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1.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 291-297, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984722

ABSTRACT

In recent years, immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors programmed death 1 (PD-1) has made great progress in the treatment of esophageal cancer and is rewriting the global paradigm for the treatment of esophageal cancer. According to current data, only a small number of patients with esophageal cancer could benefit from immunotherapy. Therefore, it is a challenge to screen the potential beneficiaries of PD-1 inhibitors. Studies have shown that the expression level of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in esophageal cancer is closely associated with the efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors, and PD-L1 is the most important predictive biomarker of the efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors. With the clinical application of different PD-1 inhibitors and PD-L1 protein expression detection platforms, clarifying the clinical significance and timing of detection of PD-L1 protein expression in esophageal cancer, and establishing a standardized PD-L1 testing procedure, are of great significance to improve the accuracy of detection and reduce the difference between laboratories, so as to maximize the therapeutic benefits for patients. This consensus was finally reached, based on the combination of literature, expert experience, and internal discussion and voting of committee members, to provide an accurate and reliable evidence for clinicians to make decisions.


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Consensus , Esophageal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
2.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 105-112, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with high c-Myc expression is prone to relapse and metastasis, leading to extremely low survival rate. Cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor Abemaciclib plays a key role in the treatment of tumors, but the effects and mechanisms on SCLC remain unclear. This study was to analyze the effect and molecular mechanism of Abemaciclib in inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of SCLC with high c-Myc expression, with a view to expanding a new direction for reducing the recurrence and metastasis.@*METHODS@#Proteins interacting with CDK4/6 were predicted using the STRING database. The expressions of CDK4/6 and c-Myc in 31 cases of SCLC cancer tissues and paired adjacent normal tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The effects of Abemaciclib on the proliferation, invasion and migration of SCLC were detected by CCK-8, colony formation assay, Transwell and migration assay. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of CDK4/6 and related transcription factors. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the effects of Abemaciclib on the cell cycle and checkpoint of SCLC.@*RESULTS@#The expression of CDK4/6 was associated with c-Myc by STRING protein interaction network. c-Myc can directly modalize achaete-scute complex homolog 1 (ASCL1), neuronal differentiation 1 (NEUROD1) and Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1). Moreover, CDK4 and c-Myc regulate the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Immunohistochemistry showed that the expressions of CDK4/6 and c-Myc in cancer tissues were higher than those in adjacent tissues(P<0.0001). CCK-8, colony formation assay, Transwell and migration assay verified that Abemaciclib could effectively inhibit the proliferation, invasion and migration of SBC-2 and H446OE(P<0.0001). Western blot analysis further showed that Abemaciclib not only inhibited CDK4 (P<0.05) and CDK6 (P<0.05), but also affected c-Myc (P<0.05), ASCL1 (P<0.05), NEUROD1 (P<0.05) and YAP1 (P<0.05), which are related to SCLC invasion and metastasis. Flow cytometry showed that Abemaciclib not only inhibited the cell cycle progression of SCLC cells (P<0.0001), but also significantly increased PD-L1 expression on SBC-2 (P<0.01) and H446OE (P<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Abemaciclib significantly inhibits the proliferation, invasion, migration and cell cycle progression of SCLC by inhibiting the expressions of CDK4/6, c-Myc, ASCL1, YAP1 and NEUROD1. Abemaciclib can also increase the expression of PD-L1 in SCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma , B7-H1 Antigen , Sincalide , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Transcription Factors , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Cell Proliferation
3.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 96-103, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971108

