hemorrhagic recovery. The animals in the FNL group maintained the integrity of the autonomic response within normal physiological standards during hemorrhagic stress. .

Animals , Rabbits , Blood Volume/drug effects , Catecholamines/pharmacology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/pharmacology , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Blood Transfusion, Autologous , Fourier Analysis , Hematocrit , Heart Rate/physiology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/therapy , Isoproterenol/pharmacology , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Spectrum Analysis , Time Factors
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(5): 447-453, maio 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675674


This study tested the hypothesis that simvastatin treatment can improve cardiovascular and autonomic functions and membrane lipoperoxidation, with an increased effect when applied to physically trained ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized rats were divided into sedentary, sedentary+simvastatin and trained+simvastatin groups (n = 8 each). Exercise training was performed on a treadmill for 8 weeks and simvastatin (5 mg/kg) was administered in the last 2 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded in conscious animals. Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated by the tachycardic and bradycardic responses to BP changes. Cardiac vagal and sympathetic effects were determined using methylatropine and propranolol. Oxidative stress was evaluated based on heart and liver lipoperoxidation using the chemiluminescence method. The simvastatin-treated groups presented reduced body weight and mean BP (trained+simvastatin = 99 ± 2 and sedentary+simvastatin = 107 ± 2 mmHg) compared to the sedentary group (122 ± 1 mmHg). Furthermore, the trained group showed lower BP and heart rate compared to the other groups. Tachycardic and bradycardic responses were enhanced in both simvastatin-treated groups. The vagal effect was increased in the trained+simvastatin group and the sympathetic effect was decreased in the sedentary+simvastatin group. Hepatic lipoperoxidation was reduced in sedentary+simvastatin (≈21%) and trained+simvastatin groups (≈57%) compared to the sedentary group. Correlation analysis involving all animals demonstrated that cardiac lipoperoxidation was negatively related to the vagal effect (r = -0.7) and positively correlated to the sympathetic effect (r = 0.7). In conclusion, improvement in cardiovascular and autonomic functions associated with a reduction of lipoperoxidation with simvastatin treatment was increased in trained ovariectomized rats.

Animals , Female , Rats , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Baroreflex/drug effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Autonomic Nervous System/physiology , Luminescence , Ovariectomy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Resistance Training
Clinics ; 67(10): 1209-1214, Oct. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-653486


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in a rodent obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate injections during the first seven days of life. METHOD: The animals were assigned to control (control, n = 10) and monosodium glutamate (monosodium glutamate, n = 13) groups. Thirty-three weeks after birth, arterial and venous catheters were implanted for arterial pressure measurements, drug administration, and blood sampling. Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated according to the tachycardic and bradycardic responses induced by sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusion, respectively. Sympathetic and vagal effects were determined by administering methylatropine and propranolol. RESULTS: Body weight, Lee index, and epididymal white adipose tissue values were higher in the monosodium glutamate group in comparison to the control group. The monosodium glutamate-treated rats displayed insulin resistance, as shown by a reduced glucose/insulin index (-62.5%), an increased area under the curve of total insulin secretion during glucose overload (39.3%), and basal hyperinsulinemia. The mean arterial pressure values were higher in the monosodium glutamate rats, whereas heart rate variability (>7 times), bradycardic responses (>4 times), and vagal (~38%) and sympathetic effects (~36%) were reduced as compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that obesity induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment impairs cardiac autonomic function and most likely contributes to increased arterial pressure and insulin resistance.

Animals , Male , Rats , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena/drug effects , Food Additives/adverse effects , Heart/drug effects , Obesity/chemically induced , Sodium Glutamate/adverse effects , Animals, Newborn , Arterial Pressure/drug effects , Autonomic Nervous System/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart/physiopathology , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Insulin Resistance , Insulin/blood , Obesity/physiopathology , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 98(4): 321-328, abr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-639423


