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1.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.377-382, tab, ilus.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352599
3.
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1355052

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: descrever as evidências disponíveis na literatura científica sobre eficácia e segurança do rituximabe comparado a diferentes tratamentos. Materiais e métodos: é uma revisão rápida de evidências científicas para tomada de decisão informada por evidências em políticas e práticas de saúde. Conclusão: o Rituximabe tem eficácia e segurança similares à da Ciclofosfamida, para terapia de indução de remissão e para manutenção da remissão e, para pacientes com doença recidivante, o Rituximabe é mais eficaz que a Ciclofosfamida para manter a remissão. Para terapia de manutenção, Rituximabe é mais eficaz que Azatioprina, com perfil de segurança similar. Diferentes regimes de dosagem do Rituximabe tem eficácia e segurança similar para terapia de manutenção. O Infliximabe parece ser superior ao Rituximabe nos desfechos de eficácia (indução e manutenção da remissão).


Objective: to describe the evidence available in the scientific literature on the efficacy and safety of rituximab compared to different treatments. Materials and Methods: is a rapid review of scientific evidence for evidence-informed decision making in health policy and practice. Conclusion: Rituximab has similar efficacy and safety to Cyclophosphamide, for remission induction therapy and for maintenance of remission, and for patients with relapsing disease, Rituximab is more effective than Cyclophosphamide in maintaining remission. For maintenance therapy, Rituximab is more effective than Azathioprine, with a similar safety profile. Different dosing regimens of Rituximab have similar efficacy and safety for maintenance therapy. Infliximab appears to be superior to Rituximab in efficacy outcomes (induction and maintenance of remission).


Subject(s)
Humans , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis/drug therapy , Systemic Vasculitis/drug therapy , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Microscopic Polyangiitis/drug therapy , Rituximab/drug effects , Azathioprine , Cyclophosphamide , Infliximab , Glucocorticoids
4.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(4): 545-550, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156339

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal comprende la enfermedad de Crohn (EC) y la colitis ulcerativa (CU). Esta última es una patología crónica caracterizada por una inflamación difusa de la mucosa colónica, que afecta el recto y se extiende de forma proximal. Su curso clínico es intermitente, con exacerbaciones y remisiones. Su tratamiento, por lo general, es farmacológico, con corticoides, inmunomoduladores e inhibidor del factor de necrosis tumoral (anti tumor necrosis factor, TNF), los cuales causan un estado de inmunosupresión en el paciente, que puede asociarse en algunos casos a infecciones oportunistas. En la literatura se describe la aparición de la criptococosis pulmonar en pacientes con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). En otros casos se asocia al tratamiento farmacológico de pacientes con EC, así como con otras infecciones oportunistas, tales como la tuberculosis y el herpes. Presentamos uno de los primeros casos de criptococosis pulmonar en un paciente con diagnóstico de colitis ulcerativa, quien recibió tratamiento escalonado con salicilatos, inmunomoduladores y terapia biológica. La infección fue documentada clínica, radiológica e histológicamente. El paciente recibió el tratamiento adecuado y presentó una evolución satisfactoria.


Abstract Inflammatory bowel disease comprises Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the latter being a chronic disease characterized by diffuse inflammation of the colonic mucosa that affects the rectum and extends proximally. Its clinical course is intermittent with exacerbations and remissions and its treatment is generally pharmacological, with steroids, immunomodulators, and anti-tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNF), which cause the patient to be in a state of immunosuppression associated, in some cases, with opportunistic infections. The literature describes the occurrence of pulmonary cryptococcosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, in cases associated with drug treatment of patients with CD, as well as with other opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and herpes. This is one of the first cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis reported in a patient diagnosed with ulcerative colitis, who received step therapy with salicylates, immunomodulators, and biological therapy. The infection was documented clinically, radiologically, and histologically. The patient received the appropriate treatment and had a satisfactory evolution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Azathioprine , Therapeutics , Prednisolone , Colitis, Ulcerative , Cryptococcosis , Opportunistic Infections , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Crohn Disease , HIV , Immunosuppression
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 361-365, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142340

