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1.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(2): 107-112, Mar,-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153113

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the effects of pharmacological accommodation and cycloplegia on ocular measurements. Methods: Thirty-three healthy subjects [mean (±SD) age, 32.97 (±5.21) years] volunteered to participate in the study. Measurement of the axial length, macular and choroidal thickness, refractive error, and corneal topography, as well as anterior segment imaging, were performed. After these procedures, pharmacological accommodation was induced by applying pilocarpine eye drops (pilocarpine hydrochloride 2%), and the measurements were repeated. The measurements were repeated again after full cycloplegia was induced using cyclopentolate eye drops (cyclopentolate hydrochloride 1%). The correlations between the measurements were evaluated. Results: A significant increase in subfoveal choroidal thickness after applying 2% pilocarpine was identified (without the drops, 319.36 ± 90.08 µm; with pilocarpine instillation, 341.60 ± 99.19 µm; with cyclopentolate instillation, 318.36 ± 103.0 µm; p<0.001). A significant increase in the axial length was also detected (without the drops, 23.26 ± 0.83 mm; with pilocarpine instillation, 23.29 ± 0.84 mm; with cyclopentolate instillation, 23.27 ± 0.84 mm; p=0.003). Comparing pharmacological accommodation and cycloplegia revealed a significant difference in central macular thickness (with pilocarpine instillation, 262.27 ± 19.34 µm; with cyclopentolate instillation, 265.93 ± 17.91 µm; p=0.016). Pilocarpine-related miosis (p<0.001) and myopic shift (p<0.001) were more severe in blue eyes vs. brown eyes. Conclusion: Pharmacological accommodation may change ocular measurements, such as choroidal thickness and axial length. This condition should be considered when performing ocular measurements, such as intraocular lens power calculations.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivo: Investigar os efeitos da acomodação farmacológica e da cicloplegia nas medições oculares. Métodos: participaram do estudo 33 voluntários saudáveis (média de idade [± DP], 32,97 anos [± 5,21 anos]). Foram medidos o comprimento axial, a espessura macular e coroidal e o erro refrativo, bem como realizados exames de imagem da topografia corneana e do segmento anterior. Em seguida, foi induzida a acomodação farmacológica aplicando-se colírio de pilocarpina (cloridrato de pilocarpina a 2%) e as medições foram repetidas nos participantes. As mesmas medições foram repetidas depois de induzir a cicloplegia completa com colírio de ciclopentolato (cloridrato de ciclopentolato a 1%) e foram avaliadas as correlações entre as medidas. Resultados: Identificou-se aumento significativo da espessura coroidal subfoveal com o uso da pilocarpina a 2% (sem colírio, 319,36 ± 90,08 µm; com a instilação de pilocarpina, 341,60 ± 99,19 µm; com a instilação de ciclopentolato, 318,36 ± 103,0 µm; p<0,001). Detectou-se também aumento significativo do comprimento axial (sem colírio, 23,26 ± 0,83 mm; com a instilação de pilocarpina, 23,29 ± 0,84 mm; com a instilação de ciclopentolato, 23,27 ± 0,84 mm; p=0,003). Ao se comparar a acomodação farmacológica e a cicloplegia, houve diferença significativa na espessura macular central (com a instilação de pilocarpina, 262,27 ± 19,34 µm; com a instilação de ciclopentolato, 265,93 ± 17,91 µm; p=0,016). Observou-se que a miose associada à pilocarpina (p<0,001) e o desvio miópico (p<0,001) foram mais severos nos olhos azuis que nos castanhos. Conclusão: A acomodação farmacológica pode alterar medidas oculares como a espessura da coroide e o comprimento axial. Essa possibilidade deve ser levada em consideração ao se efetuarem medições oculares, tais como cálculos de potência de lentes intraoculares.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Accommodation, Ocular , Pilocarpine/pharmacology , Corneal Topography/instrumentation , Axial Length, Eye/anatomy & histology , Mydriatics/pharmacology
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(2): 129-135, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989398

