Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 231
Filter
1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 16-28, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922663

ABSTRACT

Chronic stress leads to many psychiatric disorders, including social and anxiety disorders that are associated with over-activation of neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). However, not all individuals develop psychiatric diseases, many showing considerable resilience against stress exposure. Whether BLA neuronal activity is involved in regulating an individual's vulnerability to stress remains elusive. In this study, using a mouse model of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), we divided the mice into susceptible and resilient subgroups based on their social interaction behavior. Using in vivo fiber photometry and in vitro patch-clamp recording, we showed that CSDS persistently (after 20 days of recovery from stress) increased BLA neuronal activity in all the mice regardless of their susceptible or resilient nature, although impaired social interaction behavior was only observed in susceptible mice. Increased anxiety-like behavior, on the other hand, was evident in both groups. Notably, the CSDS-induced increase of BLA neuronal activity correlated well with the heightened anxiety-like but not the social avoidance behavior in mice. These findings provide new insight to our understanding of the role of neuronal activity in the amygdala in mediating stress-related psychiatric disorders.


Subject(s)
Amygdala , Animals , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety Disorders , Avoidance Learning , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Social Behavior , Stress, Psychological/complications
2.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 697-708, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785788

ABSTRACT

Despite some innate limitations, animal models are a potent investigative tool when used to model specific symptoms of a disorder. For example, MK-801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, is used as a pharmacological tool to induce symptoms found in some neuropsychiatric disorders. However, a close examination of literature suggests that the application window of MK-801 doses is relatively narrow between individual behavioral paradigms, necessitating careful characterization of the evoked behavioral aberrations and the doses used to induce them. Moreover, variation in behaviors depending on the animal strain, gender of the subject, and the timing of administration is observed, making it difficult to compare the behavioral characteristics reported in different studies. We aim to characterize the behavioral aberrations induced by different doses of MK-801 in CD-1 mice and create a ready reference for future studies. We used CD-1 mice to recapitulate behavioral impairments resulting from acute administration of MK-801. In 0.1 mg kg⁻¹, we observed diminished spontaneous alteration during the Y-maze test, while 0.12 mg kg⁻¹ resulted in hyperlocomotion and social deficit. Mice treated with 0.2 and 0.3 mg kg⁻¹ of MK-801 demonstrated a decreased self-grooming. Finally, all doses significantly impaired cliff avoidance behaviors suggesting increased impulsivity. These results affirm that MK-801 can effectively model various symptoms of different neuropsychiatric disorders in a dose-dependent manner. The observed sensitivity against spatial-memory impairment and impulsive behaviors at low concentration of MK-801 suggest that MK801 may modulate cognitive function and impulsivity in even lower concentration before it can modulate other behavioral domains.


Subject(s)
Animals , Avoidance Learning , Cognition , Dizocilpine Maleate , Impulsive Behavior , Mice , Models, Animal , N-Methylaspartate
4.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 40(2): 93-103, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-963091

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the clinical functioning of the criticism avoidance dimension from the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory 2 (Inventário Dimensional Clínico da Personalidade 2 [IDCP-2]), establishing a clinically relevant cut-off for the typical traits of avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) for screening purposes. Methods: We administered the IDCP-2 to a sample of 2,276 subjects aged 18 to 90 years (mean = 26.95, standard deviation = 9.71). Of the total sample, 1,650 were women (67%) and most were college students (72.7%). The sample was divided into psychiatric patients diagnosed with other personality disorders (PDs) (n = 53), patients diagnosed with AvPD without comorbidities (n = 10), patients with AvPD with comorbidities (n=42) and those without a known diagnosis of PD (nonpsychiatric patients; n=2,171). Results: We checked for psychometric properties, assessed the adequacy of psychometric assumptions, and proceeded to focus analyses. The Wright item-person map showed the predominance of patients with AvPD in high levels of the scale. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) post hoc comparisons pointed to significant and expressive differences for almost all the comparisons; in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, we observed a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 87%. Conclusion: We found a suitable cut-off for the dimension, and results suggest that the dimension may help clinicians discriminate between patients with and without high levels in the symptoms of AvPD.


