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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1374-1389, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981144

ABSTRACT

Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/p62) is a selective autophagy adaptor protein that plays an important role in the clearance of proteins to be degraded as well as in the maintenance of cellular proteostasis. p62 protein has multiple functional domains, which interact with several downstream proteins to precisely regulate multiple signaling pathways, thereby linking p62 to oxidative defense systems, inflammatory responses and nutrient sensing. Studies have shown that mutation or abnormal expression of p62 is closely related to the occurrence and development of various diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, tumors, infectious diseases, genetic diseases and chronic diseases. This review summarizes the structural features and molecular functions of p62. Moreover, we systematically introduce its multiple functions in protein homeostasis and regulation of signaling pathways. Furthermore, the complexity and versatility of p62 in the occurrence and development of diseases are summarized, with the aim to provide a reference for understanding the function of p62 protein and facilitating related disease research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autophagy/genetics , Sequestosome-1 Protein/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Neoplasms/genetics
2.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 317-329, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982568

ABSTRACT

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a critical role in the regulation of atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the role of the lncRNA growth arrest-specific 5 (lncR-GAS5) in atherogenesis. We found that the enforced expression of lncR-GAS5 contributed to the development of atherosclerosis, which presented as increased plaque size and reduced collagen content. Moreover, impaired autophagy was observed, as shown by a decreased LC3II/LC3I protein ratio and an elevated P62 level in lncR-GAS5-overexpressing human aortic endothelial cells. By contrast, lncR-GAS5 knockdown promoted autophagy. Moreover, serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 10 (SRSF10) knockdown increased the LC3II/LC3I ratio and decreased the P62 level, thus enhancing the formation of autophagic vacuoles, autolysosomes, and autophagosomes. Mechanistically, lncR-GAS5 regulated the downstream splicing factor SRSF10 to impair autophagy in the endothelium, which was reversed by the knockdown of SRSF10. Further results revealed that overexpression of the lncR-GAS5-targeted gene miR-193-5p promoted autophagy and autophagic vacuole accumulation by repressing its direct target gene, SRSF10. Notably, miR-193-5p overexpression decreased plaque size and increased collagen content. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that lncR-GAS5 partially contributes to atherogenesis and plaque instability by impairing endothelial autophagy. In conclusion, lncR-GAS5 overexpression arrested endothelial autophagy through the miR-193-5p/SRSF10 signaling pathway. Thus, miR-193-5p/SRSF10 may serve as a novel treatment target for atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atherosclerosis/genetics , Autophagy/genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , RNA Splicing Factors , Serine-Arginine Splicing Factors/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3066-3073, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981437

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effect of Wenyang Zhenshuai Granules(WYZSG) on autophagy and apoptosis of myocardial cells in rats with sepsis via regulating the expression of microRNA-132-3p(miR-132-3p)/uncoupling protein 2(UCP2). Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into modeling group(n=50) and sham operation group(n=10). The sepsis rat model was constructed by cecal ligation and perforation in the modeling group. The successfully modeled rats were randomly divided into WYZSG low-, medium-and high-dose groups, model group and positive control group. Rats in the sham operation group underwent opening and cecum division but without perforation and ligation. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes of rat myocardial tissue. Myocardial cell apoptosis was detected by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL) assay. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR) was performed to detect the expression of miR-132-3p and the mRNA expressions of UCP2, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3(LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ), Beclin-1 and caspase-3 in rat myocardial tissue. The protein expressions of UCP2, LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1 and caspase-3 in myocardial tissue were detected by Western blot. Dual luciferase reporter assay was used to verify the regulatory relationship between miR-132-3p and UCP2. The myocardial fibers of sepsis model rats were disordered, and there were obvious inflammatory cell infiltration as well as myocardial cell edema and necrosis. With the increase of the WYZSG dose, the histopathological changes of myocardium were improved to varying degrees. Compared with the conditions in the sham operation group, the survival rate and left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) of rats in the model group, positive control group and WYZSG low-, medium-and high-dose groups were decreased, and the myocardial injury score and apoptosis rate were increased. Compared with the model group, the positive control group and WYZSG low-, medium-and high-dose groups had elevated survival rate and LVEF, and lowered myocardial injury score and apoptosis rate. The expression of miR-132-3p and the mRNA and protein expressions of UCP2 in myocardial tissue in the model group, positive control group and WYZSG low-, medium-and high-dose groups were lower, while the mRNA and protein expressions of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1 and caspase-3 were higher than those in the sham operation group. Compared with model group, the positive control group and the WYZSG low-, medium-and high-dose groups had an up-regulation in the expression of miR-132-3p and the mRNA and protein expressions of UCP2, while a down-regulation in the mRNA and protein expressions of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1 and caspase-3. WYZSG inhibited excessive autophagy and apoptosis of myocardial cells in septic rats and improved myocardial injury, possibly by regulating the expression of miR-132-3p/UCP2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Caspase 3 , Beclin-1/genetics , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Apoptosis/genetics , Autophagy/genetics , Heart Injuries , MicroRNAs/genetics
4.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 24-33, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971367

