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1.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(3): 121-124, jul./set. 2022. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1411216

ABSTRACT

O aneurisma é uma dilatação anormal e permanente das artérias, resultante do enfraquecimento da parede do vaso adelgaçamento da camada média e enfraquecimento da camada elástica. Em animais, a maioria dos casos de aneurisma tem origem idiopática e são detectados acidentalmente durante a necropsia. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar um caso de aneurisma aórtico com trombose associada em Bugio-preto(Alouatta caraya), bem como seus aspectos patológicos. O animal era adulto, macho, pertencente ao Centro Nacional de Primatas (CENP), na cidade de Ananindeua-PA, foi encaminhado para exame necroscópico para investigação da causa mortis. No histórico do animal, não constava qualquer enfermidade. O animal apresentava bom escore de condição corporal com preservação da topografia anatômica dos órgãos. Entretanto, observou-se presença de aumento de volume localizado em aorta torácica, a 1,4 cm da base do coração. Na abertura aórtica foi observado dilatações de tamanhos variados e, no interior da maior dilatação, notou-se uma estrutura de coloração vermelho escuro, aderida, de aspecto seco e superfície áspera, medindo 1,5 cm. Aneurismas aórticos em primatas não humanos não são comuns, porém já foram reportados na literatura. O diagnóstico precoce utilizando exames complementares é importante, porém, ainda há recursos não empregados na rotina veterinária tornando ainda mais difícil o diagnóstico e prevenção. Por isso, na medicina veterinária, os aneurismas são detectados acidentalmente durante a necropsia. Com base nos achados anatomopatológicos, concluiu-se que o animal veio a óbito por trombose associada a aneurisma aórtico.


An aneurysm is an abnormal and permanent dilation of the arteries, resulting from the weakening of the vessel wall.thinning of the middle layer and weakening of the elastic layer. In animals, most cases of aneurysm are idiopathic. This paper aimed to report a case of aortic aneurysm with associated thrombosis in a black-and-gold howler monkey(Alouatta caraya), as well as its pathological aspects. The animal was an adult, male, belonging to the National Primate Center (CENP), in the city of Ananindeua-PA, that was referred for necroscopic examination to investigate the causa mortis. In the animal's history, there was no disease. The animal had a good body condition score with preservation of the anatomical topography of the organs. However, there was an increase in volume located in the thoracic aorta, 1.4 cm from the base of the heart. In the aortic opening, dilations of different sizes were observed, and inside the largest dilatation, a structure of dark red color, adhered, with a dry appearance and rough surface, measuring 1.5 cm was noted in addition to dilations of different sizes. Inside the largest cavitation, a dark red structure was observed, adhered, with a dry appearance and rough surface, measuring 1.5 cm. Aortic aneurysms in non-human primates are incommon, but have been reported in the literature. Early diagnosis using complementary exams is important, however, there are still resources not used in the veterinary routine, making diagnosis and prevention even more difficult. Therefore, in veterinary medicine, aneurysms are accidentally detected during necropsy. Based on the anatomopathological findings, it was concluded that the animal died due to thrombosis associated with an aortic aneurysm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aortic Diseases/veterinary , Primates/abnormalities , Autopsy/veterinary , Thrombosis/veterinary , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/veterinary , Alouatta caraya/abnormalities
3.
Autops. Case Rep ; 12: e2021351, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355722
6.
Autops. Case Rep ; 12: e2021333, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360155

ABSTRACT

Autopsy has been one of the most powerful diagnostic tools in medicine for over a century. Despite its importance in establishing cause of death and elucidating pathophysiology of disease, rates of hospital autopsies continue to decline. In this study we aim to determine if physicians believe autopsies are essential to patient care through discussion of autopsy with families. At the same time, we analyzed whether families are more willing to consent to autopsy if physicians are involved in autopsy discussion at the time of death, and what may be the reasons for not wanting an autopsy. Our results showed a doubling in autopsy consent when autopsy was discussed by the physician. Additionally, the biggest reason for families not consenting to autopsy was because they believed they already knew what caused death. The emergence of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has re-established the value of autopsy, as seen by increased autopsy rates in the past year. This study demonstrates that physician conversation with families on autopsy leads to an increased chance of autopsy consent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autopsy/trends , COVID-19 , Hospitals/trends
7.
Rev. cienc. forenses Honduras (En línea) ; 8(1): 26-37, 2022. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1400108

