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1.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 66-72, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971019

ABSTRACT

Nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) is a severe condition in infertile men, and increasing numbers of causative genes have been identified during the last few decades. Although certain causative genes can explain the presence of NOA in some patients, a proportion of NOA patients remain to be addressed. This study aimed to investigate potential high-risk genes associated with spermatogenesis in idiopathic NOA patients by whole-exome sequencing. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in 46 male patients diagnosed with NOA. First, screening was performed for 119 genes known to be related to male infertility. Next, further screening was performed to determine potential high-risk causative genes for NOA by comparisons with 68 healthy male controls. Finally, risk genes with high/specific expression in the testes were selected and their expression fluctuations during spermatogenesis were graphed. The frequency of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene pathogenic variant carriers was higher in the NOA patients compared with the healthy controls. Potential risk genes that may be causes of NOA were identified, including seven genes that were highly/specifically expressed in the testes. Four risk genes previously reported to be involved in spermatogenesis (MutS homolog 5 [MSH5], cilia- and flagella-associated protein 54 [CFAP54], MAP7 domain containing 3 [MAP7D3], and coiled-coil domain containing 33 [CCDC33]) and three novel risk genes (coiled-coil domain containing 168 [CCDC168], chromosome 16 open reading frame 96 [C16orf96], and serine protease 48 [PRSS48]) were identified to be highly or specifically expressed in the testes and significantly different in the 46 NOA patients compared with 68 healthy controls. This study on clinical NOA patients provides further evidence for the four previously reported risk genes. The present findings pave the way for further functional investigations and provide candidate risk genes for genetic diagnosis of NOA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Azoospermia/pathology , East Asian People , Exome Sequencing , Mutation , Proteins/genetics
2.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 73-77, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970986

ABSTRACT

Patients with congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens (CUAVD) manifest diverse symptoms from normospermia to azoospermia. Treatment for CUAVD patients with obstructive azoospermia (OA) is complicated, and there is a lack of relevant reports. In this study, we describe the clinical features and evaluate the treatments and outcomes of CUAVD patients with OA. From December 2015 to December 2020, 33 patients were diagnosed as CUAVD with OA in Shanghai General Hospital (Shanghai, China). Patient information, ultrasound findings, semen analysis, hormone profiles, and treatment information were collected, and the clinical outcomes were evaluated. Of 33 patients, 29 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Vasoepididymostomy (VE) or cross VE was performed in 12 patients, the patency rate was 41.7% (5/12), and natural pregnancy was achieved in one of the patients. The other 17 patients underwent testicular sperm extraction as the distal vas deferens (contralateral side) was obstructed. These findings showed that VE or cross VE remains an alternative treatment for CUAVD patients with OA, even with a relatively low rate of patency and natural pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Male , Vas Deferens/abnormalities , Azoospermia/surgery , Epididymis/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , China , Semen
3.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 5-12, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970984

ABSTRACT

Spermatogenesis is regulated by several Y chromosome-specific genes located in a specific region of the long arm of the Y chromosome, the azoospermia factor region (AZF). AZF microdeletions are the main structural chromosomal abnormalities that cause male infertility. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been used to overcome natural fertilization barriers, allowing infertile couples to have children. However, these techniques increase the risk of vertical transmission of genetic defects. Despite widespread awareness of AZF microdeletions, the occurrence of de novo deletions and overexpression, as well as the expansion of AZF microdeletion vertical transmission, remains unknown. This review summarizes the mechanism of AZF microdeletion and the function of the candidate genes in the AZF region and their corresponding clinical phenotypes. Moreover, vertical transmission cases of AZF microdeletions, the impact of vertical inheritance on male fertility, and the prospective direction of research in this field are also outlined.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Azoospermia/genetics , Sex Chromosome Aberrations , Prospective Studies , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosomes, Human, Y/genetics , Infertility, Male/genetics , Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome/genetics , Oligospermia/genetics
4.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 26-30, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970872

