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1.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eRB6077, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154101

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Follicular helper T lymphocytes are a subpopulation of CD4+ T lymphocytes initially identified in germinal centers of follicles found in secondary lymphoid organs. The primary function of follicular helper T lymphocytes is to help B lymphocytes' antibody production. Changing of antibody class and affinity, B cell differentiation and memory generation depend on cooperation between follicular helper T lymphocytes and B cells. In blood, follicular helper T lymphocytes are called circulating follicular helper T lymphocytes. They are considered to have specificities similar to those developed in the secondary lymphoid organs. The phenotype of human follicular helper T lymphocytes is given by simultaneous expression of the markers CXCR5, Bcl-6, CD40L, PD-1, and ICOS. In germinal centers, follicular helper T lymphocytes synthesize interleukin 21 as predominant cytokine. In blood, subpopulations of circulating follicular helper T lymphocytes can be recognized, with different expressions of the classical follicular helper T lymphocytes markers and, in addition, can express other markers such as CXCR3 and CCR6. Presently, there is great interest in follicular helper T lymphocytes and circulating follicular helper T lymphocytes in vaccination studies as indicators of immunization efficacy. In addition, follicular helper T lymphocytes are investigated as possible markers of activity in many diseases and potential therapeutic intervention. This short review describes aspects of immunobiology and quantification of follicular helper T lymphocytes and circulating follicular helper T lymphocytes, and presents a few examples of related findings in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, HIV infection and vaccination.


RESUMO Linfócitos T auxiliares foliculares são uma subpopulação de linfócitos T CD4+ identificada inicialmente nos centros germinativos dos folículos dos órgãos linfoides secundários. Sua função primordial é auxiliar os linfócitos B na produção de anticorpos. A mudança de classe e de afinidade dos anticorpos, a diferenciação das células B e a geração de memória dependem da cooperação entre os linfócitos T auxiliares foliculares e as células B. No sangue, recebem o nome de linfócitos T auxiliares circulantes. Considera-se que possuem especificidades semelhantes às desenvolvidas nos órgãos linfoides secundários. O fenótipo dos linfócitos T auxiliares humanos é dado pela expressão conjunta dos marcadores CXCR5, Bcl-6, CD40L, PD-1 e ICOS. Nos folículos, linfócitos T auxiliares sintetizam a interleucina 21 como citocina predominante. No sangue, são descritas várias subpopulações de linfócitos T auxiliares circulantes com expressões variadas dos marcadores clássicos de linfócitos T auxiliares, além de poderem agregar outros, como CXCR3 e CCR6. Existe um enorme interesse no estudo de linfócitos T auxiliares e linfócitos T auxiliares circulantes, para a avaliação de eficácia de vacinação. São também investigados como possíveis marcadores de atividade em muitas doenças e potenciais intervenções terapêuticas. Esta breve revisão descreve aspectos da imunobiologia e da quantificação de linfócitos T auxiliares humanos e linfócitos T auxiliares circulantes, além de apresentar alguns achados relacionados em lúpus eritematoso sistêmico, artrite reumatoide, infecção por HIV e vacinação.


Subject(s)
Humans , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , Antibody Formation , B-Lymphocytes/immunology
2.
Rev. argent. dermatol ; 101(1): 41-50, mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125805

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los Linfomas cutáneos son proliferaciones clonales de Linfocitos T o B neoplásicos. Los linfomas cutáneos B son un grupo heterogéneo de linfomas que se presentan en la piel sin evidencia de compromiso extra cutáneo al momento del diagnóstico y corresponden entre el 20% al 25 % de los linfomas cutáneos primarios.Se presenta un paciente masculino de 71 años, con un linfoma cutáneo de células B centrofolicular localizado en dorso.


