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1.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(2): e002057, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103663

ABSTRACT

La pandemia de COVID-19 está generando información epidemiológica y clínica en una escala sin precedentes para una enfermedad de reciente aparición. Aunque ya se han iniciado numerosos ensayos clínicos de fármacos antiguos y nuevos como potenciales antivirales específicos, la mayor parte de la información publicada hasta ahora carece de los controles básicos para la evaluación de la eficacia de un medicamento. Los medios de comunicación amplifican estos resultados preliminares y suman presión a los médicos asistenciales y a los decisores de políticas públicas. Este artículo revisa las pruebas disponibles sobre los cuatro tratamientos antivirales específicos más prometedores: hidroxicloroquina, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesvir e interferones alfa y beta. Se comprueba en todos ellos que no hay demostración suficiente de eficacia como para recomendar su uso fuera de una investigación experimental adecuadamente controlada. En el uso individual de un medicamento no hay forma de saber si está beneficiando o perjudicando al paciente. Es erróneo asumir que la eventual curación se debe al fármaco y un mal desenlace debe atribuirse a la enfermedad. Sólo la comparación entre grupos de pacientes asignados al tratamiento experimental o a un control adecuado permite conocer la eficacia y seguridad de las intervenciones. El desafío es conciliar la urgencia de actuar con la generación de nuevos conocimientos.Aunque no resulta sencillo organizar ensayos clínicos en este contexto, las instituciones pueden sumarse a los proyectos en marcha a nivel nacional e internacional. El uso de estos fármacos debe considerarse experimental, por lo que es necesario obtener el consentimiento informado del paciente. (AU)


The COVID-19 pandemic is generating epidemiological and clinical information on an unprecedented scale for a newly emerging disease. Although numerous clinical trials of old and new drugs as potential specific antivirals have already been started, most of the information published so far lacks basic controls for evaluating drug efficacy. The media amplify these preliminary results and add pressure to doctors and policymakers. This article reviews the available evidence for the four most promising specific antiviral treatments: hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir / ritonavir, remdesvir, and alpha and beta interferons. The findings show that none of them has sufficient demonstration of efficacy to recommend its use outside ofthe adequately controlled experimental study. In the individual use of a drug there is no way of knowing if it is benefiting orharming the patient. It is wrong to assume that the eventual cure is due to the drug and a poor outcome must be attributed to the disease. Only the comparison between groups of patients assigned to the experimental treatment or to an adequate control can establish the efficacy and safety of the interventions. The challenge is to reconcile the urgency to act with the generation of new knowledge. Although it is not easy to organize clinical trials in this context, the institutions can join theongoing projects at the national and international levels. The use of these drugs should be considered experimental, so it is necessary to obtain the informed consent of the patient. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Interferons/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Risk Assessment , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Evidence-Based Medicine/trends , Information Dissemination , Off-Label Use , Health Communication , Pandemics , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Informed Consent
2.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 84(1): 49-54, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003722

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Ureaplasma urealyticum es el agente más frecuentemente aislado en infección intraamniótica. Los macrólidos son los antimicrobianos de primera elección en embarazadas. Se ha descrito el aumento de resistencia, pudiendo limitar las opciones terapéuticas durante la gestación. El propósito del estudio es evaluar susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Ureaplasma urealyticum aislado en mujeres en edad fértil, que se atienden en Clínica Alemana Temuco, Araucanía, Chile. METODO: Se estudian todas las muestras de orina y flujo vaginal para cultivo de U. urealyticum, de pacientes entre 18 y 40 años, recibidas en el Laboratorio de Microbiología Clínica Alemana Temuco, en período Abril 2013 a Enero 2015. Se procesan las muestras con kit Mycoplasma IST 2 de Biomerieux. En las que resultan positivas, se estudia susceptibilidad a macrólidos, tetraciclinas y quinolonas. RESULTADOS: 426 muestras de orina y flujo vaginal (390 pacientes). 197 pacientes resultaron positivas para U. urealyticum. (50,5%). La susceptibilidad fue 88,4% (174 pctes) a Eritromicina, 87,9% (173 pctes) a Claritromicina y 91,9% (181 pctes) a Azitromicina (NS). 15 de 197 pacientes (7,6%) fueron resistentes a los 3 macrólidos. La susceptibilidad a Quinolonas fue 55,3% a Ciprofloxacino, y 94% a Ofloxacino. El 100% resultó susceptible a Tetraciclinas. CONCLUSIONES: Cerca del 10% de U. urealyticum aislados en nuestra serie son resistentes a macrólidos, contribuyendo a la no erradicación de la infección en tratamientos empíricos. Dentro de ellos, azitromicina aparece con la mayor efectividad. El aumento de resistencia limitará opciones terapéuticas, con gran impacto perinatal en futuro. La vigilancia de susceptibilidad en cada hospital es fundamental para elección terapéutica.


