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1.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.377-382, tab, ilus.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352599
2.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(6): 731-736, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142121

ABSTRACT

Abstract This is a narrative review of azathioprine. This medication is immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive, and it has been used widely through different medical specialties to modify disease. It has been proven useful for several dermatoses and it has encountered success when used as an off-label indication for other dermatologic diseases. Its mechanism of action is described thoroughly, as well as precautions for monitoring adequate levels in patients using it. Dermatologists should also be aware of the possible adverse events it may present. In dermatology it can be used in bullous and autoimmune diseases, and in other conditions, including intractable pruritus, atopic dermatitis, photodermatoses, psoriasis, and others. Azathioprine offers an alternative as a steroid-sparing agent and this review helps dermatologists prescribe it safely to all patients who require it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skin Diseases/drug therapy , Dermatology , Eczema , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 361-365, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142340

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic liver disease, characterized by necroinflammation and autoimmune etiology. Studies evaluating the characteristics of patients with AIH are scarce in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the profile of patients with AIH in a specialized center in Southern Brazil and to verify factors related to treatment response. METHODS: this was a retrospective cohort study, which analyzed demographic, epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and histologic data. Patients with AIH diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (IAIHG) were included. In liver biopsies, the degree of fibrosis, histological activity, presence of hepatocyte rosettes, plasma cell infiltrates, and confluent necrosis were evaluated. In the statistical analysis, the significance level was 5%. RESULTS: Forty adults patients diagnosed with AIH were included. The evaluated population predominantly consisted of women (75.0%) and the average age at diagnosis was 44.2 years. The association with extrahepatic autoimmune diseases occurred in 20.0% of cases. Clinically, 35.0% of patients presented with acute onset hepatitis, 37.5% with cirrhosis, and 27.5% with other forms of presentation. The most common clinical manifestation was jaundice (47.5%). Thirty-five patients were treated, and of these, 97.1% used prednisone combined with azathioprine. The average treatment time was 2.7 years. Response to treatment was complete or partial in 30 (85.7%) and absent in 5 (14.3%) patients. There was no statistically significant difference when evaluating response to treatment in relation to forms of presentation, histological findings, and the presence of autoantibodies. Regarding fibrosis, regression was observed in 18.75% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Most patients with AIH were young at presentation and of female sex. The association with extrahepatic autoimmune diseases and cirrhosis at presentation was seen in a considerable proportion of patients. Treatment was effective, but there were no clinical, histological or serological parameters capable of predicting treatment response.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A hepatite autoimune (HAI) é uma doença hepática crônica, de caráter necroinflamatório e etiologia autoimune. Os estudos que avaliam as características de pacientes com HAI são escassos no Brasil. OBJETIVO: Nosso objetivo foi avaliar o perfil dos pacientes com HAI atendidos em um centro de referência do sul do Brasil e verificar fatores relacionados à resposta ao tratamento. MÉTODOS: Este foi um estudo de coorte retrospectivo, que analisou dados demográficos, epidemiológicos e clínicos. Nas biópsias hepáticas, foram avaliados o grau de fibrose, a atividade histológica, a presença de rosetas, de infiltrado plasmocitário e de necrose confluente. Na análise estatística, o nível de significância foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 40 pacientes adultos com diagnóstico de HAI. Houve predomínio do sexo feminino (75,0%), e a média de idade no diagnóstico foi de 44,2 anos. A associação com doenças autoimunes extra-hepáticas ocorreu em 20,0% dos casos. Clinicamente, 35,0% dos pacientes se apresentaram sob forma de hepatite aguda, 37,5% com cirrose e 27,5% com outras formas de apresentação. A manifestação clínica mais comum na apresentação foi a icterícia (47,5%). Trinta e cinco pacientes foram tratados, sendo que destes, 97,1% utilizaram prednisona associada com azatioprina. A média do tempo de tratamento foi 2,7 anos. A resposta ao tratamento foi completa ou parcial em 30 (85,7%) e ausente em 5 (14,3%) pacientes. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa quando avaliada a resposta ao tratamento em relação à forma de apresentação, aos achados histológicos e à presença de autoanticorpos. Em relação à fibrose, foi observada regressão em 18,75% dos casos. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria dos pacientes era jovem no momento do diagnóstico e do sexo feminino. A associação com doenças autoimunes extra-hepáticas e com cirrose na apresentação foi vista em uma parcela considerável dos casos. O tratamento foi eficaz, mas não houve parâmetros clínicos, histológicos ou sorológicos capazes de prever a resposta ao tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Liver/pathology , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Jaundice/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Middle Aged
4.
Brasília; s.n; 21 maio 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1097387

