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1.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153295

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Screening extremophile Bacillus strains from various Hot Springs Characterization Of Bacillus Strains Producing Highly Thermostable Amylase Genetic identification of the best strains


Abstract Currently thermostable Amylase represents a broad biotechnological interest and desired by a various industries. In this study, forty-six bacterial strains belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated from various hot springs in the North West of Algeria based on their ability to degrade starch and produce amylase in Starch Agar medium. The majority of isolates showed a positive amylolytic activity. In order to select the most thermostables amylase the effect of temperature on enzymes was estimated, therefore the study of amylase thermostability was culminated by the selection of Four Strains having an interesting optimum of activity and range of stability, reaching 75 °C for the strains HBH1-2, HBH1-3, HBH3-1and 85 °C for the strain HC-2, This indicates that the Enzyme produced by retained strains have optimum activity at high temperature. The identity of the selected strains was established on the basis of the morphological, biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic position as determined by 16S Ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. The whole strains belonged to the genus Bacillus and their phylogeny were also reported in this study.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/classification , Hot Springs/microbiology , Amylases , Phylogeny , Bacillus/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Algeria , Hot Temperature
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 656-670, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889178

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to explore the effects of two siderophore-producing bacterial strains on iron absorption and plant growth of peanut in calcareous soil. Two siderophore-producing bacterial strains, namely, YZ29 and DZ13, isolated from the rhizosphere soil of peanut, were identified as Paenibacillus illinoisensis and Bacillus sp., respectively. In potted experiments, YZ29 and DZ13 enhanced root activity, chlorophyll and active iron content in leaves, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium accumulation of plants and increased the quality of peanut kernels and plant biomass over control. In the field trial, the inoculated treatments performed better than the controls, and the pod yields of the three treatments inoculated with YZ29, DZ13, and YZ29 + DZ13 (1:1) increased by 37.05%, 13.80% and 13.57%, respectively, compared with the control. Based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, YZ29 and DZ13 improved the bacterial community richness and species diversity of soil surrounding the peanut roots. Therefore, YZ29 and DZ13 can be used as candidate bacterial strains to relieve chlorosis of peanut and promote peanut growth. The present study is the first to explore the effect of siderophores produced by P. illinoisensis on iron absorption.


Subject(s)
Arachis/growth & development , Arachis/microbiology , Bacillus/metabolism , Paenibacillus/metabolism , Iron/metabolism , Arachis/metabolism , Arachis/chemistry , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/metabolism , Seeds/microbiology , Seeds/chemistry , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Biological Transport , Siderophores/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Paenibacillus/isolation & purification , Paenibacillus/classification , Paenibacillus/genetics , Rhizosphere , Agricultural Inoculants/metabolism
3.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(4): 333-341, dic. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-843176

ABSTRACT

Las cactáceas son la vegetación característica de las zonas áridas en México, donde las lluvias son escasas, la evapotranspiración es elevada y la fertilidad de los suelos es baja. Las plantas han desarrollado estrategias fisiológicas como la asociación con microorganismos en la zona de la rizósfera para incrementar la captación de nutrientes. En el presente trabajo se obtuvieron 4 aislados bacterianos de la rizósfera de Mammillaria magnimamma y Coryphantha radians, los que fueron nombrados como QAP3, QAP19, QAP22 y QAP24 e identificados genéticamente como pertenecientes al género Bacillus. Estos aislados exhibieron in vitro propiedades bioquímicas como solubilización de fosfatos, producción de ácido indolacético y actividad ACC deaminasa, que se relacionan con la promoción del crecimiento de las plantas. Dicha promoción fue ensayada inoculando semillas de M. magnimamma y evaluando luego algunos parámetros. Se encontró que todos los aislados incrementaron la germinación desde un 17% hasta un 34,3% (con respecto a las semillas testigo sin inocular); el aislado QAP24 fue el que presentó el mayor efecto en este sentido y permitió la germinación de todas las semillas viables (84,7%) 3 días antes que en el testigo. La inoculación de este aislado en plantas de Mammillaria zeilmanniana mostró un efecto positivo sobre la floración: en 2 meses dentro del período de un año se detectó un incremento en el número de plantas en floración con respecto a las plantas testigo, de hasta el 31,0% en uno de ellos. Se concluye que los aislados de Bacillus spp. caracterizados poseen potencial para ser empleados en programas de conservación de especies vegetales de zonas áridas.


