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1.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 221-228, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929561

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate whether haplotype hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) is effective in the treatment of pre transplant minimal residual disease (Pre-MRD) positive acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) compared with HLA- matched sibling donor transplantation (MSDT) . Methods: A total of 998 patients with B-ALL in complete remission pre-HSCT who either received haplo-HSCT (n=788) or underwent MSDT (n=210) were retrospectively analyzed. The pre-transplantation leukemia burden was evaluated according to Pre-MRD determinedusing multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) . Results: Of these patients, 997 (99.9% ) achieved sustained, full donor chimerism. The 100-day cumulative incidences of neutrophil engraftment, platelet engraftment, and grades Ⅱ-Ⅳ acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 99.9% (997/998) , 95.3% (951/998) , and 26.6% (95% CI 23.8% -29.4% ) , respectively. The 3-year cumulative incidence of total chronic GVHD was 49.1% (95% CI 45.7% -52.4% ) . The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) of the 998 cases were 17.3% (95% CI 15.0% -19.7% ) and 13.8% (95% CI 11.6% -16.0% ) , respectively. The 3-year probabilities of leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) were 69.1% (95% CI 66.1% -72.1% ) and 73.0% (95% CI 70.2% -75.8% ) , respectively. In the total patient group, cases with positive Pre-MRD (n=282) experienced significantly higher CIR than that of subjects with negative Pre-MRD [n=716, 31.6% (95% CI 25.8% -37.5% ) vs 14.3% (95% CI 11.4% -17.2% ) , P<0.001]. For patients in the positive Pre-MRD subgroup, cases treated with haplo-HSCT (n=219) had a lower 3-year CIR than that of cases who underwent MSDT [n=63, 27.2% (95% CI 21.0% -33.4% ) vs 47.0% (95% CI 33.8% -60.2% ) , P=0.002]. The total 998 cases were classified as five subgroups, including cases with negative Pre-MRD group (n=716) , cases with Pre-MRD<0.01% group (n=46) , cases with Pre-MRD 0.01% -<0.1% group (n=117) , cases with Pre-MRD 0.1% -<1% group (n=87) , and cases with Pre-MRD≥1% group (n=32) . For subjects in the Pre-MRD<0.01% group, haplo-HSCT (n=40) had a lower CIR than that of MSDT [n=6, 10.0% (95% CI 0.4% -19.6% ) vs 32.3% (95% CI 0% -69.9% ) , P=0.017]. For patients in the Pre-MRD 0.01% -<0.1% group, haplo-HSCT (n=81) also had a lower 3-year CIR than that of MSDT [n=36, 20.4% (95% CI 10.4% -30.4% ) vs 47.0% (95% CI 29.2% -64.8% ) , P=0.004]. In the other three subgroups, the 3-year CIR was comparable between patients who underwent haplo-HSCT and those received MSDT. A subgroup analysis of patients with Pre-MRD<0.1% (n=163) was performed, the results showed that cases received haplo-HSCT (n=121) experienced lower 3-year CIR [16.0% (95% CI 9.4% -22.7% ) vs 40.5% (95% CI 25.2% -55.8% ) , P<0.001], better 3-year LFS [78.2% (95% CI 70.6% -85.8% ) vs 47.6% (95% CI 32.2% -63.0% ) , P<0.001] and OS [80.5% (95% CI 73.1% -87.9% ) vs 54.6% (95% CI 39.2% -70.0% ) , P<0.001] than those of MSDT (n=42) , but comparable in 3-year NRM [5.8% (95% CI 1.6% -10.0% ) vs 11.9% (95% CI 2.0% -21.8% ) , P=0.188]. Multivariate analysis showed that haplo-HSCT was associated with lower CIR (HR=0.248, 95% CI 0.131-0.472, P<0.001) , and superior LFS (HR=0.275, 95% CI 0.157-0.483, P<0.001) and OS (HR=0.286, 95% CI 0.159-0.513, P<0.001) . Conclusion: Haplo HSCT has a survival advantage over MSDT in the treatment of B-ALL patients with pre MRD<0.1% .