Abstract Cutaneous lymphomas are clonal proliferations of neoplastic T or B lymphocytes. Cutaneous B lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of lymphomas presented in the skin without evidence of extra cutaneous harm at the moment of diagnosis and correspond between the 20% and the 25% of primary cutaneous lymphomas. In the current research, a 71 year old masculine patient case is presented, with a cutaneous lymphoma of centrofollicular B cells located at the back.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Immunohistochemistry , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphoma/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Lymphoma/therapy
3.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2017. 88 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-943117

ABSTRACT

A invasão dos eritrócitos pelo parasito da malária garante o estabelecimento da infecção e é responsável pelos sintomas clínicos da doença. Dessa forma, existe um grande interesse no desenvolvimento de vacinas que possam induzir a produção de anticorpos com capacidade de bloquear a invasão dos eritrócitos e consequentemente interromper o ciclo biológico do parasito. No caso do Plasmodium vivax, a invasão do eritrócito é altamente dependente de uma proteína do complexo apical do parasito --Duffy binding protein II (DBPII)-- que reconhece o antígeno de grupo sanguíneo Duffy--DARC (Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines) -- na superfície dos reticulócitos humanos. Embora a importância dos anticorpos na imunidade contra a malária esteja bem estabelecida, os fatores que estão diretamente envolvidos no mecanismo de desenvolvimento de células B de memória (MBCs) de longa duração são pouco conhecidos, o que faz-se necessário o conhecimento, especialmente para o desenvolvimento de uma vacina contra essa doença. No presente trabalho avaliamos a resposta imune adquirida contra o P. vivaxem uma população exposta uma única vez a esse parasito em um surto ocorrido na região metropolitana deMinas Gerais, após 12 anos da infecção


A persistência de anticorpos contra as proteínas de fase sanguínea de P. vivax(MSP1-19 e DBPII), além dos protótipos vacinais baseados em DBPII(DEKnull e DEKnull2) foram avaliados por sorologia convencional (ELISA). Foram avaliadas também, células B de memória (MBCs) específicas diferenciadas em células secretoras de anticorpos (ASCs) IgG+ e IgM+ foram avaliadas pelo ensaio de ELISpot. Além disso, no presente trabalho foram avaliadas as MBCs circulantes e anticorpos anti-P. vivax(MSP1-19, variantes e protótipos vacinais de DBPII) em residentes de área endêmica, com infecção aguda e não-aguda. Os resultados mostram que, embora os anticorpos produzidos após uma única e curta exposição ao P. vivax são de curta duração, uma vez que, anticorpos específicos não foram observados para nenhuma das proteínas avaliadas nesse trabalho após 12 anos da ocorrência do surto, as MBCs específicas aos antígenos de P. vivax ainda são detectadas.De forma interessante, o protótipo DEKnull2 apresentou alta imunogenicidade com 52% de produção de ASCs IgG+ em indivíduos expostos ao surto. Além disso, observamos que a resposta de MBCs IgM+ específica para DBPII e DEKnull2 foi mais robusta que a encontrada para MBCs IgG+. Com relação aos indivíduos de área endêmica podemos observar que o acúmulo de exposição ao P. vivax leva a expansão de MBCs atípicas. Este trabalho permitiu observar que uma única exposição ao P. vivax é capaz de induzir a produção de MBCs de longa duração contra a DBPII e seus protótipos, e que apenas a exposição contínua a esse parasito é capaz de levar ao aumento das MBCs atípicas


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Duffy Blood-Group System/therapeutic use , Malaria, Vivax/genetics , Plasmodium vivax/genetics
4.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(2): 133-139, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777398