Resumo Objetivo: Investigar o funcionamento clínico da dimensão evitação a críticas do Inventário Dimensional Clínico da Personalidade 2 (IDCP-2), estabelecendo um ponto de corte relevante para traços típicos do transtorno da personalidade evitativa (avoidant personality disorder - AvPD), para finalidade de triagem. Métodos: Nós aplicamos o IDCP-2 em uma amostra de 2.276 pessoas com idade entre 18 e 90 anos (média=26,95; desvio padrão=9,71). Dessa amostra, 1.650 eram mulheres (67%) e a maioria era de universitários (72,7%). A amostra foi dividida em pacientes psiquiátricos com outros transtornos de personalidade (PD; n = 53), pacientes com AvPD sem comorbidades (n = 10), pacientes com AvPD com comorbidades (n=42) e aqueles sem diagnóstico conhecido de PD (pacientes não psiquiátricos; n=2.171). Resultados: Foram verificadas as propriedades psicométricas, investigando a adequação dos pressupostos psicométricos, e então procedemos às análises principais. O mapa Wright de itens-pessoas mostrou a predominância de pacientes com AvPD nos níveis mais altos da escala. Análises post hoc, pela análise de variância (ANOVA), apontou para diferenças significativas e expressivas para quase todas as comparações; na curva ROC, nós observamos sensibilidade de 79% e especificidade de 87%. Conclusão: Foi encontrado um ponto de corte adequado para a dimensão, e os resultados sugerem que a dimensão pode auxiliar clínicos a discriminar pacientes com elevação nos traços do AvPD de pacientes sem elevação nesses traços.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Personality Disorders/diagnosis , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Personality Disorders/complications , Personality Disorders/epidemiology , Personality Inventory , Psychometrics , Avoidance Learning , Comorbidity , ROC Curve , Analysis of Variance , Middle Aged
5.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(1): 32-40, Jan. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888340

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In this study, the effect of thymoquinone (TQ) on propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced memory impairment was investigated in juvenile rats. The rats were grouped into control, Hypo, Hypo-TQ5 and Hypo-TQ10. Propylthiouracil increased latency time in the Morris water maze test and decreased delay in entering the dark compartment in the passive avoidance test. Both 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg doses of TQ decreased latency time in the Morris water maze test and increased delay in entering the dark compartment in a passive avoidance test. The PTU also increased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide metabolites in the brain while reduced the thiol content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and serum T4 level. Both doses of TQ decreased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide metabolites in the brain while enhanced the thiol content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and serum T4 level. The results of the present study showed that TQ protected against PTU-induced memory impairments in rats.


RESUMO Neste estudo, foi investigado o efeito da timoquinona (TQ) contra deficiências de memória induzidas por propiltiouracilo (PTU) em ratos juvenis. Os ratos foram agrupados em grupos: controle, Hypo, Hypo-TQ5, e Hypo-TQ10. O PTU aumentou o tempo de latência no teste do labirinto aquático de Morris (MWM) e diminuiu o atraso para entrar no compartimento escuro no teste de evasão passiva (PA). Ambas as doses de TQ diminuíram o tempo de latência no teste de MWM e aumentaram o atraso para entrar no compartimento escuro no teste de PA. O PTU também aumentou os metabolitos de malondialdeído (MDA) e óxido nítrico (NO) no cérebro, enquanto reduziu o teor de tiol e as atividades de superóxido dismutasa (SOD) e catalasa (CAT) e o nível sérico de T4. Ambas as doses de TQ diminuíram os metabolitos de MDA e de NO no cérebro, aumentaram o conteúdo de tiol e as atividades de SOD e CAT e o nível de T4 no soro. Os resultados do presente estudo mostraram que a TQ protegeu contra deficiências de memória induzidas por PTU em ratos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Benzoquinones/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Hypothyroidism/complications , Learning Disabilities/drug therapy , Memory Disorders/drug therapy , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Propylthiouracil , Avoidance Learning/drug effects , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Antithyroid Agents , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Catalase/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Maze Learning/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus/drug effects , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Learning Disabilities/chemically induced , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Memory Disorders/chemically induced , Nitric Oxide/analysis
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(10): e7564, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951711