ABSTRACT

Justificación: el consentimiento informado, se fundamenta en el principio de autonomía de las personas, la concepción moral sobre el respeto de la dignidad del ser humano y por tanto en su libertad. En el consentimiento informado se articulan el resto de los principios bioéticos universales: la no maleficencia, la justicia, y la beneficencia. Objetivo: Establecer las situaciones en las cuales es pertinente aplicar el consentimiento informado en la toma de muestras postmortem desde un enfoque bioético versus un enfoque legal. Metodología: se realizó una revisión en: Scielo, LILACS, IBECS, CUMED, NIH, Repositorio de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud; usando palabras clave: consentimiento informado, derechos humanos, autonomía, bioética, autopsia, muestras postmortem y médicos forenses y combinaciones de estas. Los criterios de inclusión: artículos con antigüedad máxima de cinco años, en español e inglés de libre acceso. Resultados: se obtuvieron 113 artículos utilizando las palabras clave y sus combinaciones, más otros 43 registros adicionales identificados de otras fuentes como leyes, reglamentos etc. Al eliminar las fuentes: duplicadas, no relevantes, inhabilitadas e incompletas se trabajó con un total de 49 artículos. Conclusiones: existe la necesidad de incluir en las pautas éticas nacionales e internacionales que regulan la investigación científica, lineamientos a seguir sobre la realización del proceso del consentimiento informado en los estudios que involucren muestras postmortem, utilizadas posteriormente a su uso primario...(AU)


Subject(s)
Specimen Handling , Informed Consent , Postmortem Changes , Autopsy , Bioethics
9.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 431-436, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935558

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinicopathological factors related to perinatal fetal death and to evaluate importance of fetal autopsy and placental pathology. Methods: The clinicopathological data of 105 perinatal fetal deaths in Beijing Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hospital from November 2012 to December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Relevant literature was also reviewed. Results: The maternal age of the deceased fetuses ranged from 22 to 43 years with the average (31.35±4.04 years), and the gestational weeks were 28-40+6 weeks. Among them, 101 were singleton cases and 4 twin cases. 103 fetuses died in uterus and 2 died during delivery. Relevant factors analysis of the 105 perinatal fetal deaths showed that 86 cases (81.9%, 86/105) were related to umbilical cord/placental abnormality, 10 cases (9.5%, 10/105) uterine infection, 6 cases (5.7%, 6/105) fetal factors, 1 case was fetal maternal blood transfusion syndrome, 1 case twin blood transfusion syndrome, and 1 case died of complete uterine rupture. Among the 86 cases related to umbilical cord/placental abnormality, the diagnosis was most often based on the gross examination of placenta. The most common cause of death was umbilical cord torsion with thin root, followed by placental abruption, tight umbilical cord winding, vascular rupture and umbilical cord true knot. The morphology of placenta revealed mainly functional changes. Among the 10 cases related to intrauterine infections, the placenta generally showed lobular placental edema. The morphological characteristics of ascending infection were mainly acute chorioamnionitis, and the morphological characteristics of blood-borne infection were mainly acute or chronic villitis, as well as villous interstitial inflammation. Identification of viral inclusions suggested viral etiology, while the final diagnosis was relied on laboratory testing. Among the 6 cases related to fetal abnormality, the diagnostic value of placenta was limited and the diagnosis could be made with fetal autopsy. Conclusion: The causes of perinatal fetal death are complex, diverse, and often the synergistic result of multiple factors. Fetal autopsy and placental pathology are the key technical means to identify the cause of death and deserve more attention and utilization.


