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1.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 37(1): 138-145, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098381

ABSTRACT

Resumen El Síndrome de Horner (SH) es una condición provocada por un grupo heterogéneo de patologías. Estas tienen en común el daño de la vía simpática. La localización más común de la lesión es a nivel preganglionar, por trauma o cirugías en región cervical, torácica o ápex pulmonar. El diagnóstico es primordialmente clínico mediante la identificación de la triada de miosis, ptosis y anhidrosis. Se confirma con las pruebas para cocaína e hidroximetanfetamina. El tratamiento se lleva a cabo primero con agentes farmacológicos. Los que tienen disminución del campo visual por la ptosis o por razones cosméticas se llevan a tratamiento quirúrgico. En ese caso los abordajes operatorios recomendados para ptosis leve son el procedimiento de Fasanella-Servat, el avance de aponeurosis del elevador y en casos severos el cabestrillo frontal. El objetivo es hacer una revisión de los algoritmos diagnósticos y terapéuticos del SH para lograr un abordaje sistemático debido a las múltiples etiologías que posee.


Abstract Horner Syndrome is a condition caused by a heterogeneous group of pathologies. These have in common the damage of the sympathetic pathway. The most common location of the lesion is at the preganglional level, due to trauma or surgeries in the cervical, thoracic or pulmonary apex region. The diagnosis is primarily clinical by identifying the triad of myosis, ptosis and anhidrosis. It is confirmed with the cocaine and hydroxymethamphetamine tests. Treatment is first carried out with pharmacological agents. Those with diminished visual field due to ptosis or cosmetic reasons are undergoing surgical treatment. In this case, the recommended operative approaches for mild ptosis are the Fasanella-Servat procedure, the elevator aponeurosis advance and, in severe cases, the frontalis sling. The objective is to review the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms of SH in order to achieve a systematic approach due to the multiple aetiologies it possesses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Horner Syndrome/diagnosis , Blepharoptosis/diagnosis , Anisocoria/diagnosis , Autonomic Pathways/pathology , Hypohidrosis/diagnosis
2.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 113-123, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775444

ABSTRACT

The recent development of tools to decipher the intricacies of neural networks has improved our understanding of brain function. Optogenetics allows one to assess the direct outcome of activating a genetically-distinct population of neurons. Neurons are tagged with light-sensitive channels followed by photo-activation with an appropriate wavelength of light to functionally activate or silence them, resulting in quantifiable changes in the periphery. Capturing and manipulating activated neuron ensembles, is a recently-designed technique to permanently label activated neurons responsible for a physiological function and manipulate them. On the other hand, neurons can be transfected with genetically-encoded Ca indicators to capture the interplay between them that modulates autonomic end-points or somatic behavior. These techniques work with millisecond temporal precision. In addition, neurons can be manipulated chronically to simulate physiological aberrations by transfecting designer G-protein-coupled receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs. In this review, we elaborate on the fundamental concepts and applications of these techniques in research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autonomic Pathways , Physiology , Calcium Signaling , Physiology , Humans , Nerve Net , Physiology , Neurons , Physiology , Optogenetics , Methods , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled , Physiology
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719637

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress is considered a major contributor in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy and in diabetes complications, such as nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. Diabetic neuropathy, which is the most frequent complications of diabetes, affect sensory, motor, and autonomic nerves. This study aimed to investigate whether 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) protects SH-SY5Y neuronal cells against high glucose-induced toxicity. In the current study, we found that diabetic patients exhibited higher lipid peroxidation caused by oxidative stress than healthy subjects. 7,8-DHF exhibits superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. High glucose-induced toxicity severely damaged SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, causing mitochondrial depolarization; however, 7,8-DHF recovered mitochondrial polarization. Furthermore, 7,8-DHF effectively modulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein (Bax) and anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2) under high glucose, thus inhibiting the activation of caspase signaling pathways. These results indicate that 7,8-DHF has antioxidant effects and protects cells from apoptotic cell death induced by high glucose. Thus, 7,8-DHF may be developed into a promising candidate for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Autonomic Pathways , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cell Death , Diabetes Complications , Diabetic Neuropathies , Glucose , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hydroxyl Radical , Lipid Peroxidation , Neurons , Oxidative Stress , Superoxides
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(3): 200-208, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888361