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the incidence of azoospermia factor c (AZFc) microdeletion among patients with azoospermia or severe oligospermia, its association with sex hormone/chromosomal karyotype, and its effect on the outcome of pregnancy following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment.@*METHODS@#A total of 1 364 males with azoospermia or severe oligospermia who presented at the Affiliated Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital of Jiaxing College between 2013 and 2020 were subjected to AZF microdeletion and chromosome karyotyping analysis. The level of reproductive hormones in patients with AZFc deletions was compared with those of control groups A (with normal sperm indices) and B (azoospermia or severe oligospermia without AZFc microdeletion). The outcome of pregnancies for the AZFc-ICSI couples was compared with that of the control groups in regard to fertilization rate, superior embryo rate and clinical pregnancy rate.@*RESULTS@#A total of 51 patients were found to harbor AZFc microdeletion, which yielded a detection rate of 3.74%. Seven patients also had chromosomal aberrations. Compared with control group A, patients with AZFc deletion had higher levels of PRL, FSH and LH (P < 0.05), whilst compared with control group B, only the PRL and FSH were increased (P < 0.05). Twenty two AZFc couples underwent ICSI treatment, and no significant difference was found in the rate of superior embryos and clinical pregnancy between the AZFc-ICSI couples and the control group (P > 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of AZFc microdeletion was 3.74% among patients with azoospermia or severe oligospermia. AZFc microdeletion was associated with chromosomal aberrations and increased levels of PRL, FSH and LH, but did not affect the clinical pregnancy rate after ICSI treatment.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Azoospermia/genetics , Oligospermia/genetics , Incidence , Chromosome Deletion , Chromosomes, Human, Y/genetics , Semen , Infertility, Male/genetics , Chromosome Aberrations , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/genetics
5.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 725-730, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009786

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the ability of rete testis thickness (RTT) and testicular shear wave elastography (SWE) to differentiate obstructive azoospermia (OA) from nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). We assessed 290 testes of 145 infertile males with azoospermia and 94 testes of 47 healthy volunteers at Shanghai General Hospital (Shanghai, China) between August 2019 and October 2021. The testicular volume (TV), SWE, and RTT were compared among patients with OA and NOA and healthy controls. The diagnostic performances of the three variables were evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic curve. The TV, SWE, and RTT in OA differed significantly from those in NOA (all P ≤ 0.001) but were similar to those in healthy controls. Males with OA and NOA were similar at TVs of 9-11 cm 3 ( P = 0.838), with sensitivity, specificity, Youden index, and area under the curve of 50.0%, 84.2%, 0.34, and 0.662 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.502-0.799), respectively, for SWE cut-off of 3.1 kPa; and 94.1%, 79.2%, 0.74, and 0.904 (95% CI: 0.811-0.996), respectively, for RTT cut-off of 1.6 mm. The results showed that RTT performed significantly better than SWE in differentiating OA from NOA in the TV overlap range. In conclusion, ultrasonographic RTT evaluation proved a promising diagnostic approach to differentiate OA from NOA, particularly in the TV overlap range.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Azoospermia , Rete Testis , China , Testis
6.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 704-707, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009784

ABSTRACT

To investigate the factors affecting the sperm retrieval rate of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) in patients with nonmosaic Klinefelter syndrome (KS), 64 patients with nonmosaic KS who underwent micro-TESE in the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Peking University Third Hospital (Beijing, China) between January 2016 and December 2017 were included in the study. Data on medical history, physical examination and laboratory examination results, and micro-TESE outcomes were collected. Patients were divided into two groups according to micro-TESE outcomes. The following factors were compared between the two groups by the Mann‒Whitney U test or Student's t-test based on the distribution (nonnormal or normal) of the factors: age, testicular size, follicle-stimulating hormone level, luteinizing hormone level, testosterone level, and anti-Müllerian hormone level. The overall success rate of sperm retrieval was 50.0%. Correlation analysis showed that testicular volume was positively correlated with testosterone level. Using a logistic regression model, age and anti-Müllerian hormone levels were found to be better predictors for the sperm retrieval rate than the other parameters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Sperm Retrieval , Klinefelter Syndrome , Microdissection , Anti-Mullerian Hormone , Semen , Testis , Spermatozoa , Testosterone , Azoospermia , Retrospective Studies
7.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1068-1074, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009255