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Among the many changes caused by a surgical insult one of the least studied is postoperative immunosuppression. This phenomenon is an important cause of infectious complications of surgery such as surgical site infection or hospital acquired pneumonia. One of the mechanisms leading to postoperative immunosuppression is the apoptosis of immunological cells. Anesthesia during surgery is intended to minimize harmful changes and maintain perioperative homeostasis. The aim of the study was evaluation of the effect of the anesthetic technique used for total knee replacement on postoperative peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis. METHODS: 34 patients undergoing primary total knee replacement were randomly assigned to two regional anesthetic protocols: spinal anesthesia and combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. 11 patients undergoing total knee replacement under general anesthesia served as control group. Before surgery, immediately after surgery, during first postoperative day and seven days after the surgery venous blood samples were taken and the immunological status of the patient was assessed with the use of flow cytometry, along with lymphocyte apoptosis using fluorescent microscopy. RESULTS: Peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis was seen immediately in the postoperative period and was accompanied by a decrease of the number of T cells and B cells. There were no significant differences in the number of apoptotic lymphocytes according to the anesthetic protocol. Changes in the number of T CD3/8 cells and the number of apoptotic lymphocytes were seen on the seventh day after surgery. CONCLUSION: Peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis is an early event in the postoperative period that lasts up to seven days and is not affected by the choice of the anesthetic technique.


RESUMO JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: Dentre as muitas alterações causadas por uma ferida cirúrgica, uma das menos estudadas é a imunossupressão pós-operatória. Esse fenômeno é uma causa importante das complicações infecciosas relacionadas à cirurgia, como infecção do sítio cirúrgico ou pneumonia nosocomial. Um dos mecanismos que levam à imunossupressão pós-operatória é a apoptose de células imunológicas. Durante a cirurgia, a anestesia se destina a minimizar as alterações prejudiciais e manter a homeostase perioperatória. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da técnica anestésica usada para artroplastia total de joelho sobre a apoptose em linfócitos de sangue periférico no pós-operatório. MÉTODOS: Trinta e quatro pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total primária de joelho foram randomicamente designados para dois protocolos de anestesia regional: raquianestesia e bloqueio combinado raqui-peridural. Onze pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do joelho sob anestesia geral formaram o grupo controle. Antes da cirurgia, logo após a cirurgia, durante o primeiro dia de pós-operatório e sete dias após a cirurgia, amostras de sangue venoso foram colhidas e o estado imunológico do paciente foi avaliado com o uso deflow cysts 87 m, juntamente com apoptose de linfócitos com o uso de microscopia de fluorescência. RESULTADOS: Apoptose em linfócitos de sangue periférico foi observada imediatamente no pós-operatório e acompanhada por uma redução do número de células T e B. Não houve diferença significativa no número de linfócitos apoptóticos de acordo com o protocolo anestésico. Alterações no número de células T CD3/8 e no número de linfócitos apoptóticos foram observadas no sétimo dia após a cirurgia. CONCLUSÃO: Apoptose em linfócitos de sangue periférico é um evento precoce no período pós-operatório que dura até sete dias e não é afetado pela escolha da técnica anestésica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Apoptosis/immunology , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Postoperative Complications/immunology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Flow Cytometry , Immune Tolerance , Anesthesia, General/methods , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Middle Aged
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(5): e5209, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951671

ABSTRACT

The traditional concept that effector T helper (Th) responses are mediated by Th1/Th2 cell subtypes has been broadened by the recent demonstration of two new effector T helper cells, the IL-17 producing cells (Th17) and the follicular helper T cells (Tfh). These new subsets have many features in common, such as the ability to produce IL-21 and to express the IL-23 receptor (IL23R), the inducible co-stimulatory molecule ICOS, and the transcription factor c-Maf, all of them essential for expansion and establishment of the final pool of both subsets. Tfh cells differ from Th17 by their ability to home to B cell areas in secondary lymphoid tissue through interactions mediated by the chemokine receptor CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13. These CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells are considered an effector T cell type specialized in B cell help, with a transcriptional profile distinct from Th1 and Th2 cells. The role of Tfh cells and its primary product, IL-21, on B-cell activation and differentiation is essential for humoral immunity against infectious agents. However, when deregulated, Tfh cells could represent an important mechanism contributing to exacerbated humoral response and autoantibody production in autoimmune diseases. This review highlights the importance of Tfh cells by focusing on their biology and differentiation processes in the context of normal immune response to infectious microorganisms and their role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmunity/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Signal Transduction , Cell Differentiation , Interleukins/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Interleukin-17/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(12): 1095-1100, Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762920