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Hyperhomocysteinaemia (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. MicroRNA (miR)-18a-5p is closely related to cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to investigate the effects of miR-18a-5p on homocysteine (Hcy)-induced myocardial cells injury.@*METHODS@#H9c2 cells were transfected with miR-18a-5p mimic/miR-18a-5p mimic negative control (NC) or combined with Hcy for intervention, and untreated cells were set as a control group. The transfection efficiency was verified by real-time RT-PCR, and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to determine cell viability. Flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Western blotting was performed to measure the protein levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-I, LC3-II, Beclin1, p62, Bax, Bcl-2, and Notch2. Dual luciferase reporter assay was used to detect the interaction of miR-18a-5p with Notch2.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control, treatment with Hcy or transfection with miR-18a-5p mimic alone, or combined treatment with Hcy and miR-18a-5p mimic/miR-18a-5p mimic NC significantly reduced the H9c2 cell viability, promoted apoptosis and ROS production, up-regulated the expressions of Bax and Beclin, down-regulated the expressions of Bcl-2, p62, and Notch2, and increased the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I (all P<0.05). Compared with the combined intervention of miR-18a-5p mimic NC and Hcy group, the above indexes were more significantly changed in the combined intervention of miR-18a-5p mimic and Hcy group, and the difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant (all P<0.05). There is a targeted binding between Notch2 and miR-18a-5p.@*CONCLUSIONS@#MiR-18a-5p could induce autophagy and apoptosis via increasing ROS production in cardiomyocytes, and aggravate Hcy-induced myocardial injury. Notch2 is a target of miR-18a-5p.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Apoptosis/genetics , Autophagy/genetics , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/genetics , Reactive Oxygen Species , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Homocysteine/adverse effects , Hyperhomocysteinemia
5.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 120-127, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928206

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a programmed cell degradation process that is involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes including malignant tumors. Abnormal induction of autophagy plays a key role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We established a prognosis prediction model for hepatocellular carcinoma based on autophagy related genes. Two hundred and four differentially expressed autophagy related genes and basic information and clinical characteristics of 377 registered hepatocellular carcinoma patients were retrieved from the cancer genome atlas database. Cox risk regression analysis was used to identify autophagy-related genes associated with survival, and a prognostic model was constructed based on this. A total of 64 differentially expressed autophagy related genes were identified in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Five risk factors related to the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma patients were determined by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis, including TMEM74, BIRC5, SQSTM1, CAPN10 and HSPB8. Age, gender, tumor grade and stage, and risk score were included as variables in multivariate Cox regression analysis. The results showed that risk score was an independent prognostic risk factor for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma ( HR = 1.475, 95% CI = 1.280-1.699, P < 0.001). In addition, the area under the curve of the prognostic risk model was 0.739, indicating that the model had a high accuracy in predicting the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. The results suggest that the new prognostic risk model for hepatocellular carcinoma, established by combining the molecular characteristics and clinical parameters of patients, can effectively predict the prognosis of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autophagy/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Prognosis
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e017020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156227

ABSTRACT

Abstract Autophagy plays an important role in maintaining cell homeostasis through degradation of denatured proteins and other biological macromolecules. In recent years, many researchers focus on mechanism of autophagy in apicomplexan parasites, but little was known about this process in avian coccidia. In our present study. The cloning, sequencing and characterization of autophagy-related gene (Etatg8) were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), western blotting (WB), indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The results have shown 375-bp ORF of Etatg8, encoding a protein of 124 amino acids in E. tenella, the protein structure and properties are similar to other apicomplexan parasites. RT-qPCR revealed Etatg8 gene expression during four developmental stages in E. tenella, but their transcriptional levels were significantly higher at the unsporulated oocysts stage. WB and IFA showed that EtATG8 was lipidated to bind the autophagosome membrane under starvation or rapamycin conditions, and aggregated in the cytoplasm of sporozoites and merozoites, however, the process of autophagosome membrane production can be inhibited by 3-methyladenine. In conclusion, we found that E. tenella has a conserved autophagy mechanism like other apicomplexan parasites, and EtATG8 can be used as a marker for future research on autophagy targeting avian coccidia.