Cacti are the most representative vegetation of arid zones in Mexico where rainfall is scarce, evapotranspiration is high and soil fertility is low. Plants have developed physiological strategies such as the association with microorganisms in the rhizosphere zone to increase nutrient uptake. In the present work, four bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of Mammillaria magnimamma and Coryphantha radians were obtained and named as QAP3, QAP19, QAP22 and QAP24, and were genetically identified as belonging to the genus Bacillus, exhibiting in vitro biochemical properties such as phosphate solubilization, indoleacetic acid production and ACC deaminase activity related to plant growth promotion, which was tested by inoculating M. magnimamma seeds. It was found that all isolates increased germination from 17 to 34.3% with respect to the uninoculated control seeds, being QAP24 the one having the greatest effect, accomplishing the germination of viable seeds (84.7%) three days before the control seeds. Subsequently, the inoculation of Mammillari zeilmanniana plants with this isolate showed a positive effect on bloom, registering during two months from a one year period, an increase of up to 31.0% in the number of flowering plants compared to control plants. The characterized Bacillus spp. isolates have potential to be used in conservation programs of plant species from arid zones.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/classification , Adaptation, Biological/physiology , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Cactaceae/microbiology , Rhizosphere , Agricultural Inoculants/growth & development , Germination/drug effects , Flowers/drug effects , Reference Parameters/methods
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 1-9, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775132

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6–12, temperatures of 28–50 °C, and NaCl concentrations of 0–16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/metabolism , Biotechnology/methods , Industrial Waste , Waste Management/methods , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Cluster Analysis , Construction Materials , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Temperature
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1065-1076, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769637

ABSTRACT

Abstract Thermophilic 32 isolates and 20 reference bacilli were subjected to Rep-PCR and ITS-PCR fingerprinting for determination of their genotypic diversity, before screening lipase activities. By these methods, all the isolates and references could easily be differentiated up to subspecies level from each other. In screening assay, 11 isolates and 7 references were found to be lipase producing. Their extracellular lipase activities were measured quantitatively by incubating in both tributyrin and olive oil broths at 60 °C and pH 7.0. During the 24, 48 and 72-h period of incubation, the changes in the lipase activities, culture absorbance, wet weight of biomass and pH were all measured. The activity was determined by using pNPB in 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 at 60 °C. The lipase production of the isolates in olive oil broths varied between 0.008 and 0.052, whereas these values were found to be 0.002-0.019 (U/mL) in the case of tyributyrin. For comparison, an index was established by dividing the lipase activities to cell biomass (U/mg). The maximum thermostable lipase production was achieved by the isolates F84a, F84b, and G. thermodenitrificans DSM 465T (0.009, 0.008 and 0.008 U/mg) within olive oil broth, whereas G. stearothermophilus A113 displayed the highest lipase activity than its type strain in tyributyrin. Therefore, as some of these isolates displayed higher activities in comparison to references, new lipase producing bacilli were determined by presenting their genotypic diversity with DNA fingerprinting techniques.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/chemistry , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/enzymology , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/classification , Bacterial Proteins/enzymology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/growth & development , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Enzyme Stability/chemistry , Enzyme Stability/classification , Enzyme Stability/enzymology , Enzyme Stability/genetics , Enzyme Stability/growth & development , Enzyme Stability/metabolism , Genetic Variation/chemistry , Genetic Variation/classification , Genetic Variation/enzymology , Genetic Variation/genetics , Genetic Variation/growth & development , Genetic Variation/metabolism , Genotype/chemistry , Genotype/classification , Genotype/enzymology , Genotype/genetics , Genotype/growth & development , Genotype/metabolism , Hot Temperature/chemistry , Hot Temperature/classification , Hot Temperature/enzymology , Hot Temperature/genetics , Hot Temperature/growth & development , Hot Temperature/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/classification , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/enzymology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/genetics , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/growth & development , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration/metabolism , Lipase/chemistry , Lipase/classification , Lipase/enzymology , Lipase/genetics , Lipase/growth & development , Lipase/metabolism , Phylogeny/chemistry , Phylogeny/classification , Phylogeny/enzymology , Phylogeny/genetics , Phylogeny/growth & development , Phylogeny/metabolism
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1111-1118, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769642