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the characteristics of copy number variation (CNV) within the Y chromosome azoospermia factor (AZF) region in patients with spermatogenesis disorders in the Shenzhen area.@*METHODS@#A total of 123 patients with spermatogenesis disorders who had visited Shenzhen People's Hospital from January 2016 to October 2022 (including 73 patients with azoospermia and 50 patients with oligozoospermia) and 100 normal semen males were selected as the study subjects. The AZF region was detected with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and the correlation between the CNV in the AZF region and spermatogenesis disorders was analyzed using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test.@*RESULTS@#19 CNV were detected among 53 patients from the 223 samples, including 20 cases (27.40%, 20/73) from the azoospermia group, 19 cases (38%, 19/50) from the oligozoospermia group, and 14 cases (14%, 14/100) from the normal control group. In the azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and normal control groups, the detection rates for CNV related to the AZFa region (including AZFab and AZFabc) were 5.48% (4/73), 2.00% (1/50), and 0 (0/100), respectively. The detection rates for the AZFb region (including the AZFbc region) were 6.85% (5/73), 0 (0/50), and 0 (0/100), respectively. The detection rates for gr/gr deletions in the AZFc region were 2.74% (2/73), 6.00% (3/50), and 9.00% (9/100), respectively, and those for b2/b4 deletions in the AZFc region were 2.74% (2/73), 10.00% (5/50), and 0 (0/100), respectively. The detection rates for complex rearrangements in the AZFc region were 6.85% (5/73), 18.00% (9/50), and 3.00% (3/100), respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in the detection rate of gr/gr deletions between the three groups (Fisher's Exact Test value = 2.712, P = 0.249); the differences in the detection rate of b2/b4 deletions between the three groups were statistically significant (Fisher's Exact Test value = 9.489, P = 0.002); the differences in the detection rate of complex rearrangements in the AZFc region between the three groups were statistically significant (Fisher's Exact Test value = 9.493, P = 0.006). In this study, a rare AZFa region ARSLP1 gene deletion (involving SY86 deletion) was detected in a patient with oligozoospermia.@*CONCLUSION@#CNV in the AZFa and AZFb regions have a severe impact on spermatogenesis, but partial deletion in the AZFa region (ARSLP1 gene deletion) has a minor impact on spermatogenesis. The b2/b4 deletion and complex rearrangement in the AZFc region may be risk factors for male infertility. The gr/gr deletion may not serve as a risk factor for male infertility in the Shenzhen area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Azoospermia/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Oligospermia/genetics , Infertility, Male/genetics , Y Chromosome
8.
Biol. Res ; 56: 2-2, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The testes are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiation at all stages of life. Exposure to these threats mainly occurs during cancer treatment and as an occupational hazard in radiation centers. The present study investigated the regenerative ability of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) against the adverse effects of cisplatin on the structure and function of the testes. METHODS: New Zealand white rabbits (N = 15) were divided into three groups of five: a negative control group (no treatment), a cisplatin group (single dose of cisplatin into each testis followed three days later by a PBS injection), and a cisplatin + ADMSCs group (cisplatin injection followed three days later by an ADMSC injection). On day 45 post-treatment, serum testosterone levels were evaluated, and the testes and epididymis were collected for histology, oxidative stress examination, and epididymal sperm analysis. RESULTS: Cisplatin caused damage to the testicular tissue and decreased serum testosterone levels, epididymal sperm counts, and oxidants. An antioxidant imbalance was detected due to increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in testicular tissue. The ADMSC-treated group displayed a moderate epididymal sperm count, adequate antioxidant protection, suitable hormone levels, and enhanced testicular tissue morphology. CONCLUSIONS: ADMSCs treatment repaired damaged testicular tissue, enhanced biochemical parameters, and modified pathological changes caused by cisplatin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rabbits , Azoospermia/chemically induced , Azoospermia/metabolism , Azoospermia/pathology , Semen , Spermatozoa/metabolism , Spermatozoa/pathology , Testis/metabolism , Testosterone/pharmacology , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Oxidative Stress , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Antioxidants/pharmacology
9.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 274-286, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928554