Subject(s)
Adult , Autopsy , Child , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , Fetus/pathology , Gestational Age , Humans , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 31(3): e007522, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1394891

ABSTRACT

Abstract Birds of prey harbor a wide spectrum of various parasites, mostly with a heteroxenous life cycle. However, most reports on their parasites come from Europe. Although the Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus) is a widespread species in America, parasitological surveys on this hawk are mostly focused on coprological findings and ectoparasites, with poor attention paid to helminths. The aim of this study was to gather new and additional data on host-parasite associations for the Harris's hawk. Twenty-nine birds from central and southern Chile were necropsied. Further, nine birds from a rehabilitation center and 22 museum specimens were inspected for ectoparasites. Sixty-eight percent of birds hosted at least one parasite species. Four lice species, one mite species and eight helminth species (five nematodes, two platyhelminthes and one acanthocephalan) were recorded. Parasitic lice Colpocephalum nanum and Nosopon chanabense, and a nematode Cyathostoma (Hovorkonema) americana were recorded for the first time in raptors from the Neotropics. A feather mite, Pseudalloptinus sp., nematodes, Physaloptera alata and Microtetrameres sp., and a trematode Neodiplostomim travassosi, were recorded for the first time in Chile. The presence of diverse heteroxenous helminths reported here in the Harris's hawk could be explained by the generalist diet of this raptor.


Resumo As aves de rapina representam uma fonte importante de parasitas heteroxenos. Porém, a maioria dos relatos são da Europa. O gavião-asa-de-telha (Parabuteo unicinctus) é uma espécie amplamente distribuída no continente Americano, porém estudos parasitológicos nessas aves têm documentado achados coprológicos e ectoparasitas, com poucos relatos sobre endoparasitas como helmintos. Por essa razão, o objetivo deste estudo foi descrever novas associações parasita-hospedeiro para o gavião-asa-de-telha e rapinantes neotropicais. Vinte nove aves provenientes do centro e sul do Chile foram submetidas à necropsia. Por outro lado, nove aves de um centro de reabilitação e 22 espécimes de museu foram inspecionados em busca de ectoparasitas. Do total de aves, 68,3% foram identificadas como portadoras de pelo menos uma espécie de parasita. Quatro espécies de piolhos, um ácaro e oito helmintos (cinco nematoides, dois platelmintos e um acantocéfalo) foram registrados. Os piolhos Colpocephalum nanum, Nosopon chanabense e o nematóide Cyathostoma (Hovorkonema) americana são reportados pela primeira vez em rapinantes neotropicais. Colpocephalum nanum, N. chanabense, Pseudalloptinus sp., Physaloptera alata, Microtetrameres sp., C. (H.) americana e Neodiplostomim travassosi, são reportados pela primeira vez no Chile. A diversidade de helmintos heteróxenos, identificados neste trabalho, poderia ser explicada devido à dieta geralista do gavião-asa-de-telha.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Hawks/parasitology , Helminths/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Phthiraptera/physiology , Mites/physiology , Platyhelminths/isolation & purification , Autopsy/veterinary , Tropical Climate , Beak/parasitology , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Ectoparasitic Infestations/epidemiology , Age and Sex Distribution , Acanthocephala/isolation & purification , Feathers/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/epidemiology , Nematoda/isolation & purification
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06953, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356553

ABSTRACT

In order to determine the main anatomopathological findings of Testudines necropsied in the Distrito Federal, all necropsy records performed at the "Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária" of the "Universidade de Brasília" (LPV-UnB) on Testudines during the period from January 2008 to July 2020 were reviewed. The 72 cases reviewed were grouped and classified according to species, sex, origin, season of occurrence, and diagnosis. In 69.44% of the cases the species was informed in the necropsy protocols, which included Phrynops geoffroanus (38%), Trachemys dorbigni (36%), Chelonoidis carbonaria (14%), Chelonoidis denticulata (10%) and Podocnemis expansa (2%). In 30.55% of the cases this parameter was not informed and were classified only as Testudines. In 41.66% of the cases the sex was informed, being female 22.22%, male 19.44%, and 58.33% were not informed. Of these animals 79.16% were from environmental agencies and 20.84% from zoos and/or guardians. In 70.83% of the animals analyzed they were directly related to the autumn and winter seasons, with June being the most frequent month (29.17%). The conclusive diagnosis was possible in 68.05% of the cases. The category of disorders caused by injurious agents (48.97%) was the most prevalent, followed by inflammatory disorders (32.65%) and nutritional and metabolic disorders (28.57%). The main diagnoses were carapace and/or plastron fracture with 30.61%, hepatic steatosis (20.40%) and pneumonia (10.22%). Most cases of carapace or plastron fracture and hepatic steatosis occurred in animals from environmental agencies.(AU)