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the present work, twelve bacilli were isolated from four different regions of human skin from Bela population of Nagpur district, India. The isolated bacilli were identified by their morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. Seven isolates were Gram negative rods, out of which five were belong to genus Pseudomonas. Three among the five Gram positive isolates were identified as Dermabactor and the remaining two Bacillus. Their antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The isolates showed resistance to several currently used broad-spectrum antibiotics. The Dermabactor genus was resistant to vancomycin, although it was earlier reported to be susceptible. Imipenem was found to be the most effective antibiotic for Pseudomonas while nalidixic acid, ampicillin and tetracycline were ineffective. Isolates of Bacillus displayed resistance to the extended spectrum antibiotics cephalosporin and ceftazidime. Imipenem, carbenicillin and ticarcillin were found to be the most effective antibiotics as all the investigated isolates were susceptible to them. Antibiotic resistance may be due to the overuse or misuse of antibiotics during the treatment, or following constant exposure to antibiotic-containing cosmetic formulations.


Subject(s)
Adolescent/classification , Adolescent/drug effects , Adolescent/genetics , Adolescent/isolation & purification , Adolescent/microbiology , Adolescent/pharmacology , Adult/classification , Adult/drug effects , Adult/genetics , Adult/isolation & purification , Adult/microbiology , Adult/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/classification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/drug effects , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/microbiology , Bacillus/pharmacology , Female/classification , Female/drug effects , Female/genetics , Female/isolation & purification , Female/microbiology , Female/pharmacology , Healthy Volunteers/classification , Healthy Volunteers/drug effects , Healthy Volunteers/genetics , Healthy Volunteers/isolation & purification , Healthy Volunteers/microbiology , Healthy Volunteers/pharmacology , Humans/classification , Humans/drug effects , Humans/genetics , Humans/isolation & purification , Humans/microbiology , Humans/pharmacology , Male/classification , Male/drug effects , Male/genetics , Male/isolation & purification , Male/microbiology , Male/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/pharmacology , Middle Aged/classification , Middle Aged/drug effects , Middle Aged/genetics , Middle Aged/isolation & purification , Middle Aged/microbiology , Middle Aged/pharmacology , Skin/classification , Skin/drug effects , Skin/genetics , Skin/isolation & purification , Skin/microbiology , Skin/pharmacology , Young Adult/classification , Young Adult/drug effects , Young Adult/genetics , Young Adult/isolation & purification , Young Adult/microbiology , Young Adult/pharmacology
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1183-1191, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769666

ABSTRACT

Abstract Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/metabolism , Food Microbiology , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/isolation & purification , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , India , Oryza/metabolism , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 977-989, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769669