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Graft vs Host Disease , HLA Antigens/genetics , Haplotypes , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Leukemia, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Neoplasm, Residual , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Siblings
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 903-914, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927753

ABSTRACT

In recent decades, the treatment of autoimmune diseases has moved from the use of hormones and conventional immunosuppressive drugs to biological agents. B cell proliferation and maturation play crucial roles in the development of autoimmune diseases. The tumor necrosis factor superfamily ligand B cell activating factor (BAFF) and its receptor mediate B cell survival through regulating signaling pathways. Therefore, BAFF and its receptors are important therapeutic targets for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This review describes the mechanism of BAFF and its receptor in the human body system and introduces the latest views on how over-activation of BAFF pathway promotes the development of autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis. In connection to the treatment of the above three diseases, this review discusses the clinical trials and application status of three BAFF-targeting antibody drugs, including Belimumab, Tabalumab and Atacicept. Finally, this review proposes new strategies that targeting the BAFF pathway to provide a new treatment for autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , B-Cell Activating Factor/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes , Humans , Interleukin-4 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928978

ABSTRACT

B lymphocyte is an important component of the human immune system and it has a role in the process of the body's specific immunity. In recent years, the research on B cells and tumor immune escape has rapidly progressed. Studies have shown that different types of B cells play different roles in tumor microenvironment through a variety of mechanisms. B cells in the tertiary lymphatic structure promote anti-tumor immunity, while regulatory B cells promote tumor immune escape. Antibody drugs targeting B cells are a promising direction for tumor immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/pathology , Humans , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Tumor Escape , Tumor Microenvironment
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 19(2): 120-127, abr.-jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379285

ABSTRACT

Doenças autoimunes são doenças universais, e os diagnósticos e tratamentos primários são habitualmente iniciados por clínicos em enfermarias ou ambulatórios, antes de serem encaminhados a especialistas. Além disso, pacientes em uso de biológicos internados em hospitais gerais têm sido cada vez mais frequentes na prática clínica. Conhecer o perfil de segurança, as indicações e os efeitos colaterais dessas drogas deve ser preocupação dos clínicos. Neste trabalho, foi realizada revisão de literatura sobre terapia biológica com rituximabe no tratamento das principais doenças autoimunes sistêmicas da prática clínica: artrite reumatoide, lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, vasculites relacionadas aos anticorpos anticitoplasma de neutrófilo, púrpura trombocitopênica imune e espondilite anquilosante. (AU)


AutoimmunAutoimmune diseases are universal diseases and primary diagnosis and treatment are typically initiated by internists in wards or outpatient clinics before being referred to specialists. In addition, patients on use of biologicals hospitalized in general hospitals have been increasingly common in clinical practice. Knowing the safety profile, the indications, and the side effects of these drugs should be a concern for the internists as well. In this study, the literature review was performed on biological therapy with Rituximab for treating the main systemic autoimmune diseases of clinical practice: rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and ankylosing spondylitis. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy , Immunoglobulins/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Antigens, CD20/drug effects , Rituximab/pharmacology
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1199-1208, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#For patients with B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL) who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), many variables have been demonstrated to be associated with leukemia relapse. In this study, we attempted to establish a risk score system to predict transplant outcomes more precisely in patients with B-ALL after allo-SCT.@*METHODS@#A total of 477 patients with B-ALL who underwent allo-SCT at Peking University People's Hospital from December 2010 to December 2015 were enrolled in this retrospective study. We aimed to evaluate the factors associated with transplant outcomes after allo-SCT, and establish a risk score to identify patients with different probabilities of relapse. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed with the Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent variables.@*RESULTS@#All patients achieved neutrophil engraftment, and 95.4% of patients achieved platelet engraftment. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), and non-relapse mortality were 20.7%, 70.4%, 65.6%, and 13.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with positive post-transplantation minimal residual disease (MRD), transplanted beyond the first complete remission (≥CR2), and without chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) had higher CIR (P  < 0.001, P = 0.004, and P  < 0.001, respectively) and worse LFS (P  < 0.001, P = 0.017, and P  < 0.001, respectively), and OS (P  < 0.001, P = 0.009, and P  < 0.001, respectively) than patients without MRD after transplantation, transplanted in CR1, and with cGVHD. A risk score for predicting relapse was formulated with the three above variables. The 5-year relapse rates were 6.3%, 16.6%, 55.9%, and 81.8% for patients with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 (P  < 0.001), respectively, while the 5-year LFS and OS values decreased with increasing risk score.@*CONCLUSION@#This new risk score system might stratify patients with different risks of relapse, which could guide treatment.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stem Cell Transplantation
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942243