Resumo A autofagia desempenha um papel importante na manutenção da homeostase celular através da degradação de proteínas desnaturadas e outras macromoléculas biológicas. Nos últimos anos, muitos pesquisadores se concentraram no mecanismo da autofagia em parasitas apicomplexos, mas pouco se sabe sobre esse processo na coccidia aviária. No presente estudo, a clonagem, sequenciamento e caracterização de gene relacionado à autofagia Etatg8 foram investigados pela PCR quantitativa em tempo real (RT-qPCR), mancha ocidental (WB), ensaios indiretos de imunofluorescência (IFAs) e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM), respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que o gene Etatg8 de E. tenella possui uma ORF de 375 bp, codificando uma proteína de 124 aminoácidos com estrutura e propriedades semelhantes à de outros apicomplexos. RT-qPCR revelou que Etatg8 é expresso durante os quatro estágios de desenvolvimento de E. tenella. Entretanto, seus níveis transcricionais foram significativamente mais elevados na fase de oocisto não esporulados. Os ensaios de manchas ocidental (WB) e de imunofluorescência (IFA) mostraram que a proteína EtATG8 foi lipidada para ligar-se à membrana do autofagossomo sob condições de deficiência nutritiva (em presença de rapamicina) e se agregar no citoplasma de esporozoítas e merozoítas. No entanto, o processo de produção de membrana do autofagossomo pode ser inibido por um inibidor de autofagia (3-meetiladeninatiladenina, 3-MA). Em conclusão, foi demonstrado que E. tenella tem um mecanismo de autofagia conservado, semelhante ao de outros parasitas apicomplexos, e que EtATG8 pode ser usado como um marcador para futuras pesquisas sobre autofagia direcionada à coccidiose aviária.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy/physiology , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Chickens/parasitology , Eimeria tenella/physiology , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Autophagy-Related Protein 8 Family/chemistry , Autophagy/genetics , Bird Diseases/prevention & control , Genetic Markers/physiology , China , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Eimeria tenella/genetics , Cloning, Molecular/methods , Coccidiosis/prevention & control , Oocysts/isolation & purification , Oocysts/physiology , Sporozoites/isolation & purification , Sporozoites/physiology , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Merozoites/isolation & purification , Merozoites/physiology , Autophagy-Related Protein 8 Family/genetics
8.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1071-1079, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922586