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 21 artigos.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Zinc/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Mercaptopurine/therapeutic use
5.
Rev. cuba. reumatol ; 22(supl.1): e849, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280395

ABSTRACT

La incidencia de la miopatía inflamatoria idiopática es de 4 a 15 casos por cada millón de habitantes y su prevalencia de 60 por cada millón de habitantes. La dermatomiositis idiopática es más frecuente en las mujeres, aunque su asociación a fibrosis pulmonar es muy rara y solo se reporta en un 2 por ciento de los casos. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 50 años de edad, femenina, que presentó debilidad a nivel de la cintura escapular acompañada de fatiga. Tenía lesiones de rascado en diferentes regiones del cuerpo por prurito y lesiones eritematosas en la piel en ambos muslos. Además, se quejaba de dolores articulares generalizados con impotencia funcional y mialgias generalizadas progresivas e hipotrofia muscular de varios grupos musculares. El estudio analítico reveló enzimas musculares elevadas. La biopsia de piel y músculo mostró elementos sugestivos de dermatomiositis. Con la espirometría se detectó trastornos ventilatorios restrictivos de grave intensidad. Mediante la radiografía de tórax se halló infiltrado difuso peribroncovascular asociado a un trayecto fibroso y la tomografía axial computarizada precisó el pulmón con consolidación alveolar y discreto engrosamiento pleural. La paciente fue tratada con prednisona a 1 mg/kg/día asociado con azatioprina 1,5 mg/kg/día. Este tratamiento fue muy eficaz, y se logró una notable recuperación clínica y por estudios de laboratorio. Reportamos el caso de una paciente con dermatomiositis idiopática y fibrosis pulmonar. Esta asociación constituye un hallazgo infrecuente en nuestro medio y más aun con el paciente asintomático(AU)


The incidence of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy is from 4 to 15 cases per million inhabitants and its prevalence of 60 per million inhabitants. Idiopathic dermatomyositis is more frequent in women; Although its association with pulmonary fibrosis is described, it is very infrequent, it is only reported in 2 percent of cases. To describe a diagnosed case of idiopathic dermatomyositis and pulmonary fibrosis. A 50-year-old patient presented weakness at the level of the shoulder girdle accompanied by fatigue. Physical examination: Skin: scratching lesions in different regions of the body due to pruritus, erythematous lesions at the level of the skin on both thighs. Osteomyoarticular system: generalized joint pains with functional impotence and progressive generalized myalgias and muscular hypotrophy of several muscle groups. The analytical study revealed elevated muscle enzymes. The skin and muscle biopsy showed elements suggestive of dermatomyositis. Chest X-ray: diffuse peribronchovascular infiltrate associated with fibrous path. Spirometry: restrictive ventilatory disorders of severe intensity. Computed tomography of the lung with alveolar consolidation and discrete pleural thickening. We report the case of a patient with idiopathic dermatomyositis and pulmonary fibrosis. This association is an uncommon finding in our environment and even more so when the patient is asymptomatic(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Spirometry/methods , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Dermatomyositis/diagnosis , Myositis/epidemiology , Fatigue
6.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(4): 419-427, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040348

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: This large study with a long-term follow-up aimed to evaluate the clinical presentation, laboratory findings, histological profile, treatments, and outcomes of children and adolescents with autoimmune hepatitis. Methods: The medical records of 828 children and adolescents with autoimmune hepatitis were reviewed. A questionnaire was used to collect anonymous data on clinical presentation, biochemical and histological findings, and treatments. Results: Of all patients, 89.6% had autoimmune hepatitis-1 and 10.4% had autoimmune hepatitis-2. The female sex was predominant in both groups. The median age at symptom onset was 111.5 (6; 210) and 53.5 (8; 165) months in the patients with autoimmune hepatitis 1 and autoimmune hepatitis-2, respectively. Acute clinical onset was observed in 56.1% and 58.8% and insidious symptoms in 43.9% and 41.2% of the patients with autoimmune hepatitis-1 and autoimmune hepatitis-2, respectively. The risk of hepatic failure was 1.6-fold higher for autoimmune hepatitis-2. Fulminant hepatic failure occurred in 3.6% and 10.6% of the patients with autoimmune hepatitis-1 and autoimmune hepatitis-2, respectively; the risk was 3.1-fold higher for autoimmune hepatitis-2. The gamma globulin and immunoglobulin G levels were significantly higher in autoimmune hepatitis-1, while the immunoglobulin A and C3 levels were lower in autoimmune hepatitis-2. Cirrhosis was observed in 22.4% of the patients; biochemical remission was achieved in 76.2%. The actuarial survival rate was 93.0%. A total of 4.6% underwent liver transplantation, and 6.9% died (autoimmune hepatitis-1: 7.5%; autoimmune hepatitis-2: 2.4%). Conclusions: In this large clinical series of Brazilian children and adolescents, autoimmune hepatitis-1 was more frequent, and patients with autoimmune hepatitis-2 exhibited higher disease remission rates with earlier response to treatment. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis-1 had a higher risk of death.