FUNDAMENTO: A presença de nervos nas válvulas cardíacas foi demonstrada pela primeira vez há décadas e identificadas em subpopulações: simpáticas e parassimpáticas, e, portanto, é esperado que as válvulas sejam grandemente afetadas pelos nervos autônomos. Entretanto, poucos estudos têm se concentrado na regulação de válvulas cardíacas pelo sistema nervoso autônomo. OBJETIVO: Buscamos identificar o papel do sistema nervoso autônomo na regulação das propriedades mecânicas dos tecidos de válvulas mitrais porcinas. MÉTODOS: As propriedades mecânicas dos folhetos de válvulas mitrais porcinas foram avaliados em resposta à norepinefrina (NE) e acetilcolina (ACH), os principais neurotransmissores. Ao mesmo tempo, fentolamina (FENT), metoprolol (Metop), atropina (Atrop) e desnudamento endotelial foram adicionados ao sistema reativo. RESULTADOS: Sob condições fisiológicas, a rigidez não foi afetada pelo desnudamento endotelial (p > 0,05). A NE significantemente aumentou a rigidez valvar por aumento de 10 vezes na concentração (10-6 vs 10-7, p < 0,05; 10-5 vs 10-6, p < 0,05). Essa resposta foi amenizada por FENT, Metop ou desnudamento endotelial (p < 0,05); entretanto, manteve-se aumentada de maneira significante quando comparada aos Controles (p < 0,05). A ACH causou uma diminuição na rigidez acompanhada por um aumento em sua concentração (alteração significante na rigidez por aumento de 10 vezes na concentração de ACH, 10-6 vs Controle, p < 0,05; 10-5 vs 10-6, p < 0,05), que foi revertida pelo desnudamento endotelial e Atrop (p > 0,05 vs Controle). CONCLUSÃO: Esses achados ressaltam o papel do sistema nervoso autônomo na regulação das propriedades mecânicas das cúspides de válvula mitral porcina, o que reforça a importância do estado nervoso autônomo no funcionamento ideal da válvula.

BACKGROUND: The presence of nerves in heart valves was first depicted decades ago and identified into subpopulations: sympathetic, parasympathetic. So valves are expected to be greatly affected by the autonomic nerves. However, few studies have focused on the regulation of heart valves by the autonomic nervous system. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify the role of the autonomic nervous system in the regulation of the mechanical properties of porcine mitral valve tissues. METHODS: Mechanical properties of porcine mitral valve leaflets were evaluated in response to norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (ACH), the main neurotransmitters. At the same time, phentolamine (Phent), metoprolol (Metop), atropine (Atrop) and endothelial denudation were added to the reactive system. RESULTS: Under physiological conditions, the stiffness was not affected by endothelial denudation (p > 0.05). NE elevated the valve stiffness significantly per 10-fold increase in concentration (10-6 vs 10-7, p < 0.05; 10-5 vs 10-6, p < 0.05). This response was mitigated by Phent, Metop or endothelial denudation (p < 0.05), however, it was still increased significantly when compared to Controls (p < 0.05). ACH caused a decrease in stiffness accompanied by an increase in its concentration (significant change in stiffness per 10-fold increase in ACH concentration, 10-6 vs Control, p < 0.05; 10-5 vs 10-6, p < 0.05), which were reversed by endothelial denudation and Atrop (p > 0.05 vs Control). CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the role of the autonomic nervous system in the regulation of the mechanical properties of porcine mitral valve cusps, which underline the importance of autonomic nervous status for optimal valve function.

FUNDAMENTO: La presencia de nervios en las válvulas cardíacas quedó demostrada por primera vez hace algunas décadas e identificadas en sub-poblaciones: simpáticas y parasimpáticas y por lo tanto, lo que se espera es que las válvulas reciban una gran afectación de los nervios autónomos. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se han concentrado en la regulación de válvulas cardíacas a través del sistema nervioso autónomo. OBJETIVO: Buscamos identificar el papel del sistema nervioso autónomo en la regulación de las propiedades mecánicas de los tejidos de las válvulas mitrales porcinas. MÉTODOS: Las propiedades mecánicas de las capas de válvulas mitrales porcinas fueron evaluadas en respuesta a la norepinefrina (NE) y a la acetilcolina (ACH), los principales neurotransmisores. Igualmente, la fentolamina (FENT), el metoprolol (Metop), la atropina (Atrop) y la denudación endotelial también se añadieron al sistema reactivo. RESULTADOS: Bajo condiciones fisiológicas, la rigidez no se afectó por el denudación endotelial (p > 0,05). La NE aumentó significativamente la rigidez valvular con un aumento de 10 veces en la concentración (10-6 vs 10-7, p < 0,05; 10-5 vs 10-6, p < 0,05). Esa respuesta fue amenizada por FENT, Metop o denudación endotelial (p < 0,05); pero se mantuvo aumentada de manera significativa cuando se le comparó con los Controles (p < 0,05). La ACH causó una disminución en la rigidez acompañada por un aumento en su concentración (alteración significativa en la rigidez por el aumento en 10 veces de la concentración de ACH, 10-6 vs Control, p < 0,05; 10-5 vs 10-6, p < 0,05), que fue revertida por la denudación endotelial y Atrop (p > 0,05 vs Control). CONCLUSIÓN: Esos hallazgos destacan el rol del sistema nervioso autónomo en la regulación de las propiedades mecánicas de las cúspides de la válvula mitral porcina, lo que refuerza la importancia del estado nervioso autónomo en el funcionamiento ideal de la válvula.