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of microRNA-424-5p (miR-424-5p) on the drug resistance of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells by regulating the programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) signaling pathway.@*METHODS@#Human DLBCL cell line CRL2631 cells were induced to construct CRL2631-CHOP resistant cell line. RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression levels of MiR-424-5p, PD-L1 mRNA and protein, and multidrug resistance gene-1 (MDR-1) protein in CRL2631 cells and CRL2631-CHOP cells, respectively. The target genes of MiR-424-5p was verified by dual luciferase reporter assay. The miRNA simulation/interference technology and thiazole blue (MTT) method were used to detect the resistance of CRL2631 cells and CRL2631-CHOP cells to CHOP.@*RESULTS@#Compared with CRL2631 cells, the drug resistance of CRL2631-CHOP cells to CHOP and the levels of MDR-1 protein (P<0.05), PD-L1 mRNA and protein in the cells were significantly increased (both P<0.001), while the relative level of MiR-424-5p was significantly reduced (P<0.001). The result of the dual luciferase reporter assay showed that PD-L1 was the direct downstream target gene of MiR-424-5p (P<0.001). After transfection of MiR-424-5p inhibitor, the resistance of CRL2631 cells to CHOP drugs increased, and the expression level of MDR-1 protein (P<0.01), PD-L1 mRNA and protein also increased significantly (both P<0.01). After transfection of MiR-424-5p mimics, the resistance of CRL2631-CHOP cells to CHOP drugs decreased, and the expression level of MDR-1 protein (P<0.001), PD-L1 mRNA and protein also decreased significantly (both P<0.001). Overexpression of PD-L1 could reverse the inhibitory effect of upregulating MiR-424-5p on PD-L1 (P<0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Down-regulation of MiR-424-5p enhances the drug resistance of DLBCL cells by regulating the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance , Luciferases , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse/pathology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , RNA, Messenger , Signal Transduction
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1663-1670, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#As the efficacy of programmed cell death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors combined with chemotherapy in curing breast cancer is still controversial, this meta-analysis compares the efficacy and safety of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors combined with chemotherapy and chemotherapy alone in the treatment of breast cancer, which provides guidance for the clinical treatment.@*METHODS@#Relevant studies published as of April 2022 in the various databases including EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library were selected. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which control patients underwent chemotherapy alone and experimental group patients underwent combination chemotherapy and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor treatment were included in this investigation. Investigations without complete information, researches from which information could not be extracted, duplicate articles, animal studies, review articles, and systematic reviews were excluded. STATA 15.1 was employed for all statistical analyses.@*RESULTS@#In total, eight eligible studies were identified, revealing that combination chemotherapy and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor treatment was linked to significant increases in progression-free survival (PFS) relative to chemotherapy alone (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70-0.99, P = 0.032) but not overall survival (HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.80-1.06, P = 0.273). Pooled adverse event rates were also increased within the group of combination treatment relative to the chemotherapy group (risk ratio [RR] = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.14, P = 0.002). Specifically, nausea rates were lesser within the group of combination treatment relative to the group of chemotherapy (RR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.25-0.92, P = 0.026). Subgroup analyses indicated that the PFS of patients who underwent combination atezolizumab or pembrolizumab and chemotherapy treatment were substantially longer than those of patients who underwent chemotherapy alone (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.89, P ≤0.001; HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.67-0.92, P = 0.002).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The pooled results suggest that combination chemotherapy and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor treatment approaches help prolong PFS in breast cancer patients, but have no statistically significant effect on overall survival (OS). Additionally, combination therapy can significantly improve complete response rate (CRR) compared with chemotherapy alone. However, combination therapy was associated with greater rates of adverse events.


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Therapy, Combination , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy
5.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 339-342, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the consistency of programmed cell death 1-ligand 1 (PD-L1, clone E1L3N, 22C3, SP263) in different immunohistochemical staining methods.@*METHODS@#The first step was to select the optimal process: The PD-L1(clone E1L3N) antibody recommended process, self-built process ①, self-built process ② and self-built process ③ were used to perform immunohistochemical staining in 5 cases of tonsil tissue. The quality of all slides was scored by expert pathologists (0-6 points). The process with the highest score was selected. The second step was to compare the consistency between the optimal procedure and the two standard procedures. Thirty-two cases of lung non-small cell carcinoma diagnosed by pathology in Peking University First Hospital in the past two years were randomly selected. The 32 cases were stained in parallel with the SP263 and 22C3 standard procedures, and all stained slides were scored by specialized pathologists for tumor proportion score (TPS). The scoring results were grouped according to < 1%, ≥1% to < 10%, ≥10% to < 50%, and ≥50%. The consistency of PD-L1 detection antibody clone E1L3N and 22C3, E1L3N and SP263 staining results was analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Tonsil stained slides scores (0-6 points) were as follows: The recommended protocol was 5, 5, 5, 5 and 5. The self-built process ① was 5, 6, 6, 5 and 6. The self-built process ② was 4, 4, 4, 4 and 4.The self-built process ③ was 3, 3, 3, 3 and 3. The self-built process ① was the best with the highest score. The TPSs of 32 non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cases were as follows: Of self-built process ①, 6 cases were lower than 1%, 5 cases were from 1% to 10%, 10 cases were from 10% to 50%, and 11 cases were higher than 50%; of 22C3 standard procedure, 5 cases were lower than 1%, 3 cases were from 1% to 10%, 13 cases were from 10% to 50%, 11 cases were higher than 50%; of SP263 standard procedure, 7 cases were lower than 1%, 4 cases were from 1% to 10%, 11 cases were from 10% to 50%, 10 cases were higher than 50%. The results of the consistency test were as follows: The κ value for self-built process ① and 22C3 standard procedure was 0.736 (P < 0.001), the agreement was good; the κ value for self-built process ① and SP263 standard procedure was 0.914 (P < 0.001), the agreement was very good.@*CONCLUSION@#The immunostaining using PD-L1(E1L3N) with validated self-built staining protocol ① by Ventana Benchmark GX platform can obtain high quality of slides, and the TPSs based on these slides are in good agreement with 22C3 and SP263 standard procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Ligands , Antibodies , Staining and Labeling , Apoptosis
6.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 396-400, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986805