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the significance of lymphocytes in systemic sclerosis (SSc), by detecting the levels of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, and analyzing the correlation between the lymphocytes and clinical laboratory indexes.@*METHODS@#The numbers and proportion of T, CD4+T, CD8+T, B, and NK cells were detected by flow cytometry in peripheral blood of 32 SSc patients who had taken immunosuppressive drugs and 30 healthy controls (HC). The comparison of the lymphocyte subsets in SSc with them in the HC groups, and the correlation between the lymphocytes and other clinical and laboratory indicators were analyzed by the relevant statistical analysis.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the HC group, the numbers of T, CD4+T, CD8+T, and NK cells in peripheral blood of SSc group, who had taken immunosuppressive drugs, were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). More-over, the proportion of NK cells in peripheral blood of the SSc group was also significantly lower than that in the HC group (P=0.004). In addition, all the lymphocyte subsets were decreased in peripheral blood of more than 65% of the SSc patients who had taken immunosuppressive drugs. Compared with CD4+T normal group, the positivity of Raynaud's phenomenon, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) was significantly increased in CD4+T reduction group, respectively (P=0.024, P < 0.001, P=0.018). ESR was higher in CD8+T reduction group than CD8+T normal group (P=0.022). The prevalence of fingertip ulcer was significantly increased in B cell decrease group (P=0.019). Compared with NK cell normal group, the prevalence of fingertip ulcer was significantly increased in NK cell lower group (P=0.033), IgM was remarkablely decreased yet (P=0.049). The correlation analysis showed that ESR was negatively correlated with the counts of T lymphocytes (r=-0.455, P=0.009), CD4+T lymphocytes (r=-0.416, P=0.018), CD8+T lymphocytes (r=-0.430, P=0.014), B cells (r=-0.366, P=0.039).@*CONCLUSION@#The number of CD4+T, CD8+T, B, and NK cells significantly decreased in peripheral blood of SSc patients who had used immunosuppressive drugs, some lymphocyte subsets might be related with Raynaud's phenomenon and fingertip ulcer, and reflected the disease activity by negatively correlated with ESR and CRP; the numbers of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood should be detected regularly in SSc patients who had taken immunosuppressive drugs.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocyte Subsets , Scleroderma, Systemic , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes
7.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 347-371, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888736

ABSTRACT

B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is characterized by genetic alterations with high heterogeneity. Precise subtypes with distinct genomic and/or gene expression patterns have been recently revealed using high-throughput sequencing technology. Most of these profiles are associated with recurrent non-overlapping rearrangements or hotspot point mutations that are analogous to the established subtypes, such as DUX4 rearrangements, MEF2D rearrangements, ZNF384/ZNF362 rearrangements, NUTM1 rearrangements, BCL2/MYC and/or BCL6 rearrangements, ETV6-RUNX1-like gene expression, PAX5alt (diverse PAX5 alterations, including rearrangements, intragenic amplifications, or mutations), and hotspot mutations PAX5 (p.Pro80Arg) with biallelic PAX5 alterations, IKZF1 (p.Asn159Tyr), and ZEB2 (p.His1038Arg). These molecular subtypes could be classified by gene expression patterns with RNA-seq technology. Refined molecular classification greatly improved the treatment strategy. Multiagent therapy regimens, including target inhibitors (e.g., imatinib), immunomodulators, monoclonal antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy, are transforming the clinical practice from chemotherapy drugs to personalized medicine in the field of risk-directed disease management. We provide an update on our knowledge of emerging molecular subtypes and therapeutic targets in BCP-ALL.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Humans , Mutation , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
8.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1169-1174, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888534