Com o objetivo de determinar os principais achados anatomopatológicos de Testudines necropsiados no Distrito Federal, foram revisadas todas as fichas de necropsia realizadas no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade de Brasília (LPV-UnB) em Testudines, durante o período de janeiro de 2008 a julho de 2020. Os 72 casos revisados foram agrupados e classificados quanto à espécie, sexo, procedência, estação do ano de ocorrência e diagnóstico. Em 69,44% dos casos havia a espécie informada nos protocolos de necropsia, que incluíam Phrynops geoffroanus (38%), Trachemys dorbigni (36%), Chelonoidis carbonaria (14%), Chelonoidis denticulata (10%) e Podocnemis expansa (2%). Em 30,55% dos casos não tiveram esse parâmetro informado e foram classificados apenas como Testudines. Em 41,66% casos foi informado o sexo, sendo fêmea 22,22%, macho 19,44% e não informados 58,33%. Destes animais 79,16% eram de órgão ambiental e 20,84% de zoológicos e ou tutores. Em 70,83% dos animais analisados tiveram direta relação com as estações de outono e inverno, sendo o mês de junho o mais frequente (29,17%). O diagnóstico conclusivo foi possível em 68,05% dos casos. A categoria de distúrbios causados por agentes lesivos (48,97%) foi a mais prevalente, seguido por distúrbios inflamatórios (32,65%) e dos distúrbios nutricionais e metabólicos (28,57%). Os principais diagnósticos foram fratura de carapaça e ou plastrão com 30,61%, esteatose hepática (20,40%) e pneumonia (10,22%). A maior parte dos casos de fratura de carapaça ou plastrão e de esteatose hepática ocorreram em animais provenientes de órgão ambiental.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pneumonia/mortality , Turtles/anatomy & histology , Turtles/injuries , Fractures, Bone/mortality , Fatty Liver/mortality , Autopsy/veterinary
12.
Repert. med. cir ; 31(Suplemento): 57-62, 2022. ilus., tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1380877

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la COVID-19 es causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2. La presentación clínica varía desde pacientes asintomáticos hasta manifestaciones severas. Durante la pandemia se han realizado autopsias que han permitido reconocer los cambios en diferentes órganos, siendo el pulmón el más afectado. El objetivo del presente estudio es informar nuestra experiencia en cuanto a los hallazgos histopatológicos pulmonares, mediante el sistema de autopsia mínimamente invasiva. Metodología: se tomaron muestras a 8 pacientes fallecidos por COVID-19 en la unidad de cuidado intensivo (UCI) confirmado por PCR en el Hospital de San José, Bogotá, Colombia, en la primera hora después de la muerte. Los tejidos fueron analizados por dos patólogos en forma independiente. Resultados: se observó en todos daño alveolar difuso (DAD) en fases exudativa, proliferativa o ambas, además de bronconeumonía y neumonitis intersticial. Discusión: el pulmón es el principal órgano afectado por el SARS-CoV-2 y el hallazgo histopatológico más frecuente es el DAD en fases exudativa y mixta. También se han descrito alteraciones en diferentes sistemas. Conclusiones: el hallazgo histopatológico pulmonar más frecuente es el DAD en diferentes estadios. Se considera que la autopsia mínimamente invasiva es de gran utilidad en escenarios donde la convencional se encuentra limitada, pues no presenta grandes restricciones y permite obtener tejidos viables.


Introduction: COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Its clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic patients to severe manifestations. During the pandemic, autopsies have allowed the recognition of changes in different organs, with the lung being the main affected organ. The aim of this study is reporting our experience derived from pulmonary histopathological findings, based on the minimally invasive autopsy method. Methodology: samples were taken in the immediate postmortem (one hour) period from 8 patients who died with PCR-confirmed COVID-19, in the intensive care unit (ICU) of Hospital de San José, Bogotá, Colombia. Tissue specimens were analyzed independently by two pathologists. Results: all specimens exhibited, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) in exudative or proliferative phases, or both, in addition to bronchopneumonia and interstitial pneumonitis. Discussion: the lung is the main organ affected by SARS-CoV-2 and the most frequent histopathologic finding is exudative phase or various phases DAD. Alterations in different systems have also been described. Conclusions: the most frequent histopathological finding is DAD in any of its phases. Minimally invasive autopsy is considered a very useful alternative when conventional autopsy cannot be performed, since it does not have major restrictions and allows collecting viable samples.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Autopsy , Pandemics
13.
Repert. med. cir ; 31(2): 161-169, 2022. ilus., tab.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1382276