ABSTRACT

Esophageal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world, with incidence and mortality rankings of 7th and 6th, respectively. In recent years, immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors of programmed death-1 and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) has been introduced into clinical practice and has changed the treatment status of esophageal cancer. Although immunotherapy has provided long-term survival benefits for patients with advanced esophageal cancer and high pathological response rates in the neoadjuvant therapy, only a few of the patients have satisfactory therapeutic outcomes. Therefore, effective biomarkers for predicting immunotherapeutic effects are urgently needed to identify those patients who could benefit from immunotherapy. In this paper, we mainly discuss recent research advances of biomarkers related to the immunotherapy of esophageal cancer and the clinical application prospects of these biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Esophageal Neoplasms/therapy , Immunotherapy , B7-H1 Antigen , Biomarkers, Tumor
7.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 665-670, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985755

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate and elucidate the clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics of SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: The clinicopathological and prognostic data were collected in 127 patients with SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer diagnosed in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Shanghai, China from January 2020 to March 2022. The variation and expression of biomarkers related to treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Results: One hundred and twenty-seven patients were eligible for enrollment. Among them 120 patients (94.5%) were male and 7 cases (5.5%) were female, while the average age was 63 years (range 42-80 years). There were 41 cases (32.3%) of stage Ⅰ cancer, 23 cases (18.1%) of stage Ⅱ, 31 cases (24.4%) of stage Ⅲ and 32 cases (25.2%) of stage Ⅳ. SMARCA4 expression detected by immunohistochemistry was completely absent in 117 cases (92.1%) and partially absent in 10 cases (7.9%). PD-L1 immunohistochemical analyses were performed on 107 cases. PD-L1 was negative, weakly positive and strongly positive in 49.5% (53/107), 26.2% (28/107) and 24.3% (26/107) of the cases, respectively. Twenty-one cases showed gene alterations (21/104, 20.2%). The KRAS gene alternation (n=10) was most common. Mutant-type SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer was more commonly detected in females, and was associated with positive lymph nodes and advanced clinical stage (P<0.01). Univariate survival analysis showed that advanced clinical stage was a poor prognosis factor, and vascular invasion was a poor predictor of progression-free survival in patients with surgical resection. Conclusions: SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancer is a rare tumor with poor prognosis, and often occurs in elderly male patients. However, SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung cancers with gene mutations are often seen in female patients. Vascular invasion is a prognostic factor for disease progression or recurrence in patients with resectable tumor. Early detection and access to treatment are important for improving patient survivals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , China , Prognosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , DNA Helicases/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics
8.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 124-128, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970145

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features, treatment and prognosis of patients with RET fusion positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 1 089 NSCLCs were retrieved at Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University from August 2018 to April 2020. In all cases, multiple gene fusion detection kits (fluorescent PCR method) were used to detect the gene status of RET, EGFR, ALK, ROS1, KRAS, BRAF and HER2; and immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of PD-L1 and mismatch repair related proteins. The correlation between RET-fusion and patients' age, gender, smoking history, tumor stage, grade, pathologic type, and PD-L1, mismatch repair related protein expression was analyzed. Results: There were 22 cases (2.02%) detected with RET fusion-positive in 1 089 NSCLC patients, in which 11 males and 11 females; and the median age was 63.5 years. There were 20 adenocarcinomas, including 11 acinar predominant adenocarcinoma (APA), five solid predominant adenocarcinoma (SPA) and four lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA); There were one case each of squamous cell carcinoma (non-keratinizing type) and sarcomatoid carcinoma (pleomorphic carcinoma). There were 6 and 16 patients with RET fusion-positive who were in stage Ⅰ-Ⅱ and Ⅲ-Ⅳ respectively, and 16 cases with lymph node metastasis, 11 cases with distant metastasis. Among RET fusion-positive cases, one was detected with HER2 co-mutation. The tumor proportion score of PD-L1≥1% in patients with RET fusion positive lung cancer was 54.5% (12/22). Defects in mismatch repair protein expression were not found in patients with RET fusion positive NSCLC. Four patients with RET fusions positive (two cases of APA and two cases of SPA) received pratinib-targeted therapy, and two showed benefits from this targeted therapy. Conclusions: The histological subtypes of RET fusions positive NSCLC are more likely to be APA or SPA. RET fusion-positive NSCLC patients are associated with advanced clinical stage, lymph node metastases, and they may benefit from targeted therapy with RET-specific inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , B7-H1 Antigen/genetics , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Mutation
9.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 117-123, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970144