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of primary follicular lymphoma (FL) patients with grade 3 or large B cell transformation, so as to provide more reference for the subsequent clinical diagnosis and treatment.@*METHODS@#Forty-seven primary FL patients with grade 3 or large B cell transformation from March 2010 to March 2018 were selected, the clinical characteristics and survival of patients were analyzed. Cox regression model were used to evaluate the related prognostic factors.@*RESULTS@#The cumulative progression-free survival rate and cumulative overall survival rate of 47 patients in 3-year follow-up reached to 55.32% (26/47) and 80.85% (38/47) respectively. There were significant differences in cumulative progression-free survival rate and cumulative overall survival rate among different subgroups of IPI, FLIPI-1 and FLIPI-2 in 3-year follow-up (P3 cm lymph node-involved site number≥3, extranodal lesion site number≥2, IPI score=2-3, FLIPI-1 score and FLIPI-2 score≥3 were the risk factors for progression-free survival (P<0.05); LDH≥240 U/ml, IPI score=2-3 and FLIPI-2 score≥3 were risk factors for overall survival (P<0.05). Cox regression model multivariate analysis showed that IPI score=2-3 was the independent risk factor for progression-free survival and overall survival (P<0.05). FLIPI-2 score≥3 was the independent risk factor for overall survival (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Primary FL patients with grade 3 or large B cell transformation by using the existing treatment regimen might be possibly curable, and the current treatment strategies and IPI score can be used to predict the clinical prognosis of patients.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Lymphoma, Follicular , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1141-1147, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the safety and efficacy of C-CAR011 in the treatment of relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (R/R B-NHL) patients.@*METHODS@#B-NHL patients treated with C-CAR011 infusion following lympho-depletion were enrolled. All the patients were followed up for 1 year after C-CAR011 treatment(5.0×10@*RESULTS@#The ratio of the male and female of 6 patients was 1∶1, and the patients were treated with C-CAR011 at a dose of 5.0×10@*CONCLUSION@#C-CAR011 is a safe treatment option for R/R B-NHL; some patients could achieve long-term sustained responses after C-CAR011 infusion(ClinicalTiral.gov number, NCT03483688).


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD19/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , B-Lymphocytes , Female , Humans , Lymphoma, Follicular , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888024

ABSTRACT

To observe the effect of Xinfeng Capsules on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) B lymphocytes,inflammatory mediators,FAK/CAPN/PI3K pathway,in order to explore the mechanism of Xinfeng Capsules in improving clinical symptoms of RA.Joint and systemic symptoms of RA patients were observed,and laboratory indicators[hemoglobin (HGB),platelet count (PLT),erythrocyte sedimentation (ESR),immunoglobulin (Ig) G,Ig A,Ig M,rheumatoid factor (RF),anti-cyclic citrulline antibody (CCP-AB),C-reactive protein (CRP)]were detected.ELISA was used to detect serum interleukin (IL)-1β,IL-10,IL-33,chemokine 5 (CCL5),and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).CD3~-CD19~+B cells were measured by flow cytometry.Western blot was used to detect FAK,p-FAK,CAPN,PI3K protein.The results showed that Xinfeng Capsules could significantly alleviate RA joint and systemic symptoms and improve clinical efficacy.And Xinfeng Capsules could increase HGB,decrease PLT,CCP-AB,CRP,ESR index,upregulate IL-10 expression,and down-regulate IL-1β,IL-33,CCL5,VEGF,CD3~-CD19~+B cells,FAK,p-FAK,CAPN,PI3K expressions (P<0.01).Based on the above results,Xinfeng Capsules may reduce the expression of CD3~-CD19~+,regulate the balance of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines,inhibit abnormal activation of FAK/CAPN/PI3K pathway,and improve clinical symptoms of RA.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , B-Lymphocytes , Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2293-2306, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887797