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has become a key epigenetic regulator that regulates gene expression and affects a variety of biological processes. LncRNA plays an important role in the occurrence and development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study on lncRNA in peripheral blood cells of RA patients has been reported. However, there is no study on autophagy regulation by lncRNA in RA patients. This study aims to provide a new direction for the diagnosis and treatment of RA via screening the changes of lncRNAs in RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLSs) before and after autophagy and finding the key lncRNAs targeting RA-FLSs autophagy.@*METHODS@#Synovial tissues of 6 RA patients after knee and hip joint surgery were obtained, and RA-FLSs were cultured to the 5th generation for further experiments (tissue culture method). After treatment with mTOR inhibitor PP242, the expression of LC3-II was detected by Western blotting. Total RNAs of 3 cases of RA-FLSs before and after treatment with mTOR inhibitor PP242 were extracted by TRIzol and screened by Agilent Human ceRNA Microarray 2019 (4×180 K, design ID: 086188) chip. The lncRNAs with significantly changed expression levels were selected (difference multiple≥2.0, @*RESULTS@#RA-FLSs were successfully isolated and cultured from the synovial tissues of the patient's knee or hip joint. After 6 RA-FLSs were treated with PP242, the expression level of autophagy marker protein LC3-II was increased (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Differentially expressed lncRNAs in RA-FLSs have been identified with microarray analysis. In RA, differential expression of lncRNAs is involved in the autophagy of RA-FLSs. The underlying mechanisms based on bioinformatics analysis include regulating the secretion of cytokines, such as IL-6, TGF-β, TNF-α and IL-17, participating in the immune cell differentiation, such as Th17, Th1, Th2 cells and osteoclasts, as well as regulating the autophagy pathway, MAPK, FoxO, and other signaling pathways. It has been verified that the expression of ENST0000584721.1 is up-regulated and ENST0000615939.1 is down-regulated after autophagy of RA FLSs, which provides a good experimental basis for further study on the mechanism of lncRNA in RA-FLSs autophagy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Autophagy/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Fibroblasts , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Synoviocytes
9.
Biol. Res ; 53: 09, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common rheumatic diseases of which clinical symptoms includes swelling, synovitis and inflammatory pain, affect patients' daily life. It was reported that non-coding RNAs play vital roles in OA. However, the regulation mechanism of ncRNA in OA pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: The expression of SNHG7, miR-34a-5p and SYVN1 was detected using qRT-PCR in tissues, serum and cells. The protein expression of SYVN1, PCNA, cleavage-caspase 3, beclinl and LC3 were measured using western blot. The RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), RNA pulldown, and luciferase reporter assays were used to verify the relationship between SNHG7, miR-34a-5p and SYVN1. The MTT and flow cytometry assay was performed to detected cell proliferation and cell apoptosis respectively. RESULTS: In this study, SNHG7 and SYVN1 expression were down-regulated, but miR-34a-5p was up-regulated in OA tissues and IL-1P treated cells compared with normal tissues and chondrocyte. Functional investigation revealed that up-regulated SNHG7 or down-regulated miR-34a-5p could promote cell proliferation and inhibit cell apoptosis and autophagy in OA cells. More than that, RIP, pulldown and luciferase reporter assay was applied to determine that miR-34a-5p was a target miRNA of SNHG7 and SYVN1 was a target mRNA of miR-34-5p. Rescue experiments showed that overexpression of miR-34a reversed high expression of SNHG7-mediated suppression of apoptosis and autophagy as well as promotion of proliferation, while its knockdown inhibited cell apoptosis and autophagy and promoted cell proliferation which could be impaired by silencing SYVN1. In addition, SNHG7 regulated SYVN1 through sponging miR-34a-5p. CONCLUSION: SNHG7 sponged miR-34a-5p to affect cell proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy through targeting SYVN1 which provides a novel sight into the pathogenesis of OA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Autophagy/physiology , Apoptosis/physiology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/genetics , Autophagy/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Down-Regulation , Up-Regulation , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(11): e8657, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039263

ABSTRACT

Although Taxol has improved the survival of cancer patients as a first-line chemotherapeutic agent, an increasing number of patients develop resistance to Taxol after prolonged treatment. The potential mechanisms of cancer cell resistance to Taxol are not completely clear. It has been reported that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in regulating the sensitivity of cancer cells to various chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of miR-129-5p in regulating the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to Taxol. Cell apoptosis and autophagy, and the sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to Taxol were assessed with a series of in vitro assays. Our results showed that the inhibition of autophagy increased the Taxol-induced apoptosis and the sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to Taxol. Up-regulation of miR-129-5p also inhibited autophagy and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, miR-129-5p overexpression increased the sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to Taxol. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a target gene of miR-129-5p and a regulator of autophagy, was negatively regulated by miR-129-5p. We found that interference of HMGB1 enhanced the chemosensitivity of Taxol by inhibiting autophagy and inducing apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Taken together, our findings suggested that miR-129-5p increased the chemosensitivity of MCF-7 cells to Taxol through suppressing autophagy and enhancing apoptosis by inhibiting HMGB1. Using miR-129-5p/HMGB1/autophagy-based therapeutic strategies may be a potential treatment for overcoming Taxol resistance in breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Paclitaxel/metabolism , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , MCF-7 Cells/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/metabolism , Autophagy/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/genetics , Up-Regulation/genetics , Paclitaxel/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/genetics , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics , HMGB1 Protein/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/therapeutic use
11.
Biol. Res ; 52: 58, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our previous study showed that knockdown of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) attenuated myocardial apoptosis in mouse acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study aims to explore whether MALAT1 enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via autophagy regulation and the underlying mechanisms of MALAT1 regulating autophagy. METHODS: Cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal mice and then stimulated with hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury to mimic AMI. The autophagy level was assessed using GFP-LC3 immunofluorescence and western blot analysis of autophagy-related proteins. RNA pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) was performed to analyze the binding of MALAT1 and EZH2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was performed to analyze the binding of TSC2 promoter and EZH2. The cell apoptosis was evaluated using TUNEL staining and western blot analysis of apoptosis-related proteins. RESULTS: H/R injury increased MALAT1 expression in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, MALAT1 overexpression inhibited, whereas MALAT1 knockdown enhanced the autophagy of cardiomyocytes. Moreover, MALAT1 overexpression recruited EZH2 to TSC2 promoter regions to elevate H3K27me3 and epigenetically inhibited TSC2 transcription. Importantly, TSC2 overexpression suppressed mTOR signaling and then activated the autophagy. Further results showed that MALAT1 inhibited proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes through inhibiting TSC2 and autophagy. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the increased MALAT1 expression induced by H/R injury enhances cardiomyocyte apoptosis through autophagy inhibition by regulating TSC2-mTOR signaling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Autophagy/physiology , Apoptosis/physiology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Protein/genetics , Autophagy/genetics , Signal Transduction , Blotting, Western , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Apoptosis/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chromatin Immunoprecipitation , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 Protein/metabolism
12.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(12): 831-839, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983856