ABSTRACT

Nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) refers to the failure of spermatogenesis, which affects approximately 1% of the male population and contributes to 10% of male infertility. NOA has an underlying basis of endocrine imbalances since proper human spermatogenesis relies on complex regulation and cooperation of multiple hormones. A better understanding of subtle hormonal disturbances in NOA would help design and improve hormone therapies with reduced risk in human fertility clinics. The purpose of this review is to summarize the research on the endocrinological aspects of NOA, especially the hormones involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis (HPTA), including gonadotropin-releasing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, inhibin B, anti-Müllerian hormone, and leptin. For the NOA men associated with primary testicular failure, the quality of currently available evidence has not been sufficient enough to recommend any general hormone optimization therapy. Some other NOA patients, especially those with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, could be treated with hormonal replacement. Although these approaches have succeeded in resuming the fertility in many NOA patients, the prudent strategies should be applied in individuals according to specific NOA etiology by balancing fertility benefits and potential risks. This review also discusses how NOA can be induced by immunization against hormones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Azoospermia/etiology , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Luteinizing Hormone , Sperm Retrieval , Testis , Testosterone/therapeutic use
10.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 243-247, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928553

ABSTRACT

Thanks to tremendous advances in sequencing technologies and in particular to whole exome sequencing (WES), many genes have now been linked to severe sperm defects. A precise genetic diagnosis is obtained for a minority of patients and only for the most severe defects like azoospermia or macrozoospermia which is very often due to defects in the aurora kinase C (AURKC gene. Here, we studied a subject with a severe oligozoospermia and a phenotypic diagnosis of macrozoospermia. AURKC analysis did not reveal any deleterious variant. WES was then initiated which permitted to identify a homozygous loss of function variant in the zinc finger MYND-type containing 15 (ZMYND15 gene. ZMYND15 has been described to serve as a switch for haploid gene expression, and mice devoid of ZMYND15 were shown to be sterile due to nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). In man, ZMYND15 has been associated with NOA and severe oligozoospermia. We confirm here that the presence of a bi-allelic ZMYND15 variant induces a severe oligozoospermia. In addition, we show that severe oligozoospermia can be associated macrozoospermia, and that a phenotypic misdiagnosis is possible, potentially delaying the genetic diagnosis. In conclusion, genetic defects in ZMYND15 can induce complete NOA or severe oligozoospermia associated with a very severe teratozoospermia. In our experience, severe oligozoospermia is often associated with severe teratozoospermia and can sometimes be misinterpreted as macrozoospermia or globozoospermia. In these instances, specific AURKC or dpy-19 like 2 (DPY19L2) diagnosis is usually negative and we recommend the direct use of a pan-genomic techniques such as WES.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Azoospermia/genetics , Infertility, Male/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Oligospermia/genetics , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , Teratozoospermia/genetics
11.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 248-254, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928551

ABSTRACT

Apparently balanced chromosomal structural rearrangements are known to cause male infertility and account for approximately 1% of azoospermia or severe oligospermia. However, the underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis and etiologies are still largely unknown. Herein, we investigated apparently balanced interchromosomal structural rearrangements in six cases with azoospermia/severe oligospermia to comprehensively identify and delineate cryptic structural rearrangements and the related copy number variants. In addition, high read-depth genome sequencing (GS) (30-fold) was performed to investigate point mutations causative of male infertility. Mate-pair GS (4-fold) revealed additional structural rearrangements and/or copy number changes in 5 of 6 cases and detected a total of 48 rearrangements. Overall, the breakpoints caused truncations of 30 RefSeq genes, five of which were associated with spermatogenesis. Furthermore, the breakpoints disrupted 43 topological-associated domains. Direct disruptions or potential dysregulations of genes, which play potential roles in male germ cell development, apoptosis, and spermatogenesis, were found in all cases (n = 6). In addition, high read-depth GS detected dual molecular findings in case MI6, involving a complex rearrangement and two point mutations in the gene DNAH1. Overall, our study provided the molecular characteristics of apparently balanced interchromosomal structural rearrangements in patients with male infertility. We demonstrated the complexity of chromosomal structural rearrangements, potential gene disruptions/dysregulation and single-gene mutations could be the contributing mechanisms underlie male infertility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Azoospermia/genetics , Chromosome Aberrations , Infertility, Male/genetics , Oligospermia/genetics , Translocation, Genetic
12.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 299-304, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928537