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Ureaplasma urealyticum is the most frequently isolated microorganism in intra-amniotic infection. The macrolides are the first choice antimicrobials for treat this infection in pregnancy. The increasing resistance has been described worldwide, seriously limiting therapeutic options in pregnancy. The aim of the study is to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility of U. urealyticum aislated in fertile-age women in Clínica Alemana Temuco, Araucania region, Chile. METHOD: Urine and vaginal samples were analyzed for U. urealyticum, from every 18 to 40 years old patients, received at Microbiology Laboratory of Clínica Alemana Temuco, between April 2013 to January 2015. The samples are processed with Mycoplasma IST 2 kit of Biomerieux. If they became positives, susceptibility to macrolides, tetracyclines and quinolones was studied. RESULTS: 426 urine and vaginal samples were collected (390 patients). 197 patients were positive for U. urealyticum (50.5%). The susceptibility was 88.4% (174 pts) to Erythromicyn, 87.9% (173 pts) to Clarithromycin and 91.9% (181 pts) to Azithromycin (NS). Resistance to all macrolides was observed in 15 out of 197 patients (7.6%). The susceptibility to Quinolones was 55.3% to Ciprofloxacin, and 94% to Ofloxacin. The 100% was susceptible to Tetracyclines. DISCUSSION: Near to 10% of isolated Ureaplasma spp in our serie were resistant to some macrolide, being a factor for failing to eradicate the infection in empirical treatment. Azithromycin was the most effective. The increasing resistance will limit therapeutic options, with great perinatal impact in the future. Susceptibility surveillance in each hospital is very important for therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Ureaplasma urealyticum/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Tetracycline/pharmacology , Urine/microbiology , Urogenital System/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Ureaplasma urealyticum/isolation & purification , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Quinolones/pharmacology , Macrolides/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170075, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893719

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled and parallel- arm randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1-containing probiotic sachet and azithromycin tablets as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy in clinical parameters and in presence and levels of Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Material and Methods: Forty-seven systemically healthy volunteers with chronic periodontitis were recruited and monitored clinically and microbiologically at baseline for 3, 6 and 9 months after therapy. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from four periodontal sites with clinical attachment level ≥1 mm, probing pocket depth ≥4 mm and bleeding on probing, one site in each quadrant. Samples were cultivated and processed using the PCR technique. Patients received nonsurgical therapy including scaling and root planing (SRP) and were randomly assigned to a probiotic (n=16), antibiotic (n = 16) or placebo (n = 15) group. L. rhamnosus SP1 was taken once a day for 3 months. Azithromycin 500mg was taken once a day for 5 days. Results: All groups showed improvements in clinical and microbiological parameters at all time points evaluated. Probiotic and antibiotic groups showed greater reductions in cultivable microbiota compared with baseline. The placebo group showed greater reduction in number of subjects with P. gingivalis compared with baseline. However, there were no significant differences between groups. Conclusions: The adjunctive use of L. rhamnosus SP1 sachets and azithromycin during initial therapy resulted in similar clinical and microbiological improvements compared with the placebo group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/chemistry , Chronic Periodontitis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Colony Count, Microbial , Placebo Effect , Periodontal Index , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Double-Blind Method , Analysis of Variance , Dental Scaling/methods , Treatment Outcome , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/isolation & purification , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/drug effects , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolation & purification , Porphyromonas gingivalis/drug effects , Statistics, Nonparametric , Probiotics/pharmacology , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Dental Plaque/drug therapy , Tannerella forsythia/isolation & purification , Tannerella forsythia/drug effects , Middle Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(1): 1-13, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789083