ABSTRACT

Mouse hybridoma monoclonal antibody is the most commonly used antibody in immunology because of its stable source, easy preparation in later stage and high yield. The traditional time-consuming and laborious hybridoma preparation technology could not meet the growing market demand. In this paper, we describe the rapid preparation techniques involved in antigen design and screening, B cell enrichment and screening, transgenic myeloma cells, fusion technology improvement, positive hybridoma cell screening and rapid detection of monoclonal antibody performance, to provide a reference for rapid preparation of mouse hybridoma monoclonal antibody.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antigens , B-Lymphocytes , Hybridomas , Mice
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880128

ABSTRACT

B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is a common malignant tumor in hematopoietic system. Although the remission rate of the patients with adult B-ALL is similar to those with childhood B-ALL, the rate of long-term disease-free survival (DFS) rate is significantly lower, once recurrence, the remission rate of routine chemotherapy is low and the prognosis is so poor. Based on the expression of tumor cell surface antigens(such as CD19, CD20 and CD22), the specific monoclonal antibodies, bispecific antibodies and chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T), and other targeted immunotherapy can greatly improve the efficacy of B-ALL patients, especially for patients with relapse and refractory. In this review, the progress of immunotherapy against B-ALL cell surface antigen is summarized briefly.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antigens, CD19 , Antigens, Surface , B-Lymphocytes , Burkitt Lymphoma , Child , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880099

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy, safety and prognosis of auto-HSCT between classical and modified conditioning regimen in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.@*METHODS@#36 patients diagnosed as B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from January 2015 to June 2018 in Tianjin Cancer Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: Idarubicin group and non-Idarubicin group. The overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), adverse reactions and hematopoietic reconstitution time between the two groups were compared. Survival analysis was performed by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used for comparison between groups, and Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis.@*RESULTS@#The median follow-up time was 29 months. Among these 36 patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma before transplantation, 21 patients achieved CR and 15 patients achieved PR. The reconstitution time of neutrophil (P>0.05) and platelet (P>0.05) was not significantly different between Idarubicin and non-Idarubicin group. Also, the adverse reactions were not significantly different between two groups. The addition of idarubicin showed not aggravate the adverse reactions of patients. The OS and PFS of patients with idarubicin was longer than that of patients without idarubicin. The multivariate analysis showed that, the modified conditioning regimen and the remission state before transplantation were closely associated with prognosis.@*CONCLUSION@#The above-mentioned results indicated that the combination of modified conditioning regimen with idarubicin can lengthen the OS and PFS of the patients significantly, and show not aggravate of bone marrow inhibition, moreover, the hematopoietic reconsititution time show not lengthen, which means that it can be a safe and effective choice for autologous HSCT in the patients with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , B-Lymphocytes , Disease-Free Survival , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Transplantation Conditioning , Transplantation, Autologous , Treatment Outcome
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880048

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the expression of CD40/CD40L in multiple myeloma(MM) patients and its influence on prognosis.@*METHODS@#Thirty patients with MM treated in Cangzhou People's Hospital from May 2016 to June 2017 were selected and divided into MM group, then 30 healthy people with a physical examination in our hospital at the same time were selected as the normal group. The serum CD40/CD40L levels of the patients in the two groups was detected by flow cytometry, and its correlation with the lymphocyte population, pathological grade and prognostic significance of MM patients was anaysis.@*RESULTS@#The expression of CD40 in serum of the patients in MM group was significantly higher than those in normal group (P0.05). The levels of CD40 and CD40L in the patients before and after chemotherapy showed no difference(P>0.05). The levels of Ts and NK cells in the patients of MM group were lower than those in normal group (P0.05). The CD40 level was correlated with the serum total B lymphocyte level of the patients in MM group (r=0.877, P=0.005). There was a correlation with CD40L and Th cells in the serum of MM patients (r=-0.783, P=0.035). The expression of serum CD40 in the patients at phase III-IV was higher than those of the patients at phase I-II, the levels of serum CD40L in MM patients at different periods showed no significant difference(P>0.05). The survival rate of MM patients with high CD40 expression was lower than that of MM patients with low CD40 expression (χ@*CONCLUSION@#The increasing of CD40 level in MM patients is related to the pathological grade of the patients. Chemotherapy can reduce the level of CD40. The increasing of CD40 is an important factor for the poor prognosis of MM patients. CD40L level is not meaningful for MM treatment and prognosis.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , CD40 Antigens , CD40 Ligand , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets , Prognosis
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879584