ABSTRACT

The extent of spermatogenic impairment on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes and the risk of major birth defects have been little assessed. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between various spermatogenic conditions, sperm origin on ICSI outcomes, and major birth defects. A total of 934 infertile men attending the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Ren Ji Hospital (Shanghai, China) were classified into six groups: nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA; n = 84), extremely severe oligozoospermia (esOZ; n = 163), severe oligozoospermia (sOZ, n = 174), mild oligozoospermia (mOZ; n = 148), obstructive azoospermia (OAZ; n = 155), and normozoospermia (NZ; n = 210). Rates of fertilization, embryo cleavage, high-quality embryos, implantation, biochemical and clinical pregnancies, abortion, delivery, newborns, as well as major birth malformations, and other newborn outcomes were analyzed and compared among groups. The NOA group showed a statistically lower fertilization rate (68.2% vs esOZ 77.3%, sOZ 78.0%, mOZ 73.8%, OAZ 76.6%, and NZ 79.3%, all P < 0.05), but a significantly higher implantation rate (37.8%) than the groups esOZ (30.1%), sOZ (30.4%), mOZ (32.6%), and OAZ (31.0%) (all P < 0.05), which was similar to that of Group NZ (38.4%). However, there were no statistically significant differences in rates of embryo cleavage, high-quality embryos, biochemical and clinical pregnancies, abortions, deliveries, major birth malformations, and other newborn outcomes in the six groups. The results showed that NOA only negatively affects some embryological outcomes such as fertilization rate. There was no evidence of differences in other embryological and clinical outcomes with respect to sperm source or spermatogenic status. Spermatogenic failure and sperm origins do not impinge on the clinical outcomes in ICSI treatment.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Azoospermia/therapy , China , Oligospermia/therapy , Pregnancy Rate , Retrospective Studies , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic/methods , Sperm Retrieval , Spermatogenesis , Spermatozoa
13.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 186-190, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928536

ABSTRACT

Nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) is a common cause of infertility and is defined as the complete absence of sperm in ejaculation due to defective spermatogenesis. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic etiology of NOA in an infertile male from a Chinese consanguineous family. A homozygous missense variant of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing 1 (MBOAT1) gene (c.770C>T, p.Thr257Met) was found by whole-exome sequencing (WES). Bioinformatic analysis also showed that this variant was a pathogenic variant and that the amino acid residue in MBOAT1 was highly conserved in mammals. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis showed that the mRNA level of MBOAT1 in the patient was 22.0% lower than that in his father. Furthermore, we screened variants of MBOAT1 in a broader population and found an additional homozygous variant of the MBOAT1 gene in 123 infertile men. Our data identified homozygous variants of the MBOAT1 gene associated with male infertility. This study will provide new insights for researchers to understand the molecular mechanisms of male infertility and will help clinicians make accurate diagnoses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Acetyltransferases/genetics , Azoospermia/genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Infertility, Male/genetics , Mammals , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mutation
14.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 125-134, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928519

ABSTRACT

Infertility affects 10%-15% of couples worldwide. Of all infertility cases, 20%-70% are due to male factors. In the past, men with severe male factor (SMF) were considered sterile. Nevertheless, the development of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) drastically modified this scenario. The advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART), specifically regarding surgical sperm retrieval procedures, allowed the efficacious treatment of these conditions. Yet, before undergoing ICSI, male factor infertility requires careful evaluation of clinical and lifestyle behavior together with medical treatment. Epidemiologically speaking, women whose male partner is azoospermic tend to be younger and with a better ovarian reserve. These couples, in fact, are proposed ART earlier in their life, and for this reason, their ovarian response after stimulation is generally good. Furthermore, in younger couples, azoospermia can be partially compensated by the efficient ovarian response, resulting in an acceptable fertility rate following in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques. Conversely, when azoospermia is associated with a reduced ovarian reserve and/or advanced maternal age, the treatment becomes more challenging, with a consequent reduction in IVF outcomes. Nonetheless, azoospermia seems to impair neither the euploidy rate at the blastocyst stage nor the implantation of euploid blastocysts. Based on the current knowledge, the assessment of male infertility factors should involve: (1) evaluation - to diagnose and quantify seminologic alterations; (2) potentiality - to determine the real possibilities to improve sperm parameters and/or retrieve spermatozoa; (3) time - to consider the available "treatment window", based on maternal age and ovarian reserve. This review represents an update of the definition, prevalence, causes, and treatment of SMF in a modern ART clinic.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Azoospermia , Fertilization in Vitro/methods , Infertility, Male/therapy , Prevalence , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic/methods , Spermatozoa
15.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 102-108, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928505