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic liver disease, characterized by necroinflammation and autoimmune etiology. Studies evaluating the characteristics of patients with AIH are scarce in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the profile of patients with AIH in a specialized center in Southern Brazil and to verify factors related to treatment response. METHODS: this was a retrospective cohort study, which analyzed demographic, epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and histologic data. Patients with AIH diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (IAIHG) were included. In liver biopsies, the degree of fibrosis, histological activity, presence of hepatocyte rosettes, plasma cell infiltrates, and confluent necrosis were evaluated. In the statistical analysis, the significance level was 5%. RESULTS: Forty adults patients diagnosed with AIH were included. The evaluated population predominantly consisted of women (75.0%) and the average age at diagnosis was 44.2 years. The association with extrahepatic autoimmune diseases occurred in 20.0% of cases. Clinically, 35.0% of patients presented with acute onset hepatitis, 37.5% with cirrhosis, and 27.5% with other forms of presentation. The most common clinical manifestation was jaundice (47.5%). Thirty-five patients were treated, and of these, 97.1% used prednisone combined with azathioprine. The average treatment time was 2.7 years. Response to treatment was complete or partial in 30 (85.7%) and absent in 5 (14.3%) patients. There was no statistically significant difference when evaluating response to treatment in relation to forms of presentation, histological findings, and the presence of autoantibodies. Regarding fibrosis, regression was observed in 18.75% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Most patients with AIH were young at presentation and of female sex. The association with extrahepatic autoimmune diseases and cirrhosis at presentation was seen in a considerable proportion of patients. Treatment was effective, but there were no clinical, histological or serological parameters capable of predicting treatment response.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A hepatite autoimune (HAI) é uma doença hepática crônica, de caráter necroinflamatório e etiologia autoimune. Os estudos que avaliam as características de pacientes com HAI são escassos no Brasil. OBJETIVO: Nosso objetivo foi avaliar o perfil dos pacientes com HAI atendidos em um centro de referência do sul do Brasil e verificar fatores relacionados à resposta ao tratamento. MÉTODOS: Este foi um estudo de coorte retrospectivo, que analisou dados demográficos, epidemiológicos e clínicos. Nas biópsias hepáticas, foram avaliados o grau de fibrose, a atividade histológica, a presença de rosetas, de infiltrado plasmocitário e de necrose confluente. Na análise estatística, o nível de significância foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 40 pacientes adultos com diagnóstico de HAI. Houve predomínio do sexo feminino (75,0%), e a média de idade no diagnóstico foi de 44,2 anos. A associação com doenças autoimunes extra-hepáticas ocorreu em 20,0% dos casos. Clinicamente, 35,0% dos pacientes se apresentaram sob forma de hepatite aguda, 37,5% com cirrose e 27,5% com outras formas de apresentação. A manifestação clínica mais comum na apresentação foi a icterícia (47,5%). Trinta e cinco pacientes foram tratados, sendo que destes, 97,1% utilizaram prednisona associada com azatioprina. A média do tempo de tratamento foi 2,7 anos. A resposta ao tratamento foi completa ou parcial em 30 (85,7%) e ausente em 5 (14,3%) pacientes. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa quando avaliada a resposta ao tratamento em relação à forma de apresentação, aos achados histológicos e à presença de autoanticorpos. Em relação à fibrose, foi observada regressão em 18,75% dos casos. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria dos pacientes era jovem no momento do diagnóstico e do sexo feminino. A associação com doenças autoimunes extra-hepáticas e com cirrose na apresentação foi vista em uma parcela considerável dos casos. O tratamento foi eficaz, mas não houve parâmetros clínicos, histológicos ou sorológicos capazes de prever a resposta ao tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Liver/pathology , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Jaundice/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Middle Aged
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(6): 731-736, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142121

ABSTRACT

Abstract This is a narrative review of azathioprine. This medication is immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive, and it has been used widely through different medical specialties to modify disease. It has been proven useful for several dermatoses and it has encountered success when used as an off-label indication for other dermatologic diseases. Its mechanism of action is described thoroughly, as well as precautions for monitoring adequate levels in patients using it. Dermatologists should also be aware of the possible adverse events it may present. In dermatology it can be used in bullous and autoimmune diseases, and in other conditions, including intractable pruritus, atopic dermatitis, photodermatoses, psoriasis, and others. Azathioprine offers an alternative as a steroid-sparing agent and this review helps dermatologists prescribe it safely to all patients who require it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Dermatology , Eczema , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Brasília; s.n; 21 maio 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1097387