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Azithromycin is a water-insoluble drug, with a very low bioavailability. In order to increase the solubility and dissolution rate, and consequently increase the bioavailability of poorly-soluble drugs (such as azithromycin), various techniques can be applied. One of such techniques is "solid dispersion". This technique is frequently used to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble compounds. Owing to its low solubility and dissolution rate, azithromycin does not have a suitable bioavailability. Therefore, the main purpose of this investigation was to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of azithromycin by preparing its solid dispersion, using different Polyethylene glycols (PEG). Preparations of solid dispersions and physical mixtures of azithromycin were made using PEG 4000, 6000, 8000, 12000 and 20000 in various ratios, based on the solvent evaporation method. From the studied drug release profile, it was discovered that the dissolution rate of the physical mixture, as the well as the solid dispersions, were higher than those of the drug alone. There was no chemical incompatibility between the drug and polymer from the observed Infrared (IR) spectra. Drug-polymer interactions were also investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD) and Scanning Election Microscopy (SEM). In conclusion, the dissolution rate and solubility of azithromycin were found to improve significantly, using hydrophilic carriers, especially PEG 6000.


RESUMO A azitromicina é um fármaco insolúvel em água, com biodisponibilidade muito baixa. A fim de aumentar a taxa de solubilidade e dissolução e, consequentemente, aumentar a biodisponibilidade de fármacos fracamente solúveis (tais como azitromicina), várias técnicas podem ser aplicadas. Uma dessas técnicas é a "dispersão sólida", frequentemente usada para melhorar a taxa de dissolução de compostos fracamente solúveis em água. Devido à baixa taxa de solubilidade e de dissolução, este fármaco não tem biodisponibilidade adequada. Portanto, o principal objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de aumentar a taxa de solubilidade e dissolução da azitromicina, preparando a sua dispersão sólida, utilizando diferentes glicóis de polietileno (PEG). As dispersões sólidas e as misturas físicas de azitromicina foram preparadas utilizando PEG 4000, 6000, 8000, 12000 e 20000, em várias proporções, com base no método de evaporação do solvente. O perfil de liberação do fármaco foi estudado e verificou-se que tanto a taxa de dissolução da mistura física quanto as dispersões sólidas foram maiores do que as do fármaco sozinho. Espectros de IR não revelaram incompatibilidade química entre o fármaco e o polímero. Interações fármaco-polímero também foram investigadas usando calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC), Difração de Raios X (PXRD) e Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura(SEM). Em conclusão, a taxa de dissolução e a solubilidade da azitromicina melhoraram, de forma significativa, utilizando suportes hidrofílicos, especialmente PEG 6000.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/analysis , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Dissolution/methods , Polyethylene Glycols/analysis , Solubility/drug effects
6.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Jan-Mar; 30(1): 30-33
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143890