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Considering aging as a phenomenon in which there is a decline in essential processes for cell survival, we investigated the autophagic and proteasome pathways in three different groups: young, older and oldest old male adults. The expression profile of autophagic pathway-related genes was carried out in peripheral blood, and the proteasome quantification was performed in plasma. No significant changes were found in plasma proteasome concentrations or in correlations between proteasome concentrations and ages. However, some autophagy- and/or apoptosis-related genes were differentially expressed. In addition, the network and enrichment analysis showed an interaction between four of the five differentially expressed genes and an association of these genes with the transcriptional process. Considering that the oldest old individuals maintained both the expression of genes linked to the autophagic machinery, and the proteasome levels, when compared with the older group, we concluded that these factors could be considered crucial for successful aging.


RESUMO Considerando o envelhecimento como um fenômeno em que há um declínio nos processos essenciais a sobrevivência celular, investigamos as vias autofágica e proteassômica em três grupos: jovens, idosos e longevos. O perfil de expressão dos genes relacionados à via autofágica foi analisado em sangue periférico, e a quantificação do proteassoma realizada em plasma. Não foram encontradas alterações significativas nas concentrações plasmáticas de proteassoma ou na correlação entre as concentrações de proteassoma e as idades. No entanto, alguns genes relacionados a autofagia e / ou apoptose foram expressos diferencialmente. Além disso, as análises de rede e de enriquecimento mostraram uma interação entre quatro dos cinco genes diferencialmente expressos e a associação desses ao processo transcricional. Considerando que os indivíduos longevos mantiveram tanto a expressão de genes ligados à maquinaria autofágica, quanto os níveis de proteassoma quando comparados aos idosos, concluímos que esses fatores poderiam ser considerados cruciais para o envelhecimento bem-sucedido.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Autophagy/genetics , Aging/genetics , Aging/metabolism , Longevity/genetics , Autophagy/physiology , Brazil , Gene Expression Regulation , Apoptosis/genetics , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/genetics , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Longevity/physiology
13.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 375-385, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Role of autophagy in neutrophil function and the association of autophagy and autophagy related (ATG) gene polymorphisms with asthma susceptibility were suggested. In this study, we investigated the genetic association of ATG5 and ATG7 polymorphisms with asthma risk, severity and neutrophilic airway inflammation. METHODS: We recruited 408 asthma patients and 201 healthy controls. Sputum neutrophil counts were determined by H&E staining. Serum interleukin 8 (IL-8) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Genetic polymorphisms of ATG5 (-769T>C, -335G>A, and 8830C>T) and ATG7 (-100A>G and 25108G>C) were genotyped. The functional activities of ATG5 -769T>C and -335G>A variants were investigated by luciferase reporter assays. RESULTS: No associations of ATG5 and ATG7 polymorphisms with asthma susceptibility and severity were found. ATG5 -769T>C and -335G>A were in complete linkage disequilibrium. In the asthma group, GA/AA genotypes at ATG5 -335G>A were associated with higher neutrophil counts in sputum (p T associated with lower FEV1% predicted value (p G and 25108G>C were significantly associated with high serum levels of IL-8 (p < 0.05 for both variants). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic polymorphisms of ATG5 and ATG7 could contribute to neutrophilic airway inflammation in the pathogenesis of adult asthma.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Asthma/blood , Autophagy/genetics , Autophagy-Related Protein 5/genetics , Autophagy-Related Protein 7/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Cell Line , Gene Frequency , Genes, Reporter , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Haplotypes , Heterozygote , Homozygote , Interleukin-8/blood , Neutrophil Infiltration/genetics , Neutrophils/immunology , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Transfection
14.
Salvador; s.n; 2015. 116 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-870329