ABSTRACT

Attention and emotion have a positive impact on memory formation, which is related to the activation of the noradrenergic system in the brain. The hippocampus and amygdala are fundamental structures in memory acquisition, which is modulated by noradrenaline through the noradrenergic receptors. Pharmacological studies suggest that memory acquisition depends on the action of both the β3 (β3-AR) and β2 (β2-AR) receptor subtypes. However, the use of animal models with specific knockout for the β3-AR receptor only (β3-ARKO) allows researchers to more accurately assess its role in memory formation processes. In the present study, we evaluated short- and long-term memory acquisition capacity in β3-ARKO mice and wild-type mice at approximately 60 days of age. The animals were submitted to the open field test, the elevated plus maze, object recognition, and social preference. The results showed that the absence of the β3-AR receptor caused no impairment in locomotion and did not cause anxious behavior, but it caused significant impairment of short- and long-term memory compared to wild-type animals. We also evaluated the expression of genes involved in memory consolidation. The mRNA levels for GLUT3, a glucose transporter expressed in the central nervous system, were significantly reduced in the amygdala, but not in the hippocampus of the β3-ARKO animals. Our results showed that β3-AR was involved in the process of acquisition of declarative memory, and its action may be due to the facilitation of glucose absorption in the amygdala.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Avoidance Learning/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Maze Learning/physiology , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3/physiology , Memory Consolidation/physiology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3/metabolism
7.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 74-84, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777079

ABSTRACT

To investigate the behavioral and biomolecular similarity between neuralgia and depression, a trigeminal neuralgia (TN) mouse model was established by constriction of the infraorbital nerve (CION) to mimic clinical trigeminal neuropathic pain. A mouse learned helplessness (LH) model was developed to investigate inescapable foot-shock-induced psychiatric disorders like depression in humans. Mass spectrometry was used to assess changes in the biomolecules and signaling pathways in the hippocampus from TN or LH mice. TN mice developed not only significant mechanical allodynia but also depressive-like behaviors (mainly behavioral despair) at 2 weeks after CION, similar to LH mice. MS analysis demonstrated common and distinctive protein changes in the hippocampus between groups. Many protein function families (such as cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, and cell assembly and organization,) and signaling pathways (e.g., the Huntington's disease pathway) were involved in chronic neuralgia and depression. Together, these results demonstrated that the LH and TN models both develop depressive-like behaviors, and revealed the involvement of many psychiatric disorder-related biomolecules/pathways in the pathogenesis of TN and LH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Avoidance Learning , Physiology , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Metabolism , Depression , Pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Electroshock , Functional Laterality , Helplessness, Learned , Hindlimb Suspension , Psychology , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Orbit , Pain Measurement , Proteomics , Methods , Reaction Time , Physiology , Signal Transduction , Physiology , Trigeminal Neuralgia , Pathology
8.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 901-911, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777003

ABSTRACT

Animals always seek rewards and the related neural basis has been well studied. However, what happens when animals fail to get a reward is largely unknown, although this is commonly seen in behaviors such as predation. Here, we set up a behavioral model of repeated failure in reward pursuit (RFRP) in Drosophila larvae. In this model, the larvae were repeatedly prevented from reaching attractants such as yeast and butyl acetate, before finally abandoning further attempts. After giving up, they usually showed a decreased locomotor speed and impaired performance in light avoidance and sugar preference, which were named as phenotypes of RFRP states. In larvae that had developed RFRP phenotypes, the octopamine concentration was greatly elevated, while tβh mutants devoid of octopamine were less likely to develop RFRP phenotypes, and octopamine feeding efficiently restored such defects. By down-regulating tβh in different groups of neurons and imaging neuronal activity, neurons that regulated the development of RFRP states and the behavioral exhibition of RFRP phenotypes were mapped to a small subgroup of non-glutamatergic and glutamatergic octopaminergic neurons in the central larval brain. Our results establish a model for investigating the effect of depriving an expected reward in Drosophila and provide a simplified framework for the associated neural basis.