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The present study was performed to assess the current susceptibility pattern of blood isolates of Salmonella spp from a super specialty hospital in North India against nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin and compare the in vitro and in vivo response against azithromycin. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentration's (MIC's) of 107 blood isolates of Salmonella spp against nalidixic acid, azithromycin and ciprofloxacin and correlated in vitro and in vivo response of azithromycin from the treatment and discharge summaries from the Hospital Information System (HIS) software. Results: Among the 107 isolates evaluated, 94 (87.8%) were nalidixic acid-resistant (NAR) Salmonella and 36 were resistant to azithromycin by MIC testing. The MIC 90 value for azithromycin was 24 μg/mL. Among the 57 treatment histories evaluated using the HIS software, 19 (33%) patients had documented clinical non-response to azithromycin which required change of therapy. Conclusions: The present study observed a higher MIC 90 values for azithromycin compared to Salmonella isolates from Western studies. There was also a documented clinical non-response against azithromycin. The in vitro and in vivo findings in this study suggest a guarded use of azithromycin for cases of enteric fever in India. The study also augments the reversal of resistance pattern in favour of chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Humans , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nalidixic Acid/pharmacology , Nalidixic Acid/therapeutic use , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Salmonella typhi/isolation & purification , Typhoid Fever/drug therapy , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142692

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study was performed to compare the prevalence rates of primary antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) isolates among different regions of Korea. METHODS: H. pylori were isolated from gastric mucosal biopsy specimens of 99 Koreans who lived in Gyeonggi (n=40), Kangwon province (n=40) and Busan (n=19) from April to August in 2008. All the patients had no history of H. pylori eradication therapy. The susceptibilities of the H. pylori isolates to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, tetracycline, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin were tested according to the agar dilution method. RESULTS: There was a difference in resistance to clarithromycin in three institutes located among Gyeonggi (32.5%), Kangwon province (12.5%) and Busan (42.1%) by One way ANOVA test (p=0.027) and nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test (p=0.027). However, by post-hoc analysis, there was no statistically significant difference among three regions. Similarly, the other 7 antibiotics (amoxicillin, metronidazole, tetracycline, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin) did not show any significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant regional difference of the primary antibiotic resistance of H. pylori. However, the included patient number might not be enough for this conclusion demanding further evaluations.


Subject(s)
Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Aza Compounds/pharmacology , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Female , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Humans , Male , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Ofloxacin/pharmacology , Quinolines/pharmacology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Tetracycline/pharmacology
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study was performed to compare the prevalence rates of primary antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) isolates among different regions of Korea. METHODS: H. pylori were isolated from gastric mucosal biopsy specimens of 99 Koreans who lived in Gyeonggi (n=40), Kangwon province (n=40) and Busan (n=19) from April to August in 2008. All the patients had no history of H. pylori eradication therapy. The susceptibilities of the H. pylori isolates to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, tetracycline, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin were tested according to the agar dilution method. RESULTS: There was a difference in resistance to clarithromycin in three institutes located among Gyeonggi (32.5%), Kangwon province (12.5%) and Busan (42.1%) by One way ANOVA test (p=0.027) and nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test (p=0.027). However, by post-hoc analysis, there was no statistically significant difference among three regions. Similarly, the other 7 antibiotics (amoxicillin, metronidazole, tetracycline, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin) did not show any significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant regional difference of the primary antibiotic resistance of H. pylori. However, the included patient number might not be enough for this conclusion demanding further evaluations.


Subject(s)
Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Aza Compounds/pharmacology , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Female , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Humans , Male , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Ofloxacin/pharmacology , Quinolines/pharmacology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Tetracycline/pharmacology
10.
Rev. bras. odontol ; 67(1): 19-23, jul.-dez. 2010.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-563831

ABSTRACT

Foi feita uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o uso da azitromicina em Periodontia considerando algumas questões como: Pode este antibiótico aumentar o efeito da raspagem radicular, limitar seus efeitos adversos ou pode até mesmo ser um substituto em alguns casos? A azitromicina vem sendo associada, em alguns casos, à raspagem e ao alisamento radicular no tratamento de doenças periodontais agressivas, por ser eficaz no combate a bactérias periodontopatogênicas. No entanto, faltam estudos com conteúdo confiável para se confirmar o sucesso dessa nova terapia. Sendo assim, o tratamento principal para a periodontite agressiva continua sendo a raspagem e o alisamento radicular.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Azithromycin/standards , Aggressive Periodontitis/drug therapy
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121790