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A influência da autofagia em processos celulares que participam da homeostase celular, como a endocitose e a adesão celular, até o momento, foi pouco estudada. A endocitose consiste na internalização de material extracelular,quando as vesículas endocíticas são menores que 500nm é chamada de endocitose em microescala e quando as vesículas formadas são maiores que essa medida trata-se de endocitose em macroescala. Foi demonstrado que a conexão da via endocítica com a via autofágica é fundamental para a degradação de material citosólico e, subsequente, produção de energia e disponibilização de substrato para o metabolismo celular. Estudos controversos da literatura mostraram que a autofagia pode favorecer ou não interferir com a endocitose em macroescala. Além disso, alguns trabalhos demonstraram que o processo autofágico foi capaz de reduzir a reciclagem de integrinas para a membrana plasmática por alterar a endocitose em microescala envolvida na internalização desse tipo de proteína, reduzindo a capacidade de adesão e, consequentemente, a migração celular. Assim, em conjunto, esses achados evidenciam que a autofagia pode interagir e interferir com eventos celulares dependentes da participação da membrana plasmática como a endocitose e a adesão celular.OBJETIVO: No presente estudo, hipotetizamos que a prévia indução de autofagia em macrófagos é capaz de reduzir a endocitose em micro e macroescala, além de reduzir a capacidade de adesão celular. Desta forma, o objetivo desse estudo foi determinar o efeito da indução de autofagia, in vitro, sobre a endocitose e a adesão de macrófagos murino. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Macrófagos foram induzidos à autofagia por privação de nutrientes (starvation) ou pelo tratamento com um indutor farmacológico, a rapamicina, seguida da exposição a macromoléculas ou grandes partículas de diferentes naturezas. Além disso, após indução de autofagia, macrófagos em suspensão foram incubados em superfícies como o vidro ou uma matriz de colágeno e fibronectina para avaliação da capacidade de adesão.Os percentuais de endocitose em microescala, em macroescala e de adesão foram estimados. RESULTADOS: Mostramos que a indução de autofagia promoveu redução da capacidade fagocítica em cerca de 60% no percentual de macrófagos que internalizam grandes partículas, como levedo, sendo um mecanismo precoce e reversível. Ao passo que a indução de autofagia por privação de aminoácidos ou farmacológica não interferiu na endocitose em microescala. A indução de autofagia não alterou a endocitose de transferrina (endocitose mediada por receptores) e endocitose de BSA (endocitose de fase fluida). Em contraste, a indução de autofagia promoveu redução em aproximadamente 70% da quantidade de macrófagos que aderem a matriz de colágeno e fibronectina. Uma possível explicação para a redução da endocitose em macroescala pode estar relacionada à autofagia diminuir a disponibilidade de grandes extensões de membrana necessárias à internalização de partículas ma iores que 500nm. Alternativamente, a indução de autofagia pode estar levando a célula a uma indisponibilidade de receptores na membrana plasmática que justificaria a redução da capacidade fagocítica e de adesão do 11 macrófago murino. CONCLUSÕES: A indução de autofagia diminui a capacidade fagocítica e a capacidade de adesão do macrófago murino.


INTRODUCTION: The influence of autophagy on cellular processes that participate in cellular homeostasis, such as endocytosis and cell adhesion has been poorly evaluated. Endocytosis consists in the internalization of extracellular material and includes microscale endocytosis, when endocytic vesicles are smaller than 500nm, and macroscale endocytosis, when the formed vesicles are larger than this measure. It has been shown that the connection between the endocytic and the autophagic pathways is essential for degradation of cytosolic material and, subsequently, power generation and provision of substrate for cellular metabolism. Controversial studies showed that autophagy can improve or do not interfere with macroscale endocytosis. Furthermore, some studies demonstrated that the autophagic process reduced integrin recycling to the plasma membrane through the modulation of microscale endocytosis involved in the internalization of this protein, reducing cell adhesion and migration. Taken together, these findings show that autophagy can interact and interfere with cellular events that depend on plasma membrane participation, such as endocytosis and cell adhesion. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we hypothesized that prior autophagy induction in macrophage reduces micro and macroscale endocytosis, as well as cell adhesion. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of autophagy induction, in vitro, on endocytosis and adhesion of murine macrophages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Autophagy by nutrient deprivation (starvation) or by treatment with an inducer drug, rapamycin, was induced in macrophages, followed by exposure to macromolecules or large particles of different natures. Furthermore, after autophagic induction, macrophages were plated on different surfaces like glass or collagen-fibronectin matrix to evaluate cell adhesiveness. After that, the percentage of endocytosis in micro and macroscale and adhesion were determined...