ABSTRACT

Introducción: un evento de muerte súbita supone un gran impacto para la sociedad, siendo importante su estudio para aportar conocimiento y fortalecer estrategias de promoción y prevención. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de los diagnósticos anatomopatológicos cardiacos definitivos y los hallazgos histopatológicos asociados con la muerte súbita de origen cardíaco en los pacientes sometidos a autopsias clínicas realizadas en el Hospital de San José de Bogotá DC, Colombia, durante el período 2015 a 2018. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal retrospectivo en pacientes a quienes se les realizó autopsia con diagnóstico de muerte súbita de origen cardiovascular en el servicio de patología del Hospital de SanJosé, Bogotá DC, Colombia. Resultados: se incluyeron 178 autopsias con diagnóstico de muerte súbita cardíaca. El promedio global de edad fue 56.1 años (DE: 15.06) con una relación hombre-mujer de 3:1. El hallazgo macroscópico más frecuente fue cardiomegalia (promedio 428.1 g (DE 112.8), acompañado de la presencia de coronariopatía esclerótica (p=0.000) con obstrucción de la luz de las arterias coronarias mayores de 80% (p=0.037). Conclusiones: los diagnósticos anatomopatológicos definitivos prevalentes en la muerte súbita cardiaca fueron cardiopatía isquémica crónica complicada (65%) e infarto agudo de miocardio (16%), datos similares a los reportados a nivel mundial. La cardiomegalia es un hallazgo frecuente que debe valorarse en forma cuidadosa.


Introduction: a sudden death incident has a great impact on society and its study is important to provide understanding for strengthening promotion and prevention strategies. Objective: to determine the prevalence of definitive anatomopathological cardiac diagnoses and histopathological findings associated with sudden death due to a cardiovascular cause based on autopsies performed at Hospital de San José in Bogotá DC, Colombia, during the period between 2015 and 2018. Methods: retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study of cases of sudden cardiac death of cardiovascular origin diagnosed in autopsies performed at the pathology service of Hospital de San José, Bogotá DC, Colombia. Results: 178 autopsies with a diagnosis of sudden cardiac death were included. The overall mean age was 56.1 years (SD: 15.06). Male/female ratio was 3:1. The most frequent macroscopic finding was cardiomegaly (average 428.1 g (SD 112.8), with the presence of sclerotic coronary artery disease (p=0.000) with a blockage greater than 80% (p=0.037) in the major coronary arteries. Conclusions: the prevalent definitive anatomopathological diagnoses in SCD were complicated chronic ischemic heart disease (65%) and acute myocardial infarction (16%). Data obtained in this study is similar to that reported worldwide. Cardiomegaly is a frequent finding that should be carefully evaluated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Coronary Vessels , Autopsy , Heart
14.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Print) ; 11(1): 1-6, 2022. figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1378851

ABSTRACT

Background: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue archives in hospitals, biobanks, and others offer a vast collection of extensive, readily available specimens for molecular testing. Unfortunately, the use of tissue samples for molecular diagnostic applications is challenging; thus, the forensic pathology FFPE tissue archives in Africa have been a largely unexploited genetic resource, with the usability of DNA obtainable from these samples being unknown.Intervention: The study, conducted from January 2015 to August 2016, determined the usefulness of FFPE tissue as a reliable source of genetic material for successful post-mortem molecular applications and diagnostics. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples were collected and archived from autopsies conducted over 13 years in the forensic medicine department of the University of Pretoria (Pretoria, South Africa). Deoxyribonucleic acid from FFPE tissue samples and control blood samples was amplified by high-resolution melt real-time polymerase chain reaction before sequencing. The procurement parameters and fixation times were compared with the quantity and quality of the extracted DNA and the efficiency of its subsequent molecular applications.Lessons learnt: This study has shown that FFPE samples are still usable in molecular forensics, despite inadequate sample preparation, and offer immense value to forensic molecular diagnostics.Recommendations: FFPE samples fixed in formalin for more than 24 h should still be used in molecular diagnostics or research, as long as the primer design targets amplicons not exceeding 300 base pairs.