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 21 artigos.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Mercaptopurine/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 22(supl.1): e849, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280395

ABSTRACT

La incidencia de la miopatía inflamatoria idiopática es de 4 a 15 casos por cada millón de habitantes y su prevalencia de 60 por cada millón de habitantes. La dermatomiositis idiopática es más frecuente en las mujeres, aunque su asociación a fibrosis pulmonar es muy rara y solo se reporta en un 2 por ciento de los casos. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 50 años de edad, femenina, que presentó debilidad a nivel de la cintura escapular acompañada de fatiga. Tenía lesiones de rascado en diferentes regiones del cuerpo por prurito y lesiones eritematosas en la piel en ambos muslos. Además, se quejaba de dolores articulares generalizados con impotencia funcional y mialgias generalizadas progresivas e hipotrofia muscular de varios grupos musculares. El estudio analítico reveló enzimas musculares elevadas. La biopsia de piel y músculo mostró elementos sugestivos de dermatomiositis. Con la espirometría se detectó trastornos ventilatorios restrictivos de grave intensidad. Mediante la radiografía de tórax se halló infiltrado difuso peribroncovascular asociado a un trayecto fibroso y la tomografía axial computarizada precisó el pulmón con consolidación alveolar y discreto engrosamiento pleural. La paciente fue tratada con prednisona a 1 mg/kg/día asociado con azatioprina 1,5 mg/kg/día. Este tratamiento fue muy eficaz, y se logró una notable recuperación clínica y por estudios de laboratorio. Reportamos el caso de una paciente con dermatomiositis idiopática y fibrosis pulmonar. Esta asociación constituye un hallazgo infrecuente en nuestro medio y más aun con el paciente asintomático(AU)


The incidence of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy is from 4 to 15 cases per million inhabitants and its prevalence of 60 per million inhabitants. Idiopathic dermatomyositis is more frequent in women; Although its association with pulmonary fibrosis is described, it is very infrequent, it is only reported in 2 percent of cases. To describe a diagnosed case of idiopathic dermatomyositis and pulmonary fibrosis. A 50-year-old patient presented weakness at the level of the shoulder girdle accompanied by fatigue. Physical examination: Skin: scratching lesions in different regions of the body due to pruritus, erythematous lesions at the level of the skin on both thighs. Osteomyoarticular system: generalized joint pains with functional impotence and progressive generalized myalgias and muscular hypotrophy of several muscle groups. The analytical study revealed elevated muscle enzymes. The skin and muscle biopsy showed elements suggestive of dermatomyositis. Chest X-ray: diffuse peribronchovascular infiltrate associated with fibrous path. Spirometry: restrictive ventilatory disorders of severe intensity. Computed tomography of the lung with alveolar consolidation and discrete pleural thickening. We report the case of a patient with idiopathic dermatomyositis and pulmonary fibrosis. This association is an uncommon finding in our environment and even more so when the patient is asymptomatic(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Spirometry/methods , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Dermatomyositis/diagnosis , Myositis/epidemiology , Fatigue
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785347

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is newly recognized immune-mediated and fibroinflammatory conditions with various organ involvements. Any organs can be involved, but the pancreas, salivary gland, lymph nodes, and orbit are known to be commonly involved organs. A 54-year-old man presented with complaint of psoriasis like skin rash developed 4 years prior to admission. Although he had been treated for skin rash, the extent of skin lesions increased as well as hypereosinophilia, and multiple lymphadenopathies were newly developed. The patient was diagnosed with IgG4-RD by serum IgG4 levels and histologic examination of the inguinal lymph node. One month after treatment with steroid and azathioprine, his skin rash and lymphadenopathies resolved with improvement and eosinophil count was within the normal range. We herein report a case of a IgG4-RD patient associated with psoriasis-like skin rash and hypereosinophilic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Azathioprine , Eosinophils , Exanthema , Humans , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Lymph Nodes , Middle Aged , Orbit , Pancreas , Psoriasis , Reference Values , Salivary Glands , Skin
11.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(4): 419-427, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040348