Subject(s)
Humans , Autophagy/physiology , Autophagy/genetics , Autophagy/immunology , Endocytosis/immunology
15.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2013. 204 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847068

ABSTRACT

O transplante de ilhotas pancreáticas constitui uma alternativa atraente para o tratamento de diabetes tipo 1 (DM1), contudo, é limitado devido à escassez de doadores de órgãos. O papel da prolactina humana recombinante (rhPRL), que apresenta efeitos benéficos em células-beta, e seu mecanismo de ação foram investigados neste estudo. O número de células apoptóticas diminui significativamente na presença de rhPRL. Essa citoproteção envolveu diminuição da razão BCL2/BAX e inibição de caspase-8, -9 e -3. Este estudo revelou, pela primeira vez, evidência direta do efeito protetor de lactogênios contra apoptose de células-beta humanas. Levando em consideração a relação conhecida entre citocinas e DM1 e observações recentes sugerindo o papel da autofagia no desenvolvimento e prevenção do DM1, foi investigada a conexão entre citocinas (IL-1ß, TNFα e IFN-γ) e autofagia em células-beta. O co-tratamento com citocinas e rapamicina, um indutor de autofagia via inibição de mTOR, não aumentou os níveis de apoptose em células INS-1E. Contudo, exposição a citocinas levou ao aumento nos níveis de autofagossomos e na relação LC3-II/LC3-I, do mesmo modo que o tratamento com rapamicina. O tratamento com citocinas também levou à diminuição dos níveis de mTOR e 4E-BP1 fosforilados. Foi demonstrada aqui, pela primeira vez, uma relação direta entre o tratamento com citocinas e a indução de autofagia em células-beta. Recentemente, surgiram novas evidências mostrando ligação entre a morte de células-beta induzida por citocinas e indução de estresse de retículo endoplasmático. Em nosso modelo, foram observados níveis diminuídos de p-mTOR e aumento da formação de autofagossomos após o tratamento com indutores de estresse de retículo. Este estudo reforça também, resultados prévios sobre a hipótese da função de indutores de estresse de retículo em promover a autofagia. Além disso, o tratamento com rhPRL aumentou os níveis de p-mTOR e levou à diminuição na formação de autofagossomos após exposição a citocinas em células-beta. Estes resultados são relevantes para a caracterização mais aprofundada das funções dos lactogênios nessas células. Sabendo-se da necessidade de células-beta humanas para estudos detalhados em células-beta, nosso grupo gerou linhagens celulares derivadas de insulinomas humanos que secretam hormônios e expressam marcadores com o mesmo padrão de seu tecido original. Estas linhagens foram caracterizadas comparando-as com culturas primárias de células-beta através de eletroforese bidimensional acoplada a espectrometria de massa. Cerca de 1.800 spots foram detectados, sendo que menos de 1% apresentou expressão diferencial. As proteínas superexpressas em ilhotas, como Caldesmon, estão envolvidas em organização do citoesqueleto, influenciando a secreção hormonal. Contrariamente, quase todas as proteínas superexpressas nas células de insulinoma, como MAGE-A2, foram descritas aqui pela primeira vez, podendo estar relacionadas à sobrevivência celular e resistência à quimioterapia. Estes resultados mostram, pela primeira vez, mudanças na expressão de proteínas relacionadas ao fenótipo alterado dos insulinomas, direcionando a pesquisa ao estabelecimento de células-beta humanas bioengenheiradas e ao desenvolvimento de novas estratégias terapêuticas para insulinomas. Coletivamente, os dados obtidos neste estudo estendem o conhecimento molecular envolvido na citoproteção induzida por rhPRL e transformação maligna de células-beta pancreáticas, contribuindo para futuras aplicações na compreensão e no tratamento do DM1