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial susceptibility of Legionella spp. has rarely been studied in Korea. Therefore, we aimed to determine the susceptibility of Legionella spp. to various antibiotics. METHODS: We assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility of 66 environmental and clinical Legionella isolates collected between January 2001 and December 2008 from Korea and Japan. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 6 antibiotics, namely, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, gatifloxacin, and gemifloxacin were determined by the broth microdilution method using buffered starch yeast extract broth. RESULTS: The MIC ranges of the 6 antibiotics used against the Legionella isolates were as follows: 0.004-0.062 microgram/mL (azithromycin), 0.002-0.5 microgram/mL (ciprofloxacin), 0.004-0.5 microgram/mL (clarithromycin), 0.12-4 microgram/mL (clindamycin), 0.002-0.12 microgram/mL (gatifloxacin), and 0.008-1 microgram/mL (gemifloxacin). CONCLUSIONS: Legionella spp. isolates from Korea and Japan were most susceptible to gatifloxacin. Azithromycin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and gemifloxacin were also effective for treating legionellosis.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Clindamycin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Humans , Legionella/drug effects , Legionellosis/diagnosis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Naphthyridines/pharmacology
12.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 45(2): 219-226, Apr.-June 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-525898

ABSTRACT

A stability study of azithromycin in ophthalmic preparations was developed by submission to different types of light, temperature and pH, using the biodiffusion assay (cylinder 3 x 3) for the quantifications. Bacillus subtilis, ATCC 9372, was used as test organism. The used concentration range was of 50 to 200 µg/mL. The study demonstrated that the drug suffered degradation when submitted to the ultraviolet light, germicide light, solar luminosity, acid solution, basic solution and hydrogen peroxide solution. The results were analyzed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA).


O estudo de estabilidade de azitromicina em preparações oftálmicas foi realizado após exposição a diferentes tipos de luz, temperatura e pH, utilizando o método de difusão em ágar (cilindros 3 x 3) para as quantificações. A faixa de concentração foi de 50 a 200 µg/mL. O estudo demonstrou que o fármaco sofreu degradação quando submetido às luzes ultravioleta, germicida e solar, e a soluções ácida, alcalina e de peróxido de hidrogênio. Os resultados foram analisados através da análise da variância (ANOVA).


Subject(s)
Drug Evaluation/statistics & numerical data , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Ophthalmology , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Analysis of Variance , Biological Assay , Facilitated Diffusion , Photobleaching
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 40(6): 627-630, nov.-dez. 2007. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-471340

ABSTRACT

New therapeutic alternatives against leishmaniasis remain a priority. The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Leishmania) major has been previously demonstrated. Different responses among species of Leishmania make species-specific drug screening necessary. The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was evaluated in golden hamsters infected through footpad injections of metacyclic promastigotes, and compared with untreated controls and animals treated with meglumine antimoniate. Footpad thickness, lesion cultures and dissemination sites were analyzed. Treatment of golden hamsters with oral azithromycin at 450mg/kg had no activity against infections with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. For infections due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, azithromycin demonstrated significant activity relative to untreated controls, but inferior to meglumine antimoniate, for controlling lesion size. Neither drug was able to totally eliminate parasites from the lesions. It was concluded that azithromycin has activity against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis but not against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in this model.


Novas alternativas terapêuticas contra a leishmaniose são ainda uma prioridade. A atividade da azitromicina contra a Leishmania (Leishmania) major foi anteriormente demonstrada. Diferentes respostas entre as espécies de Leishmania fazem com que um screening de drogas específicas para espécies seja necessário. A atividade da azitromicina contra a Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis e a Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis foi avaliada em Golden hamsters infectados a través de injeções de promastigotas metacíclicas e comparando com controles sem tratamento e animais tratados com antimoniato de N-metil-glucamina. Foram analisadas a espessura da pata, a cultura das lesões e disseminação para órgãos internos. A azitromicina oral em dose de 450mg/kg não teve atividade contra a infecção por Leishmania ( Leishmania) amazonensis. Para infecções devidas à Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, a azitromicina teve uma atividade significativa em relação aos controles sem tratamento, mas foi inferior ao antimoniato de N-metil-glucamina quanto ao controle do tamanho das lesões. Nenhuma das drogas conseguiu eliminar totalmente os parasitos das lesões. Foi concluído que a azitromicina tem atividade contra Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, mas não tem atividade contra Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis neste modelo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Male , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Leishmania braziliensis/drug effects , Leishmania mexicana/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine/therapeutic use , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Time Factors
14.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 2007 Jun; 25(2): 158-67
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-547