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This large study with a long-term follow-up aimed to evaluate the clinical presentation, laboratory findings, histological profile, treatments, and outcomes of children and adolescents with autoimmune hepatitis. Methods: The medical records of 828 children and adolescents with autoimmune hepatitis were reviewed. A questionnaire was used to collect anonymous data on clinical presentation, biochemical and histological findings, and treatments. Results: Of all patients, 89.6% had autoimmune hepatitis-1 and 10.4% had autoimmune hepatitis-2. The female sex was predominant in both groups. The median age at symptom onset was 111.5 (6; 210) and 53.5 (8; 165) months in the patients with autoimmune hepatitis 1 and autoimmune hepatitis-2, respectively. Acute clinical onset was observed in 56.1% and 58.8% and insidious symptoms in 43.9% and 41.2% of the patients with autoimmune hepatitis-1 and autoimmune hepatitis-2, respectively. The risk of hepatic failure was 1.6-fold higher for autoimmune hepatitis-2. Fulminant hepatic failure occurred in 3.6% and 10.6% of the patients with autoimmune hepatitis-1 and autoimmune hepatitis-2, respectively; the risk was 3.1-fold higher for autoimmune hepatitis-2. The gamma globulin and immunoglobulin G levels were significantly higher in autoimmune hepatitis-1, while the immunoglobulin A and C3 levels were lower in autoimmune hepatitis-2. Cirrhosis was observed in 22.4% of the patients; biochemical remission was achieved in 76.2%. The actuarial survival rate was 93.0%. A total of 4.6% underwent liver transplantation, and 6.9% died (autoimmune hepatitis-1: 7.5%; autoimmune hepatitis-2: 2.4%). Conclusions: In this large clinical series of Brazilian children and adolescents, autoimmune hepatitis-1 was more frequent, and patients with autoimmune hepatitis-2 exhibited higher disease remission rates with earlier response to treatment. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis-1 had a higher risk of death.


Resumo Objetivo: Este estudo com acompanhamento de longo prazo visou a avaliar o quadro clínico, os achados laboratoriais, o perfil histológico, os tratamentos e os resultados de crianças e adolescentes com hepatite autoimune. Métodos: Foram analisados os prontuários médicos de 828 crianças e adolescentes com HAI. Foi usado um questionário para coletar os dados anônimos sobre o quadro clínico, os achados bioquímicos e histológicos e os tratamentos. Resultados: De todos os pacientes, 89,6% tinham hepatite autoimune-1 e 10,4% hepatite autoimune-2. O sexo feminino foi predominante nos dois grupos. A idade média no início dos sintomas foi 111,5 (6; 210) e 53,5 (8; 165) meses nos pacientes com hepatite autoimune-1 e hepatite autoimune-2, respectivamente. Foi observado início clínico agudo em 56,1% e 58,8% e sintomas insidiosos em 43,9% e 41,2% dos pacientes com hepatite autoimune-1 e hepatite autoimune-2, respectivamente. A probabilidade de insuficiência hepática foi 1,6 vezes maior para hepatite autoimune-2; 3,6% e 10,6% dos pacientes com hepatite autoimune-1 e hepatite autoimune-2, respectivamente, apresentaram insuficiência hepática fulminante; o risco foi 3,1 vezes maior para hepatite autoimune-2. Os níveis de gamaglobulina e imunoglobulina G foram significativamente maiores nos pacientes com hepatite autoimune-1, ao passo que os níveis de imunoglobulina A e C3 foram menores em pacientes com hepatite autoimune-2; 22,4% dos pacientes apresentaram cirrose e a remissão bioquímica foi atingida em 76,2%. A taxa de sobrevida atuarial foi de 93,0%. Um total de 4,6% pacientes foram submetidos a transplante de fígado e 6,9% morreram (hepatite autoimune-1: 7,5%; hepatite autoimune-2: 2,4%). Conclusões: Nesta grande série clínica de crianças e adolescentes brasileiros, a hepatite autoimune-1 foi mais frequente e os pacientes com hepatite autoimune-2 mostraram maiores taxas de remissão da doença com respostas mais rápidas aos tratamentos. Os pacientes com hepatite autoimune-1 apresentaram maior risco de óbito.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/pathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Autoantibodies/analysis , Biopsy, Needle , Brazil , Immunoglobulins/analysis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Survival Analysis , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood , Retrospective Studies , Immunosuppression , Treatment Outcome , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/immunology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Liver/pathology
12.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(7): 836-841, jul. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058612