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to describe the results of a Brazilian Consensus on Small Fiber Neuropathy (SFN). Fifteen neurologists (members of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology) reviewed a preliminary draft. Eleven panelists got together in the city of Fortaleza to discuss and finish the text for the manuscript submission. Small fiber neuropathy can be defined as a subtype of neuropathy characterized by selective involvement of unmyelinated or thinly myelinated sensory fibers. Its clinical picture includes both negative and positive manifestations: sensory (pain/dysesthesias/pruritus) or combined sensory and autonomic complaints, associated with an almost entirely normal neurological examination. Standard electromyography is normal. A growing list of medical conditions is associated with SFN. The classification of SFN may also serve as a useful terminology to uncover minor discrepancies in the normal values from different neurophysiology laboratories. Several techniques may disclose sensory and/or autonomic impairment. Further studies are necessary to refine these techniques and develop specific therapies.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo é descrever os resultados de um Consenso Brasileiro sobre Neuropatia de Fibras Finas (NFF). Quinze neurologistas (membros da Academia Brasileira de Neurologia) revisaram uma versão preliminar do artigo. Onze panelistas se reuniram na cidade de Fortaleza para discutir e terminar o texto para a submissão do manuscrito. NFF pode ser definida como um subtipo de neuropatia caracterizada pelo envolvimento seletivo de fibras sensitivas amielínicas ou pouco mielinizadas. Seu quadro clínico inclui manifestações negativas e positivas: sensitivas (dor/disestesias/prurido) ou queixas sensitivas e autonômicas combinadas, associadas a exame neurológico quase totalmente normal. A eletromiografia convencional é normal. Uma lista crescente de condições médicas causa NFF. NFF também pode servir como uma terminologia útil para referenciar pequenas discrepâncias nos valores normais de diferentes laboratórios de neurofisiologia. Diferentes técnicas podem evidenciar anormalidades sensitivas e/ou autonômicas. São necessários mais estudos para refiná-las e para o desenvolvimento de terapias específicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Small Fiber Neuropathy/diagnosis , Small Fiber Neuropathy/pathology , Skin/pathology , Biopsy , Brazil , Autonomic Pathways/pathology , Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated/pathology , Electromyography/methods , Small Fiber Neuropathy/etiology , Small Fiber Neuropathy/physiopathology
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715333

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The urinary bladder (UB) is innervated by both sensory and autonomic nerves. Recent studies have shown that sensory neuropeptides induced contractions in the detrusor muscle. Therefore, in a mouse model, we investigated the presence of interactions between the submucosal sensory nerves and the autonomic nerves that regulate the motor function of the detrusor muscle. METHODS: UB samples from male C57BL/6 mice were isolated, cut into strips, and mounted in an organ bath. Dose-response curves to norepinephrine and phenylephrine were studied in UB strips with and without mucosa, and the effects of preincubation with a receptor antagonist and various drugs on relaxation were also studied using tissue bath myography. RESULTS: Phenylephrine-induced relaxation of the UB strips showed concentration-related effects. This relaxation appeared in both mucosa-intact and mucosa-denuded UB strips, and was significantly inhibited by lidocaine, silodosin, and guanethidine (an adrenergic neuronal blocker). Meanwhile, phenylephrine-induced relaxation was inhibited by pretreatment with propranolol and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)–depletory capsaicin in UB strips with and without mucosa. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that phenylephrine activates the α-1A adrenergic receptor (AR) of the sensory nerve, and then activates capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves to release an unknown substance that facilitates the release of norepinephrine from adrenergic nerves. Subsequently, norepinephrine stimulates β-ARs in the detrusor muscle in mice, leading to neurogenic relaxation of the UB. Further animal and human studies are required to prove this concept and to validate its clinical usefulness.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic Neurons , Animals , Autonomic Pathways , Baths , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Capsaicin , Guanethidine , Humans , Lidocaine , Male , Mice , Mucous Membrane , Myography , Neuropeptides , Norepinephrine , Phenylephrine , Propranolol , Receptors, Adrenergic , Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 , Relaxation , Urinary Bladder
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714209

