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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7080, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889093

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Irradiation is one of the available options for treatment of PCa, however, approximately 10-45% of PCa are resistant to irradiation. We aimed to explore the role of long non-coding RNA highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC) in the sensitivity of PCa cells to irradiation. Survival rate, cell apoptosis, cycle, expressions of related proteins, and caspase-3 activity were assessed to explore the effects of HULC on sensitivity of PCa cells to irradiation. Expression of HULC in DU-145, PC3, LNCaP, and RWPE-1 cells was determined and the influence of HULC on DU-145 cells was explored. Then, PC3 cells aberrantly expressing HULC were implanted into NOD-SCID mice for tumor xenograft study. Changes of autophagy after aberrant expression of HULC in vivo and in vitro were tested. Furthermore, the interacted protein of HULC and involved signaling pathway were investigated. In PC3 and LNCaP cells under irradiation, survival rate and cell cycle were decreased and apoptosis was increased by HULC knockdown. HULC knockdown arrested PC3 cells at G0/G1 phase. DU-145 was sensitive to irradiation, and resistance to irradiation of DU-145 cells was enhanced by HULC overexpression. Moreover, HULC knockdown enhanced the sensitivity of PC3 xenografts to irradiation. HULC knockdown promoted autophagy through interaction with Beclin-1 and inhibition of mTOR, resulting in increased apoptosis. HULC knockdown improved sensitivity of PCa cells to irradiation both in vivo and in vitro. HULC suppressed Beclin-1 phosphorylation, thereby reduced autophagy, involving the mTOR pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Autophagy/radiation effects , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Radiation Tolerance/physiology , RNA, Long Noncoding/radiation effects , Apoptosis/radiation effects , Blotting, Western , Cell Line, Tumor/radiation effects , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA Interference/radiation effects , Transfection
2.
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e814s, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974944

ABSTRACT

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and its incidence is continually increasing. Although anticancer therapy has improved significantly, it still has limited efficacy for tumor eradication and is highly toxic to healthy cells. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies to improve chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy are an important goal in cancer research. Macroautophagy (herein referred to as autophagy) is a conserved lysosomal degradation pathway for the intracellular recycling of macromolecules and clearance of damaged organelles and misfolded proteins to ensure cellular homeostasis. Dysfunctional autophagy contributes to many diseases, including cancer. Autophagy can suppress or promote tumors depending on the developmental stage and tumor type, and modulating autophagy for cancer treatment is an interesting therapeutic approach currently under intense investigation. Nutritional restriction is a promising protocol to modulate autophagy and enhance the efficacy of anticancer therapies while protecting normal cells. Here, the description and role of autophagy in tumorigenesis will be summarized. Moreover, the possibility of using fasting as an adjuvant therapy for cancer treatment, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying this approach, will be presented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autophagy/physiology , Fasting/physiology , Neoplasms/physiopathology , Neoplasms/therapy , Autophagy/drug effects , Autophagy/radiation effects , Antineoplastic Protocols , Neoplasms/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
3.
Salvador; s.n; 2015. 103 p. ilus, tab, map.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1000992

ABSTRACT

A leishmaniose é uma doença endêmica no Brasil causada por parasitos protozoários do gênero Leishmania. A quimioterapia continua sendo a forma mais efetiva de tratamento com os antimoniais pentavalentes sendo usados há mais de 70 anos como a primeira linha de tratamento. O uso deste e de outros fármacos apresenta efeitos adversos graves, os esquemas terapêuticos empregados são desconfortáveis, além de relatos do aumento de casos de resistência. A proteína de choque térmico 90 (HSP90) é um membro da família das chaperonas presente em células eucarióticas e bactérias. Essa proteína é fundamental para o dobramento e estabilização de diferentes proteínas, chamadas genericamente de proteínas cliente. Essa chaperona vem sendo considerada um importante alvo molecular para o tratamento de diferentes doenças parasitárias. Nessa tese, o inibidor específico da atividade ATPásica da HSP90, o 17-allilamino-17-demethoxigeldanamicina (17- AAG) foi testado em parasitos do gênero Leishmania. Inicialmente, avaliamos o efeito em cultura axênica e observamos que o 17-AAG causa a morte desses parasitos em concentrações inferiores às necessárias para causar a morte de macrófagos. Observamos também que o tratamento com 17-AAG promove a morte intracelular dos parasitos em concentrações que variam de 25 a 500 nM nos tempos de 24 e 48 h...