Subject(s)
DNA , Resolutions , Paraffin , Archives , Autopsy , Tissues , Pain Measurement , Genetic Testing , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pathology, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation
15.
S. Afr. med. j ; 112(11): 879-881, 2022. tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1399384

ABSTRACT

The anatomical pathology autopsy serves several purposes, notably as a quality management tool for evaluation of accuracy in clinical diagnosis. Despite its value, for various reasons there has been an international decline in autopsies conducted. In the modern medical era, with all its advances in technology, diagnostic techniques and interventions, there is still a high discrepancy between clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings.Objectives. To establish the discrepancies between clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings in anatomical pathology autopsies.Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted over the 4-year-period 2014 - 2017. The clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings of cases referred to the Department of Anatomical Pathology at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, were evaluated and compared using the modified Goldman criteria.Results. A total of 288 cases qualified for the study and were evaluated. The gender distribution was 155 (53.8%) male and 133 (48.2%) female, with the majority of cases in the age group 19 - 60 years (mean 36.4). The majority of the cases were referred by internal medicine, followed by paediatrics. The most common cause of death in major missed diagnoses was pulmonary conditions. Of the cases, 115 (39.3%) had a major discrepancy and 62 (21.5%) a minor discrepancy.Conclusion. This study showed that there is still a high discrepancy between clinical diagnoses and postmortem findings, similar to studies conducted globally. The current COVID-19 pandemic may be a driver for revival of the anatomical pathology autopsy, and future studies are recommended to evaluate whether the decline can be reversed


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Pathology , Autopsy , Comparative Study
16.
Afr. j. lab. med. (Online) ; 11(1): 1-8, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1400558

ABSTRACT

Background: Causes of death during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic ranhttp://crossmark.crossref.org/dialog/?doi=10.4102/ajlm.v11i1.1766=pdf&date_stamp=2022-11-23ge from direct consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection to deaths unrelated to SARS-CoV-2. Another feature of the pandemic is the post-mortem testing for SARS-CoV-2. Understanding these aspects of COVID-19 are essential in planning and limiting the impact of SARS-CoV-2 virus on healthcare systems. Objective: This study investigated the underlying causes of death and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in bodies received at the 37 Military Hospital, Accra, Ghana, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The study was conducted from 4­27 May 2020. Deceased patients that met the inclusion criteria were prospectively selected during the expanded surveillance period for SARS-CoV-2 testing, autopsy and determination of underlying and immediate cause of death. Results: A total of 161 deceased patients were analysed with 53 autopsies. The overall positive test rate for SARS-CoV-2 was 14.9% (24/161 patients), with a positive rate of 5.0% (8/161 patients) for nasopharyngeal samples and 30.2% (16/161 patients) for bronchopulmonary samples. The underlying causes of death were not related to SARS-CoV-2 infection in 85.1% (137/161) of patients, SARS-CoV-2-associated 12.4% (20/161) and SARS-CoV-2-induced in 2.5% (4/161). Cardiovascular complications formed the most common cause of death in patients with or without SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion: There was a high positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 in post-mortem cases. However, most deaths were not caused by SARS-CoV-2 but by cardiovascular complications. The high rate of bronchopulmonary positive results for SARS-CoV-2 requires that autopsies be done in suspicious cases with negative nasopharyngeal sampling.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cause of Death , Delivery of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Hospitals, Military , Autopsy , Pandemics , Ghana , Methods
17.
Rev. med. vet. zoot ; 68(3): 252-261, sep.-dic. 2021. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1389160