ABSTRACT

Present study investigated the morphologic changes of autonomic nerves in the adipose tissue in diabetic animal model. Male obese type 2 diabetic db/db mice and age matched non-diabetic db/m control mice were used. Epididymal adipose tissue from diabetic db/db mice with that from control heterozygous db/m mice was compared using confocal microscopy-based method to visualize intact whole adipose tissue. Immunohistochemistry with tyrosine hydroxylase for sympathetic (SP), choline acetyltransferase for parasympathetic (PSP), and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) for whole autonomic nerves was performed. The quantity of immunostained portion of SP, PSP, and PGP 9.5 stained nerve fibers showed decreased trend in diabetic group; however, the ratio of SP/PSP of adipose tissue was higher in diabetic group compared with control group as follows (0.70±0.30 vs. 0.95±0.25, P < 0.05; normal vs. diabetic, respectively). Both SP and PSP nerve fibers were observed in white adipose tissue and PSP nerve fibers were suggested as more decreased in diabetes based on our observation.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipose Tissue , Adipose Tissue, White , Animals , Autonomic Pathways , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Methods , Mice , Models, Animal , Nerve Fibers , Peripheral Nerves , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713998

ABSTRACT

The anorectum is a region with a very complex structure, and surgery for benign or malignant disease of the anorectum is impossible without accurate anatomical knowledge. The conjoined longitudinal muscle consists of smooth muscle from the longitudinal muscle of the rectum and the striate muscle from the levator ani and helps maintain continence; the rectourethralis muscle is connected directly to the conjoined longitudinal muscle at the top of the external anal sphincter. Preserving the rectourethralis muscle without damage to the carvernous nerve or veins passing through it when the abdominoperineal resection is implemented is important. The mesorectal fascia is a multi-layered membrane that surrounds the mesorectum. Because the autonomic nerves also pass between the mesorectal fascia and the parietal fascia, a sharp pelvic dissection must be made along the anatomic fascial plane. With the development of pelvic structure anatomy, we can understand better how we can remove the tumor and the surrounding metastatic lymph nodes without damaging the neural structure. However, because the anorectal anatomy is not yet fully understood, we hope that additional studies of anatomy will enable anorectal surgery to be performed based on complete anatomical knowledge.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal , Autonomic Pathways , Fascia , Hope , Hypogastric Plexus , Lymph Nodes , Membranes , Muscle, Smooth , Rabeprazole , Rectum , Surgeons , Veins
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although ganglionated plexi (GPs) are important in the pathogenesis of arrhythmia, their patterns of atrial innervation have remained unclear. We investigated patterns of GP innervation to cardiac atria and the neuroanatomical interconnections among GPs in an animal model. METHODS: Atrial innervation by GPs was evaluated in 10 mongrel dogs using a retrograde neuronal tracer (cholera toxin subunit B [CTB] conjugated with fluorescent dyes). In Experiment 1, CTB was injected into the atria. In Experiment 2, CTB was injected into the major GP, including the anterior right GP (ARGP), inferior right GP (IRGP), superior left GP (SLGP), and ligament of Marshall (LOM). After 7 days, the GPs were examined for the presence of tracer-positive neurons. RESULTS: GPs in either right or left-side were innervating to both the same and opposite sides of the atrium. In quantitative analysis, right-sided GPs, especially ARGP, showed numerical predominance in atrial innervation. Based on the proportion of CTB-labeled ganglion in each GP, atrial innervation by GPs showed a tendency of laterality. In Experiment 2, CTB that was injected to a particular GP widely distributed in different GP. ARGP projected the largest number of innervating neurons to the IRGP, SLGP and LOM. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that GPs project axons widely to both the same and opposite sides of atria. ARGP played a dominant role in atrial innervation. Furthermore, there were numerous neuroanatomical interconnections among GPs. These findings about neuronal innervation and interconnections of GPs could offer useful information for understanding intrinsic cardiac nervous system neuroanatomy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Autonomic Nervous System , Autonomic Pathways , Axons , Dogs , Ganglion Cysts , Ligaments , Models, Animal , Nervous System , Neuroanatomy , Neurons
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772301