ABSTRACT

In DNA vaccines, the gene of interest is cloned into a bacterial plasmid that is engineered to induce protein production for long periods in eukaryotic cells. Previous research has shown that the intramuscular immunization of BALB/c mice with a naked plasmid DNA fragment encoding the Mycobacterium leprae 65-kDa heat-shock protein (pcDNA3-Hsp65) induces protection against M. tuberculosis challenge. A key stage in the protective immune response after immunization is the generation of memory T cells. Previously, we have shown that B cells capture plasmid DNA-Hsp65 and thereby modulate the formation of CD8+ memory T cells after M. tuberculosis challenge in mice. Therefore, clarifying how B cells act as part of the protective immune response after DNA immunization is important for the development of more-effective vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which B cells modulate memory T cells after DNA-Hsp65 immunization. C57BL/6 and BKO mice were injected three times, at 15-day intervals, with 100 µg naked pcDNA-Hsp65 per mouse. Thirty days after immunization, the percentages of effector memory T (TEM) cells (CD4+ and CD8+/CD44high/CD62Llow) and memory CD8+ T cells (CD8+/CD44high/CD62Llow/CD127+) were measured with flow cytometry. Interferon γ, interleukin 12 (IL-12), and IL-10 mRNAs were also quantified in whole spleen cells and purified B cells (CD43−) with real-time qPCR. Our data suggest that a B-cell subpopulation expressing IL-10 downregulated proinflammatory cytokine expression in the spleen, increasing the survival of CD4+ TEM cells and CD8+ TEM/CD127+ cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Heat-Shock Proteins/immunology , Immunomodulation/genetics , /genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression/genetics , Heat-Shock Proteins/therapeutic use , Immunologic Memory/physiology , Immunophenotyping/classification , Inflammation Mediators/analysis , Interferon-gamma/analysis , /immunology , /analysis , Mice, Knockout , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spleen/cytology , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/classification , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use
7.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 42-48, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745852

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the simplified Q-sort method used to investigate the highest level of agreement among dentists, orthodontists and laypeople when assessing smile and dental attractiveness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An album containing 258 photos of 86 individuals with their lips at rest, a slight and broad smile, was assessed by 25 dentists (general clinicians and various specialties), 23 orthodontists and 27 laypeople with regard to smile and dental attractiveness. To this end, both VAS and simplified Q-sort method were used. Agreements were calculated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS: For the single measurement between the VAS method and the simplified Q-sort method, all simplified Q-sort rates were higher in all groups. The simplified Q-sort method results ranged between 0.42 and 0.49 while those of the VAS method varied between 0.37 and 0.42. The simplified Q-sort method also presented higher mean measurement values (0.95 and 0.96) in comparison to VAS (0.94 and 0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Both scales may be considered reliable for evaluating smile and dental attractiveness; however, the simplified Q-Sort method presented slightly higher values than the VAS method. .


OBJETIVO: comparar a escala visual analógica (EVA) e o método Q-sort simplificado quanto à maior concordância nas avaliações entre cirurgiões-dentistas, ortodontistas e leigos em atratividade dentária e do sorriso. MÉTODOS: 258 fotografias, provenientes de 86 indivíduos, fotografados com os lábios em repouso, sorriso leve e sorriso amplo, foram avaliadas quanto à atratividade dentária e do sorriso por meio da EVA e do Q-sort simplificado por 25 cirurgiões-dentistas (clínicos gerais e especialidades diversas), 23 Ortodontistas e 27 leigos. As concordâncias foram calculadas pelo Coeficiente de Correlação Intraclasse (ICC). RESULTADOS: para medida única entre a EVA e o método Q-sort simplificado, todas as taxas do Q-sort simplificado foram maiores em todos os grupos. O resultado do Q-sort simplificado variou entre 0,42 e 0,49, e da EVA entre 0,37 e 0,42. O Q-sort simplificado também apresentou valores de medida média superiores (0,95 e 0,96) em relação à EVA (0,94 e 0,95). CONCLUSÃO: pode-se considerar que ambas as escalas são confiáveis para avaliação da atratividade dentária e do sorriso; porém, o método Q-sort simplificado apresentou valores ligeiramente maiores que os da EVA. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunoglobulin E/physiology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Calorimetry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Immunoglobulin E/chemistry , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Receptors, IgE/chemistry , Surface Plasmon Resonance
8.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(3): 463-475, 03/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744840

ABSTRACT

Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.