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance of Shigella isolates in Bangladesh, during 2001-2002, was studied and compared with that of 1991-1992 to identify the changes in resistance patterns and trends. A significant increase in resistance to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (from 52% to 72%, p < 0.01) and nalidixic acid (from 19% to 51%, p < 0.01) was detected. High, but unchanged, resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol, low resistance to mecillinam (resistance 3%, intermediate 3%), and to emergence of resistance to azithromycin (resistance 16%, intermediate 62%) and ceftriaxone/cefixime (2%) were detected in 2001-2002. Of 266 recent isolates, 63% were resistant to > or =3 anti-Shigella drugs (multidrug-resistant [MDR]) compared to 52% of 369 strains (p < 0.007) in 1991-1992. Of 154 isolates tested by E-test in 2001-2002, 71% were nalidixic acid-resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] > or =32 microg/mL) and had 10-fold higher MIC90 (0.25 microg/mL) to ciprofloxacin than that of nalidixic acid-susceptible strains exhibiting decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility, which were detected as ciprofloxacin-susceptible and nalidixic acid-resistant by the disc-diffusion method. These strains were frequently associated with MDR traits. High modal MICs were observed to azithromycin (MIC 6 microg/mL) and nalidixic acid (MIC 128 micdrog/mL) and low to ceftriaxone (MIC 0.023 microg/mL). Conjugative R-plasmids-encoded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase was responsible for resistance to ceftriaxone/cefixime. The growing antimicrobial resistance of Shigella is worrying and mandates monitoring of resistance. Pivmecillinam or ciprofloxacin might be considered for treating shigellosis with caution.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Bangladesh , Ceftriaxone/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Colony Count, Microbial , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Dysentery, Bacillary/drug therapy , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Sentinel Surveillance , Shigella/drug effects , Species Specificity , Treatment Outcome
17.
Biomedica. 2006; 22 ([Jul-Dec]): 130-134
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-76327

ABSTRACT

There is a continuous search for new prokinetic agents for use in gastro intestinal hypomotility. Erythromycin, a macrolide, is one of them. In this study we observed effect of other macrolides, i.e. clarithromycin and azithromycin on rabbit duodenum and compared with that of neostigmine. Both these drugs produced significant prokinetic effect with EC[50] 0.4 micro g/ml and 0.29 micro g/ml respectively. Effect of clarithromycin was well sustained as compared to that of azithromycin, so it seemed to be a better prokinetic agent


Subject(s)
Animals , /drug therapy , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Clarithromycin , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Rabbits , Duodenum/drug effects , Duodenum/physiology , Macrolides/pharmacology
18.
J Postgrad Med ; 2001 Oct-Dec; 47(4): 240-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-117460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: [corrected] The spread of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has made the situation essential to look into new effective therapeutic agents like antibiotics. Azithromycin is a potential, chemotherapeutic agent which possesses antimalarial activity and favourable pharmacokinetic properties. It is an azalide microbiocide derived semi-synthetically from macrolide erythromycin. Like other antibiotics, the azalide azithromycin has ability to inhibit protein synthesis on 70S ribosomes. SETTINGS: Experimental study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The parasiticidal profile was studied in five chloroquine sensitive and five chloroquine resistant P. falciparum isolates obtained from various places of India. The antimalarial activity was evaluated in P. falciparum schizont maturation by short term culture for 24 hours and by exposing the parasites to the drug for 96 hours. Parasites synchronized at ring stage were put for culture with various concentrations of azithromycin dihydrate (0.01-40 micro/ml). RESULTS: At highest concentration (40 micro/ml), parasite growth was inhibited totally in all 10 isolates. Antimalarial activity at 96 hours was greater than at 24 hours in both chloroquine sensitive and resistant parasites, which may indicate that the inhibition of parasite growth may occur at clinically achievable concentration of the drug when parasites were exposed for several asexual cycles. CONCLUSION: Azithromycin shows a potential for eventual use alone or in combination in the treatment of chloroquine sensitive and resistant P. falciparum malaria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Drug Resistance , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects
19.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 17(supl.1): 86-94, 2000. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-269448