ABSTRACT

Autologous submandibular gland (SMG) transplantation has been proved to ameliorate the discomforts in patients with severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The transplanted glands underwent a hypofunctional period and then restored secretion spontaneously. This study aims to investigate whether autonomic nerves reinnervate the grafts and contribute to the functional recovery, and further determine the origin of these nerves. Parts of the transplanted SMGs were collected from the epiphora patients, and a rabbit SMG transplantation model was established to fulfill the serial observation on the transplanted glands with time. The results showed that autonomic nerves distributed in the transplanted SMGs and parasympathetic ganglionic cells were observed in the stroma of the glands. Low-dense and unevenly distributed cholinergic axons, severe acinar atrophy and fibrosis were visible in the patients' glands 4-6 months post-transplantation, whereas the cholinergic axon density and acinar area were increased with time. The acinar area or the secretory flow rate of the transplanted glands was statistically correlated with the cholinergic axon density in the rabbit model, respectively. Meanwhile, large cholinergic nerve trunks were found to locate in the temporal fascia lower to the gland, and sympathetic plexus concomitant with the arteries was observed both in the adjacent fascia and in the stroma of the glands. In summary, the transplanted SMGs are reinnervated by autonomic nerves and the cholinergic nerves play a role in the morphological and functional restoration of the glands. Moreover, these autonomic nerves might originate from the auriculotemporal nerve and the sympathetic plexus around the supplying arteries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autonomic Pathways , Fascia , Female , Humans , Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca , General Surgery , Male , Models, Animal , Rabbits , Recovery of Function , Secretory Rate , Submandibular Gland , Transplantation , Transplantation, Autologous
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although ablation of complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAE) in atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the strategies for atrial substrate modification, the mechanism behind CFAE as an electrophysiological substrate remains unclear. We investigated structural differences between CFAE sites and their matched non-CFAE sites by comparing their histopathologic characteristics in canine AF models. METHODS: Atrial electrograms of four dogs were obtained from the epicardial site. AF was induced through burst atrial pacing at 600 bpm for 30 min. CFAE sites were identified during AF according to patterns visualized on the electrograms, and their matched non-CFAE sites were selected in the adjacent region, within 5 mm of each CFAE site. Tissues were harvested from CFAE sites and their matched non-CFAE sites at various locations in both atria. Histopathologic differences were identified between CFAE and non-CFAE sites. RESULTS: A total of 24 atrial tissues (12 with CFAE, 12 with non-CFAE) were evaluated. The atrial myocardium was significantly thicker at CFAE sites (1757.5±560.5 µm) than at non-CFAE sites (1279.5±337.2 µm) (p=0.036). At CFAE sites, it was filled with a significantly larger amount of fibrotic tissue than at non-CFAE sites (22.8±6.9% versus 7.2±4.7%, p < 0.001). Results were consistent across various tissue locations. The distribution of autonomic nerve innervation was similar between CFAE and non-CFAE sites. CONCLUSION: This study provides a better understanding of histological characteristics of CFAE sites, namely a thicker wall and greater amount of fibrosis. These findings may be associated with the development of CFAE and its pathophysiological contribution to AF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atrial Fibrillation , Autonomic Pathways , Catheter Ablation , Dogs , Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac , Fibrosis , Myocardium
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691298