Cyberbullying, uma nova forma de violência expressa por meio da mídia eletrônica, tem preocupado pais, educadores e pesquisadores. A associação entre cyberbullying e a saúde mental dos adolescentes será revisada. Revisão sistemática em duas bases de dados: PubMed e a Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS). A prevalência do cyberbullying variou entre 6,5% a 35,4%. Bullying tradicional prévio ou atual estava associado às vítimas e agressores do cyberbullying. Uso diário de três ou mais horas de Internet, web câmera, mensagens de texto, postar informações pessoais e assediar outros online estavam associados ao cyberbullying. "Cybervítimas" e cyberbullies tinham mais problemas emocionais, psicossomáticos, dificuldades sociais, e não se sentiam seguros e cuidados na escola. O cyberbullying estava associado à sintomatologia depressiva moderada e grave, uso de substâncias, ideação e tentativas de suicídio. Profissionais de saúde devem conhecer as interações de natureza violenta que ocorrem no ambiente virtual e de seus agravos para a saúde mental dos adolescentes.


Se revisa la asociación entre el acoso cibernético y la salud mental de los adolescentes. Se realiza una revisión sistemática de dos bases de datos: PubMed y la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud (BVS). La prevalencia de ciberacoso varió de un 6,5% a un 35,4%. Los acosos cibernéticos tradicionales -pasados o actuales- se asociaron con las víctimas y los acosadores cibernéticos. El uso diario de tres o más horas de Internet, cámara web, mensajes de texto, la publicación de información personal y acosar a los demás se asociaron con el acoso cibernético. Cibervíctimas y acosadores cibernéticos tenían más problemas emocionales, psicosomáticos, dificultades sociales y no se sentían seguros y cuidados en la escuela. El ciberacoso se asoció con síntomas de moderados a graves de depresión, abuso de sustancias, ideación suicida e intentos de suicidio. Los profesionales de salud deben conocer la naturaleza violenta de las interacciones que se producen en el entorno virtual y sus peligros para la salud mental de los adolescentes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Antibody Formation/immunology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/deficiency , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Germinal Center/immunology , Immunization , Immunoglobulin Class Switching/immunology , Immunoglobulins/blood , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Lymphocyte Cooperation/immunology , Mice, Mutant Strains , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
11.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(5): 404-410, oct. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734409

ABSTRACT

La esclerosis múltiple es una enfermedad inflamatoria desmielinizante que afecta el sistema nervioso central y que es considerada una de las principales causas de discapacidad en jóvenes adultos. Las causas de la esclerosis múltiple son aún desconocidas, aunque se cree que una combinación de factores genéticos y ambientales resulta en una respuesta autoinmune que promueve la degeneración neuronal/axonal. En esta revisión se analiza la asociación entre la respuesta inmune y la neurodegeneración en la esclerosis múltiple.


Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system and considered one of the leading causes of disability in young adults. The precise cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown, although the current evidence points towards a combination of genetic and environmental factors leading to an autoimmune response that promotes neuronal degeneration. In this review, we will describe the association between the immune response and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Nerve Degeneration/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Myelin Sheath/immunology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/immunology , Neuroglia/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
12.
Femina ; 42(4): 185-192, jul-ago. 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-737135