Resumo Objetivo: Este estudo com acompanhamento de longo prazo visou a avaliar o quadro clínico, os achados laboratoriais, o perfil histológico, os tratamentos e os resultados de crianças e adolescentes com hepatite autoimune. Métodos: Foram analisados os prontuários médicos de 828 crianças e adolescentes com HAI. Foi usado um questionário para coletar os dados anônimos sobre o quadro clínico, os achados bioquímicos e histológicos e os tratamentos. Resultados: De todos os pacientes, 89,6% tinham hepatite autoimune-1 e 10,4% hepatite autoimune-2. O sexo feminino foi predominante nos dois grupos. A idade média no início dos sintomas foi 111,5 (6; 210) e 53,5 (8; 165) meses nos pacientes com hepatite autoimune-1 e hepatite autoimune-2, respectivamente. Foi observado início clínico agudo em 56,1% e 58,8% e sintomas insidiosos em 43,9% e 41,2% dos pacientes com hepatite autoimune-1 e hepatite autoimune-2, respectivamente. A probabilidade de insuficiência hepática foi 1,6 vezes maior para hepatite autoimune-2; 3,6% e 10,6% dos pacientes com hepatite autoimune-1 e hepatite autoimune-2, respectivamente, apresentaram insuficiência hepática fulminante; o risco foi 3,1 vezes maior para hepatite autoimune-2. Os níveis de gamaglobulina e imunoglobulina G foram significativamente maiores nos pacientes com hepatite autoimune-1, ao passo que os níveis de imunoglobulina A e C3 foram menores em pacientes com hepatite autoimune-2; 22,4% dos pacientes apresentaram cirrose e a remissão bioquímica foi atingida em 76,2%. A taxa de sobrevida atuarial foi de 93,0%. Um total de 4,6% pacientes foram submetidos a transplante de fígado e 6,9% morreram (hepatite autoimune-1: 7,5%; hepatite autoimune-2: 2,4%). Conclusões: Nesta grande série clínica de crianças e adolescentes brasileiros, a hepatite autoimune-1 foi mais frequente e os pacientes com hepatite autoimune-2 mostraram maiores taxas de remissão da doença com respostas mais rápidas aos tratamentos. Os pacientes com hepatite autoimune-1 apresentaram maior risco de óbito.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/pathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Autoantibodies/analysis , Biopsy, Needle , Brazil , Immunoglobulins/analysis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Survival Analysis , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood , Retrospective Studies , Immunosuppression , Treatment Outcome , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/immunology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Liver/pathology
7.
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 21, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088627

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP) or IgA vasculitis is the most common vasculitis of childhood and may occur with renal involvement, with hematuria and / or proteinuria, and may cause severe and non-reversible sequelae. Objectives: To establish the profile of patients with renal involvement due to IgA vasculitisand to describe our experience with the use of azathioprine to treat patients with nephritis. Methods: Clinical data were retrospectively collected from medical records of patients with IgA vasculitiswho attended the pediatric rheumatology unit between 1995 and 2017. Patients were separated into two groups based on whether or notthey weretreated with non-glucocorticoid immunosuppressants. Results: From the178 patients with IgA vasculitis, nephritis was found in67 patients (37.6%), 13 of whom receivedtreatment with non-glucocorticoid immunosuppressants. Ten patients responded well to azathioprine and 1 patient to cyclosporine. Forty patients received oral glucocorticoids, whilst 16received intravenous glucocorticoids. Conclusion: Azathioprine may be beneficial in the treatment of IgA vasculitis with renal involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Purpura, Schoenlein-Henoch/physiopathology , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Vasculitis/physiopathology , Nephritis/drug therapy , Health Profile
9.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 29(2): 69-74, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116918