Subject(s)
Acetates , Pharmacology , Animals , Animals, Genetically Modified , Avoidance Learning , Physiology , Biogenic Amines , Metabolism , Conditioning, Operant , Physiology , Drosophila , Physiology , Drosophila Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Feeding Behavior , Physiology , Instinct , Larva , Physiology , Locomotion , Genetics , Nervous System , Cell Biology , Neurons , Physiology , Octopamine , Metabolism , RNA Interference , Physiology , Reward , Statistics, Nonparametric , Transcription Factors , Genetics , Metabolism
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is an important complication in the treatment of patients with diabetes. We surveyed the insight by patients with diabetes into hypoglycemia, their hypoglycemia avoidance behavior, and their level of worry regarding hypoglycemia. METHODS: A survey of patients with diabetes, who had visited seven tertiary referral centers in Daegu or Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, between June 2014 and June 2015, was conducted. The survey contained questions about personal history, symptoms, educational experience, self-management, and attitudes about hypoglycemia. RESULTS: Of 758 participants, 471 (62.1%) had experienced hypoglycemia, and 250 (32.9%) had experienced hypoglycemia at least once in the month immediately preceding the study. Two hundred and forty-two (31.8%) of the participants had received hypoglycemia education at least once, but only 148 (19.4%) knew the exact definition of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemic symptoms identified by the participants were dizziness (55.0%), sweating (53.8%), and tremor (40.8%). They mostly chose candy (62.1%), chocolate (37.7%), or juice (36.8%) as food for recovering hypoglycemia. Participants who had experienced hypoglycemia had longer duration of diabetes and a higher proportion of insulin usage. The mean scores for hypoglycemia avoidance behavior and worry about hypoglycemia were 21.2±10.71 and 23.38±13.19, respectively. These scores tended to be higher for participants with higher than 8% of glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin use, and experience of emergency room visits. CONCLUSION: Many patients had experienced hypoglycemia and worried about it. We recommend identifying patients that are anxious about hypoglycemia and educating them about what to do when they develop hypoglycemic symptoms, especially those who have a high risk of hypoglycemia.


Subject(s)
Avoidance Learning , Cacao , Candy , Dizziness , Education , Emergency Service, Hospital , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Insulin , Korea , Self Care , Sweat , Sweating , Tertiary Care Centers , Tremor
10.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(4): 306-310, July.-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899435

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Fear-avoidance beliefs are related to the prognosis of chronicity in low back pain in subacute stages, however in chronic pain, is no clear the influence of these factors; it has been suggested that the study population can determine the magnitude of influence on disability and pain of those suffering from back pain. Currently, information does not exist in the Mexican population. Objective: To analyze the relationship between fear-avoidance beliefs with pain and disability in Mexicans with chronic low back pain; analyze potentials differences between subgroups according to the time of evolution. Methods: Cross-sectional study in Mexicans with chronic LBP aged between 18 and 45. Data were collected on general socio demographic characteristics, time of evolution, body mass index, pain, disability and fear-avoidance beliefs. Results: 33 men and 47 women, with an average age of 34.19 ± 7.65 years. Higher scores of fear-avoidance beliefs were obtained in women (47.2 ± 20.99 versus 38.5 ± 9.7; p = 0.05) and single participants (p = 0.04). A positive correlation was found between disability (r = 0.603, p < 0.001) and pain (r = 0.234, p = 0.03) with high scores of fear-avoidance beliefs. Through generalized linear models for disability, total score of the fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire showed a standardized beta coefficient of 0.603, p < 0.001 (R 2 of 0.656); for pain showed a standardized beta coefficient of 0.29, p = 0.01 (R 2 of 0.721). Conclusion: The present study suggests that there is a strong relationship between pain severity, FABQ scores, and functional disability in Mexicans with chronic LBP.