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect fusion gene with pathological significance in a patient with refractory and relapsed acute B cell lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and to explore its laboratory and clinical characteristics.@*METHODS@#Transcriptome sequencing was used to detect potential fusion transcripts. Other laboratory results and clinical data of the patient were also analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The patient was found to harbor TCF3 exon 17-ZNF384 exon 7 in-frame fusion transcript. The minimal residual disease (MRD) has remained positive after multiple chemotherapy protocols including CD19-, CD22- targeted chimeric antigen receptor T cells immunotherapy. The patient eventually achieved complete remission and sustained MRD negativity after allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).@*CONCLUSION@#Transcriptome sequencing can effectively detect potential fusion genes with clinical significance in leukemia. TCF3-ZNF384 positive B-ALL has unique laboratory and clinical characteristics, may not well respond to chemotherapy and immunotherapy, and is more likely to relapse. Timely allo-HSCT treatment may help such patients to achieve long-term disease-free survival. TCF3-ZNF384 positive B-ALL is not uncommon in pediatric patients but has not been effectively identified.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics , Child , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Laboratories , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Trans-Activators/genetics , Transcriptome
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922610

ABSTRACT

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic and autoimmunity-mediated diffuse connective tissue disease. The mainstay of treatments for SLE mainly relies on corticosteroids and immunosuppressants, which have a series of unavoidable side effects. Therefore, it is of fundamental importance to search novel therapeutic targets for better treatment with favorable efficacy and minor side effects. Recent studies shed light on potential therapeutic targets for SLE, mainly covering the followings: B-cell/plasmocyte-related targets [B cell activating factor (BAFF), a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), CD20, CD22, CD19/FcγRIIb, Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk), and proteasome], T cell-related targets [calcineurin, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), regulatory factor X1 (RFX1), and Rho kinase], macrophage-related targets (macrophage migration inhibitory factor), intracellular signaling molecules, cytokines (cereblon, histone deacetylase 6, Janus activated kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription), co-stimulating factors (CD28/B7, CD40/CD154), IgE autoantibody, and gut microbiome. Among them, belimumab (a humanized monoclonal antibody against B-lymphocyte stimulator) and telitacicept (a recombinant human B-lymphocyte stimulator receptor-antibody fusion protein) have been sequentially approved for the clinical treatment of SLE in China. A variety of new targeted-therapy drugs are in the Phase 2 or Phase 3 clinical trials,among which anifrolumab (a human monoclonal antibody against type I interferon receptor subunit 1) has completed a Phase 3 clinical trial with good responses achieved, although its incidence of herpes zoster is higher than that in the control group. The research progress in both molecular mechanisms and new drug development for different therapeutic targets have greatly promoted our better and in-depth understanding of the pathogenesis of SLE, and have also reflected the complexity and heterogeneity of the disease. Successful development and clinical application of more novel therapies would no doubt usher in a new era of individualized treatment for SLE in the future.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes , Graft vs Host Disease , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878540

ABSTRACT

With the advantages of low immunogenicity and long half-life, human monoclonal antibody has become an indispensable biological agent in vivo. Immortalization of human B cells is a potential and effective method to obtain natural human antibody library, which can provide a rich source for the preparation of human monoclonal antibodies. As there are urgent problems to be solved in each platform, the preparation of antibodies based on human B cell immortalization is still limited to the laboratory research stage. At present, there is a lack of a systematic review to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of the existing human B cell immortalization antibody preparation platform and its feasibility analysis. This paper reviews the research on the preparation of human monoclonal antibody based on human B cells immortalization, and describes an in vitro cell culture method, in which hCD40L vesicles are used instead of feeder cells, in order to provide references for the further development of human monoclonal antibody preparation technology.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , B-Lymphocytes , Cell Culture Techniques , Humans
18.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eRB6077, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154101