ABSTRACT

Objective: To accurately screen non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with KRAS G12C mutation and to evaluate their clinicopathological features, prognostic factors and current treatment status. Methods: A total of 19 410 NSCLC cases diagnosed at the Department of Pathology of Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai, China from January 2018 to September 2021 were retrospectively reviewed, and the cases with KRAS gene mutation detected by next-generation sequencing were included. The clinicopathological and genetic mutation data of these cases were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 1 633 (8.4%) NSCLC patients carried a KRAS gene mutation, among whom G12C was the most frequent (468 cases, 28.7%) mutant subtype. The mutation was more commonly found in males (414/468, 88.5%), patients with a history of smoking (308/468, 65.8%), and patients with a pathological type of invasive adenocarcinoma (231/468, 49.4%). The most common co-mutated genes in KRAS G12C mutant NSCLC were TP53 (52.4%, 245/468), STK11 (18.6%, 87/468) and ATM (13.2%, 62/468). The proportion of PD-L1 expression (≥1%) in KRAS G12C mutant NSCLC was significantly higher than that in patients without G12C mutation [64.3% (90/140) vs. 56.1% (193/344), P=0.014]. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) treatment significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in NSCLC patients (10.0 months vs. 5.0 months, P=0.011). However, combination of chemotherapy and ICIs with anti-angiogenesis inhibitors or multi-target inhibitors did not significantly improve PFS in patients with KRAS G12C mutant NSCLC (P>0.05). Patients with KRAS G12C mutation NSCLC treated with ICIs and KRAS G12C patients with TP53 mutation had significantly longer median PFS than those with STK11 mutation (9.0 months vs. 4.3 months, P=0.012). Conclusions: Patients with KRAS G12C mutant NSCLC have relatively higher levels of PD-L1 expression and can benefit from ICIs treatment. The feasibility of chemotherapy, ICIs therapy and their combination needs further investigation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , B7-H1 Antigen/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , China , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics , Retrospective Studies
10.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 165-169, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969820

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the clinical pathology features, and immune microenvironment of HER-2 intratumoral heterogeneity breast cancer. Methods: Thirty cases of HER-2 intratumoral heterogeneous breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from November 2017 to June 2020. HER-2 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry and verified by dual color silver-enhanced in-situ hybridization (D-SISH). HER-2 intratumoral positive and negative regions were divided. The pathological characteristics, subtype, and the level of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and the expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) were evaluated respectively. Results: The proportion of HER-2 positive cells of the breast cancer ranged from 10% to 90%. The pathological type was mainly invasive non-special typecarcinoma. Six cases presented different pathological types between HER-2 positive and negative regions. The HER-2-positive areas included 2 cases of carcinoma with apocrine differentiation, and the negative areas included 2 cases of invasive micropapillary carcinoma, 1 case of invasive papillary carcinoma, and 1 case of carcinoma with apocrine differentiation. In HER-2 positive regions, 17 cases were Luminal B and 13 cases were HER-2 overexpressed types. There were 22 cases of Luminal B and 8 cases of triple negative tumors in the HER-2 negative areas. The levels of TILs in HER-2 positive and negative areas accounted for 53.3% (16/30) and 26.7% (8/30), respectively, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.035). The positive expression of PD-L1 in HER-2 positive area and HER-2 negative area were 6 cases and 9 cases, respectively. Among 8 cases with HER-2 negative regions containing triple negative components, 4 cases were positive for PD-L1 expression. Conclusions: In the case of HER-2 intratumoral heterogeneity, it is necessary to pay attention to both HER-2 positive and negative regions, and evaluate subtype separately as far as possible. For HER-2 intratumoral heterogeneous breast cancer containing triple negative components, the treatment mode can be optimized by refining the intratumoral expression of PD-L1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/pathology , Carcinoma , Tumor Microenvironment , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism
11.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 117-128, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969814