ABSTRACT

La otitis media aguda (OMA) es la infección bacteriana más frecuente de la infancia, causada principalmente por streptococcus pneumoniae (40 por ciento), haemophilus influenzae (25 por ciento) y moraxella catarrhalis (10 por ciento) y precedida por infecciones virales respiratorias en aproximadamente 70 por ciento de los casos. La OMA es una infección de buen pronóstico con una tasa de mejoría espontánea cercana a 80 por ciento; sin embargo, los antibióticos son ampliamente usados en su tratamiento constituyendo la principal indicación de amtimicrobianos orales en la infancia. La evidencia acumulada de que el beneficio del tratamiento antibiótico es pobre, apunta a que ni el tipo ni el tiempo de tratamiento antibacteriano influyen sobre los resultados finales. Por otra parte, el uso rutinario y por tiempo prolongado de antimicrobiano contribuye al desarrollo de cepas resistentes aumentando el riesgo de portación faríngea y su rápida diseminación. No ha sido demostrado que el uso rutinario de antibióticos en el tratamiento de la OMA sea más efectivo que el uso selectivo para evitar sus complicaciones. Estudios clínicos demuestran la esterilización del fluido del oído medio entre el tercero y sexto día de tratamiento. Una buena correlación entre la mejoría bacteriológica y clínica apoya la hipótesis que un régimen de tratamiento de 3 a 6 días serían tan eficiente como uno de 10. Sin embargo, la tasa de erradicación en los lactantes es menor observádose en ellos mayores fracasos terapéuticos. Un meta-analisis de 32 trabajos controlados y randomizados que compara los resultados de diversos esquemas terapéuticos, indicados por menos de 7 días o más, revela que los resultados evaluados a los 30 días son comparables (OR 1.22) siendo la diferencia en el riesgo de fracaso de 2.3 por ciento. Expresado en NNT (número necesario tratar), 44 niños requieren ser tratados con el tratamiento convencional para evitar un fracaso terapéutico con el esquema acortado. La perspectiva de éxito de un tratamiento acortado en pacientes con OMA no complicada es bastante alta, sin embargo, se requiere mayores estudios para avalar su uso en lactantes


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Otitis Media/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Drug Administration Schedule , Otitis Media/complications , Tympanic Membrane Perforation/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
20.
Rev. ADM ; 56(1): 32-8, ene.-feb. 1999. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-266990

ABSTRACT

La prescripción profiláctica de antibióticos para evitar el desarrollo de endocarditis bacteriana (EB) es una actvidad relativamente común en la práctica odontológica. Aunque esta infección es poco frecuente, la mortalidad sigue siendo alta y su asociación con la práctica dental es bien conocida, de ahí que la responsabilidad del clínico deba orientarse hacia su prevención. En este trabajo se discutirán los factores que deben considerarse para tomar la decisión de dar o no profilaxia antibiótica; entre dichos factores destacan la susceptibilidad del paciente para sufrir EB, el tipo de procedimiento dental a realizar y los esquemas profilácticos y sus variantes, recomendados por la Asociación Americana del Corazón con el aval de la Asociación Dental Americana


Subject(s)
Humans , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/prevention & control , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Ampicillin/pharmacology , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Cefazolin/pharmacology , Cephalexin/pharmacology , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Clindamycin/pharmacology , Risk Assessment
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