ABSTRACT

Se ha considerado que el útero gestante es un lugar inmunológicamente privilegiado, donde el feto es protegido del rechazo por el sistema inmune materno, mediante un amplio repertorio de estrategias de evasión que contribuye a la sobrevivencia del feto. La gestación en sí misma constituye un acontecimiento de equilibrio inmunológico y la tolerancia inmunológica permite la progresión del embarazo, donde participan una secuencia sincronizada de eventos que se inicia desde la concepción y fertilización para dar lugar a la implantación y progresa hasta alcanzar un embarazo a término. El sistema inmune es la principal barrera que poseemos para protegernos de las infecciones. Durante la vida intrauterina, el feto está protegido por la madre de las agresiones externas, por lo que no necesita que su sistema inmunológico sea operativo, sin embargo, al nacer, recibe una avalancha de elementos extraños, por lo que necesitará disponer de cierta protección, así como una preparación para ejecutar las defensas necesarias para su protección inmunológica. La inmunidad sérica durante la vida fetal queda limitada a la transferencia a través de la placenta de IgG materna, a pesar de que el feto tiene la facultad de sintetizar inmunoglobulinas desde las primeras etapas de la gestación. Al nacimiento, el niño tiene su sistema inmunológico completo, aunque inmaduro, pero es capaz de responder a los estímulos antigénicos. Tiene múltiples anormalidades en el desarrollo de su sistema inmune, que involucran a los anticuerpos/inmunoglobulinas, complemento y granulocitos pudiendo contribuir a la alta incidencia de sus infecciones. El recién nacido carece de memoria inmunológica debido a que, en condiciones normales, el feto está exento de estímulos producidos por antígenos extraños. Dicha memoria se va adquiriendo a medida que entra en contacto con los diferentes antígenos. Se obtendrá cierta protección a las infecciones entéricas gracias a las IgA que aporta la lactancia materna. La exposición prenatal y postnatal a productos microbianos ambientales que pueden activar la inmunidad innata, puede acelerar el proceso de maduración del sistema inmune.(AU)


It has been considered the pregnant women`s womb as an immunological exceptional place, where fetus is protected against been rejected because of maternal immune system by means of a wide groups of evasive strategies that help in its survival. Pregnancy itself is an immunological equilibrium state and the immunological tolerance allow the progression of this event, where participate a synchronized sequence of biological events started from conception and fertilization to allow the implantation, and progress until to reach the pregnancy end. The immune system is our main barrier against infections. During intrauterine life fetus is protected by the mother against external aggressions, therefore he don`t need an operative immune system, nevertheless, at birth the new organisms receive an avalanche of strange elements needing some kind of protection as well as a preparation to carry out the necessary defense for his immunological protection. Serum immunity during fetal life is limited to the transference of maternal IgG through placenta, despite fetus capability to synthesize immunoglobulins from first stages of gestation. At birth the babe has a complete immunological system although immature but capable to respond to antigenic stimulus. He has multiples abnormalities in the immune system development that take account antibodies/immunoglobulin, complement and granulocytes contributing to his high incidence of infections. Newborn lack immunological memory because in normal conditions fetus is not stimulated by odd antigens. This memory is acquired through the contact with different antigens. It will be obtained some protection against enteric infections because IgA from maternal lactation. The prenatal and postnatal exposition to environmental microbial products that activate the innate immunity can accelerate the immune system maturing process.(AU)


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Infant, Newborn/immunology , Infant, Premature/immunology , Fetus/immunology , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology , Antibodies/immunology , Pregnancy/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Microbiological Phenomena/immunology , Milk, Human/immunology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191849

ABSTRACT

Currently, killed-virus and modified-live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines are used to control porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. However, both types of vaccines have inherent drawbacks; accordingly, the development of novel PRRSV vaccines is urgently needed. Previous studies have suggested that yeast possesses adjuvant activities, and it has been used as an expression vehicle to elicit immune responses to foreign antigens. In this report, recombinant Kluyveromyces lactis expressing GP5 of HP-PRRSV (Yeast-GP5) was generated and immune responses to this construct were analyzed in mice. Intestinal mucosal PRRSV-specific sIgA antibody and higher levels of IFN-gamma in spleen CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were induced by oral administration of Yeast-GP5. Additionally, Yeast-GP5 administered subcutaneously evoked vigorous cell-mediated immunity, and PRRSV-specific lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion were detected in the splenocytes of mice. These results suggest that Yeast-GP5 has the potential for use as a vaccine for PRRSV in the future.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Mucosal , Injections, Subcutaneous , Kluyveromyces/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
14.
Gut and Liver ; : 131-139, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123200