ABSTRACT

Background: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an uncommon disease. In its presentation, it can be severe and even lethal. There is only one clinical report concerning this pathology in Chile. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and evolution of adult AIHA inpatients. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of clinical records of adult AIHA inpatients between January 2010 and June 2018 was done. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and therapeutic information was analyzed. A descriptive, analytical and survival analysis was performed. Results: Forty-three adult patients diagnosed with AHIA were hospitalized in a period of 8 years. Median age was 63 years (range 22-86 years), mostly women (72%). Warm antibodies were detected in 36 cases (84%) and cold antibodies in seven. Seventy two percent of the patients had an underlying cause, and 58% were secondary to lymphoproliferative neoplasms. All patients except two, received steroids as initial treatment, with response in 37 (90%) of them. Three refractory patients received rituximab, with response in all of them, and relapse in one. Median follow-up was 38 months (range 2-98 months). Five year overall survival was 72%. Conclusion: AHIA in adults inpatients is a heterogeneous disease, mainly due to warm antibodies, and to secondary etiology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Splenectomy , Azathioprine/administration & dosage , Survival Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Rituximab/administration & dosage , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/mortality , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/therapy
13.
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 21, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088627

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP) or IgA vasculitis is the most common vasculitis of childhood and may occur with renal involvement, with hematuria and / or proteinuria, and may cause severe and non-reversible sequelae. Objectives: To establish the profile of patients with renal involvement due to IgA vasculitisand to describe our experience with the use of azathioprine to treat patients with nephritis. Methods: Clinical data were retrospectively collected from medical records of patients with IgA vasculitiswho attended the pediatric rheumatology unit between 1995 and 2017. Patients were separated into two groups based on whether or notthey weretreated with non-glucocorticoid immunosuppressants. Results: From the178 patients with IgA vasculitis, nephritis was found in67 patients (37.6%), 13 of whom receivedtreatment with non-glucocorticoid immunosuppressants. Ten patients responded well to azathioprine and 1 patient to cyclosporine. Forty patients received oral glucocorticoids, whilst 16received intravenous glucocorticoids. Conclusion: Azathioprine may be beneficial in the treatment of IgA vasculitis with renal involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Purpura, Schoenlein-Henoch/physiopathology , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Vasculitis/physiopathology , Nephritis/drug therapy , Health Profile
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761965

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is one of the varieties of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Diagnosis of idiopathic NSIP can be done via multidisciplinary approach in which the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings were discussed together and exclude other causes. Clinical manifestations include subacute or chronic dyspnea and cough that last an average of 6 months, most of which occur in non-smoking, middle-aged women. The common findings in thoracic high-resolution computed tomography in NSIP are bilateral reticular opacities, traction bronchiectasis, reduced volume of the lobes, and ground-glass opacity in the lower lungs. These lesions can involve diffuse bilateral lungs or subpleural area. Unlike usual interstitial pneumonia, honeycombing is sparse or absent. Pathology shows diffuse interstitial inflammation and fibrosis which are temporally homogeneous, namely NSIP pattern. Idiopathic NSIP is usually treated with steroid only or combination with immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, and mycophenolate mofetil. Prognosis of idiopathic NSIP is better than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Many studies have reported a 5-year survival rate of more than 70%.


Subject(s)
Azathioprine , Bronchiectasis , Cough , Cyclophosphamide , Cyclosporine , Diagnosis , Dyspnea , Female , Fibrosis , Humans , Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Immunosuppressive Agents , Inflammation , Lung , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Pathology , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Traction
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719681

ABSTRACT

Crohn disease has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and rarely can present with complications such as a bowel stricture or fistula. In this case report, we describe a 17-year-old male who presented with a history of recurrent anterior abdominal wall abscesses and dysuria. He was diagnosed with Crohn disease and also found to have a fistulous communication between the terminal ileum and a patent urachus. An ileocecectomy with primary anastomosis and complete resection of the abscess cavity was performed. He is on azathioprine for maintenance therapy and currently in remission. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for this complication in Crohn disease patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of urachal anomalies such as suprapubic abdominal pain, dysuria, umbilical discharge, and periumbilical mass.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Abdominal Wall , Abscess , Adolescent , Azathioprine , Constriction, Pathologic , Crohn Disease , Dysuria , Fistula , Humans , Ileum , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Intestinal Fistula , Male , Urachus
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(2): 65-70, abr. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954951