Transplantation of pancreatic islets constitutes an alternative for type 1 diabetes (DM1); however, it is limited by the shortage of organ donors. Here, we investigated the role of recombinant human prolactin (rhPRL), shown to have beneficial effects in beta-cells, and its mechanisms of action. Apoptotic beta-cells were decreased in the presence of rhPRL, with cytoprotection involving an increase of BCL2/BAX ratio and inhibition of caspase-8, -9 and -3. This study provides new direct evidence for a protective effect of lactogens in human beta-cell apoptosis. Taking into account the known relationship between cytokines and DM1 and recent observations suggesting a role for autophagy in the development and prevention of DM1, we investigated the connection between cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-α and IFN-γ) and autophagy in beta-cells. Co-treatment with cytokines and rapamycin, an inducer of autophagy through inhibition of mTOR, did not increase the apoptosis levels in INS-1E cells. However, exposure to cytokines increased the levels of autophagosome formation and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Treatment with cytokines also led to decreased levels of phosphorylated mTOR and 4E-BP1. We demonstrated for the first time, a direct relationship between cytokines treatment and induction of autophagy in beta-cells. Lately, new evidence point to a connection between cytokine-induced beta-cell death and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In our model, we observed that decreased levels of p-mTOR and increased autophagosome formation also ensued after treatment with endoplasmic reticulum stressors. This study also supports the previous hypothesis on the function of ER stressors in inducing autophagy. Furthermore, rhPRL treatment increased the levels of p-mTOR and decreased autophagosome formation after exposure to cytokines in beta-cells. These findings are also relevant for further characterization of lactogens functions in these cells. Considering the demand for human cells for further beta-cells studies, our group generated cell lines derived from human insulinomas which secrete hormones and express markers with the same pattern displayed by their original tissue. We set out to further characterize these lineages by comparing them to primary beta-cells using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. An average of 1,800 spots was detected with less than 1% exhibiting differential expression. Proteins upregulated in islets, such as Caldesmon, are involved in cytoskeletal organization thus influencing hormone secretion. In contrast, almost all proteins upregulated in insulinoma cells, such as MAGE-A2, first described here, could be related to cell survival and resistance to chemotherapy. Our results provide, for the first time, a molecular snapshot of the changes in expression of proteins correlated with the altered phenotype of insulinomas, prompting research towards the establishment of bioengineered human beta-cells, and the development of new therapeutic strategies for insulinomas. Collectively, the data obtained in this study extend the molecular knowledge involved in rhPRL-induced cytoprotection and malignant transformation of pancreatic beta-cells, contributing to future applications for understanding and treatment of DM1


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Apoptosis/genetics , Cytoprotection/genetics , Insulin-Secreting Cells/cytology , Autophagy/genetics , Cytokines/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Insulinoma/genetics , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation/methods , Prolactin/adverse effects
16.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 73-80, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93423

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a self-degradation system of cellular components through an autophagosomal-lysosomal pathway. Over the last 15 yr, yeast genetic screens led to the identification of a number of genes involved in the autophagic pathway. Most of these autophagy genes are present in higher eukaryotes and regulate autophagy process for cell survival and homeostasis. Significant progress has recently been made to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the autophagy machinery. Especially, autophagy process, including the regulation of autophagy induction through mTOR and the nucleation and elongation in autophagosome formation through class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex and ubiquitin-like conjugation systems, became evident. While many unanswered questions remain to be answered, here, we summarize the recent process of autophagy with emphasis on molecules and their protein complexes along with advanced molecular mechanisms that regulate the autophagy machinery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autophagy/genetics , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Class III Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics , Models, Biological , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins/genetics
17.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 81-88, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93422

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance and failure of pancreatic beta-cells producing insulin. Autophagy plays a crucial role in cellular homeostasis through degradation and recycling of organelles such as mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we discussed the role of beta-cell autophagy in development of diabetes, based on our own studies using mice with beta-cell-specific deletion of Atg7 (autophagy-related 7), an important autophagy gene, and studies by others. beta-cell-specific Atg7-null mice showed reduction in beta-cell mass and pancreatic insulin content. Insulin secretory function ex vivo was also impaired, which might be related to organelle dysfunction associated with autophagy deficiency. As a result, beta-cell-specific Atg7-null mice showed hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. However, diabetes never developed in those mice. Obesity and/or lipid are physiological ER stresses that can precipitate beta-cell dysfunction. Our recent studies showed that beta-cell-specific Atg7-null mice, when bred with ob/ob mice, indeed become diabetic. Thus, autophagy deficiency in beta-cells could be a precipitating factor in the progression from obesity to diabetes due to inappropriate response to obesity-induced ER stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Autophagy/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/genetics , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism
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