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O pectus excavatum é considerado uma patologia da parede torácica, onde há convexidade no aspecto ventral do esterno, o que gera complicações secundárias, como alongamento ventrodorsal do tórax e aumento da pressão intratorácica, entre outras. No presente caso, o corpo de um cachorro Buldogue Francês nasceu com sinais prévios de decaimento e baixo consumo de leito materno, além de uma avaliação médica forense. De acordo com a avaliação patológica, foi encontrada uma fenda no peito esternal relacionada às esternas caudais próximas à cartilagem xifóide, conteúdo espumoso na cartilagem epiglótica da laringe e sinais graves de enfisema nos lobos caudal, craniano e médio pulmonar. Na avaliação cardiológica, foi observada assimetria morfológica invaginante no septo interventricular na mesma área em que a fenda esternal ocorre, por sua vez, na avaliação radiográfica, evidencia uma depressão dorsal do terço caudal do esterno com alterações consideráveis na silhueta cardíaca. Na Colômbia não há relatos de ninhadas completas que apresentem esta alteração, portanto, pretende-se que este seja o primeiro relatório anatomopatológico e de imagem que descreva a patologia em caninos.


ABSTRACT Pectus excavatum is considered a pathology of the chest wall where there is convexity in the ventral aspect of the sternum, which generates secondary complications, such as ventrodorsal stretching of the chest and increased intrathoracic pressure, among others. In the present case, the body of a French bulldog dog was born with previous signs of decay and low consumption of maternal waste, in addition to a forensic medical evaluation. According to the pathological evaluation, a crack was found in the sternal chest related to the caudal sternum close to the xiphoid cartilage, frothy content in the laryngeal epiglottis cartilage and severe signs of emphysema in the caudal, cranial and middle lung lobes. In the cardiological evaluation, an invaginating morphological asymmetry was observed in the interventricular septum in the same area in which the sternal cleft occurs, in turn, in the radiographic evaluation, it shows a dorsal depression of the caudal third of the sternum with considerable changes in the cardiac silhouette. In Colombia there are no reports of complete litters that present this alteration, so it is intended that this is the first anatomopathological and imaging report that describes the pathology in canines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Sternum , Congenital Abnormalities , Infant, Newborn , Radiography , Technology, Radiologic , Dogs , Funnel Chest , Pulmonary Edema , Pulmonary Emphysema , Autopsy , Vaginal Birth after Cesarean/veterinary
19.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(2): e865, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341407

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad respiratoria aguda es la entidad más frecuente en la vida del ser humano y las enfermedades respiratorias agudas se encuentran entre las causas de muerte. La autopsia es el mejor método del estudio del enfermo y su realización es una fortaleza del sistema de salud cubano. Objetivo: Determinar las características demográficas y morfológicas que se encontraron en las autopsias de fallecidos con enfermedad respiratoria aguda. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y de corte transversal, de los fallecidos a quienes se realizó autopsia, en el periodo de 1986 al 2019. Se estudiaron las variables edad, sexo, comorbilidades, causas de muerte y relación clínico - patológica. Resultados: La población quedó conformada por 390 autopsias que presentaban estas afecciones (2,5 por ciento). El grupo de edades entre 65 a 84 años fue el más afectado en ambos sexos. En las causas directas de muerte predominó la bronconeumonía bacteriana. Se destaca la elevada coincidencia en las causas directas de muerte y las discrepancias en las causas básicas. La línea de tendencia indica el incremento progresivo en el transcurso de los años estudiados. Conclusiones: Las características demográficas muestran que todos los grupos de edades están afectados, con predominio de 65 a 84 años, en ambos sexos. El pulmón fue el órgano más afectado en las causas directas de muerte, con predominio de la bronconeumonía, mientras que la mayoría presenta enfermedad respiratoria aguda como causa básica de muerte, con elevada discrepancia en su relación clínico patológica(AU)


Introduction: Acute respiratory disease is the most frequent entity in human life and acute respiratory diseases are among the causes of death. The autopsy is the best method of studying the patient and it is a strength of the Cuban health system. Objective: To determine the demographic and morphological characteristics found in the autopsies of the deceased with acute respiratory diseases. Method: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out of the deceased who underwent autopsy, in the period from 1986 to 2019. The variables age, sex, comorbidities, causes of death and clinical-pathological relationship were studied. Results: The population was made up of 390 autopsies with these conditions (2.5 percent). The 65 to 84 age group was the most affected in both sexes. In direct causes of death, bacterial bronchopneumonia predominated. The high coincidence in the direct causes of death and the discrepancies in the basic causes stand out. The trend line indicates the progressive increase in the course of the years studied. Conclusions: The demographic characteristics show that all age groups are affected, with a predominance of 65 to 84 years, in both sexes. The lung was the most affected organ in direct causes of death, with a predominance of bronchopneumonia, while the majority had acute respiratory disease as the basic cause of death, with a high discrepancy in its clinical-pathological relationship(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Autopsy , Bronchopneumonia , Underlying Cause of Death , Cross-Sectional Studies , Causality , Age Groups
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(6): 1119-1126, Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278324