Animals , Autonomic Nervous System/physiology , Mitral Valve/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Acetylcholine/pharmacology , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Aortic Valve/physiopathology , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Elastic Tissue/physiology , Mitral Valve/innervation , Norepinephrine/pharmacology , Phentolamine/pharmacology , Receptors, Neurotransmitter/drug effects , Receptors, Neurotransmitter/physiology , Swine , Vascular Stiffness/drug effects , Vascular Stiffness/physiology
Clinics ; 66(10): 1793-1796, 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-601915


OBJECTIVE: Because autonomic dysfunction has been found to lead to cardiometabolic disorders and because studies have reported that simvastatin treatment has neuroprotective effects, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin treatment on cardiovascular and autonomic changes in fructose-fed female rats. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: controls (n=8), fructose (n=8), and fructose+ simvastatin (n=8). Fructose overload was induced by supplementing the drinking water with fructose (100 mg/L, 18 wks). Simvastatin treatment (5 mg/kg/day for 2 wks) was performed by gavage. The arterial pressure was recorded using a data acquisition system. Autonomic control was evaluated by pharmacological blockade. RESULTS: Fructose overload induced an increase in the fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels and insulin resistance. The constant rate of glucose disappearance during the insulin intolerance test was reduced in the fructose group (3.4+ 0.32 percent/min) relative to that in the control group (4.4+ 0.29 percent/min). Fructose+simvastatin rats exhibited increased insulin sensitivity (5.4+0.66 percent/min). The fructose and fructose+simvastatin groups demonstrated an increase in the mean arterial pressure compared with controls rats (fructose: 124+2 mmHg and fructose+simvastatin: 126 + 3 mmHg vs. controls: 112 + 2 mmHg). The sympathetic effect was enhanced in the fructose group (73 + 7 bpm) compared with that in the control (48 + 7 bpm) and fructose+simvastatin groups (31+8 bpm). The vagal effect was increased in fructose+simvastatin animals (84 + 7 bpm) compared with that in control (49 + 9 bpm) and fructose animals (46+5 bpm). CONCLUSION: Simvastatin treatment improved insulin sensitivity and cardiac autonomic control in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome in female rats. These effects were independent of the improvements in the classical plasma lipid profile and of reductions in arterial pressure. These results support the hypothesis that statins reduce the cardiometabolic risk in females with metabolic syndrome.

Animals , Female , Rats , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Fructose/metabolism , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Fasting/blood , Fructose/administration & dosage , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/metabolism , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Rats, Wistar , Simvastatin/metabolism , Time Factors
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(2): 211-216, Feb. 2010. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-538232