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the feasibility and application value of the preservation of vegetative nervous functions in radical resection for right-sided colon cancer.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Clinical data of 55 cases with right-sided colon cancer undergoing laparoscopic D3+ complete mesocolic excision (CME) radical resection from January 2016 to July 2017 at Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery of Guangdong Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine were retrospectively analyzed. Exclusion criteria included emergency surgery for various reasons, intestinal obstruction or perforation, distant metastasis or locally advanced cancer, previous history of abdominal surgery and preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Twenty-nine cases underwent lymphadenectomy with intrathecal dissection of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and part of superior mesenteric plexus was resected (nerve partial resection group, NPR group). Twenty-six cases received lymphadenectomy with the clearance of lymphatic adipose tissue on the right side of SMA by sharp or obtuse method outside the sheath; the sheath of superior mesenteric vein (SMV) was entered at the junction of SMA and SMV; the SMV was naked in the sheath; the third station lymph node dissection was completed with preservation of superior mesenteric plexus (nerve preserved group, NP group). Intra-operative and postoperative complications were compared between two groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The baseline data were not significantly different between two groups (all P>0.05). The operation time in NP group was significantly shorter than that in NPR group [(164.0±19.8) minutes vs. (176.0±19.7) minutes, t=2.249, P=0.029]. No significant differences in operative blood loss, operative vessel damage, postoperative time to flatus, postoperative hospital stay and abdominal pain were observed between two groups(all P>0.05). The number of harvested lymph node in two groups was 28.5±7.8 and 27.6±6.5 respectively without significant difference(P>0.05). As compared to NPR group, NP group had lower incidence of chylous leakage[3.8%(1/26) vs. 37.9%(11/29), χ²=9.337, P=0.002] and postoperative diarrhea [15.4%(4/26) vs. 41.4%(12/29), χ²=4.491, P=0.034].</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Autonomic nerve-preserving D3+ CME radical resection for right-sided colon cancer is safe and feasible, and can prevent the postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction caused by nerve injury and decrease the risk of chylous leakage.</p>


Subject(s)
Autonomic Pathways , General Surgery , Colonic Neoplasms , General Surgery , Humans , Laparoscopes , Laparoscopy , Methods , Lymph Node Excision , Mesocolon , General Surgery , Retrospective Studies
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 171-178, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-303179

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Shensong Yangxin (SSYX), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has long been used clinically to treat arrhythmias in China. However, the mechanism of SSYX on atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the effect of SSYX on the progression of paroxysmal AF is correlated with the regulation of autonomic nerve activity.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighteen mongrel dogs were randomly divided into control group (n = 6), pacing group (n = 6), and pacing + SSYX group (n = 6). The control group was implanted with pacemakers without pacing; the pacing group was implanted with pacemakers with long-term intermittent atrial pacing; the pacing + SSYX group underwent long-term intermittent atrial pacing and SSYX oral administration.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared to the pacing group, the parameters of heart rate variability were lower after 8 weeks in the pacing + SSYX group (low-frequency [LF] component: 20.85 ± 3.14 vs. 15.3 ± 1.89 ms 2 , P = 0.004; LF component/high-frequency component: 1.34 ± 0.33 vs. 0.77 ± 0.15, P < 0.001). The atrial effective refractory period (AERP) was shorter and the dispersion of the AERP was higher after 8 weeks in the pacing group, while the changes were suppressed by SSYX intake. The dogs in the pacing group had more episodes and longer durations of AF than that in the pacing + SSYX group. SSYX markedly inhibited the increase in sympathetic nerves and upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 expression in the pacing + SSYX group. Furthermore, SSYX suppressed the decrease of acetylcholine and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protein induced by long-term intermittent atrial pacing.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>SSYX substantially prevents atrial electrical remodeling and the progression of AF. These effects of SSYX may have association with regulating the imbalance of autonomic nerve activity and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Blood , Animals , Atrial Fibrillation , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Autonomic Pathways , Blotting, Western , Dogs , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Electrophysiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Heart Rate , Immunohistochemistry , Interleukin-6 , Blood , Models, Animal , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Blood , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor , Blood
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-317587