ABSTRACT

La azatioprina es una tiopurina que presenta rango terapéutico estrecho y marcada toxicidad hematológica y hepática. La tiopurina S-metiltransferasa es una enzima que metaboliza ese grupo de drogas. Mutaciones en el gen que codifica dicha enzima aumentan el riesgo de presentar eventos adversos, por lo que su estudio farmacogenético permite contar con información para el diseño de la estrategia terapéutica. Sin embargo, su utilidad en el medio local no está completamente establecida. Fueron incluidos 45 sujetos (13 hombres) con indicación de azatioprina. Se determinó la presencia de las mutaciones *2, *3A, *3B y *3C de TMPT por PCR-RFLP y se analizó la relación entre el genotipo y la incidencia de eventos adversos relacionados al fármaco. Nueve portaban al menos un alelo no funcional, uno de ellos con genotipo *3A/*3A. Se detectó toxicidad en 3 de los 18 que iniciaron tratamiento con azatioprina: 2 pacientes con genotipo normal presentaron eventos adversos leves, y el único evento adverso de gravedad (aplasia medular) ocurrió en el sujeto con genotipo homocigota mutado. El único que presentó genotipo homocigota mutado desarrolló el más grave de los eventos adversos registrados, a pesar de estar en tratamiento con dosis bajas de azatioprina. Por este motivo, la determinación del genotipo de la tiopurina metiltransferasa pareciera ser de utilidad, pero no reemplaza la necesidad de seguimiento clínico y bioquímico en pacientes en tratamiento con tiopurinas.


Azathioprine is a thiopurine which has a narrow therapeutic index and marked hematological and hepatic toxicity. Thiopurine s-methyltransferase is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of thiopurines. Mutations in the gene that encodes the enzyme may augment the risk of adverse events. For that reason, pharmacogenetic determinations prior to the initiation of therapy can provide useful information for the future therapeutic strategy. Nevertheless, its utility in the local environment is not completely established. Forty-five subjects (13 men) who had been prescribed azathioprine were included. The presence of *2, *3A, *3B and *3C mutations were determined by PCR-RFLP, and the relationship between genotype and incidence of adverse events related to the drug was analyzed. Nine carried at least one non-functional allele, one of them with *3A/*3A genotype. Among the eighteen patients who initiated treatment with azathioprine, toxicity was detected in 3 cases: 2 mild events were observed in patients with normal genotype, and the only serious event (bone marrow suppression) occurred in the individual with homozygous mutant genotype. The only homozygous mutant patient developed the most severe of the registered events, in spite of being under treatment with low doses of azathioprine. This is the reason why enzymatic determination could be of utility, even though it does not replace clinical and biochemical follow-up in patients under thiopurine treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Azathioprine/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Methyltransferases/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Homozygote
20.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(2): 69-74, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116918

ABSTRACT

The management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is constantly changing due to the arrival of new therapeutic agents. Combined therapy (biological associated with immunosuppressive therapy) has proven to be effective, reducing immunogenicity (antibody formation), optimizing the pharmacokinetics of biological therapy with anti-TNF. This therapeutic strategy has associated risks (neoplasia and intercurrent infections) that are not only explained by the use of drugs but also by the increase of cases in older ages. It is essential for the medical team to be familiar with the optimization and personalization of the therapy to achieve clear therapeutic objectives with the lowest possible risks.


El manejo de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) está en constante cambio, debido a la llegada de nuevos agentes terapéuticos. La terapia combinada (terapia biológica asociada a inmunosupresores) ha demostrado ser efectiva al disminuir la inmunogenicidad (formación de anticuerpos) permitiendo la optimización farmacocinética. Esta estrategia terapéutica tiene riesgos asociados (neoplasias e infecciones intercurrentes) que no sólo se explican por el uso de fármacos sino también por el aumento de casos en edades más avanzadas. Es fundamental que el equipo tratante este familiarizado con la optimización y personalización de la terapia para así lograr objetivos terapéuticos claros con los menores riesgos posibles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Azathioprine/adverse effects , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Biological Therapy/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
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