The cardiovascular electrophysiologic basis for the action of pyridostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, has not been investigated. The objective of the present study was to determine the cardiac electrophysiologic effects of a single dose of pyridostigmine bromide in an open-label, quasi-experimental protocol. Fifteen patients who had been indicated for diagnostic cardiac electrophysiologic study underwent two studies just before and 90-120 min after the oral administration of pyridostigmine (45 mg). Pyridostigmine was well tolerated by all patients. Wenckebach nodal anterograde atrioventricular point and basic cycle were not altered by pyridostigmine. Sinus recovery time (ms) was shorter during a 500-ms cycle stimulation (pre: 326 ± 45 vs post: 235 ± 47; P = 0.003) but not during 400-ms (pre: 275 ± 28 vs post: 248 ± 32; P = 0.490) or 600-ms (pre: 252 ± 42 vs post: 179 ± 26; P = 0.080) cycle stimulation. Pyridostigmine increased the ventricular refractory period (ms) during the 400-ms cycle stimulation (pre: 238 ± 7 vs post: 245 ± 9; P = 0.028) but not during the 500-ms (pre: 248 ± 7 vs post: 253 ± 9; P = 0.150) or 600-ms (pre: 254 ± 8 vs post: 259 ± 8; P = 0.255) cycle stimulation. We conclude that pyridostigmine did not produce conduction disturbances and, indeed, increased the ventricular refractory period at higher heart rates. While the effect explains previous results showing the anti-arrhythmic action of pyridostigmine, the clinical impact on long-term outcomes requires further investigation.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/prevention & control , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Heart Conduction System/drug effects , Heart Rate/drug effects , Pyridostigmine Bromide/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac , Pyridostigmine Bromide/administration & dosage
Clinics ; 65(4): 393-400, 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-546314


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of sildenafil on the autonomic nervous system in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea. METHODS: Thirteen male patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (mean age 43±10 years with a mean body mass index of 26.7±1.9 kg/m²) received a single 50-mg dose of sildenafil or a placebo at bedtime. All-night polysomnography and heart rate variability were recorded. Frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability was performed for the central five-minute sample of the longest uninterrupted interval of slow wave and rapid eye movement sleep, as well as for one-minute samples during apnea and during slow wave and rapid eye movement sleep after resumption of respiration. RESULTS: Compared to the placebo, sildenafil was associated with an increase in the normalized high-frequency (HFnu) components and a decrease in the low/high-frequency components of the heart rate variability ratio (LF/HF) in slow wave sleep (p<0.01 for both). Differences in heart rate variability parameters between one-minute post-apnea and apnea samples (Δ= difference between resumption of respiration and apnea) were assessed. A trend toward a decreasing magnitude of ΔLF activity was observed during rapid eye movement sleep with sildenafil in comparison to placebo (p=0.046). Additionally, Δ LF/HF in SWS and rapid eye movement sleep was correlated with mean desaturation (sR= -0.72 and -0.51, respectively, p= 0.01 for both), and Δ HFnu in rapid eye movement sleep was correlated with mean desaturation (sR= 0.66, p= 0.02) and the desaturation index (sR= 0.58, p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in arousal response to apnea/hypopnea events along with the increase in HFnu components and decrease in LH/HF components of the heart rate variability ratio during slow wave sleep suggest that, in addition to worsening sleep apnea, sildenafil has potentially immediate cardiac effects in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea.

Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Heart Rate/drug effects , /pharmacology , Piperazines/pharmacology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , Sulfones/pharmacology , Body Mass Index , Cross-Over Studies , Double-Blind Method , Polysomnography , /adverse effects , Piperazines/adverse effects , Purines/adverse effects , Purines/pharmacology , Respiration , Sleep, REM/drug effects , Sleep/drug effects , Sulfones/adverse effects
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178463


PURPOSE: To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy on blood pressure, heart rate variability, aortic pulse wave velocity and the aortic augmentation index of essential hypertensive patients. METHODS: Using a coin toss, 22 participants were assigned to the experimental group and 20 to the control. The experimental group was given a blend of oils of lemon (Citrus limonum), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), and ylang ylang (Cananga odorata) which were prepared in the ratio of 2:2:1, respectively. The control group was given an artificial lemon fragrance of Limonene (35 cc) and Citral (15 cc) mixture. The experiment, inhalation, was conducted for 3 weeks (2 min per inhalation, 2 times per day) to both groups. RESULTS: There was a noticeable difference in systolic blood pressure between the groups (p=.001), however the difference in diastolic blood pressure between the two groups was not significant. There was a notable difference in sympathetic nerve system activity of heart rate variability (p=.047). However, the differences in aortic pulse wave velocity or the aortic augmentation index were not significant. CONCLUSION: Aromatherapy is effective in lowering systolic blood pressure and sympathetic nerve system activity.