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Follicular helper T lymphocytes are a subpopulation of CD4+ T lymphocytes initially identified in germinal centers of follicles found in secondary lymphoid organs. The primary function of follicular helper T lymphocytes is to help B lymphocytes' antibody production. Changing of antibody class and affinity, B cell differentiation and memory generation depend on cooperation between follicular helper T lymphocytes and B cells. In blood, follicular helper T lymphocytes are called circulating follicular helper T lymphocytes. They are considered to have specificities similar to those developed in the secondary lymphoid organs. The phenotype of human follicular helper T lymphocytes is given by simultaneous expression of the markers CXCR5, Bcl-6, CD40L, PD-1, and ICOS. In germinal centers, follicular helper T lymphocytes synthesize interleukin 21 as predominant cytokine. In blood, subpopulations of circulating follicular helper T lymphocytes can be recognized, with different expressions of the classical follicular helper T lymphocytes markers and, in addition, can express other markers such as CXCR3 and CCR6. Presently, there is great interest in follicular helper T lymphocytes and circulating follicular helper T lymphocytes in vaccination studies as indicators of immunization efficacy. In addition, follicular helper T lymphocytes are investigated as possible markers of activity in many diseases and potential therapeutic intervention. This short review describes aspects of immunobiology and quantification of follicular helper T lymphocytes and circulating follicular helper T lymphocytes, and presents a few examples of related findings in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, HIV infection and vaccination.


RESUMO Linfócitos T auxiliares foliculares são uma subpopulação de linfócitos T CD4+ identificada inicialmente nos centros germinativos dos folículos dos órgãos linfoides secundários. Sua função primordial é auxiliar os linfócitos B na produção de anticorpos. A mudança de classe e de afinidade dos anticorpos, a diferenciação das células B e a geração de memória dependem da cooperação entre os linfócitos T auxiliares foliculares e as células B. No sangue, recebem o nome de linfócitos T auxiliares circulantes. Considera-se que possuem especificidades semelhantes às desenvolvidas nos órgãos linfoides secundários. O fenótipo dos linfócitos T auxiliares humanos é dado pela expressão conjunta dos marcadores CXCR5, Bcl-6, CD40L, PD-1 e ICOS. Nos folículos, linfócitos T auxiliares sintetizam a interleucina 21 como citocina predominante. No sangue, são descritas várias subpopulações de linfócitos T auxiliares circulantes com expressões variadas dos marcadores clássicos de linfócitos T auxiliares, além de poderem agregar outros, como CXCR3 e CCR6. Existe um enorme interesse no estudo de linfócitos T auxiliares e linfócitos T auxiliares circulantes, para a avaliação de eficácia de vacinação. São também investigados como possíveis marcadores de atividade em muitas doenças e potenciais intervenções terapêuticas. Esta breve revisão descreve aspectos da imunobiologia e da quantificação de linfócitos T auxiliares humanos e linfócitos T auxiliares circulantes, além de apresentar alguns achados relacionados em lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, artrite reumatoide, infecção por HIV e vacinação.


Subject(s)
Humans , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , Antibody Formation , B-Lymphocytes/immunology
19.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020218, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142406