Leishmaniases are endemic disease in Brazil caused by protozoan parasites from the genus Leishmania. Chemotherapy remains the most effective way of treatment and pentavalent antimonials, used for more than 70 years, remaining as first choice drugs for leishmaniasis treatment. The use of this and other drugs causes severe side effects, therapeutic regimens employed for leishmaniasis treatment are unpleasant, besides an increase number of resistance cases. The Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) is a member of the chaperone family present in bacteria and eukaryotic cells. This protein is essential for the folding and stabilization of different proteins, known as client proteins. This chaperone has been considered an important molecular target for the treatment of different parasitic diseases. In this thesis, the specific inhibitors of the ATPase activity from the HSP90, 17-allylamino- 17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), were tested against parasites from the genus Leishmania. First we evaluated its effect on axenic culture and observed that 17- AAG induces parasite cell death in lowerconcentrations than those needed to induce macrophage cell death. We also observed that 17-AAG intracellular parasite death in concentrations ranging from 25 to 500 nM after 24 or 48 h...


Subject(s)
Humans , Autophagy/radiation effects , Autophagy/immunology , Leishmaniasis/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis/mortality , Leishmaniasis/pathology , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy , Drug Therapy , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitin/analysis , Ubiquitin/therapeutic use
4.
São Paulo; s.n; 2014. 144 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-720621

ABSTRACT

O câncer de pele é um dos mais frequentes entre humanos, sendo o melanoma o tipo menos comum, mas com grande importância devido à agressividade que ele apresenta. Um dos principais agentes etiológicos deste tipo de tumor é a radiação ultravioleta proveniente da luz solar. A fração de radiação ultravioleta B (UVB) gera dano no DNA e induz alterações nas células da pele após a exposição prolongada e sem proteção. A resposta à luz UVB em melanócitos e melanomas é diferente, mostrando a importância do perfil celular. O efeito genotóxico da luz UVB pode alterar a expressão de moléculas como galectina-3 e MAPKs, desencadeando respostas UVB-dependentes. Galectina-3 é uma lectina que reconhece beta-galactosídeos e está envolvida na regulação de diversos processos celulares que modificam a viabilidade celular e a proliferação. Esta molécula é ubiquamente expressa apresentando um comportamento específico dependendo da sua localização subcelular. No presente trabalho mostramos que a distribuição de galectina-3 em melanoma e melanócitos é ampla, encontrando-se tanto no núcleo como no citoplasma, podendo ser modificada após irradiação UVB ou ainda secretada para o meio extracelular. Além disso, observamos que a luz UVB ativa a via de MAPKs, proteínas quinases ativadas por mitógenos envolvidas no crescimento, sobrevivência, diferenciação e resposta a estresse, em melanócitos e em melanomas poucos minutos após a exposição à UVB. Uma maior atividade de p38 e de ERK é evidenciada em melanomas, enquanto que em melanócitos a via de p38 é a mais ativa, corroborando a noção de que a resposta celular à luz UVB difere entre melanócitos e melanoma. As moléculas p38 e JNK são proteínas quinases ativada pelo estresse (SAPK). A via de JNK não é tão responsiva em alguns melanomas, mas ativação desta molécula parece estar envolvida com a sobrevivência celular e a translocação mitocondrial após UVB...


Skin cancer is the most common cancer among humans, melanoma being the least common type but very important due to its aggressive behavior. A major etiologic agent of this type of tumor is ultraviolet radiation from the sunlight. The ultraviolet B rays (UVB) cause DNA damage and induce alterations over the skin cells after prolonged exposition without protection. The UVB response in melanocytes and melanoma cells is different. This shows the importance of the cellular profile. The genotoxic effect of UVB light can alter the expression of molecules such as galectine-3 and MAPKs and also triggers multiple responses UVB-dependent. Galectin-3 is a lectin that recognizes beta-galactosides. It is involved in the regulation of many cellular processes that modify cellular viability and proliferation and presents specific behavior depending on its subcellular localization. In the present study we showed that galectine-3 distribution in melanoma cells and melanocytes is large, lying both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. After UVB irradiation this distribution could be modified or even galactine-3 secreted itself into the extracellular space. Moreover, we observed that UVB light activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK) involved in growth, survival, differentiation and stress-response in melanocytes and in melanoma cells just a few minutes after exposure. An increased activity of p38 and ERK was observed in melanomas, while in melanocytes just p38 pathway was highly active, supporting the notion that the cellular response to UVB light differs between melanocytes and melanoma cells. The molecules p38 and JNK are stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK). The JNK pathway is not responsive in some melanoma cells, but the activation of this molecule appears to be involved in cell survival and mitochondrial translocation after being exposed to UVB. Inhibition of JNK leads to increased cell death in irradiated and non-irradiated melanocytic lineage...


Subject(s)
Autophagy/radiation effects , DNA Damage/radiation effects , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases , Melanoma , Mitochondria , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Survival
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