ABSTRACT

The management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is constantly changing due to the arrival of new therapeutic agents. Combined therapy (biological associated with immunosuppressive therapy) has proven to be effective, reducing immunogenicity (antibody formation), optimizing the pharmacokinetics of biological therapy with anti-TNF. This therapeutic strategy has associated risks (neoplasia and intercurrent infections) that are not only explained by the use of drugs but also by the increase of cases in older ages. It is essential for the medical team to be familiar with the optimization and personalization of the therapy to achieve clear therapeutic objectives with the lowest possible risks.


El manejo de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII) está en constante cambio, debido a la llegada de nuevos agentes terapéuticos. La terapia combinada (terapia biológica asociada a inmunosupresores) ha demostrado ser efectiva al disminuir la inmunogenicidad (formación de anticuerpos) permitiendo la optimización farmacocinética. Esta estrategia terapéutica tiene riesgos asociados (neoplasias e infecciones intercurrentes) que no sólo se explican por el uso de fármacos sino también por el aumento de casos en edades más avanzadas. Es fundamental que el equipo tratante este familiarizado con la optimización y personalización de la terapia para así lograr objetivos terapéuticos claros con los menores riesgos posibles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Azathioprine/adverse effects , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Biological Therapy/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
11.
Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases. 2018; 10 (1): 50-54
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-192426

ABSTRACT

Skin manifestations can herald, co-exist, or follow the evolution of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. We report a middle-aged man with recent onset alopecia universalis and a history of intermittent diarrheal attacks for 6 years. Colonscopy and biopsy sampling confirmed ulcerative colitis. Regrowth of hair was achieved by treating the patient with azathioprine and mesalamine. Clinicians have to be aware that a multitude of skin manifestations with history of diarrhea can be an extraintestinal manifestation of IBD such as ulcerative colitis and this warrants further investigation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Alopecia , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
12.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 37(4): 157-159, dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096381

ABSTRACT

El eritema polimorfo solar es la fotodermatosis más frecuente y suele aparecer en primavera con la primera exposición intensa al sol. Sus manifestaciones cutáneas son variadas y el diagnóstico se basa en la clínica junto al antecedente de exposición solar. En los casos leves, la fotoprotección suele ser suficiente para el control de la enfermedad, pero en formas más graves se requieren otras terapéuticas, como corticoides, antihistamínicos, o fototerapia, que genera una "fotoadaptación" de las áreas de piel afectadas. Presentamos un caso típico de erupción polimorfa solar que respondió de forma adecuada a medidas de fotoprotección. (AU)


The polymorphic solar eruption is the most frequent photodermatosis, and usually appears in spring with the first intense exposure to the sun. It has multiple cutaneous manifestations, and its diagnosis is based on the clinic and the antecedent of solar exposition. In mild cases, photoprotection is usually enough to control the disease, but in more severe forms, other therapies are required, such as corticosteroids, antihistamines, or phototherapy to generate a "photo-adaptation" of the affected skin areas. We present a typical case of polymorphic solar eruption that responded adequately to photoprotection measurements. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Photosensitivity Disorders/diagnosis , Sunlight/adverse effects , Erythema/diagnosis , Phototherapy , Photosensitivity Disorders/immunology , Photosensitivity Disorders/pathology , Quality of Life , Seasons , Sunscreening Agents/therapeutic use , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Thalidomide/therapeutic use , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , Ultraviolet Therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Erythema/etiology , Erythema/immunology , Erythema/pathology , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(5): 662-666, mayo 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902524

ABSTRACT

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a multifocal tumor that rarely metastasizes. It is difficult to diagnose, most often it is an incidental finding in young asymptomatic women. The radiologic pattern is heterogeneous. Histologic confirmation of Weibel-Palade bodies or immunohistochemistry based on specific tumor markers such as factor VIII and CD34 are the most important finding to confirm the diagnosis. We report a 21 years old woman Presenting with cough and dyspnea. A chest X ray was suggestive of tuberculosis. Sputum smears were negative for acid fat bacilli and the tuberculin test was negative. A chest CAT scan showed multiple nodular lesions. A surgical biopsy of the lesions confirmed the presence of a hemangioendothelioma. The patient was initially treated with prednisone and azathioprine without response. Thereafter, the patient is without treatment and without evidence of disease progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
14.
Santiago; Chile. Ministerio de Salud; 2017. graf, ilus, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-882587