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establishment and verify pelvic nerve denervation (PND) model in mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>(1) Establishment of models. Seventy-two healthy male SPE class C57 mice with age of 7 weeks and body weight of (25±1) g were chosen. These 72 mice were randomly divided into PND group containing 36 mice and sham operation group containing 36 mice. Referring to the establishment method of PND rats, after anesthesia, a laparotomy was performed on the mouse with an abdominal median incision. Under the dissection microscope, the pelvic nerves behind and after each sides of the prostate gland were bluntly separated with cotton swabs and cut with a dissecting scissor. After the operation, the urination of mice was assisted twice every day. For the mice of sham operation group, the pelvic nerves were only exposed without cutting. (2) Detection of models. Colonic transit test was performed in 18 mice chosen randomly from each group to detect the colonic transit ratio (colored colon by methylene blue/ whole colon) and visceral sensitivity tests was performed in the rest mice to observe and record the changes of electromyogram.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Three mice died of colonic transit test in each group. Uroschesis occurred in all the mice of PND group and needed bladder massage to assist the urination. Colonic transit test showed that the colonic transit ratios of sham operation group at postoperative day (POD) 1, 3 and 7 were (0.4950±0.3858)%, (0.6386±0.1293)% and (0.6470±0.1088)% without significant difference (F=0.3647, P=0.058), while in PND group, the colonic transit ratio at POD 7 [(0.6044±0.1768) %] was obviously higher than that both at POD 3[(0.3876±0.1364)%, P=0.022] and POD 1[(0.2542±0.0371)%, P=0.001], indicating a recovery trend of colonic transit function (F=9.143, P=0.004). Compared with the sham operation group, the colonic transit function in PND group decreased significantly at POD 1 and POD 3(both P<0.05), and at POD 7, there was no significant difference between two groups. Visceral sensitivity test showed that the visceral sensitivity of sham operation group at POD 1, 3 and 7 was 24.2808±9.5566, 33.6725±7.9548 and 43.9086±12.1875 with significant difference (F=5.722, P=0.014). The visceral sensitivity of PND group at POD 1, 3 and 7 was 11.7609±2.1049, 21.8415±8.1527 and 26.2310±4.2235 with significant difference as well (F=11.154, P=0.001). The visceral sensitivity at POD 3 and POD 7 was obviously higher than that at POD 1 (P=0.006, P<0.001), and there was no significant difference between POD 3 and POD 7 (P=0.183). Compared with sham operation group, the visceral sensitivity of PND group decreased significantly at POD 1, 3 and 7(all P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Denervation of pelvic nerves can obviously decrease the colonic transit function and the visceral sensitivity of mice, but these changes can recover over time, which suggests that the establishment of PND model in mice is successful.</p>


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Animals , Autonomic Pathways , General Surgery , Colon , Denervation , Methods , Disease Models, Animal , Gastrointestinal Transit , Physiology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nerve Tissue , General Surgery , Pain, Postoperative , Pelvis , General Surgery , Prostate , Recovery of Function , Physiology
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability (HRV) test is in widely used for measurement of autonomic nerve system. Although the standard measurement time for short-term HRV analysis is regarded as 5 minutes, it could be varied depending on the clinical situation. Thus, we examined that the valid minimum measurement time for HRV through comparison of HRV among 10 segments per 30 seconds from 30 seconds to 300 seconds. METHODS: The study included 1,457 adult participants who visited the health promotion center in Seoul, Korea from the March 2009 to December 2012. The variables of the time domain and frequency domain analysis of HRV among 10 segments from 30 seconds to 300 seconds were compared using one-way ANOVA test with post-hoc analysis. RESULTS: Compared with 5-minute (300 seconds) HRV, the components of HRV measurement were statistically equal in condition with 180 seconds for standard deviation of all normal-to-normal interval (SDNN), 270 seconds for NN50, 180 seconds for total power, 180 seconds for low frequency power in normalized units (LFn), and 180 seconds for high frequency power in normalized units (HFn), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the minimum duration of HRV measurement might be more or than 180 seconds.