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. A growing body of evidence indicates that inflammation is closely associated with the initiation, progression, and metastasis of many tumors, including those of gastric cancer. In addition, approximately 60% of the world's population is colonized by Helicobacter pylori, which accounts for more than 50% of gastric cancers. While the role of inflammation in intestinal and colonic cancers is relatively well defined, its role in stomach neoplasia is still unclear because of the limited access of pathogens to the acidic environment and the technical difficulties isolating and characterizing immune cells in the stomach, especially in animal models. In this review, we will provide recent updates addressing how inflammation is involved in gastric malignancies, and what immune characteristics regulate the pathogenesis of stomach cancer. Also, we will discuss potential therapeutics that target the immune system for the efficient treatment of gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Gastritis/immunology , Helicobacter Infections/immunology , Helicobacter pylori/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunotherapy/methods , Receptors, Cytokine/immunology , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(1): 18-22, Feb. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666038

ABSTRACT

Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL) differs from other clinical forms of the disease due to the presence of many non-ulcerated lesions (papules and nodules) in non-contiguous areas of the body. We describe the histopathology of DL non-ulcerated lesions and the presence of CD4-, CD20-, CD68-, CD31- and von Willebrand factor (vW)-positive cells in the inflamed area. We analysed eighteen biopsies from non-ulcerated lesions and quantified the inflamed areas and the expression of CD4, CD20, CD68, CD31 and vW using Image-Pro software (Media Cybernetics). Diffuse lymphoplasmacytic perivascular infiltrates were found in dermal skin. Inflammation was observed in 3-73% of the total biopsy area and showed a significant linear correlation with the number of vW+ vessels. The most common cells were CD68+ macrophages, CD20+ B-cells and CD4+ T-cells. A significant linear correlation between CD4+ and CD20+ cells and the size of the inflamed area was also found. Our findings show chronic inflammation in all DL non-ulcerated lesions predominantly formed by macrophages, plasmacytes and T and B-cells. As the inflamed area expanded, the number of granulomas and extent of the vascular framework increased. Thus, we demonstrate that vessels may have an important role in the clinical evolution of DL lesions.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Inflammation/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Antigens, CD/immunology , /immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , Biopsy , /immunology , Chronic Disease , Disease Progression , Inflammation/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/pathology , von Willebrand Factor/immunology
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(12): 1112-1118, Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659635

ABSTRACT

The role of B cells in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has not been explored in depth. In the present study, the activation status of B cells from peripheral blood of healthy controls (N = 20) and patients with acute hepatitis B (AHB, N = 15) or chronic hepatitis B (CHB, N = 30) was evaluated by measuring the expression levels of B-cell activation markers CD69 and CD86, using quantitative real-time PCR and flow cytometry. Moreover, the potential mechanism underlying B-cell activation during HBV infection was further investigated by analyzing the expression profile of FCRL1, an intrinsic activation molecule of B cells. An elevation in the levels of B-cell activation markers including CD69 and CD86 was observed in the AHB patients (44.31 ± 9.27, 27.64 ± 9.26%) compared to CHB patients (30.35 ± 11.27, 18.41 ± 6.56%, P < 0.05), which was still higher than healthy controls (12.23 ± 7.84, 8.22 ± 3.43%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of FCRL1 was found to be similar to B-cell activation markers, which was highest in AHB patients (70.15 ± 17.11%), lowest in healthy donors (36.32 ± 9.98%, P < 0.05) and half-way between these levels in patients with CHB (55.17 ± 12.03%, P < 0.05). The results were positively associated with aberrant B-cell activation. These data suggest that B cells can play a role in HBV infection, and therefore more effort should be devoted to exploring their functions.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Hepatitis B/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Membrane Proteins/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Disease Progression , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression Profiling , Hepatitis B/genetics , Hepatitis B/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, RNA
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(8): 1021-1029, Dec. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660650