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the expression of programmed death protein-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in liver cancer stem-like cells (LCSLC) and its effect on the characteristics of tumor stem cells and tumor biological function, to explore the upstream signaling pathway regulating PD-L1 expression in LCSLC and the downstream molecular mechanism of PD-L1 regulating stem cell characteristics, also tumor biological functions. Methods: HepG2 was cultured by sphere-formating method to obtain LCSLC. The expressions of CD133 and other stemness markers were detected by flow cytometry, western blot and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were used to detect the expressions of stemness markers and PD-L1. The biological functions of the LCSLC were tested by cell function assays, to confirm that the LCSLC has the characteristics of tumor stem cells. LCSLC was treated with cell signaling pathway inhibitors to identify relevant upstream signaling pathways mediating PD-L1 expression changes. The expression of PD-L1 in LCSLC was down regulated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), the expression of stem cell markers, tumor biological functions of LCSLC, and the changes of cell signaling pathways were detected. Results: Compared with HepG2 cells, the expression rate of CD133 in LCSLC was upregulated [(92.78±6.91)% and (1.40±1.77)%, P<0.001], the expressions of CD133, Nanog, Oct4A and Snail in LCSLC were also higher than those in HepG2 cells (P<0.05), the number of sphere-formating cells increased on day 7 [(395.30±54.05) and (124.70±19.30), P=0.001], cell migration rate increased [(35.41±6.78)% and (10.89±4.34)%, P=0.006], the number of transmembrane cells increased [(75.77±10.85) and (20.00±7.94), P=0.002], the number of cloned cells increased [(120.00±29.51) and (62.67±16.77), P=0.043]. Cell cycle experiments showed that LCSLC had significantly more cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase than those in HepG2 [(54.89±3.27) and (32.36±1.50), P<0.001]. The tumor formation experiment of mice showed that the weight of transplanted tumor in LCSLC group was (1.32±0.17)g, the volume is (1 779.0±200.2) mm(3), were higher than those of HepG2 cell [(0.31±0.06)g and (645.6±154.9)mm(3), P<0.001]. The expression level of PD-L1 protein in LCSLC was 1.88±0.52 and mRNA expression level was 2.53±0.62, both of which were higher than those of HepG2 cells (P<0.05). The expression levels of phosphorylation signal transduction and transcription activation factor 3 (p-STAT3) and p-Akt in LCSLC were higher than those in HepG2 cells (P<0.05). After the expression of p-STAT3 and p-Akt was down-regulated by inhibitor treatment, the expression of PD-L1 was also down-regulated (P<0.05). In contrast, the expression level of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in LCSLC was lower than that in HepG2 cells (P<0.01), there was no significant change in PD-L1 expression after down-regulated by inhibitor treatment (P>0.05). After the expression of PD-L1 was knockdown by siRNA, the expressions of CD133, Nanog, Oct4A and Snail in LCSLC were decreased compared with those of siRNA-negative control (NC) group (P<0.05). The number of sphere-formating cells decreased [(45.33±12.01) and (282.00±29.21), P<0.001], the cell migration rate was lower than that in siRNA-NC group [(20.86±2.74)% and (46.73±15.43)%, P=0.046], the number of transmembrane cells decreased [(39.67±1.53) and (102.70±11.59), P=0.001], the number of cloned cells decreased [(57.67±14.57) and (120.70±15.04), P=0.007], the number of cells in G(0)/G(1) phase decreased [(37.68±2.51) and (57.27±0.92), P<0.001], the number of cells in S phase was more than that in siRNA-NC group [(30.78±0.52) and (15.52±0.83), P<0.001]. Tumor formation in mice showed that the tumor weight of shRNA-PD-L1 group was (0.47±0.12)g, the volume is (761.3±221.4)mm(3), were lower than those of shRNA-NC group [(1.57±0.45)g and (1 829.0±218.3)mm(3), P<0.001]. Meanwhile, the expression levels of p-STAT3 and p-Akt in siRNA-PD-L1 group were decreased (P<0.05), while the expression levels of p-ERK1/2 and β-catenin did not change significantly (P>0.05). Conclusion: Elevated PD-L1 expression in CD133(+) LCSLC is crucial to maintain stemness and promotes the tumor biological function of LCSLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Ligands , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Neoplastic Stem Cells/physiology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation
12.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 333-345, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982705

ABSTRACT

The anti-tumor effect of anti-PD-1 antibody has long been shown to be strongly related to the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). This study aimed to mechanistically assess whether Chang Wei Qing (CWQ) Decoction can enhance the anti-tumor effect of PD-1 inhibitor therapy. PD-1 inhibitor therapy showed the significant anti-tumor effect in patients with mismatch repair-deficient/microsatellite instability-high (dMMR/MSI-H) colorectal cancer (CRC), rather than those with mismatch repair-proficient/microsatellite stable (pMMR/MSS) CRC. Hence, immunofluorescence double-label staining was utilized to explore the difference in the TIME between dMMR/MSI-H and pMMR/MSS CRC patients. Flow cytometry was used to analyze T-lymphocytes in tumors from mice. Western blot was used to measure the expression of PD-L1 protein in mouse tumors. The intestinal mucosal barrier of mice was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. 16S rRNA-gene sequencing was used to examine the structure of the gut microbiota in mice. Subsequently, Spearmanapos;s correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the gut microbiota and tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes. The results showed that dMMR/MSI-H CRC patients had more CD8+T cells and higher expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 proteins. In vivo, CWQ enhanced the anti-tumor effect of anti-PD-1 antibody and increased the infiltration of CD8+ and PD-1+CD8+ T cells in tumors. Additionally, the combination of CWQ with anti-PD-1 antibody resulted in lower inflammation in the intestinal mucosa than that induced by anti-PD-1 antibody alone. CWQ and anti-PD-1 antibody co-treatment upregulated PD-L1 protein and reduced the abundance of Bacteroides in the gut microbiota but increased the abundance of Akkermansia,Firmicutes, andActinobacteria. Additionally, the proportion of infiltrated CD8+PD-1+, CD8+, and CD3+ T cells were found to be positively correlated with the abundance of Akkermansia. Accordingly, CWQ may modulate the TIME by modifying the gut microbiota and consequently enhance the anti-tumor effect of PD-1 inhibitor therapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , B7-H1 Antigen , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Colonic Neoplasms , Tumor Microenvironment
13.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 304-316, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982564