RESUMO Introdução: As crenças de medo e evitação estão relacionadas com o prognóstico da cronicidade da lombalgia nas fases subagudas; contudo, na dor crônica, não é clara a influência desses fatores. Sugeriu-se que um estudo populacional pode determinar a magnitude da influência da lombalgia sobre a incapacidade e a dor. Atualmente não há informação a esse respeito na população mexicana. Objetivo: Analisar a relação entre as crenças de medo e evitação com a dor e incapacidade em mexicanos com lombalgia crônica; analisar potenciais diferenças entre subgrupos determinados pelo tempo de evolução. Métodos: Estudo transversal em mexicanos com lombalgia crônica entre 18 e 45 anos. Coletaram-se dados sobre características sociodemográficas gerais, tempo de evolução, índice de massa corporal, dor, incapacidade e crenças de medo e evitação. Resultados: Foram estudados 33 homens e 47 mulheres com média de 34,19 ± 7,65 anos. Obtiveram-se escores de crenças de medo e evitação mais elevados em participantes do sexo feminino (47,2 ± 20,99 versus 38,5 ± 9,7; p = 0,05) e solteiros (p = 0,04). Encontrou-se uma correlação positiva entre a incapacidade (r = 0,603, p < 0,001) e a dor (r = 0,234, p = 0,03), com altas pontuações de crenças de medo e evitação. Por meio de modelos lineares generalizados para incapacidade, a pontuação total no questionário de crenças de medo e evitação mostrou um coeficiente beta padronizado de 0,603, p < 0,001 (R2 de 0,656); para a dor, mostrou um coeficiente beta padronizado de 0,29, p = 0,01 (R2 de 0,721). Conclusão: O presente estudo sugere que há uma forte relação entre a intensidade da dor, os escores no FABQ e a incapacidade funcional em mexicanos com lombalgia crônica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Avoidance Learning , Low Back Pain/psychology , Disabled Persons/psychology , Fear/psychology , Chronic Pain/psychology , Severity of Illness Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Low Back Pain/complications , Chronic Pain/complications , Mexico
11.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 258-264, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulpal pain is one of the most common and severe orofacial pain conditions with considerable adverse effects on physiological processes including learning and memory. Regular exercise is known to be effective on cognitive function as well as pain processing in the central nervous system. Here, the possible effects of regular exercise on pulpal pain response as well as pain-induced changes in learning and memory efficiency in rats were investigated. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the control, capsaicin, exercise, and exercise plus capsaicin groups. Rats in exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill with a moderate exercise protocol for 4 weeks. Capsaicin was used to induce dental pulp pain. Passive avoidance learning and memory performance was assessed by using a shuttle box apparatus. RESULTS: According to the results, regular exercise could decrease the time course of capsaicin-induced pulpal pain (P < 0.001). Moreover, in capsaicin-treated rats, passive avoidance acquisition was impaired as compared to the control (P < 0.05) and exercise (P < 0.001) groups. Additionally, regular exercise before capsaicin injection could attenuate capsaicin-induced memory impairments (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the present data showed that regular exercise has inhibitory effects on capsaicin-induced pulpal pain as well as pain-induced cognitive dysfunction in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Avoidance Learning , Capsaicin , Central Nervous System , Cognition , Dental Pulp , Facial Pain , Humans , Learning , Male , Memory , Physiological Phenomena , Rats , Rats, Wistar
12.
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2015; 14 (2): 591-602
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-167966