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La colitis ulcerosa es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica que afecta la mucosa del colon en forma continua, comprometiendo el recto y una porción variable de la extensión del resto del colon, sin la presencia de granulomas en la biopsia. En esta enfermedad, el sistema inmune reconoce esta porción del colon como ajena al cuerpo y lo ataca generando úlceras que caracterizan a esta enfermedad. TECNOLOGÍAS SANITARIAS ANALIZADAS: Adalimumab, azatioprina, golimumab, infliximab, mesalazina, lansoprazol, omeprazol, sulfasalazina y colestiramina. EFICACIA DE LOS TRATAMIENTOS: Se extrajeron 31 revisiones sistemáticas que incluyen 11 ensayos controlados aleatorizados que evaluaban la eficacia de adalimumab, golimumab e infliximab en pacientes con colitis ulcerosa moderada a grave. El tratamiento con adalimumab aumenta ligeramente el número de pacientes que cicatrizan su mucosa e incrementan su score IBDQ (calidad de vida) en más de 12 puntos, a las 8 semanas. El tratamiento con golimumab probablemente aumenta el número de pacientes que responden clínicamente a las 6 semanas, mientras que probablemente aumenta ligeramente el número de pacientes que remite y cicatrizan su mucosa a las 6 semanas. Además, golimumab probablemente no genera diferencias en cuanto a la calidad de vida (cuestionario IBDQ) de pacientes con colitis ulcerosa. El tratamiento con infliximab aumenta el número de pacientes que presentan respuesta clínica a las 8 semanas, mientras que reduce ligeramente el número de pacientes que reciben colectomía a las 54 semanas. No se encontró evidencia de eficacia de los tratamientos sobre una menor hospitalización o una menor estadía hospitalaria, ni estudios que evaluaran la eficacia en niños con colitis ulcerosa. ANÁLISIS ECONÓMICO: Infliximab resultó ser la alternativa que presentó mayor efectividad. Sin embargo, la efectividad incremental en relación a adalimumab es sólo de 0,66 QALYs, superándolo en costes en aproximadamente un 45%. Infliximab y golimumab fueron los tratamientos que presentaron mayor costo en relación a adalimumab. En esto se incluyen los costos de efectos adversos serios, porcentaje de pacientes que se sometían a colectomía mientras estaban en terapia con algún biológico y los costos de administración de infliximab. Para este último se consideró un costo mayor, ya que como su administración es intravenosa se deben considerar las horas en que el paciente debe estar en una sala de observaciones para que se le administre el biológico. En cuanto a las agencias internacionales, Inglaterra recomienda el uso de adalimumab, infliximab o golimumab en pacientes con colitis ulcerosa moderada a grave, siempre y cuando la terapia convencional no funcione o no sea la adecuada. El impacto presupuestario calculado para el primer año de tratamiento fue de MM$1.810 para adalimumab, $MM2.424 para infliximab, y MM$353.378 para golimumab. CONCLUSIÓN: Para dar cumplimiento al artículo 28° del Reglamento que establece el proceso destinado a determinar los diagnósticos y tratamientos de alto costo con Sistema de Protección Financiera, según lo establecido en los artículos 7°y 8° de la ley N°20.850, aprobado por el decreto N°13 del Ministerio de Salud, se concluye que el presente informe de evaluación se considera favorable, de acuerdo a lo establecido en el Título III. de las Evaluaciones Favorables de la Norma Técnica N° 0192 de este mismo ministerio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adalimumab/therapeutic use , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Cholestyramine Resin/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Lansoprazole/therapeutic use , Mesalamine/therapeutic use , Omeprazole/therapeutic use , Sulfasalazine/therapeutic use , Health Evaluation/economics , Technology Assessment, Biomedical/economics
15.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 28(2): 76-84, 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118629