Subject(s)
Adult , Autonomic Nervous System , Autonomic Pathways , Health Promotion , Heart Rate , Heart , Humans , Korea , Seoul
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-645724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Orthostatic dizziness (OD) is defined as dizziness provoked by standing up from a supine or sitting position. It can be caused by the abnormality of autonomic nerve function system as well as vestibular system. We studied the autonomic nerve function in patients with OD. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: The authors reviewed the medical records of 50 OD patients who showed normal findings of vestibular function test and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Of the 50 patients, 34 patients were enrolled in this study. We performed a standardized autonomic function test to 34 OD patients. RESULTS: The result of autonomic nerve function test revealed abnormal findings in 26 (76%) of the 34 patients. Tests performed were for the following: sympathetic failure, including abnormal decrease in blood pressure during tilt table test, Valsalva maneuver, sympathetic skin response and heart rate response to deep breathing. CONCLUSION: Autonomic dysfunction is frequently found in patients with OD after excluding other causes with extensive investigations. Sympathetic failure or hyperactivity may be postulated as one of the possible causes of OD. Autonomic function test could be useful in understanding the mechanism of OD and treatment of OD in patients.


Subject(s)
Autonomic Pathways , Blood Pressure , Brain , Dizziness , Heart Rate , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Medical Records , Methods , Orthostatic Intolerance , Respiration , Skin , Tilt-Table Test , Valsalva Maneuver , Vestibular Function Tests
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-323528

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of laparoscopic total mesorectum excision (TME) has been confirmed by many clinical trials and guidelines. But two issues on laparoscopic TME are still questioned, including the integrity of specimen membrane of TME and the incidence of postoperative sexual dysfunction. According to my experiences and the primary results of the multicenter clinical trial (LASRE, clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01899547) conducted by me, the integrity of the specimen membrane of laparoscopic TME is not inferior to the open TME. With the further understanding of surgical membrane anatomy, the quality of surgical specimen after laparoscopic TME could be improved, and the incidence of postoperative sexual dysfunction could be lowered. With the combination of my laparoscopic experiences and the theory of surgical membrane anatomy, this article introduces the peri-rectal space dissection during TME and its relationship with the membrane anatomy for reference. It suggests that laparoscopic TME should be performed with the guidelines of surgical membrane anatomy: (1) To cut membrane bridge of left para-rectal furrow and enter left retroperitoneal space; (2) Along the autonomic nerve, to separate retrorectal space first, then rectal front space, and bilateral rectal space finally; (3) To cut anterior lobe of Denonvilliers fascia using U shape 0.5 to 1 cm away from the bottom of seminal vesicle, if existence of tumor invasion in fascia, to separate downward in front; (4) To separate mesorectum to the edge of hiatus of levator ani muscle and then bare.


Subject(s)
Adult , Autonomic Pathways , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Dissection , Fascia , Female , Humans , Laparoscopy , Male , Mesocolon , General Surgery , Pelvic Floor , Rectal Neoplasms , General Surgery
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162043

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The internal anal sphincter (IAS) plays an important role in maintaining continence and a number of neurotransmitters are known to regulate IAS tone. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of the neurotransmitters involved in the relaxant and contractile responses of the porcine IAS. METHODS: Responses of isolated strips of IAS to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were obtained in the absence and presence of inhibitors of neurotransmitter systems. RESULTS: Contractile responses of the sphincter to EFS were unaffected by the muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (1 muM), but were almost completely abolished by the adrenergic neuron blocker guanethidine (10 muM). Contractile responses were also reduced (by 45% at 5 Hz, P carbon monoxide > hydrogen sulfide.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Adrenergic Neurons , Aminooxyacetic Acid , Anal Canal , Atropine , Autonomic Pathways , Carbon Monoxide , Carbon , Gases , Guanethidine , Hydrogen Sulfide , Hydrogen , Indomethacin , Neurotransmitter Agents , Nitric Oxide , Norepinephrine , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases , Purinergic Antagonists , Receptors, Muscarinic , Receptors, Purinergic , Relaxation , Suramin , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide , Zinc
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149615