ABSTRACT

Morphine's effects on learning and memory processes are well known to depend on synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Whereas the role of the hippocampus in morphine-induced amnesia and state-dependent learning is established, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are poorly understood. The present study intended to investigate whether administration of morphine can change the expression level of rat hippocampal proteins during learning of a passive avoidance task. A step-through type passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention. To identify the complex pattern of protein expression induced by morphine, we compared rat hippocampal proteome either in morphine-induced amnesia or in state-dependent learning by two-dimensional gel electerophoresis and combined mass spectrometry [MS and MS/MS]. Post-training administration of morphine decreased step-through latency. Pre-test administration of morphine induced state-dependent retrieval of the memory acquired under post-training morphine influence. In the hippocampus, a total of 18 proteins were identified whose MASCOT [Modular Approach to Software Construction Operation and Test] scores were inside 95% confidence level. Of these, five hippocampal proteins altered in morphine-induced amnesia and ten proteins were found to change in the hippocampus of animals that had received post-training and pre-test morphine. These proteins show known functions in cytoskeletal architecture, cell metabolism, neurotransmitter secretion and neuroprotection. The findings indicate that the effect of morphine on memory formation in passive avoidance learning has a morphological correlate on the hippocampal proteome level. In addition, our proteomic screen suggests that morphine induces memory impairment and state-dependent learning through modulating neuronal plasticity


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Proteome , Hippocampus , Rats, Wistar , Amnesia , Avoidance Learning
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-243436

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of serotonin (5-HTIA) receptors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) on active avoidance learning in rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 36 SD rats were randomly divided into control group, antagonist group and agonist group(n = 12). Active avoidance learning ability of rats was assessed by the shuttle box. The extracellular concentrations of 5-HT in the DG during active avoidance conditioned reflex were measured by microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. Then the antagonist (WAY-100635) or agonist (8-OH-DPAT) of the 5-HT1A receptors were microinjected into the DG region, and the active avoidance learning was measured.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) During the active avoidance learning, the concentration of 5-HT in the hippocampal DG was significantly increased in the extinction but not establishment in the conditioned reflex, which reached 164.90% ± 26.07% (P <0.05) of basal level. (2) The microinjection of WAY-100635 (an antagonist of 5-HT1A receptor) into the DG did not significantly affect the active avoidance learning. (3) The microinjection of 8-OH-DPAT(an agonist of 5-HT1A receptor) into the DG significantly facilitated the establishment process and inhibited the extinction process during active avoidance conditioned reflex.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The data suggest that activation of 5-HT1A receptors in hipocampal DG may facilitate active avoidance learning and memory in rats.</p>


Subject(s)
8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin , Pharmacology , Animals , Avoidance Learning , Dentate Gyrus , Physiology , Piperazines , Pharmacology , Pyridines , Pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A , Physiology , Serotonin , Physiology , Serotonin Receptor Agonists , Pharmacology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178037

ABSTRACT

Propofol is an anesthetic agent that gained wide use because of its fast induction of anesthesia and rapid recovery post-anesthesia. However, previous studies have reported immediate neurodegeneration and long-term impairment in spatial learning and memory from repeated neonatal propofol administration in animals. Yet, none of those studies has explored the sex-specific long-term physical changes and behavioral alterations such as social (sociability and social preference), emotional (anxiety), and other cognitive functions (spatial working, recognition, and avoidance memory) after neonatal propofol treatment. Seven-day-old Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats underwent repeated daily intraperitoneal injections of propofol or normal saline for 7 days. Starting fourth week of age and onwards, rats were subjected to behavior tests including open-field, elevated-plus-maze, Y-maze, 3-chamber social interaction, novel-object-recognition, passive-avoidance, and rotarod. Rats were sacrificed at 9 weeks and hippocampal protein expressions were analyzed by Western blot. Results revealed long-term body weight gain alterations in the growing rats and sex-specific impairments in spatial (female) and recognition (male) learning and memory paradigms. A markedly decreased expression of hippocampal NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit in female- and increased expression of AMPA GluR1 subunit protein expression in male rats were also found. Other aspects of behaviors such as locomotor activity and coordination, anxiety, sociability, social preference and avoidance learning and memory were not generally affected. These results suggest that neonatal repeated propofol administration disrupts normal growth and some aspects of neurodevelopment in rats in a sex-specific manner.