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To determine the reliability of swept- source optical coherence tomography in cases in which soft contact lenses cannot be removed when acquiring biometric measurements. Methods: Eight subjects were included and only one eye per participant was analyzed. Each eye was measured six times by swept-source optical coherence tomography with the IOLMaster 700 instrument (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany). Axial length, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and keratometric measurements were evaluated for the naked eye and while wearing soft contact lenses of three different powers (-1.5, -3.0, and +2.0 D). Results: There were statistically significant changes in axial length, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, and keratometric measurements with soft contact lenses as compared to the naked eye (p<0.001). However, there were no significant differences in lens thickness outcomes between the naked eye and while wearing the three soft contact lenses (p>0.5). The changes in axial length, central corneal thickness, and anterior chamber depth were lens-specific and dependent on the thickness of the lens used. Conclusions: Sept-source optical coherence tomography based lens thickness measurements while wearing soft contact lenses are comparable to those of the naked eye. However, the thickness and the optical design of the soft contact lens may lead to significant differences in the axial lengh, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber deph, and keratometric measurements.


RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a confiabilidade da tomografia de coerência óptica de varredura em casos especiais em que lentes de contato gelatinosas não podem ser removidas ao realizar medições biométricas. Métodos: Oito indivíduos foram incluídos e apenas um olho por participante foi analisado. Cada olho foi medido seis vezes por tomografia de coerência óptica de varredura com o instrumento IOLMaster 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Alemanha). O comprimento axial, a espessura central da córnea, a profundidade da câmara anterior, a espessura da lente e as medidas ceratométricas foram avaliados a olho nu e enquanto usavam lentes de contato gelatinosas de três diferentes potências (-1,5, -3,0 e +2,0 D). Resultados: Houve alterações significativas no comprimento axial, espessura central da córnea, profundidade da câmara anterior e medidas ceratométricas com as lentes de contato gelatinosas em comparação com as a olho nu (p<0,001). No entanto, não houve diferenças significativas nos resultados de espessura do cristalino entre o olho nu e enquanto usava as três lentes de contato gelatinosas (p>0,5). As alterações de comprimento axial, espessura central da córnea e profundidade da câmara anterior foram específicas da lente e dependentes da espessura da lente usada. Conclusões: As medições da espessura da lente baseadas na tomografia de coerência óptica da Sept-source, enquanto usam lentes de lentes de contato gelatinosas, são comparáveis às do olho nu. Entretanto, a es pessura e o desenho óptico da lente de contato gelatinosa podem levar a diferenças significativas no comprimento axial, na espessura central da córnea, na profundidade da câmara anterior e nas medidas ceratométricas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Biometry/methods , Contact Lenses , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Axial Length, Eye/anatomy & histology , Axial Length, Eye/diagnostic imaging , Anterior Eye Segment/anatomy & histology , Anterior Eye Segment/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cross-Over Studies
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197516

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the thickness and volume of the choroid in healthy Korean children using swept-source optical coherence tomography. METHODS: We examined 80 eyes of 40 healthy children and teenagers ( or =18 years) and compared adult measurements with the findings in children. RESULTS: The mean age of the children and teenagers was 9.47 +/- 3.80 (4 to 17) vs. 55.04 +/- 12.63 years (36 to 70 years) in the adult group (p < 0.001, Student's t-test). Regarding the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study subfields, the inner temporal subfield was the thickest (247.96 microm). The inner and outer nasal choroid were thinner (p = 0.004, p = 0.002, respectively) than the surrounding areas. The mean choroidal volumes of the inner and outer nasal areas were smaller (p = 0.004, p = 0.003, respectively) than those of all the other areas in each circle. Among the nine subfields, all areas in the children, except the outer nasal subfield, were thicker than those in adults (p < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that age, axial length, and refractive error correlated with subfoveal choroidal thickness (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Overall macular choroidal thickness and volume in children and teenagers were significantly greater than in adults. The nasal choroid was significantly thinner than the surrounding areas. The pediatric subfoveal choroid is prone to thinning with increasing age, axial length, and refractive error. These differences should be considered when choroidal thickness is evaluated in children with chorioretinal diseases.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aging/physiology , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Axial Length, Eye/anatomy & histology , Child , Child, Preschool , Choroid/anatomy & histology , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Macula Lutea/anatomy & histology , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Tomography, Optical Coherence
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