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a liver disease of unknown etiology, with a breakdown in peripheral selftolerance against hepatocytes with both genetic and environmental factors involved. It is characterized by an immune mediated liver injury, with detectable autoantibodies, elevated levels of immunoglobulin G and histological criteria including, necroinflammation, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and hepatitis interface. It can be asymptomatic or can present as acute hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Most patients (70-80%) respond to first line therapy (based on steroids ± azathioprine). In those patients not tolerating azatioprine, in steroid resistant, and those with repeated relapses (20-40%), a long-term second line therapy must be considered to avoid progression of liver disease. This last medications include other immunosuppressants like mycophenolate mophetil, calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine or tacrolimus), biologic agents (infliximab and rituximab), and other immunosuppressive agents (sirolimus, everolimus), all with good overall clinical results, but not exempt of side effects. Other difficult scenarios include fulminant AIH, end-stage AIH cirrhosis and the management of post-transplant AIH. In this article we will review the literature related to second- line therapy especially of steroid resistant AIH. Future directions in the treatment of HAI should be guided to the individual patient (personalized) and may include cell therapies, such as infusion of autologous, antigen-specific, and liver-homing regulatory T cells to restore hepatic immune tolerance


La hepatitis autoinmune (HAI) es una hepatopatía de etiología desconocida, con pérdida de la tolerancia inmune contra los hepatocitos con factores genéticos y ambientales asociados. Se caracteriza por fenómenos de daño inmunológicos, con autoanticuerpos circulantes, una concentración elevada de gammaglobulina sérica y en la biopsia de hígado actividad necroinflamatoria, infiltrados linfoplasmocitarios y daño de interfase. La HAI es una entidad que se puede presentar en forma asintomática, como hepatitis aguda o como cirrosis hepática. El 70-80% de los pacientes responden adecuadamente al tratamiento inmunosupresor de primera línea (corticoides ± azatioprina). En los pacientes que no toleran azatioprina, en los corticorresistentes o en aquellos con recaídas repetidas a pesar de terapia (20-40%), es necesario recurrir a terapias de segunda línea de largo plazo, para evitar la progresión de la hepatopatía. Estas últimas incluyen micofenolato mofetil, inhibidores calcineurínicos (ciclosporina o tacrolimus), agentes biológicos (infliximab y rituximab), y otros fármacos inmunosupresores (sirolimus, everolimus), con resultados alentadores, pero no exentos de efectos colaterales. Otros escenarios complejos incluyen: la HAI de presentación aguda grave y fulminante, la cirrosis terminal autoinmune y la HAI post-trasplante. En este trabajo se revisa la literatura en relación a terapias de segunda línea especialmente en HAI corticoide resistente. El futuro del tratamiento de la HAI va encaminado a una terapia personalizada y que podría incluir terapias celulares como la infusión de células T regulatorias, antígeno específicas y autólogas, para reestablecer los mecanismos de tolerancia inmune hepática.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Azathioprine/adverse effects , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , Clinical Evolution , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/etiology , Calcineurin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use
16.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 36(4): 244-247, Oct.-Dec. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829108

ABSTRACT

The authors report the case of a 19-year-old male patient with Crohn's disease treated with infliximab and azathioprine, with sustained clinical remission; in the course of the evolution, this patient showed a vascular malformation in his rectum, with daily massive bleeding, in need of several blood transfusions and finally with an indication for surgical treatment. Data from the literature on the association of the injury at issue and CD, as well as the drugs used by the patient, are evaluated. The literature lacks information linking this malformation with CD or with the drugs used.


Os autores relatam o caso de um paciente masculino de 19 anos que apresenta doença de Crohn em tratamento com Infliximabe e Azatioprina com remissão clínica sustentada, o qual apresenta ao longo da evolução uma mal-formação vascular no reto, com sangramento diário volumoso, necessitando de diversas transfusões sanguíneas e finalmente a indicação de tratamento cirúrgico. São avaliados os dados da literatura quanto à associação da lesão apresentada e a DC bem como com os medicamentos em uso pelo paciente. Não há na literatura pesquisada nenhuma informação que associe a mal-formação com a DC nem tampouco os medicamentos utilizados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Crohn Disease/complications , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Vascular Malformations , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Rectum , Crohn Disease , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
17.
Gut and Liver ; : 177-203, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25630