Adult , Aorta/physiology , Aromatherapy , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Cananga/chemistry , Female , Heart Rate/drug effects , Humans , Hypertension/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Oils, Volatile , Plant Oils
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 92(1): 31-38, jan. 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-505206


FUNDAMENTO: O bloqueio da síntese do óxido nítrico (NO) é caracterizado pelo aumento da atividade simpática cardíaca, e o treinamento físico promove a redução da atividade simpática. OBJETIVO: Investigamos o efeito do bloqueio da síntese do NO sobre o controle autonômico cardiovascular em ratos submetidos ao exercício aeróbio durante dez semanas. MÉTODOS: Ratos wistar foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle tratados com ração e água ad libitum durante dez semanas (RC); controle tratados com N G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) na última semana (RCL); treinados durante dez semanas em esteira motorizada (RT); treinados por dez semanas e tratados com L-NAME na última semana (RTL). O controle autonômico cardiovascular foi investigado em todos os grupos com a utilização de duplo bloqueio com metilatropina e propranolol, e análise da variabilidade. RESULTADOS: Os grupos RCL e RTL apresentaram hipertensão. O grupo RCL apresentou taquicardia e predomínio do tônus simpático na determinação da FC após o bloqueio autonômico farmacológico. O grupo RT apresentou bradicardia e menor freqüência cardíaca (FC) intrínseca em relação aos demais. A avaliação da variabilidade da FC mostrou menores valores absolutos e normalizados na banda de baixa freqüência (BF) no grupo RCL. Por sua vez, o grupo RTL apresentou elevação na banda de BF em valores absolutos. A análise da variabilidade da PAS mostrou que os grupos RCL e RTL apresentaram maiores valores na banda de BF. CONCLUSÃO: O exercício físico prévio impediu o déficit no controle autonômico cardíaco induzido pelo tratamento com L-NAME, no entanto não impediu o aumento na variabilidade da PAS.

BACKGROUND: The nitric oxide (NO) synthesis blockade is characterized by an increase in the cardiac sympathetic activity and the physical training promotes the decrease in the sympathetic activity. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of the NO synthesis blockade on the autonomic cardiovascular control in rats submitted to aerobic exercises during a 10-week period. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups: control rats, treated with chow food and water ad libitum for 10 weeks (CR); control rats, treated with N G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) during the last week (CRL); rats trained during 10 weeks on an electrical treadmill (TR); rats trained for 10 weeks and treated with L-NAME during the last week (TRL). The autonomic cardiovascular control was investigated in all groups with the use of a double blockade with methylatropine and propranolol and analysis of variability. RESULTS: The CRL and TRL groups presented hypertension. The CRL group presented tachycardia and predominance of the sympathetic tonus in heat rate (HR) measurement after the pharmacological autonomic blockade. The TR group presented bradycardia and lower intrinsic HR when compared to the others. The evaluation of the HR variability showed lower absolute and normalized values in the low frequency (LF) band in the CRL group. On the other hand, the TRL presented an increase in the LF band in absolute values. The analysis of variability of the systemic arterial pressure (SAP) showed that the CRL and TRL groups presented higher values in the LF band. CONCLUSION: The previous physical exercise prevented the deficit in the autonomic cardiac control induced by the treatment with L-NAME, but did not prevent the increase in the SAP variability.

FUNDAMENTO: El bloqueo de la síntesis de óxido nítrico (NO) se caracteriza por el incremento de la actividad simpática cardiaca, y el entrenamiento físico promueve la reducción de la actividad simpática. OBJETIVO: Investigamos el efecto del bloqueo de la síntesis del NO sobre el control autonómico cardiovascular en ratones sometidos al ejercicio aerobio durante diez semanas. MÉTODOS: Se dividieron ratones wistar en cuatro grupos: control tratados con ración y agua ad libitum durante diez semanas (RC); control tratados con NG-nitro-L-arginina metil éster (L-NAME) en la última semana (RCL); entrenados durante diez semanas en cinta motorizada (RT); entrenados por diez semanas y tratados con L-NAME en la última semana (RTL). Se investigó el control autonómico cardiovascular en todos los grupos con la utilización de doble bloqueo con metilatropina y propranolol, y análisis de la variabilidad. RESULTADOS: Los grupos RCL y RTL presentaron hipertensión. El grupo RCL presentó taquicardia y predominio del tono simpático en la determinación de la FC tras el bloqueo autonómico farmacológico. El grupo RT presentó bradicardia y menor frecuencia cardiaca (FC) intrínseca en relación a los demás. La evaluación de la variabilidad de la FC mostró menores valores absolutos y normalizados en la banda de baja frecuencia (BF) en el grupo RCL. El grupo RTL presentó elevación en la banda de BF en valores absolutos. El análisis de la variabilidad de la PAS mostró que los grupos RCL y RTL presentaron mayores valores en la banda de BF. CONCLUSIÓN: El ejercicio físico previo impidió el déficit en el control autonómico cardiaco inducido por el tratamiento con L-NAME, pero no impidió el aumento en la variabilidad de la PAS.