ABSTRACT

The structure of N-glycans on specific proteins can regulate innate and adaptive immunity via sensing environmental signals. Meanwhile, the structural diversity of N-glycans poses analytical challenges that limit the exploration of specific glycosylation functions. In this work, we used THP-1-derived macrophages as examples to show the vast potential of a N-glycan structural interpretation tool StrucGP in N-glycoproteomic analysis. The intact glycopeptides of macrophages were enriched and analyzed using mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycoproteomic approaches, followed by the large-scale mapping of site-specific glycan structures via StrucGP. Results revealed that bisected GlcNAc, core fucosylated, and sialylated glycans (e.g., HexNAc4Hex5Fuc1Neu5Ac1, N4H5F1S1) were increased in M1 and M2 macrophages, especially in the latter. The findings indicated that these structures may be closely related to macrophage polarization. In addition, a high level of glycosylated PD-L1 was observed in M1 macrophages, and the LacNAc moiety was detected at Asn-192 and Asn-200 of PD-L1, and Asn-200 contained Lewis epitopes. The precision structural interpretation of site-specific glycans and subsequent intervention of target glycoproteins and related glycosyltransferases are of great value for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for different diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen , Glycosylation , Polysaccharides/metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 416-424, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935230

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the actual efficacy of programmed death-1 (PD-1)/ programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and explore potential prognostic predictive biomarkers. Methods: Patients with metastatic NSCLC who were treated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors at Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 2016 to December 2019, either as monotherapy or in combination with other agents, were consecutively enrolled into this study. We retrospectively collected the data of demographics, clinical information and pathologic assessment to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and conduct the survival analysis. Major endpoint of our study is progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints include objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR) and overall survival (OS). Results: The ORR of 174 patients who underwent PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor was 28.7%, and the DCR was 79.3%. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) occurred in 23 patients (13.2%). Brain metastasis, line of treatment, and treatment patterns were associated with the ORR of metastatic NSCLC patients who underwent immunotherapy (P<0.05). After a median follow-up duration of 18.8 months, the median PFS was 10.5 months (ranged from 1.5 to 40.8 months) while the median OS was not reached. The 2-year survival rate was estimated to be 63.0%. The pathologic type was related with the PFS of metastatic NSCLC patients who underwent immunotherapy (P=0.028). Sex, age, brain metastasis and autoimmune diseases were associated with OS (P<0.05). Analysis of the receptor characteristic curve (ROC) of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) predicting ORR of immunotherapy in metastatic NSCLC showed that the areas under the curve of NLR before immunotherapy (NLR(C0)), NLR after one cycle of immunotherapy (NLR(C1)) and ΔNLR were 0.600, 0.706 and 0.628, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that NLR(C1) was an independent factor of the ORR of metastatic NSCLC patients who underwent immunotherapy (OR=0.161, 95% CI: 0.062-0.422), and the efficacy of combination therapy was better than that of single agent (OR=0.395, 95% CI: 0.174-0.896). The immunotherapy efficacy in patients without brain metastasis was better than those with metastasis (OR=0.291, 95% CI: 0.095-0.887). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that NLR(C1) was an independent influencing factor of PFS of metastatic NSCLC patients after immunotherapy (HR=0.480, 95% CI: 0.303-0.759). Sex (HR=0.399, 95% CI: 0.161-0.991, P=0.048), age (HR=0.356, 95% CI: 0.170-0.745, P=0.006) were independent influencing factors of OS of metastatic NSCLC patients after immunotherapy. Conclusions: PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors are proved to be efficacious and have tolerable toxicities for patients with metastatic NSCLC. Patients at advanced age could still benefit from immunotherapy. Brain metastasis is related to compromised response. Earlier application of immunotherapy in combination with other modalities enhances the efficacy without elevating risk of irAEs. NLR(C1) is an early predictor of clinical outcome. The OS of patients younger than 75 years may be improved when treated with immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Retrospective Studies
15.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 389-394, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935226

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the possible mechanism of radiotherapy regulating the expression of PD-L1 in esophageal carcinoma. Methods: Three esophageal cancer cell lines (Eca109, Kyse150, TE1) were irradiated with different doses of X-rays, and 6 Gy+ AG490 group was set. The mRNA expression of PD-L1 was detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The protein expressions of PD-L1, STAT3, p-STAT3 were detected by western blotting and the protein level of IL-6 was detected by ELISA. Results: The mRNA expressions of PD-L1 in Eca109, Kyse150 and TE1 were 2.86±0.30, 960.01±21.27 and 106.78±6.67, higher than 1.07±0.15 in normal esophageal cell line HET-1A (P<0.01). The protein expressions of PD-L1 in Eca109, Kyse150 and TE1 were 0.091±0.036, 1.533±0.079 and 0.914±0.035, higher than 0.063±0.01 in normal esophageal cell line HET-1A (P<0.01). After 48 hours of 6 Gy irradiation, the protein expression levels of PD-L1 in Eca109, Kyse150 and TE1 were 0.135±0.007, 1.66±0.06 and 1.32±0.06, higher than 0.09±0.01, 1.21±0.05 and 0.93±0.03 of the 0 Gy group (P<0.01), while the protein expression levels of p-STAT3 in Eca109, Kyse150 and TE1 were 1.44±0.26, 0.75±0.04 and 1.92±0.17, higher than 0.18±0.05, 0.48±0.02 and 0.36±0.06 of the 0 Gy group (P<0.01). IL-6 protein expression increased significantly after different doses of irradiation (P<0.01). After the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway was blocked by the specific inhibitor AG490, the expressions of PD-L1 of Eca109, Kyse150 and TE1 in the 6 Gy+ AG490 groups were 0.11±0.03, 1.07±0.08 and 0.96±0.11, without significant differences of 0.09±0.01, 0.96±0.05 and 0.85±0.09 of the 0 Gy group (P>0.05), while the protein expressions of p-STAT3 were 0.76±0.11, 0.59±0.06 and 0.96±0.12, without significant differences of 0.67±0.08, 0.54±0.06 and 0.84±0.11 of the 0 Gy group (P>0.05). Conclusion: Radiotherapy may regulate the expression of PD-L1 in esophageal cancer cells through IL-6 / STAT3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Esophageal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Interleukin-6/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction
16.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 382-388, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935225