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by autoantibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, and interface hepatitis on histological examination. The features lack diagnostic specificity, and other diseases that may resemble autoimmune hepatitis must be excluded. The clinical presentation may be acute, acute severe (fulminant), or asymptomatic; conventional autoantibodies may be absent; centrilobular necrosis and bile duct changes may be present; and the disease may occur after liver transplantation or with features that suggest overlapping disorders. The diagnostic criteria have been codified, and diagnostic scoring systems can support clinical judgment. Nonstandard autoantibodies, including antibodies to actin, α-actinin, soluble liver antigen, perinuclear antineutrophil antigen, asialoglycoprotein receptor, and liver cytosol type 1, are tools that can support the diagnosis, especially in patients with atypical features. Prednisone or prednisolone in combination with azathioprine is the preferred treatment, and strategies using these medications in various doses can ameliorate treatment failure, incomplete response, drug intolerance, and relapse after drug withdrawal. Budesonide, mycophenolate mofetil, and calcineurin inhibitors can be considered in selected patients as frontline or salvage therapies. Molecular (recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies), cellular (adoptive transfer and antigenic manipulation), and pharmacological (antioxidants, antifibrotics, and antiapoptotic agents) interventions constitute future directions in management. The evolving knowledge of the pathogenic pathways and the advances in technology promise new management algorithms.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Autoantibodies/blood , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Prednisone/therapeutic use
18.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2015 May-Jun; 81(3): 251-256
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158306

ABSTRACT

Background: Azathioprine in daily doses has been shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of Parthenium dermatitis. Weekly pulses of azathioprine (WAP) are also effective, but there are no reports comparing the effectiveness and safety of these two regimens in this condition. Aims: To study the effi cacy and safety of WAP and daily azathioprine in Parthenium dermatitis. Methods: Sixty patients with Parthenium dermatitis were randomly assigned to treatment with azathioprine 300 mg weekly pulse or azathioprine 100 mg daily for 6 months. Patients were evaluated every month to assess the response to treatment and side effects. Results: The study included 32 patients in the weekly azathioprine group and 28 in the daily azathioprine group, of whom 25 and 22 patients respectively completed the study. Twenty-three (92%) patients on WAP and 21 (96%) on daily azathioprine had a good or excellent response. The mean pretreatment clinical severity score decreased from 26.4 ± 14.5 to 4.7 ± 5.1 in the WAP group, and from 36.1 ± 18.1 to 5.7 ± 6.0 in the daily azathioprine group, which was statistically signifi cant and comparable (P = 0.366). Patients on WAP had a higher incidence of adverse effects (P = 0.02). Limitations: The study had a small sample size and the amount of clobetasol propionate used in each patient was not determined, though it may not have affected the study outcome due to its comparable use in both groups. Conclusions: Azathioprine 300 mg weekly pulse and 100 mg daily dose are equally effective and safe in the treatment of Parthenium dermatitis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Azathioprine/administration & dosage , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/drug therapy , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulse Therapy, Drug/methods , Tanacetum parthenium/adverse effects
19.
Gut and Liver ; : 601-606, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In patients with corticosteroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC), cyclosporine or infliximab may be added to the treatment regimen to induce remission. Here, we aimed to compare the efficacy of cyclosporine and infliximab. METHODS: Between January 1995 and May 2012, the medical records of 43 patients with corticosteroid-refractory UC who received either infliximab or cyclosporine as a rescue therapy at a tertiary care hospital in Korea were reviewed. RESULTS: Among the 43 patients, 10 underwent rescue therapy with cyclosporine and the remaining 33 patients received infliximab. A follow-up of 12 months was completed for all patients. The colectomy rate at 12 months was 30% and 3% in the cyclosporine and the infliximab groups, respectively (p=0.034). However, the Cox proportional hazard model indicated that the treatment of rescue therapy was not an independent associate factor for preventing colectomy (p=0.164). In the subgroup analysis, infliximab with azathioprine was superior to cyclosporine for preventing colectomy (hazard ratio of infliximab with azathioprine compared with cyclosporine only, 0.073; 95% confidence interval, 0.008 to 0.629). CONCLUSIONS: No difference between infliximab and cyclosporine with respect to preventing colectomy was noted. However, infliximab with azathioprine may be more effective than cyclosporine alone for preventing colectomy.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Colectomy/statistics & numerical data , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Salvage Therapy/methods , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
An. bras. dermatol ; 89(6): 980-984, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727637

ABSTRACT

The main treatment for pemphigus vulgaris are systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents, but due to adverse reactions and therapeutic failure, new drugs such as rituximab and mycophenolate mofetil have been used. In this case report are described two cases of severe pemphigus vulgaris refractory to various treatments, with resolution after use of rituximab and mycophenolate mofetil, associated with corticosteroids. A higher-than-usual dose of rituximab was employed, without the occurrence of serious adverse reactions. Mycophenolate mofetil was added as adjunctive therapy due to lack of response to azathioprine.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Pemphigus/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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