ABSTRACT

Neurilemmomas are well-encapsulated, benign, slow-growing tumors originating from Schwann cells of the nerve sheath surrounding cranial, peripheral, or autonomic nerves. Intraoral neurilemmomas are relatively rare and have a wide variety of morphologic and radiologic features. This makes differential diagnosis difficult, and only histopathological features can lead to a definitive neurilemmoma diagnosis. In this report, we present the case of a 30-year-old woman whose chief complaint was a solitary, nodular mass on the right floor of the mouth. After computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, we performed an incisional biopsy that showed the typical characteristics of a neurilemmoma. The mass was removed completely through an intraoral surgical approach. Despite losing a portion of the lingual nerve, the patient did not complain of any specific discomfort. Wound healing was uneventful and there were no signs or symptoms of recurrence.


Subject(s)
Adult , Autonomic Pathways , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Lingual Nerve , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mouth , Neurilemmoma , Recurrence , Schwann Cells , Sublingual Gland , Wound Healing
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-260325

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish an innovative rat model of slow transit constipation by selective chemical ablation of the colon enteric plexus.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sprague Dawley rats, 5-6 weeks old, were randomly divided into normal control group, sham operation group, treatment group I, II, III, IIII. The normal control group did not receive treatment. Rats in the sham operation group and the treatment groups received abdominal operation under anesthesia, and the gauze containing 0.9% normal saline, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5% benzalkonium chloride (BAC) was applied into colon for 30 minutes. Two weeks after operation, the number of feces, fecal dry weight in 24 h and gastrointestinal transit time were recorded, then hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry, ELISA were used for the evaluation of colonic pathology, enteric plexus, Interstitial cells of Cajal and neurotransmitters 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared to the normal control group and the sham operation group, the gastrointestinal transit time was significantly prolonged and fecal dry weight was lower in the treatment group II, III (all P<0.05). HE and immunohistochemical staining showed varying degrees of pathological changes in the treatment groups and in line with the pathological changes of slow transit constipation. 5-HT concentration reduced significantly in treatment group III compared to other groups (P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The animal model of STC is successfully established by applying 0.25% BAC selective chemical ablation of the colon enteric plexus. This model is simple, stable, and is more in line with pathological changes of slow transit constipation.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Autonomic Pathways , Constipation , Disease Models, Animal , Gastrointestinal Transit , Immunohistochemistry , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-260320

ABSTRACT

Pelvic autonomic nerve is a three-dimensional structure surrounding the rectum. There are several key points related to nerve injury during laparoscopic radical resection for rectal cancer. Hypogastric nerve has close relation with the upper and middle part of the rectum. Combined with S2-S4 pelvic splanchnic nerve, hypogastric nerve forms pelvic plexus. Incorrect operation in pelvic parietal peritoneum during dissection of upper rectum will lead to nerve injury. When performing dissection of inferior mesenteric artery, bilateral nerve tracts should be pushed to posterior abdominal wall and anterior fascia of the abdominal aorta should be well protected to avoid nerve injury. Pelvic plexus fibers located lateral to the rectum of pelvic floor, as well as neurovascular bundle closed to Denonvillier's fascia, also have close relations with nerve injury. Dissection of either lateral or anterior wall of rectum should be performed behind the Denonvillier's fascia and in front of the proper fascia of rectum. Sharp dissection should be performed closed to the mesorectum to protect branches of pelvic plexus.


Subject(s)
Aorta, Abdominal , Autonomic Pathways , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Fascia , Humans , Laparoscopy , Mesenteric Artery, Inferior , Mesocolon , Pelvis , Peritoneum , Rectal Neoplasms , Rectum
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