ABSTRACT

Because an enriched environment (EE) enhances T-cell activity and T-lymphocytes contribute to immunopathogenesis during heterologous dengue virus (DENV) infections, we hypothesised that an EE increases dengue severity. To compare single serotype (SS) and antibody-enhanced disease (AED) infections regimens, serial intraperitoneal were performed with DENV3 (genotype III) infected brain homogenate or anti-DENV2 hyperimmune serum followed 24 h later by DENV3 (genotype III) infected brain homogenate. Compared AED for which significant differences were detected between the EE and impoverished environmental (IE) groups (Kaplan-Meyer log-rank test, p = 0.0025), no significant differences were detected between the SS experimental groups (Kaplan-Meyer log-rank test, p = 0.089). Survival curves from EE and IE animals infected with the AED regimen were extended after corticoid injection and this effect was greater in the EE than in the IE group (Kaplan-Meyer log-rank test, p = 0.0162). Under the AED regimen the EE group showed more intense clinical signs than the IE group. Dyspnoea, tremor, hunched posture, ruffled fur, immobility, pre-terminal paralysis, shock and death were associated with dominant T-lymphocytic hyperplasia and presence of viral antigens in the liver and lungs. We propose that the increased expansion of these memory T-cells and serotype cross-reactive antibodies facilitates the infection of these cells by DENV and that these events correlate with disease severity in an EE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/immunology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Dengue/virology , Ecology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45627

ABSTRACT

In fascioliasis, T-helper 2 (Th2) responses predominate, while little is known regarding early immune phenomenon. We herein analyzed early immunophenotype changes of BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H/He mice experimentally infected with 5 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. A remarkable expansion of CD19+ B cells was observed as early as week 1 post-infection while CD4+/CD8+ T cells were down-regulated. Accumulation of Mac1+ cells with time after infection correlated well with splenomegaly of all mice strains tested. The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA in splenocytes significantly decreased while that of IL-4 up-regulated. IL-1beta expression was down-modulated in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, but not in C3H/He. Serum levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta were considerably elevated in all mice during 3 weeks of infection period. These collective results suggest that experimental murine fascioliasis might derive immune suppression with elevated levels of TGF-beta and IL-4 during the early stages of infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Down-Regulation , Fasciola hepatica/immunology , Fascioliasis/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Immunosuppression , Interleukin-4/blood , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C3H , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spleen/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/blood
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192556

ABSTRACT

Most of the previous studies on immune dysregulation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have focused on T cell immunity. We investigated B cell subpopulations in ESRD patients and the effect of hemodialysis (HD) on B cell-associated immune profiles in these patients. Forty-four ESRD [maintenance HD patients (n = 27) and pre-dialysis patients (n = 17)] and 27 healthy volunteers were included in this study. We determined the percentage of B cell subtypes, such as mature and immature B cells, memory B cells, and interleukin (IL)-10+ cells, as well as B cell-producing cytokines (IL-10, IL-4 and IL-21) by florescent activated cell sorting (FACS). B cell-associated gene expression was examined using real-time PCR and B cell producing cytokines (IL-10, IL-4 and IL-21) were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The percentage of total B cells and mature B cells did not differ significantly among the three groups. The percentages of memory B cells were significantly higher in the pre-dialysis group than in the HD group (P 0.05) between the two subgroups within the ESRD group, but the serum IL-10 concentration was significantly lower in the pre-dialysis group (P < 0.01). The results of this study demonstrate significantly altered B cell-associated immunity. Specifically, an imbalance of immature and memory B cells in ESRD patients was observed, with this finding predominating in pre-dialysis patients.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adult , Antigens, CD19/metabolism , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology
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