Subject(s)
alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid , Anesthesia , Animals , Anxiety , Avoidance Learning , Blotting, Western , Body Weight , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Interpersonal Relations , Learning , Male , Memory , Motor Activity , N-Methylaspartate , Propofol , Rats , Weight Gain
15.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 487-496, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-255921

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship of spatial learning ability and specific electrical activities of neural oscillations in the rat. The fast and general avoidance response groups were selected on the basis of the animals' responses to the electric shock in Y type maze, and their local field potentials (LFPs) of hippocampal CA3 area were recorded by wireless telemetry before and after shock avoidance training, respectively. The components of neural oscillations related to spatial identifying and learning ability were analyzed. The results showed that, compared with the general avoidance response group, the fast avoidance response group did not show any differences of LFPs in hippocampal CA3 area before electric shock avoidance trial, but showed significantly increased percentages of 0-10 Hz and 30-40 Hz rhythm in right hippocampal CA3 area after the shock avoidance training (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Fast Fourier transform showed that percentage increase of 0-10 Hz band occurred mainly in θ (3-7 Hz) frequency, and 30-40 Hz frequency change was equivalent to the γ1 band. Furthermore, compared with those before training, only the percentages of β, β2 (20-30 Hz) and γ1 rhythm increased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in fast avoidance response rats after training, while the θ rhythm percentage remained unchanged. In contrast, θ rhythm percentage and the large amplitude (intensity: +2.5 - -2.5 db) θ waves in right CA3 area of general avoidance response rats were significantly reduced after training (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the increased percentages of β2 and γ1 rhythm and high-level (unchanged) percentage of θ rhythm in the right hippocampus CA3 area might be related to strong spatial cognition ability of fast avoidance response rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Avoidance Learning , Beta Rhythm , CA3 Region, Hippocampal , Physiology , Electroshock , Gamma Rhythm , Rats , Spatial Learning , Theta Rhythm
16.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 72(2): 136-144, 02/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-702549

ABSTRACT

The maternal exposure to high fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy and breastfeeding have been considered an important inducer of alterations in offspring normal programming, both in animals and humans, and may disturb brain development. In the present study we investigated the somatic and sensory-motor development of the offspring from rat dams fed a HFD, compared with dams fed a control diet, during pregnancy or lactation. Indicators of the body growth, physical maturation, and reflex ontogeny were evaluated. Offspring of dams fed a HFD showed reduced weight and body growth, delayed physical maturation, and delayed maturation of the physiological reflexes, such as vibrissa placing, auditory startle response, and free-fall righting. Our findings suggest that maternal HFD during pregnancy or lactation modifies somatic and neurological development of the offspring, possibly increasing the risk of neuroendocrine and neuropsychiatric disorders later in life.


A exposição materna a dieta rica em gordura (DRG) durante a gravidez e a amamentação tem sido considerada um importante indutor de alterações da programação normal da prole, em animais e humanos, e pode atrapalhar o desenvolvimento do cérebro. No presente estudo, investigamos o desenvolvimento somático e sensório-motor da prole de ratas alimentadas com uma DRG, em comparação com ratas alimentadas com uma dieta controle, durante a gravidez ou lactação. Foram avaliados indicadores de crescimento corporal, maturação física e ontogênese de reflexos. A prole de ratas alimentadas com DRG mostrou redução de peso e crescimento do corpo, atraso da maturação física e maturação tardia de reflexos fisiológicos, tais como colocação pelas vibrissas, resposta ao susto e reação de aceleração. Nossos resultados sugerem que DRG materna durante a gravidez ou lactação modifica desenvolvimento somático e neurológico da prole, possivelmente aumentando o risco para distúrbios neuroendócrinos e neuropsiquiátricos mais tarde na vida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Rats , Avoidance Learning/physiology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology , Reflex/physiology , Animals, Newborn/growth & development , Body Weight , Lactation , Rats, Wistar
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-270616