Animals , Male , Rats , Autonomic Nervous System/physiopathology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Atropine Derivatives/pharmacology , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Rate/physiology , Hypertension/chemically induced , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/pharmacology , Propranolol/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(4): 491-499, Apr. 2007. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-445663


The aim of the present study was to determine whether estrogen therapy (ET) reduces alterations of the autonomic control of heart rate (HR) due to hypoestrogenism and aging. Thirteen young (24 ± 2.6 years), 10 postmenopausal (53 ± 4.6 years) undergoing ET (PM-ET), and 14 postmenopausal (56 ± 2.6 years) women not undergoing ET (PM) were studied. ET consisted of 0.625 mg/day conjugated equine estrogen. HR was recorded continuously for 8 min at rest in the supine and sitting positions. HR variability (HRV) was analyzed by time (SDNN and rMSSD indices) and frequency domain methods. Power spectral components are reported as normalized units (nu) at low (LF) and high (HF) frequencies, and as LF/HF ratio. Intergroup comparisons: SDNN index was higher in young (median: supine, 47 ms; sitting, 42 ms) than in PM-ET (33; 29 ms) and PM (31; 29 ms) women (P < 0.05). PM showed lower HFnu, higher LFnu and higher LF/HF ratio (supine: 44, 56, 1.29; sitting: 38, 62, 1.60) than the young group in the supine position (61, 39, 0.63) and the PM-ET group in the sitting position (57, 43, 0.75; P < 0.05). Intragroup comparisons: HR was lower in the supine than in the sitting position for all groups (P < 0.05). The HRV decrease from the supine to the sitting position was significant only in the young group. These results suggest that HRV decreases during aging. ET seems to attenuate this process, promoting a reduction in sympathetic activity on the heart and contributing to the cardioprotective effect of estrogen hormones.

Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP)/administration & dosage , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart/innervation , Postmenopause/physiology , Autonomic Nervous System/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Heart Rate/physiology , Posture
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 63(1): 180-185, Mar. 2005. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-398815


O propósito deste artigo é uma revisão dos mecanismos de ação da toxina botulínica (TB) relevantes para a compreensão do seu uso terapêutico. A ação da TB a nível molecular consiste na sua ligação extracelular a estruturas glicoprotéicas em terminais nervosos colinérgicos e no bloqueio intracelular da secreção de acetilcolina. A TB interfere no reflexo espinal de estiramento através do bloqueio de fibras musculares intrafusais causando redução da sinalização aferente veiculada por fibras Ia e II e do tono muscular. Portanto, o efeito da TB pode estar relacionado não somente à paresia muscular mas também à inibição reflexa espinal. A TB promove ainda o bloqueio de fibras autonômicas para músculos lisos e glândulas exócrinas. Apesar de ocorrer alguma difusão sistêmica após a aplicação intramuscular a TB não atinge o sistema nervoso central (SNC) devido ao seu peso molecular (não atravessa a barreira hematoencefálica) e à lentidão do seu transporte axonal retrógrado que permite a sua inativação. Os efeitos indiretos sobre o SNC são: inibição reflexa, reversão das alterações da inibição recíproca, da inibição intracortical e de potenciais evocados somatosensoriais. A redução da dor induzida por formalina sugere que a TB tenha efeito analgésico direto possivelmente mediado por bloqueio da substância P, do glutamato e do peptídeo relacionado ao gene da calcitonina.