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the role of CXCL5 in tumor immune of lung cancer and to explore the potential molecular mechanisms. Methods: A total of 62 cases of patients with lung cancer admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University from May 2018 to December 2019 were recruited as study object. Another 20 cases of patients with pulmonary infectious diseases and 20 cases of healthy control were selected as control. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine serum levels of CXCL5 in patients with lung cancer, pulmonary infectious diseases and healthy control. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was used to detect the expressions of CXCL5 and PD-1/PD-L1 in tumor and paracarcinoma tissues of patients with lung cancer. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between CXCL5 and PD-1 in tumor and paracarcinoma tissues of patients with lung cancer. Lewis cells either expressing CXCL5 or vector plasmids were used to establish C57BL/6J mice model of lung cancer, and all mice were then divided into vehicle and PD-1 antibody treatment groups, 10 mice for each group. The mice survival and tumor growth curves were recorded. IHC was used to evaluate the expressions of CXCL5, PD-1 as well as the proportions of CD8(+) T and Treg cells in xenograft tumor tissues. Results: In patients with lung cancer, the serum level of CXCL5 [(351.7±51.5) ng/L] was significant higher than that in patients with pulmonary infectious diseases and healthy control [(124.7±23.4) ng/L, P<0.001]. The expression levels of CXCL5 (0.136±0.034), CXCR2 (0.255±0.050), PD-1 (0.054±0.012) and PD-L1 (0.350±0.084) in tumor were significant higher than those in paracarcinoma normal tissues [(0.074±0.022), (0.112±0.023), (0.041±0.007) and (0.270±0.043) respectively, P<0.001]. CXCL5 was significant positively correlated with PD-1 in tumor tissues of lung cancer (r=0.643, P<0.001), but not correlated with PD-1 in paracarcinoma tissues(r=0.088, P=0.496). The vector control group, CXCL5 overexpression group, vector control + anti-PD-1 antibody treatment group and CXCL5 overexpression + anti-PD-1 antibody treatment group all successfully formed tumors in mice, while CXCL5 overexpression increased the tumor growth significantly (P<0.01), which was abrogated by the treatment of anti-PD-1 antibody. CXCL5 overexpression decreased the mice survival time significantly (P<0.01), this effect was also abrogated by the treatment of anti-PD-1 antibody. The proportion of CD8(+) T cells in CXCL5 overexpression group [(10.40±2.00)%] was significant lower than that in vector control group [(21.20±3.30)%, P=0.002]. The proportion of CD4(+) Foxp3(+) Treg cells in CXCL5 overexpression group [(38.40±3.70)%] was significant higher than that in vector control group [(23.30±2.25)%, P<0.001]. After the treatment of anti-PD-1 antibody, no significant difference were observed for the proportion of CD8(+) T cells [(34.10±5.00)% and (33.40±4.00)% respectively] and Treg cells [(14.70±3.50)% and (14.50±3.30)% respectively] in xenograft tumor tissues between CXCL5 overexpression+ anti-PD-1 antibody treatment group and vector control + anti-PD-1 antibody treatment group (P>0.05). Conclusion: The expressions of CXCL5 and PD-1/PD-L1 are all increased significantly in the tumor tissues of patients with lung cancer, CXCL5 may inhibit tumor immune of lung cancer via modulating PD-1/PD-L1 signaling.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Chemokine CXCL5/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism
17.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 260-267, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935209

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the expression of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1, SP142) and PD-L1 (22C3) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and analyze their correlation with the clinicopathological factors and prognosis. Methods: The clinicopathologic data of 259 patients with TNBC treated in Cancer Hospital from August 2010 to December 2013 were collected. Whole section of surgical tissue samples were collected to conduct PD-L1 (SP142) and PD-L1 (22C3) immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The PD-L1 expression in tumor cells and tumor infiltrating immune cells were visually assessed respectively, the relationship between PD-L1 expression and clinicopathologic characterizes were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to test the correlations between PD-L1 expression and disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: The positive rates of SP142 (immune cell score, ICs≥1%) and 22C3 (combined positive score, CPS≥1) were 42.1%(109/259) and 41.3%(107/259) in TNBC tissues, respectively, with a total coincidence rate of 82.3%. The Kappa value of positive expression cases was 0.571 and the distribution difference of SP142 and 22C3 positive expression cases was statistically significant (P<0.001). The PD-L1 positive patients were less likely to have vascular invasion (P<0.05), but with higher histological grade and Ki-67 proliferation index (P<0.05). The recurrence/metastasis cases(8) of the patients with positive PD-L1 (SP142) was significantly lower than that of patients with negative PD-L1(SP142, 27, P=0.016). The positive expression of PD-L1 (SP142) patients were longer DFS (P=0.019). The OS of patients with positive PD-L1 (SP142) were longer than those with negative PD-L1 (SP142), but without significance (P=0.116). The positive expression of PD-L1 (22C3) was marginally associated with DFS and OS of patients (P>0.05). Conclusions: The expression of PD-L1 (22C3) is different from that of PD-L1 (SP142) in TNBC, and the two antibodies can't be interchangeable for each other in clinical tests. PD-L1 (SP142) status is an independent prognostic factor of DFS in TNBC. The DFS is significantly prolonged in patients with positive expression of PD-L1 (SP142).