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate whether the antioxidation and the regulation on the Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinases (ERK) signaling pathway are involved in the protective effects of blueberry on central nervous system.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>30 Senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were divided into three groups and treated with normal diet, blueberry extracts (200 mg/kg•bw/day) and cyaniding-3-O-galactoside (Cy-3-GAL) (50 mg/kg•bw/day) from blueberry for 8 weeks. 10 SAMR1 mice were set as control group. The capacity of spatial memory was assessed by Passive avoidance task and Morris water maze. Histological analyses on hippocampus were completed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity and the expression of ERK were detected.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Both Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts were shown effective functions to relieve cellular injury, improve hippocampal neurons survival and inhibit the pyramidal cell layer damage. Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts also increased SOD activity and reduced MDA content in brain tissues and plasma, and increased hippocampal phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) expression in SAMP8 mice. Further more, the passive avoidance task test showed that both the latency time and the number of errors were improved by Cy-3-GAL treatment, and the Morris Water Maze test showed significant decreases of latency were detected by Cy-3-GAL and blueberry extracts treatment on day 4.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Blueberry extracts may reverse the declines of cognitive and behavioral function in the ageing process through several pathways, including enhancing the capacity of antioxidation, altering stress signaling. Cy-3-GAL may be an important active ingredient for these biological effects.</p>


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Anthocyanins , Pharmacology , Avoidance Learning , Blueberry Plants , Chemistry , Dietary Supplements , Galactosides , Pharmacology , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Maze Learning , Memory , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 , Metabolism , Phosphorylation , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism
18.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Dec; 51(12): 1094-1100
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150297

ABSTRACT

Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Amnesia/chemically induced , Amnesia/drug therapy , Amnesia/metabolism , Amnesia/pathology , Animals , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/chemistry , Avoidance Learning/drug effects , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Garlic/chemistry , Glutathione/metabolism , Humans , Learning/drug effects , Maze Learning/drug effects , Memory/drug effects , Mice , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Scopolamine/toxicity
19.
Medical Sciences Journal of Islamic Azad University. 2013; 23 (1): 14-20
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-130397

ABSTRACT

Several studies have reported that retinoic acid administration and/or consumption of a vitamin A-enriched diet could repair the aging induced memory deficits, decreased hippocampal long term potentiation [LTP]. Vitamin A deficiency impairs learning ability and hippocampal LTP in mice. In the present study, the effects of the vitamin A and pilocarpine [a muscarinic agonist] on memory retention in adult male rats were investigated. Post-training intracerebroventricular injections were carried out in all experiments. Memory retention was evaluated by using a step-through passive avoidance paradigm in adult male rats. Vitamin A [1000 and 2000 IU/rat] and pilocarpine [1 microg/rat] increased memory retention. The acetylcholine receptor agonist [pilocarpine] increased the response to vitamin A. The response to vitamin A was potentiated by pilocarpine. It is concluded that vitamin A elicits an interaction with the cholinergic system in memory retention


Subject(s)
Male , Animals, Laboratory , Learning/drug effects , Pilocarpine , Rats , Vitamin A , Avoidance Learning/drug effects
20.
Archives of Iranian Medicine. 2013; 16 (1): 34-37
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-130532

ABSTRACT

The amnesic effect of morphine is well known in the laboratory animals. But, it is unclear that morphine at what times can exactly affect different phases of memory, including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval. Therefore, we investigated the time profile of morphine's amnesic effect on passive [inhibitory] avoidance learning and memory in male Wistar rats. In order to evaluate the outcomes of pre- and post-training administrations of morphine, the animals were trained in a step-through type of passive avoidance task at various time points, and were tested 24 h after training to measure memory retrieval. The results showed that acquisition of memory was impaired in the animals that received a dose of 7.5 mg/kg of morphine [Intraperitoneally] at 0, 30 min, and 1 h before training, as evidenced by a decrease in step-through latency on the test day. Post-training administrations of morphine at 30 min and 1h, 4h except for the time immediately after training, did not impair memory consolidation. The results also showed that pre-test administrations of morphine at 0 and 30 min before the test, impaired retrieval of inhibitory avoidance memory. Taken together, the results suggest that morphine, when injected at different time points before training, after training, or before testing affects different phases of inhibitory avoidance memory. With regard to the time of injections related to each phase, other experiments can be designed to investigate molecular mechanisms involved in the impairing effect of morphine in each phase


Subject(s)
Male , Animals, Laboratory , Amnesia , Avoidance Learning , Memory/drug effects , Rats, Wistar
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL