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1.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095354

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: identificar as evidências científicas existentes até o presente momento sobre a efetividade do uso da cloroquina, da hidroxicloroquina associada (ou não) à azitromicina para tratamento da afecção pelo coronavírus e seus possíveis efeitos adversos e tóxicos aos seres humanos. Métodos: a revisão narrativa utilizou-se das bases de dados PubMed, LILACS, SciElo e Google Acadêmico. Nessas, buscaram-se estudos, utilizando-se dos descritores "covid", "coronavirus", "SARS-CoV-2", "chloroquine", "hydroxychloroquine", "azithromycin" e "adverse effects" junto com os operadores booleanos "AND" e "OR". Resultados: sete artigos, das trinta publicações encontradas, atenderam aos critérios de inclusão, sendo utilizados para compor a presente revisão. Dos sete ensaios clínicos analisados, cinco apresentaram resultados de cura e/ou remissão dos sintomas e/ou redução da carga viral dos pacientes, no entanto apresentaram muitas limitações. Conclusão: a literatura científica é escassa e divergente quanto à efetividade dos medicamentos cloroquina e hidroxicloroquina associada (ou não) à azitromicina no tratamento da COVID-19, pela rápida disseminação e instalação da pandemia na esfera global. É necessário a realização de ensaios clínicos pragmáticos, envolvendo um número maior de pacientes, para que seja possível analisar a efetividade no combate ao coronavírus, bem como a segurança do uso desses fármacos.(AU)


Objective: to identify the scientific evidence existing to date on the effectiveness of the use of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine associated (or not) to azithromycin for the treatment of COVID-19 disease and its possible adverse drug events and toxicity to human health. Methods: the narrative review was performed using the PubMed, LILACS, SciElo and Google Academic databases. In these, studies were sought, using the descriptors "covid", "coronavirus", "SARS-CoV-2", "chloroquine", "hydroxychloroquine", "azithromycin", "adverse effects" and "toxicity", together with the Boolean operator "AND" and "OR". Results: seven studies of thirty publications met the inclusion criteria and were used in the present review. Of the seven clinical trials analyzed, five showed results of cure and/or remission of symptoms and/or reduction of patients' viral load, however these studies had many limitations. Conclusion: scientific literature is scarce and divergent as to the effectiveness of the drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine associated (or not) with azithromycin in the treatment of COVID-19, due to the rapid spread and installation of the pandemic in the global sphere. It is necessary to carry out pragmatic clinical trials, involving a larger number of patients, so that it is possible to analyze the effectiveness in combating the coronavirus, as well as the safety of the use of these drugs.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chloroquine/toxicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Azithromycin/toxicity , Hydroxychloroquine/toxicity , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects
2.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(supl.1): 36-40, may. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152841

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pandemia por el virus SARS-COV-2 causante de la enfermedad COVID-19 representa un reto mundial dada su alta tasa de transmisión y ausencia de una terapia efectiva o vacuna. Este escenario ha propiciado el uso de diversos fármacos que in vitro han demostrado un potencial efecto contra el virus. Sin embargo, el tiempo no ha sido suficiente para evaluar su efectividad clínica con el adecuado rigor científico que precede a la prescripción de medicamentos. El uso de cloroquina/hidroxicloroquina, azitromicina y esquemas antivirales ha sido propuesto por diversos grupos, apoyado por series de pacientes limitada en número. Si bien puede representar la única esperanza para muchos enfermos, es importante conocer los principales efectos adversos asociados al uso de estas drogas y seleccionar mejor a los pacientes que puedan beneficiarse de ellas. El riesgo de arritmias ventriculares incrementa tanto por el uso de fármacos como por la gravedad de la propia enfermedad viral.


Abstract The pandemic caused by the SARS-COV-2 or COVID-19 virus has been a global challenge given its high rate of transmission and lack of effective therapy or vaccine. This scenario has led to the use of various drugs that have demonstrated a potential effect against the virus in vitro. However, time has not been enough to properly evaluate their clinical effectiveness. The use of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and antiviral treatment and has been proposed by various groups, supported by in-vitro studies and limited patient series, without the adequate scientific rigor that precedes drug prescription. Although it may represent the only hope for many patients, it is important to know the main adverse effects associated with the use of these drugs and to better select patients who may benefit from them.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects
3.
Medwave ; 20(7): e8008, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122676

ABSTRACT

En diciembre de 2019 se reportó en Wuhan, China, la aparición de una nueva cepa de coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 que producía un compromiso pulmonar severo y progresaba a estrés respiratorio agudo. A la fecha, son más de diecisiete millones los casos confirmados y más de medio millón los fallecidos en todo el mundo a causa de COVID-19. Los estudios reportan que los pacientes con enfermedad cardiovascular son más susceptibles a contraer esta enfermedad y a presentar más complicaciones. El propósito de esta revisión es proporcionar información actualizada para los profesionales de la salud que atienden a pacientes con COVID-19 y que tienen además enfermedad cardiovascular y por ende un riesgo elevado de complicaciones y mortalidad. Realizamos una búsqueda de bibliografía científica acerca de la asociación de enfermedad cardiovascular y COVID-19 en diferentes bases de datos como Scopus, MEDLINE vía PubMed y Cochrane Library. El tratamiento con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina y bloqueadores del receptor de angiotensina ha sido motivo de discusión y no hay evidencia sólida para contraindicarlo en pacientes con COVID-19. Respecto al tratamiento con hidroxicloroquina asociado o no con azitromicina, hay evidencia que demuestra un mayor riesgo con su utilización, que beneficio clínico y/o disminución de mortalidad. En este contexto, los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca representan un grupo importante de riesgo por su condición per se y por el dilema diagnóstico generado al evaluar un paciente con COVID-19, en el que los signos de insuficiencia cardíaca aguda podrían enmascararse. Por otro lado, en los pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo, el enfoque terapéutico inicial podría cambiar en el contexto de la pandemia, aunque sólo sobre la base de opiniones de expertos. Quedan, sin embargo, muchos temas en controversia que serán motivo de investigaciones futuras.


In December 2019, a new strain of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus was reported in Wuhan, China, which produced severe lung involvement and progressed to respiratory distress. To date, more than seventeen million confirmed cases and more than half a million died worldwide from COVID-19. Patients with cardiovascular disease are more susceptible to contracting this disease and presenting more complications. We did a literature search on the association of cardiovascular disease and COVID-19 in databases such as Scopus, PubMed/MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library. The purpose of this review is to provide updated information for health professionals who care for patients with COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease, given that they have a high risk of complications and mortality. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and receptor blockers is controversial, and there is no evidence not to use these medications in patients with COVID-19. Regarding treatment with hydroxychloroquine associated or not with azithromycin, there is evidence of a higher risk with its use than clinical benefit and decreased mortality. Likewise, patients with heart failure are an important risk group due to their condition per se. Patients with heart failure and COVID-19 are a diagnostic dilemma because the signs of acute heart failure could be masked. On the other hand, in patients with acute coronary syndrome, the initial therapeutic approach could change in the context of the pandemic, although only based on expert opinions. Nonetheless, many controversial issues will be the subject of future research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Prognosis , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Algorithms , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Pandemics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(5): 584-587, oct. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-771627

ABSTRACT

Non-tuberculous mycobacterial adenitis is getting more common in our environment. Epidemiologic studies and clinical trials published nowadays are limited. We present a 2-years-old boy diagnosed of Mycobacterium intracellulare adenitis and severe neutropenia as side effect of combined treatment with oral azythromycin and rifabutin, which recovers after suspending the second one. Liver metabolism of macrolide seems to increase other drugs toxicity, in this case, rifabutin. The patient eventually needed surgery due to persistence of the adenitis despite treatment with antibiotics.


Las adenopatías por micobacterias no tuberculosas (AMNT) son cada vez más frecuentes en nuestro medio. Los estudios epidemiológicos y ensayos clínicos controlados publicados hasta la fecha son escasos. Presentamos el caso de un niño de 2 años con el diagnóstico de una adenitis por Mycobacterium intracellulare que desarrolló una neutropenia grave secundaria a la terapia combinada de azitromicina y rifabutina oral. La metabolización hepática de los macrólidos parece aumentar la toxicidad de otros fármacos, en este caso, la rifabutina. Finalmente, al paciente se le realizó una exéresis quirúrgica por persistencia de la adenitis a pesar de la antibioterapia.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Neutropenia/chemically induced , Rifabutin/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Lymphadenitis/microbiology , Lymphadenitis/therapy , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Rev. cuba. farm ; 49(2)abr.-jun. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-776397

ABSTRACT

La azitromicina es un antibiótico macrólido semisintético de amplio espectro y de uso bien frecuente en la población mundial, indicado para el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades infecciosas.1 Existen varios reportes del riesgo cardiovascular asociado al uso de azitromicina y aún no existen estudios convincentes del mecanismo molecular de este efecto.1,2 Un gran número de medicamentos se retiran del mercado por producir reacciones adversas cardiovasculares fatales, de ahí la importancia de comprender los mecanismos moleculares de la acción cardiovascular de los fármacos en desarrollo o de los que se comercializan en el mercado farmacéutico y más aún, aquellos de uso frecuente por la población. En el año 2011 la Administración de Alimentos y Medicamentos, (Food and Drug Administration , FDA), la agencia reguladora de los Estados Unidos revisó la información ofrecida en la etiqueta de los antibacterianos macrólidos, relacionada con la prolongación del intervalo QT y las arritmias cardiovasculares del tipo Torsades de Pointes (TdP), que incluye la nueva información acerca del riesgo de prolongación del intervalo QT, que parece ser bajo.3 Posteriormente, el 17 de mayo de 2012 al revisar la publicación de un artículo de Ray y colaboradores, la FDA advirtió a los profesionales de la salud que el antimicrobiano azitromicina, puede causar un ritmo cardíaco irregular potencialmente fatal en algunos pacientes, en función del estudio publicado por estos autores, sobre un pequeño aumento de la mortalidad y el riesgo de muerte en personas tratadas durante 5 días con azitromicina en comparación con las personas tratadas con amoxicilina, ciprofloxacino, o ningún fármaco.4 Desde el año 2012, la FDA hizo una advertencia en el etiquetado de los medicamentos que contenían azitromicina, basado en evidencias previas que indicaban riesgo cardiovascular asociado a su uso. Por otra parte, el Centro Colaborador de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para la Vigilancia Farmacéutica Internacional radicado en Uppsala, Suecia (World Health Organization Collaborating Centre, The Uppsala Monitoring Centre for International Drug Monitoring), posee un registro de 100 casos con prolongación del segmento QT y unos 65 casos con TdP asociados al uso de azitromicina.5 El 12 de marzo de 2013 la FDA advirtió al público que la azitromicina...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Cuba
6.
Rev. salud pública ; 17(3): 463-469, mayo-jun. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-765678

ABSTRACT

Objetivos Determinar la prevalencia de potenciales interacciones farmacológicas entre azitromicina y diferentes antiarrítmicos del grupo IA y III en una base de datos de prescripción de medicamentos a nivel nacional durante el año 2012-2013. Métodos Estudio retrospectivo a partir de una base de datos poblacional de dispensación de medicamentos. Se extrajeron datos de los pacientes que recibieron azitromicina desde 1 de enero de 2012 a 30 junio de 2013, al igual que pacientes que recibieron este antibiótico en combinación a otros medicamentos con demostrado riesgo de provocar arritmias cardíacas al usarse concomitantemente. Se establecieron frecuencias y proporciones. Resultados Se identificaron 13 859 pacientes que recibieron azitromicina sola o en combinación con otros medicamentos. El tiempo promedio de uso fue 4,5±0,9 días; Un total de 702 pacientes (5,1 %) recibieron azitromicina más otros 19 fármacos de potencial riesgo. Los más frecuentemente asociados fueron: loratadina (77,1 %), difenhidramina (16,5 %) y amitriptilina (8,1 %). Las combinaciones con un solo medicamento fueron las más frecuentes (n=533, 75,9 %), con predominio de azitromicina+loratadina. El máximo número de fármacos combinados fue seis (n=2, 0,3 %). Conclusiones La identificación mediante bases de datos poblacionales la prescripción de medicamentos, es una manera eficaz de encontrar potenciales interacciones entre estos. La frecuencia de potenciales interacciones entre azitromicina y otros fármacos es común en pacientes colombianos. Se debe estimar el riesgo de ocurrencia de eventos cardiacos adversos.(AU)


Objective To determine the prevalence of potential drug interactions between azithromycin and different IA and III antiarrhythmic groups in a national database of drug prescriptions in 2012-2013. Methods Retrospective study based on a population database of medicine dispensation. Data from patients who received azithromycin between January 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013 were extracted along with data from patients who received azithromycin in combination with other medications shown to cause heart arrhythmias when used concomitantly. Frequencies and proportions were established. Results 13 859 patients receiving azithromycin alone or in combination with other drugs were identified. The average time of use was 4.5 ± 0.9 days. A total of 702 patients (5.1 %) received azithromycin plus 19 other potentially risky drugs. The most frequently associated were loratadine (77.1 %), diphenhydramine (16.5 %) and amitriptyline (8.1 %). Combinations with a single drug were the most frequent (n=533, 75.9 %), predominantly azithromycin+loratadine. The maximum number of combined drugs was six (n=2, 0.3 %). Conclusions Identification of drug prescriptions through population databases is an effective way to find potential drug interactions. The frequency of potential interactions between azithromycin and other drugs is common in Colombian patients. Future research should assess the risk of occurrence of adverse cardiac events.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Pharmacoepidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Drug Interactions
7.
Rev. cuba. farm ; 48(3)jul.-set. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-740925

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la azitromicina, es un antibacteriano macrólido semisintético, al cual se han asociado efectos cardiovasculares, como la prolongación del intervalo QT y trastornos del ritmo que pueden ser fatales. La FDA alertó sobre un pequeño aumento de la mortalidad y riesgo de muerte en personas tratadas durante 5 días con este antibacteriano, y en el Centro Internacional de Monitoreo de Uppsala también se han registrado casos. Objetivo: caracterizar las reacciones adversas cardiovasculares a la azitromicina informadas a la Unidad Nacional Coordinadora de Farmacovigilancia durante el periodo 2003-2012. Métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal utilizando la base de datos nacional de farmacovigilancia y las notificaciones espontáneas de reacciones adversas. Se trabajó con el universo de pacientes con reacciones adversas a la azitromicina. Las reacciones cardiovasculares se clasificaron según tipo de reacción, severidad, imputabilidad y frecuencia. Se estudiaron los pacientes que presentaron reacciones adversas según sexo y edad. RESULTADOS: se recibieron 1 960 notificaciones de reacciones adversas a la azitromicina en el periodo de estudio, de las cuales 96 se correspondieron con reacciones adversas cardiovasculares para el 4,9 por ciento. Predominaron en el sexo femenino (55,2 por ciento) y en los adultos (75 por ciento). Las palpitaciones representaron el 44,8 por ciento (43 pacientes), seguidas de la taquicardia y el dolor torácico. El 67,7 por ciento resultaron moderadas, el 71,9 por ciento probables y el 60,4 por ciento ocasionales. El 31,3 por ciento de las reacciones se pudo haber evitado y el motivo que predominó fue la indicación inadecuada en el 70 por ciento. CONCLUSIONES: aunque no se informan reacciones adversas cardiovasculares con desenlace fatal en personas tratadas con azitromicina, la tercera parte de ellas se podrían haber evitado; por lo se recomienda realizar una vigilancia más proactiva a este medicamento, así como informar todas las reacciones al Sistema Cubano de Farmacovigilancia(AU)


INTRODUCTION: azithromycin is a semisynthetic antimicrobial macrolide which is said to be associated with cardiovascular effects such as the prolongation of QT interval and disorders of the heart rate that may be fatal. The Food and Drug Administration has warned about a slight rise of mortality and risk of death in people treated for 5 days with this antibacterial drug; the International Center of Monitoring in Uppsala has also registered some cases.OBJECTIVE: to characterize the adverse cardiovascular reactions to azithromycin reported to the National Coordinating Unit of Drug Surveillance from 2003 through 2012. METHODS: observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study based on the national drug surveillance database and on the voluntary notifications of adverse reactions. The study universe was the patients with adverse reactions to azithromycin. The cardiovascular reactions were classified by type of reaction, severity, imputability and frequency. The patients presenting with adverse reactions were studied according to their sex and age. RESULTS: one thousand and nine hundred sixty adverse reactions to azithromycin were reported in the study period; 96 of them were cardiovascular reactions for 4.9 percent of the total amount. They were predominant in females (55.2 percent) and in adults (75 percent). Palpitations accounted for 44. 8 percent (43 patients) followed by tachycardia and chest pain. They were moderate in 67.7 percent of cases, probable in 71.9 percent and occasional in 60.4 percent. Regarding reaction, 31.3 percent of them could have been prevented and the predominant reason was the inadequate prescription of the drug in 70 percent of cases. CONCLUSIONS: although no adverse cardiovascular reactions causing death have been reported in individuals treated with azithromycin, one third of them could have been prevented, therefore it is recommended to perform more proactive surveillance on this drug and all types of reactions should be duly reported to the Cuban drug surveillance system(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Pharmacovigilance , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Observational Study
9.
West Indian med. j ; 62(9): 864-865, Dec. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045773

ABSTRACT

This report documents the occurrence of QT prolongation in a 57-year old man, on methadone replacement therapy, treated with azithromycin for community acquired pneumonia. This case highlights a hitherto unknown drug interaction. In light of ever-increasing use of azithromycin, it is imperative that azithromycin be used with caution in patients who are already on drugs that are known to cause QT prolongation or that cause torsades de pointes.


Este reporte documenta la ocurrencia de la prolongación del intervalo QT en un hombre de 57 años, en la terapia de reemplazo con metadona, tratado con azitromicina por pulmonía adquirida en la comunidad. Este caso destaca una interacción de medicamentos desconocida hasta ahora. En vista del uso cada vez mayor de la azitromicina, resulta absolutamente necesario usarla con precaución en pacientes que ya están bajo tratamiento con medicamentos de los cuales se sabe que causan prolongación del intervalo QT o que causan torsades de pointes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Methadone/adverse effects , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Methadone/administration & dosage
10.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2011; 27 (1): 68-72
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-112873

ABSTRACT

Acne vulgaris is a prevalent inflammatory skin disorder. Topical solutions of clindamycin and erythromycin are the most common treatment in the patients. This study was conducted to compare the effect of topical solution azithromycin as a new method of treatment against topical solutions of clindamycin and erythromycin. A randomized double-blind clinical trial was carried out for 20 weeks at the outpatient clinics of Boo-Ali Sina Hospital in Sari [Iran] on 96 patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris. They were randomly divided in three groups who were matched together based on -Acne Severity Index [ASI] and were treated with 2% alcoholic solution of azithromycin, erythromycin and clindamycin respectively twice daily for 16 weeks. Treatment efficacy was determined by Total acne Lesion Counting [TLC]. For each three treatment groups, decreased TLC and ASI were significant at the end of 16 weeks [P<0.05]. Azithromycin was more effective than the clindamycin and erythromycin for acne therapy after 16 weeks [P<0.05]. Twenty patients [20.8%] of azithromycin group [12.5%] reported to have adverse effects, such as erythema and/or pruritus [P<0.05]. Topical solution azithromycin is a more effective treatment for mild to moderate acne vulgaris comparing to clindamycin and erythromycin, but it has more local side effects


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Azithromycin , Clindamycin , Erythromycin , Administration, Topical , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Azithromycin/adverse effects
11.
Rev. bras. odontol ; 67(1): 19-23, jul.-dez. 2010.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-563831

ABSTRACT

Foi feita uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o uso da azitromicina em Periodontia considerando algumas questões como: Pode este antibiótico aumentar o efeito da raspagem radicular, limitar seus efeitos adversos ou pode até mesmo ser um substituto em alguns casos? A azitromicina vem sendo associada, em alguns casos, à raspagem e ao alisamento radicular no tratamento de doenças periodontais agressivas, por ser eficaz no combate a bactérias periodontopatogênicas. No entanto, faltam estudos com conteúdo confiável para se confirmar o sucesso dessa nova terapia. Sendo assim, o tratamento principal para a periodontite agressiva continua sendo a raspagem e o alisamento radicular.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Azithromycin/standards , Aggressive Periodontitis/drug therapy
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 61(3): 577-584, jun. 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-519449

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se o perfil de suscetibilidade bacteriana de diferentes sítios infecciosos frente aos antimicrobianos de eleição e determinaram-se o perfil de atividade in vitro e a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) da azitromicina. Diferentes testes fenotípicos detectaram resistência à azitromicina em 45 por cento de Staphylococcus spp. e 65 por cento dos bastonetes Gram-negativo. A CIM50 para S. aureus foi 4,0μg/mL para S. intermedius 1,0μg/mL, Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-negativo >512μg/mL e bastonetes Gram-negativo 256μg/mL. Investigou-se, também, uma possível resistência cruzada entre oxacilina e azitromicina por meio da detecção do gene mecA em Staphylococcus spp. Foi possível detectar resistência à azitromicina em nove (15 por cento) isolados de Staphylococcus spp. mecA positivo.


Antimicrobials susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolated from different sites of infection, in vitro azithromycin activity pattern, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were evaluated. Different phenotypic tests detected azithromycin resistance in 45 percent of Staphylococcus spp. and 65 percent of resistant Gram-negative rods. MIC50 was 4.0μg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus, 1.0μg/mL for S. intermedius, >512.0μg/mL for coagulase negative Staphylococcus, and 256.0μg/mL for Gram-negative rods. In addition, it was investigated the possible cross-resistance between oxacillin and azithromycin, by detection of mecA gen in Staphylococcus spp. Nine (15 percent) mecA-positive Staphylococcus spp. were also phenotypically resistant to azithromycin.


Subject(s)
Animals, Domestic , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Drug Resistance
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 29(2): 153-156, fev. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-508352

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo avaliou o perfil de suscetibilidade à azitromicina de patógenos bacterianos prevalentes em diferentes sítios infecciosos de animais de companhia. Adicionalmente, foram estudados o perfil de atividade in vitro de azitromicina contra esses patógenos e sua concentração inibitória mínima (CIM). Testes como a difusão em disco e a microdiluição em caldo detectaram resistência respectivamente em 48,6 por cento e 55 por cento dos isolados de Staphylococcus spp. e em 55,3 por cento e 72,7 por cento dos bastonetes Gram-negativos. A CIM50 para S. aureus foi 4,0mg/mL, para S. intermedius foi de 1,0mg/mL, para Staphylococcus spp. coagulase-negativas foi de e"512mg/mL e para bastonetes Gram-negativos foi de 256mg/mL. Quinze por cento (9/60) dos isolados oxacilina-resistente e multidroga-resistentes, mecA-positivos, de Staphylococcus spp. apresentaram também resistência à azitromicina. A disseminação de bactérias multidroga-resistentes aponta para a necessidade da avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana para selecionar o fármaco mais indicado e, assim, minimizar falhas terapêuticas na conduta clínica veterinária.


The susceptibility pattern to azithromycin of bacterial pathogens from various infectious sites, and the in vitro activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of azithromycin were studied. Tests such as disc diffusion and broth microdilution detected respectively 48.6 percent and 55 percent of resistant Staphylococcus spp., and 55.3 percent and 72.7 percent resistant gram-negative rods. MIC50 for S. aureus was 4.0mg/mL, that for S. intermedius was 1.0mg/mL, for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus e"512mg/mL, and for gram-negative rods 256mg/mL. Fifteen percent (9/60) of oxacilin-resistant, multidrug-resistant and mecA-positive Staphylococcus spp. isolates were also azithromycin resistant. The dissemination of multidrug resistant bacteria points out to the need of antimicrobial evaluation activity in order to select the best indicated drug and thus minimizing therapeutic failures in veterinary practice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Cats , Dogs , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
15.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 50(3): 157-160, May-June 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-485623

ABSTRACT

A non-randomized controlled clinical trial was carried outin order to evaluate both azithromycin and antimony efficacy in cutaneous leishmaniasis in Manaus, AM, Brazil. Forty nine patients from both genders, aged 14 to 70, with cutaneous ulcers for less than three months and a positive imprint for Leishmania spp. amastigotes were recruited into two groups. Group I (26 patients) received a daily-single oral dose of 500 mg of azithromycin for 20 days and Group II (23 patients) received a daily-single intramuscular dose of 20 mg/kg of meglumine antimony, also for 20 days. Azithromycin cured three of 24 (12.5 percent) patients on days 60, 90 and 120 respectively whereas therapeutic failure was considered in 21 of 24 (87.5 percent) cases. In group II, antimony cured eight of 19 (42.1 percent) cases as follows: three on day 30, one each on day 60 and day 90, and three on day 120. Therapeutic failure occurred in 11 of 19 (57.9 percent) individuals. The efficacy of antimony for leishmaniasis was better than azithromycin but analysis for the intention-to-treat response rate did not show statistical difference between them. Although azithromycin was better tolerated, it showed a very low efficacy to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis in Manaus.


Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia da azitromicina no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, foi realizado ensaio comparativo, em Manaus. Foram recrutados 49 pacientes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 14 e 70 anos que apresentassem úlceras cutâneas com menos de três meses de evolução e que tivessem exame direto positivo para amastigotas de leishmânia. Estes pacientes foram alocados em dois grupos assim: Grupo I (26) recebeu uma dose diária de 500 mg de azitromicina pela via oral durante 20 dias e o Grupo II, recebeu uma dose diária de 20 mg/kg de antimoniato de meglumina por via intramuscular, durante 20 dias. Do grupo da azitromicina, três (12,5 por cento) de 24 pacientes curaram 60, 90 e 120 dias, respectivamente, enquanto, em 21 (87,5 por cento) de 24 houve falha terapêutica. No grupo do antimonial, oito (42,5 por cento) de 19 pacientes curaram como segue: três no dia 30, um no dia 60, um no dia 90 e três no dia 120. Contudo, em 11 (57,9 por cento) de 19 casos, houve falha terapêutica. A azitromicina foi menos eficaz do que o antimonial, embora, a análise da taxa de resposta por intenção de tratamento não mostrou diferença significativa, entre eles. A azitromicina foi melhor tolerada; porém, mostrou-se pouco eficaz no tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea, em Manaus.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine/therapeutic use , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Meglumine/adverse effects , Organometallic Compounds/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Failure
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 12(3): 202-209, June 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-493648

ABSTRACT

Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is a major public health problem. In Brazil it has been estimated that 2,000,000 people are affected by CAP every year. Of those, 780,000 are admitted to hospital, and 30,000 have death as the outcome. This is an open-label, non-comparative study with the purpose of evaluating efficacy, safety, and tolerability levels of IV azithromycin (IVA) and IV ceftriaxone (IVC), followed by oral azithromycin (OA) for the treatment of inpatients with mild to severe CAP. Eighty-six patients (mean age 56.6 ± 19.8) were administered IVA (500mg/day) and IVC (1g/day) for 2 to 5 days, followed by AO (500mg/day) to complete a total of 10 days. At the end of treatment (EOT) and after 30 days (End of Study - EOS) the medication was evaluated clinically, microbiologically and for tolerability levels. Out of the total 86-patient population, 62 (72.1 percent) completed the study. At the end of treatment, 95.2 percent (CI95: 88.9 percent - 100 percent) reported cure or clinical improvement; at the end of the study, that figure was 88.9 percent (CI95: 74.1 percent - 91.7 percent). Out of the 86 patients enrolled in the study, 15 were microbiologically evaluable for bacteriological response. Of those, 6 reported pathogen eradication at the end of therapy (40 percent), and 8 reported presumed eradication (53.3 percent). At end of study evaluation, 9 patients showed pathogen eradication (50 percent), and 7 showed presumed eradication (38.89 percent). Therefore, negative cultures were obtained from 93.3 percent of the patients at EOT, and from 88.9 percent at the end of the study. One patient (6.67 percent of patient population) reported presumed microbiological resistance. At study end, 2 patients (11.11 percent) still reported undetermined culture. Uncontrollable vomiting and worsening pneumonia condition were reported by 2.3 percent of patients. Discussion and Conclusion Treatment based on the administration of IV azithromycin...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Ceftriaxone/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Ceftriaxone/adverse effects , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2008; 24 (3): 455-457
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-89553

ABSTRACT

Most of the medical practitioner's are under the impression that Stevens Johnson Syndrome [SJS] is art uncommon life threatening drug reaction. In fact it is not as rare a disorder as we are led to believe. Stevens Johnson Foundation claims that they come to know of 15 new cases a week and that is only people with internet access. In Bangladesh the real burden is never estimated as information on monitoring and reporting of adverse drug reactions are not available. Stevens Johnson Syndrome is an immune complex mediated idiosyncratic systemic hypersensitivity reaction that may be triggered by medications, viral, bacterial, fungal infection and malignancies. Recent reports link SJS to the use of drugs rather then other etiologies. Here we report a case of SJS with fatal outcome which is probably the first case encountered in Bangladesh induced by Azithromycin


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Fatal Outcome , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
18.
J. Health Sci. Inst ; 25(3): 263-269, jul.-set. 2007. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-873766

ABSTRACT

Introdução - O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a eficácia clínica, microbiológica e a tolerabilidade de uma dose única diária de 500mg de azitromicina por 3 dias (Zitromax - Pfizer) associada ao preparo químico-cirúrgico em 38 pacientes do Setor de Urgência da Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de São Paulo com infecção periapical aguda e antibioticoterapia indicada. Material e Métodos - Os sinais e sintomas da infecção e os exames microbiológicos foram avaliados antes da administração da azitromicina na 1ª consulta (preparo químico-cirúrgico sumário e medicação intracanal), na 2ª consulta, entre o 3º e 5º dia (preparo químico-cirúrgico completo e medicação intracanal) e na 3ª consulta, entre o 8º e 12º dia (obturação do canal). As coletas para os testes microbiológicos foram submetidas a cultivo em tioglicolato de sódio, a uma primeira bacterioscopia, a subcultivo em ágar-sangue de carneiro a 5% e a uma segunda bacterioscopia. Resultados - O desaparecimento total dos sinais e sintomas da infecção deu-se em 93% dos pacientes, parcial em 5,0% e permanência em 2%. Dos 9 pacientes submetidos ao exame microbiológico, aproximadamente 67% apresentaram erradicação completa dos microrganismos na 2ª consulta, 2% na 3ª e persistência de Streptococcus mitis em 11%. Os efeitos adversos da medicação foram dor abdominal em aproximadamente 16% dos pacientes, taquicardia em 5% e diarréia em 5%, todos de intensidade leve a moderada e sem necessidade de interrupção do tratamento. Conclusão - O esquema terapêutico local associado ao uso sistêmico da azitromicina é eficaz e de boa tolerabilidade no tratamento de infecções periapicais agudas com antibioticoterapia indicada, e portanto, a azitromicina é uma boa alternativa para pacientes alérgicos às penicilinas


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Periapical Abscess , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Periapical Periodontitis , Drug Hypersensitivity , Penicillins/adverse effects , Oral Surgical Procedures/methods
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