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A aterosclerose, em alguns casos, é uma condição assintomática, sendo necessário conhecer o grau de comprometimento arterial provocado pelas placas e sua associação com os fatores de risco. O exame de autópsia permite a compreensão dos processos básicos de doenças, assim como a avaliação e fornecimento de dados sobre a característica macroscópica do acometimento aterosclerótico. Objetivo Avaliar macroscopicamente e padronizar o acometimento aterosclerótico das artérias aorta, carótidas e ilíacas e comparar com a idade, o sexo e a causa de morte. Métodos Foram coletados 53 artérias aorta, 53 artérias carótida direita, 53 artérias carótida esquerda, 53 artérias ilíaca direita e 53 artérias ilíaca esquerda. Para essa avaliação, foi considerada a extensão de estrias lipídicas, de placas ateromatosas, de fibrose e de calcificação, as quais serviram de referência para pontuar a intensidade do acometimento aterosclerótico. Foram observados vários graus da aterosclerose e valores acurados para a classificação discreta, moderada e acentuada. Para a análise estatística, os dados foram analisados utilizando-se o software GraphPad Prism ® 7.0. As diferenças foram consideradas estatisticamente significativas quando "p" foi menor que 5% (p<0,05). Resultados As artérias carótidas apresentaram maior acometimento aterosclerótico em comparação às outras artérias avaliadas (K=15,73, p=0,0004). A ocorrência da aterosclerose se mostrou progressiva e significativa com o decorrer da idade (carótidas: t=6,321; p<0,0001; aortas: U=83,5; p<0,0001; ilíacas: U=306; p<0,0001) e na causa de morte cardiovascular (carótidas: t=5,047; p<0,0001; aortas: U=98,5; p=0,0068; ilíacas: U=467,5; p=0,0012). Conclusão A avaliação macroscópica da aterosclerose trata-se de uma forma inovadora e de baixo custo de avaliação através da visualização direta das placas ateroscleróticas, possibilitando uma associação com fatores de risco como idade avançada e doenças cardiovasculares, fornecendo dados importantes para a prática clínica.


Abstract Background Atherosclerosis, in some cases, is an asymptomatic condition, and it is important to know the degree of arterial impairment caused by plaques and its association with risk factors. Autopsy examination provides understanding of basic disease processes and assessment to data about macroscopic characteristic of atherosclerotic involvement. Objective To macroscopically assess and standardize atherosclerotic involvement of aorta, carotid and iliac arteries and compare with age, gender and causes of death. Methods We collected 53 aortic arteries, 53 right carotid arteries, 53 left carotid arteries, 53 right iliac arteries and 53 left iliac arteries. For this assessment, the extension of fatty streaks, atheromatous plaques, fibrosis and calcification were considered, being the reference to score the degree of atherosclerotic involvement. Many degrees of atherosclerosis and accurate values were observed for mild, moderate and severe classification. For statistical analysis, data were analyzed using the software GraphPad Prism® 7.0. Differences were considered statistically significant if p-value was less than 5% (p <0.05). Results Carotid arteries had greater atherosclerotic involvement compared to the other arteries (K = 15.73, p = 0.0004). Atherosclerosis was progressive and significant with increasing age (carotid arteries: t = 6.321; p <0.0001; aorta: U = 83.5; p <0.0001; iliac: U = 306; p <0.0001) and as cause of cardiovascular death (carotids: t = 5.047; p <0.0001; aorta: U = 98.5; p = 0.0068; iliac: U = 467.5; p = 0.0012). Conclusion Macroscopic assessment of atherosclerosis is an innovative and low-cost way of direct visualization of atherosclerotic plaques, enabling an association with risk factors such as increasing age and cardiovascular diseases, providing important data for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atherosclerosis , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Aorta , Autopsy , Carotid Arteries , Risk Factors
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