ABSTRACT

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is one of the most frequent genetic abnormalities and the leading genetic cause of nonobstructive azoospermia. The breeding and study of KS mouse models are essential to advancing our knowledge of the underlying pathological mechanism. Karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization are reliable methods for identifying chromosomal contents. However, technical issues associated with these methods can decrease the efficiency of breeding KS mouse models and limit studies that require rapid identification of target mice. To overcome these limitations, we developed three polymerase chain reaction-based assays to measure specific genetic information, including presence or absence of the sex determining region of chromosome Y (Sry), copy number of amelogenin, X-linked (Amelx), and inactive X specific transcripts (Xist) levels. Through a combined analysis of the assay results, we can infer the karyotype of target mice. We confirmed the utility of our assays with the successful generation of KS mouse models. Our assays are rapid, inexpensive, high capacity, easy to perform, and only require small sample amounts. Therefore, they facilitate the breeding and study of KS mouse models and help advance our knowledge of the pathological mechanism underlying KS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Azoospermia , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Klinefelter Syndrome/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 85-89, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928502

ABSTRACT

Varicocele adversely affects semen parameters. However, the effect of varicocele repair on the sperm retrieval rate and testicular histopathological patterns in men with nonobstructive azoospermia has not been widely reported. We retrospectively assessed the sperm retrieval rates and testicular histopathological patterns in men with nonobstructive azoospermia who were referred to the Urology Clinic in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (Jakarta, Indonesia) and Bunda General Hospital (Jakarta, Indonesia) between January 2009 and December 2019. We compared patients who had undergone a surgical sperm retrieval procedure for assisted reproductive technology no earlier than three months after varicocele repair and those who had not undergone varicocele repair. The study included 104 patients (age range: 26-54 years), 42 of whom had undergone varicocele repair before the sperm retrieval procedure and 62 who had not. Motile spermatozoa were found in 29 (69.1%) and 17 (27.4%) patients who had undergone varicocele repair before the sperm retrieval procedure and those who had not undergone the repair, respectively (relative risk: 2.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.60-3.96; P < 0.001). A predicted probabilities graph showed consistently higher sperm retrieval rates for patients with varicocele repair, regardless of their follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Patients who underwent varicocele repair showed higher testicular histopathological patterns (P = 0.001). In conclusion, men with nonobstructive azoospermia and clinical varicocele who underwent varicocele repair before the sperm retrieval procedure had higher sperm retrieval rates compared to those who did not undergo varicocele repair.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Azoospermia , Retrospective Studies , Sperm Retrieval , Testis , Varicocele/surgery
17.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 294-298, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936150

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Androgen deficiency is common in aging males and may have unfavourable health consequences. Large-scale studies suggested low testosterone level might increse mortality and morbidity in ageing males. However, young men with low testosterone level might be neglected. Recent studies reported young men with infertility may have reduced testosterone level. To investigate the incidence of androgen deficiency in males with infertility and possible factors affecting the low testosterone level.@*METHODS@#Between January 2011 and December 2012, 407 men with infertility caused by varicocele (VC), obstructive azoospermia (OA) and nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) in our center were included. The number of men in each group of OA, NOA and VC was 141, 97 and 169, respectively. All the eligible patients underwent a serum testosterone assessment by a single morning blood draw (between 8:00 to noon) to test for concentration of the total testosterone. All serum samples were determined by radioimmunoassay in our andrology laboratory. Androgen deficiency was defined as having a total testosterone level less than 300 ng/dL.@*RESULTS@#The mean age was (30.4±5.8) years. The mean testosterone level was (4.18±1.64) ng/dL (range 0.30 to 11.32 ng/dL). The overall incidence of androgen deficiency was 26.5% (108/407). The incidences of androgen deficiency in NOA, OA and VC groups were 40.2% (39/97), 19.1% (27/141) and 24.9% (42/169), respectively, which were significantly higher in the NOA than in the VC and OA groups (P < 0.001). The incidences had no difference between the VC and OA groups (P=0.229). Univariate analysis revealed the cause of infertility, FSH and the mean testis volume as possible affecting factors for androgen deficiency. However, on multivariate analysis the only cause of infertility was an independent predictor. The incidence of androgen deficiency was the highest in the NOA group [OR 0.492 (95% confidence interval 0.288-0.840)].@*CONCLUSION@#NOA and varicocele might be risk factors of androgen deficiency. Young men with NOA may have a higher possibility of low testosterone level. Testosterone level should be followed up after NOA and varicocele treatment. Androgen deficiency should be assessed in males with infertility in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Androgens , Azoospermia/etiology , Testis , Testosterone , Varicocele/complications
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(7): 958-965, July 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346960