Humans , Anti-Dyskinesia Agents/therapeutic use , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Botulinum Toxins/therapeutic use , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Anti-Dyskinesia Agents/pharmacology , Botulinum Toxins/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Muscle, Skeletal/drug effects , Neuromuscular Junction/drug effects , Reflex, Stretch/drug effects
Journal of the Faculty of Medicine-Baghdad. 1995; 37 (1): 145-150
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-37737


The diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy is not difficult but knowing the cause of peripheral neuropathy is a difficult problem. This, authors had classified peripheral neuropathy into motor, sensory, monouritis multiplex or mixed neuropathy with or without autonomic nervous system involvement. Painful sensory neuropathy with autonomic nervous system involvement is mostly due to diabetes mellitus, amyloidosis, toxins like thallium and neuropathy associated with malignancies. Nine patients diagnosed clinically and by measurement of urine and plasma levels of thallium as thallium poisoning were undergone a full noninvasive autonomic function tests. The study showed that autonomic dysfunction was present in all cases and the parasympathetic nervous system was more vulnerable to be involved than the sympathetic nervous system

Humans , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Thallium/blood , Thallium/urine
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 1992 Jan; 36(1): 65-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-106965


Vascular autonomic receptors in amphibians exhibit difference from more evolved mammalian species. Vascular perfusion studies in frog indicate constrictions by prominent muscarinic but rudimentary nicotinic constrictive regulation by cholinergic systems. Difference from classical effect-patterns of pharmacological interventions, observed in the study, make room to visualise complexity of additional regulatory mechanisms.

Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/pharmacology , Animals , Autonomic Nerve Block , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Blood Vessels/drug effects , Choline/analogs & derivatives , Cholinergic Fibers/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Interactions , Esters/pharmacology , Female , Ganglia, Autonomic/drug effects , Male , Models, Biological , Muscarinic Antagonists , Ranidae/physiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 1990 Apr; 34(2): 101-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-106551


Phosphamidon, a systemic organophosphate insecticide, (1.4 mg/kg - dose 1/4th of LD50 given ip), produced several autonomic, neurological and behavioral effects in mice with peak effects being at 15 min. Similar dose in rats also abolished conditioned avoidance response. Pre-treatment with atropine, iproniazid, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, p-chlorophenylalanine or thiosemicarbazide reduce many of these effects. This suggests that phosphamidon toxicity involves the central cholinergic, adrenergic, serotonergic and GABAergic systems in addition to peripheral cholinergic effects.

Animals , Atropine/pharmacology , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Fenclonine/pharmacology , Iproniazid/pharmacology , Lethal Dose 50 , Male , Methyltyrosines/pharmacology , Mice , Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Phosphamidon/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Inbred Strains , Semicarbazides/pharmacology , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/antagonists & inhibitors , alpha-Methyltyrosine
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol ; 1978 Jan-Mar; 22(1): 24-32
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-108285


The immediate or 24 hr delayed effects of 1-day (1-DS) or (7-DS) foot-electroshock stress in albino rats were studied on cardiac acetylcholine (ACh), blood and cardiac cholinesterase (ChE) activities, cardiac, hepatic and muscle glycogen contents and blood sugar concentrations. The effects of physostigmine (PHY), atropine, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-HD), vagotomy and adrenalectomy on 1-DS induced changes were also studied. 1-DS produced an increase in cardiac ACh content which lasted for 24 hr but repeated stress showed phenomenon of adaptation. There seems to be activation of autonomic cholinergic system in stress. 1-DS and 7-DS produced a short-lived inhibition of blood ChE activity and 7-DS also of cardiac ChE activity. Inhibition of ChE activity was probably related to release of adrenaline from adrenal medulla. 1-DS produced hepatic and muscle glycogenolysis with slight hypoglycaemia but without any effect on cardiac glycogen. Following repeated stress there was a phenomenon of adaptation. The hepatic and muscle glycogenolysis produced by stress is due to the release of adrenaline from adrenal medulla. Normally functioning cardiac cholinergic system seems to have a protective effect on heart against stress, in the absence of which cardiac glycogenolysis is induced by stress.

Acetylcholine/analysis , Adrenalectomy , Animals , Atropine/pharmacology , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cholinesterases/metabolism , Electroshock , Extremities , Female , Glycogen/analysis , Humans , Hydroxydopamines/pharmacology , Male , Myocardium/analysis , Physostigmine/pharmacology , Rats , Stress, Psychological/physiology , Vagotomy