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Prognosis , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology
18.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 376-382, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929571

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of CD33-targeted bi-specific and tri-specific T-cell engagers on T-cell proliferation and explore their cytotoxicity on leukemia cells. Methods: The CD33-targeted bi-specific T-cell engager (CD33-BiTE) and tri-specific T-cell engager (CD33-TriTE) expression vectors were successfully constructed and expressed through a eukaryotic cell expression system. CD33-BiTE and CD33-TriTE were purified by affinity chromatography. The effects of CD33-BiTE and CD33-TriTE on T cells were analyzed through in vitro experiments. Results: ① CD33-BiTE and CD33-TriTE were successfully constructed and purified and could compete with flow cytometry antibodies for binding to the target cells. ② After 12 days of co-culture with CD33-BiTE and CD33-TriTE, the number of human T cells were expanded to 33.89±19.46 and 81.56±23.62 folds, respectively. CD33-TriTE induced a stronger proliferation of T cells than CD33-BiTE (P<0.05) . ③ Both CD33-BiTE and CD33-TriTE induced specific dose-dependent cytotoxicity on CD33(+) leukemia cells. ④ Compared to CD33-TriTE, leukemia cells were prone to express PD-L1 when co-cultured with T cells and CD33-BiTE. CD33-TriTE induced powerful cytotoxicity on leukemia cells with high PD-L1 expression. Conclusion: CD33-BiTE and CD33-TriTE expression vectors were constructed, and fusion proteins were expressed in eukaryotic cells. Our results support the proliferative and activating effects of BiTE and TriTE on T cells. Compared to that of CD33-BiTE, CD33-TriTE induced a stronger proliferative effect on T cells and a more powerful cytotoxicity on leukemia cells with high PD-L1 expression.


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/pharmacology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/metabolism , Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3/pharmacology , T-Lymphocytes
19.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 18-18, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929146

ABSTRACT

The programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and its receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) deliver inhibitory signals to regulate immunological tolerance during immune-mediated diseases. However, the role of PD-1 signaling and its blockade effect on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) differentiation into the osteo-/odontogenic lineage remain unknown. We show here that PD-L1 expression, but not PD-1, is downregulated during osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. Importantly, PD-L1/PD-1 signaling has been shown to negatively regulate the osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. Mechanistically, depletion of either PD-L1 or PD-1 expression increased ERK and AKT phosphorylation levels through the upregulation of Ras enzyme activity, which plays a pivotal role during hDPSCs osteo-/odontogenic differentiation. Treatment with nivolumab (a human anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody), which targets PD-1 to prevent PD-L1 binding, successfully enhanced osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs through enhanced Ras activity-mediated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Our findings underscore that downregulation of PD-L1 expression accompanies during osteo-/odontogenic differentiation, and hDPSCs-intrinsic PD-1 signaling inhibits osteo-/odontogenic differentiation. These findings provide a significant basis that PD-1 blockade could be effective immunotherapeutic strategies in hDPSCs-mediated dental pulp regeneration.


Subject(s)
Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/metabolism , Dental Pulp/metabolism , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , Regeneration , Stem Cells
20.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B ; (12): 164-170, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929048

ABSTRACT

Ovarian cancer is the third-most-common malignant reproductive tumor in women. According to the American Cancer Society, it has the highest mortality rate of gynecological tumors. The five-year survival rate was only 29% during the period from 1975 to 2008 (Reid et al., 2017). In recent decades, the five-year survival rate of ovarian cancer has remained around 30% despite continuous improvements in surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and other therapeutic methods. However, because of the particularity of the volume and location of ovarian tissue, the early symptoms of ovarian cancer are hidden, and there is a lack of highly sensitive and specific screening methods. Most patients have advanced metastasis, including abdominal metastasis, when they are diagnosed (Reid et al., 2017). Therefore, exploring the mechanism of ovarian cancer metastasis and finding early preventive measures are key to improving the survival rate and reducing mortality caused by ovarian cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , B7-H1 Antigen/biosynthesis , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Chemokines/biosynthesis , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Survival Rate , Up-Regulation
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