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the results of microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) and investigate the potential factors that may affect the successful sperm retrieval and timing of micro-TESE. METHODS: A total of 56 patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) who underwent micro-TESE procedure between January 2017 and December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The patient age, marriage duration, infertility duration, smoking, chronic illness, varicocele status, previous scrotal surgeries, and the presence of genetic disease were noted by an urologist for all patients. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 33.28±4.4 (22-44) years. Our total sperm-retrieval rate was 55.4% (n:31). Sixteen (28.6%) pregnancies were achieved and 15 (26.8%) healthy live births could be managed. Only the marriage duration (p=0.016) and infertility duration (p=0.015) were detected to be the significant factors to manage successful sperm retrieval. Men with NOA younger than 35.2 years and having a female partner younger than 36.9 years seemed to have the best chance to have a living healthy baby. CONCLUSIONS: The fertility decreased by both male and female age and for men with NOA. The early visit to doctor seemed to have positive effect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adult , Azoospermia , Spermatozoa , Testis , Retrospective Studies , Sperm Retrieval
19.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 32(2): 180-188, mar.-abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1518261

ABSTRACT

En una pareja con infertilidad, la evaluación masculina es fundamental por dos razones principales. En primer lugar, es la única causa de infertilidad en el 20% de las parejas y en el 50% se encuentra asociada a una causa de infertilidad femenina; en segundo lugar, existe evidencia de la relación entre infertilidad masculina y comorbilidades, como enfermedades cardiovasculares, oncológicas, reumatológicas e incluso con aumento de la mortalidad. Por esto, los pacientes deben ser evaluados por urólogos-andrólogos entrenados que permitan llegar al diagnóstico etiológico, como también buscar comorbilidades asociadas. Una correcta historia clínica, examen físico, espermiograma y exámenes complementarios permitirán obtener el diagnóstico etiológico y por lo tanto el tratamiento adecuado. Las causas genéticas de infertilidad son al menos el 15% de las etiologías, aumentando hasta el 25% en casos de azoospermia. A través del desarrollo y avance en biología molecular, en el futuro se podrán identificar otras causas genéticas que actualmente son categorizadas como infertilidad de origen idiopático.


When treating infertility, a study of the male partner is necessary for two main reasons: 1) In 20% of cases of infertility there is only a male root cause and in addition, in 50% of the cases the root cause is associated with the male and the female. 2) There is supporting and growing evidence that male infertility is related to comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, rheumatologic disease, and even mortality. A thorough clinical history, physical examination, semen analysis and auxiliary tests will help us identify the cause and the correct treatment. Near 15% of male infertility are attributed to genetic causes, and this goes up to 25% in cases of azoospermia. With evolving advances and development of molecular biology, some causes of male infertility currently classified as idiopathic, will be specifically identified and categorized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infertility, Male/diagnosis , Infertility, Male/etiology , Azoospermia , Semen Analysis
20.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 590-599, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922360

ABSTRACT

Azoospermia patients who carry a monogenetic mutation that causes meiotic arrest may have their biological child through genetic correction in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). However, such therapy for infertility has not been experimentally investigated yet. In this study, a mouse model with an X-linked testis-expressed 11 (TEX11) mutation (Tex11


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Adult Germline Stem Cells/metabolism , Azoospermia/genetics , Infertility, Male/therapy , Mutation/genetics , Spermatogenesis/genetics
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