ABSTRACT

The Numb Chin Syndrome (NCS) is defined as facial and oral numbness restricted to the mental nerve's distribution involving the lower lip, skin of the chin, or gingiva of the lower anterior teeth. Hypoesthesia can occur unilaterally or bilaterally. Although this syndrome is rare, its importance is related to the fact that it represents the clinical manifestations of malignant diseases. Breast cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma are the most common cause of NCS. The patient, a 58-year-old woman, treated for a Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) nine years ago, described a two-week history of change in sensitivity and pain in the chin region, without relief with the use of analgesics. She had no headache, speech disturbance, dysphagia, visual disturbance, or other neurological symptoms. No surgical intervention has been performed recently. The intraoral examination revealed a healthy oral mucosa and a small area adjacent to the right mental nerve region that was uncomfortable to palpation. No changes were found in the bone trabeculae at cone-beam computed tomography. The contrasted magnetic resonance features made it possible to identify a change in the mandibular body extending to the entire right side, coinciding with the patient's complaint, indicating a probable mandibular medullary invasion. The patient was submitted to a biopsy to rule out a possible recurrence of BL. The microscopic findings were consistent with the diagnosis of BL. The present report described a very unusual presentation of late recurrent BL nine years after the first treatment, which manifested as an NCS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Mandibular Neoplasms/pathology , Burkitt Lymphoma/pathology , Recurrence , B-Lymphocytes , Hypesthesia
20.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 4(3): 363-369, jul.set.2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1382015

ABSTRACT

A pandemia pelo vírus SARS-CoV-2 atingiu adultos, crianças e penalizou indivíduos idosos e com comorbidades como diabetes, doença cardíaca, hipertensão e obesidade. A maioria dos infectados são assintomáticos ou têm sintomas leves, entretanto 15% podem apresentar pneumonia e 5% síndrome respiratória aguda grave. Apresentamos um caso de agamaglobulinemia ligada ao X (XLA) em paciente masculino de 27 anos que se infectou com SARS-CoV-2. Os pacientes com XLA não possuem linfócitos B e não produzem anticorpos devido a uma mutação no gene Bruton tirosino-quinase (BTK), responsável pela maturação dos linfócitos B. Ele infectou-se e foi internado em hospital de Ivoti/RS. A evolução da pneumonia foi rápida, necessitando transferência para o Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA) no 10° dia de evolução. Iniciou com infusão de imunoglobulinas, tendo utilizado o total de 400 gramas devido ao intenso catabolismo da IgG, mantendo-se sua concentração entre 700-900 mg/dL. Necessitou de ventilação mecânica, oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea (ECMO) e hemodiálise. Foi administrado plasma de convalescente (PC), 300 mL, por duas vezes, com melhora clínico-radiológica e retirada da ventilação mecânica. Piorou e repetiu outras 4 infusões de PC (total de 1717 mL), negativando o vírus na orofaringe (RT-PCR). Em 3 ocasiões teve sepse, debelada rapidamente. Apresentou anemia, com necessidade de transfusão frequente. Identificou-se linfopenia de CD3, CD4, CD8, NK e ausência de linfócitos B. A linfopenia foi revertida com a recuperação clínica e a alta hospitalar aconteceu no 70° dia de internação.


The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has affected adults and children and penalized older people and those with comorbidities such as diabetes, heart disease, hypertension and obesity. Most of those infected are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms, but 15% may have pneumonia and 5% acute respiratory distress syndrome. We report a case of X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in a 27-yearold man who was infected with SARS-CoV-2. XLA patients do not have B lymphocytes and do not produce antibodies because of mutations in the Bruton tyrosine-kinase gene, responsible for the maturation of B cells. This patient was infected and then admitted to a hospital in Ivoti, southern Brazil. Pneumonia progressed rapidly, requiring transfer to the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre on the 10th day. Intravenous immunoglobulin infusions were initiated, using a total of 400 grams because of an intense catabolism of IgG, and the concentration was kept around 700- 900 mg/dL. Mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and hemodialysis were necessary. Convalescent plasma (CP) was administered (2x300 mL) and then followed by clinical and radiological improvement and interruption of mechanical ventilation. Then he got sicker and had to return to invasive support and received 4 extra CP infusions (total of 1717 mL), until a negative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 was obtained. On 3 occasions he had sepsis, promptly managed. He had anemia, requiring frequent transfusion, and lymphopenia (CD3, CD4, CD8, NK), with absence of B lymphocytes. Lymphopenia was reverted during recovery, and he was discharged from the hospital on the 70th day.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tyrosine , Immunoglobulin G , B-Lymphocytes , Agammaglobulinemia , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Plasma , Pneumonia , Respiration, Artificial , Signs and Symptoms , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Sepsis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
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