ABSTRACT

Abstract A total of 48 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized tissues of the medicinal plant Lonicera japonica, which is grown in eastern China; six strains were selected for further study based on their potential ability to promote plant growth in vitro (siderophore and indoleacetic acid production). The bacteria were characterized by phylogenetically analyzing their 16S rRNA gene similarity, by examining their effect on the mycelial development of pathogenic fungi, by testing their potential plant growth-promoting characteristics, and by measuring wheat growth parameters after inoculation. Results showed that the number of endophytic bacteria in L. japonica varied among different tissues, but it remained relatively stable in the same tissues from four different plantation locations. Among the three endophytic strains, strains 122 and 124 both had high siderophore production, with the latter showing the highest phosphate solubilization activity (45.6 mg/L) and aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (47.3 nmol/mg/h). Strain 170 had the highest indoleacetic acid (IAA) production (49.2 mg/L) and cellulase and pectinase activities. After inoculation, most of the six selected isolates showed a strong capacity to promote wheat growth. Compared with the controls, the increase in the shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content was most remarkable in wheat seedlings inoculated with strain 130. The positive correlation between enzyme (cellulose and pectinase) activity and inhibition rate on Fusarium oxysporum, the IAA production, and the root length of wheat seedlings inoculated with each tested endophytic strain was significant in regression analysis. Deformity of pathogenic fungal mycelia was observed under a microscope after the interaction with the endophytic isolates. Such deformity may be directly related to the production of hydrolytic bacterial enzymes (cellulose and pectinase). The six endophytic bacterial strains were identified to be Paenibacillus and Bacillus strains based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis and their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Results indicate the promising application of endophytic bacteria to the biological control of pathogenic fungi and the improvement of wheat crop growth.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/metabolism , Bacillus/microbiology , China/classification , China/genetics , China/growth & development , China/isolation & purification , China/metabolism , China/microbiology , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/growth & development , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Endophytes/microbiology , Indoleacetic Acids/classification , Indoleacetic Acids/genetics , Indoleacetic Acids/growth & development , Indoleacetic Acids/isolation & purification , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids/microbiology , Lonicera/classification , Lonicera/genetics , Lonicera/growth & development , Lonicera/isolation & purification , Lonicera/metabolism , Lonicera/microbiology , Molecular Sequence Data/classification , Molecular Sequence Data/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data/growth & development , Molecular Sequence Data/isolation & purification , Molecular Sequence Data/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data/microbiology , Paenibacillus/classification , Paenibacillus/genetics , Paenibacillus/growth & development , Paenibacillus/isolation & purification , Paenibacillus/metabolism , Paenibacillus/microbiology , Phylogeny/classification , Phylogeny/genetics , Phylogeny/growth & development , Phylogeny/isolation & purification , Phylogeny/metabolism , Phylogeny/microbiology , Plant Roots/classification , Plant Roots/genetics , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/isolation & purification , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Siderophores/classification , Siderophores/genetics , Siderophores/growth & development , Siderophores/isolation & purification , Siderophores/metabolism , Siderophores/microbiology , Triticum/classification , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/growth & development , Triticum/isolation & purification , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology
9.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Jun; 53(6): 356-363
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158505

ABSTRACT

Here, we described the production of a cellulase-free alkaline xylanase from Bacillus pumilus MTCC 5015 by submerged fermentation and its application in biobleaching. Various process parameters affecting xylanase production by B. pumilus were optimized by adopting a Plackett-Burman design (PBD) as well as Response surface methodology (RSM). These statistical methods aid in improving the enzyme yield by analysing the individual crucial components of the medium. Maximum production was obtained with 4% yeast extract, 0.08% magnesium sulphate, 30 h of inoculum age, incubation temperature of 33.5 °C and pH 9.0. Under optimized conditions, the xylanase activity was 372 IU/ml. Media engineering improved a 5-fold increase in the enzyme production. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed significant changes on the surface of xylanase treated pulps as a result of xylan hydrolysis. Increased roughness of paper carton fibres was apparent in scanning electron micrograph due to opening of the micro fibrils present on the surface by xylanase action. The untreated pulp did not show any such change. These results demonstrated that the B. pumilus MTCC 5015 xylanase was effective in bio-bleaching of paper carton.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/chemistry , Bacillus/classification , Biotechnology , Cellulose/metabolism , Fermentation , Paper , Xylosidases/biosynthesis , Xylosidases/chemical synthesis
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 347-354, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749729

ABSTRACT

Halophilic microorganisms are able to grow in the presence of salt and are also excellent source of enzymes and biotechnological products, such as exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Salt-tolerant bacteria were screened in the Organic Composting Production Unit (OCPU) of São Paulo Zoological Park Foundation, which processes 4 ton/day of organic residues including plant matter from the Atlantic Rain Forest, animal manure and carcasses and mud from water treatment. Among the screened microorganisms, eight halotolerant bacteria grew at NaCl concentrations up to 4 M. These cultures were classified based on phylogenetic characteristics and comparative partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as belonging to the genera Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Brevibacterium. The results of this study describe the ability of these halotolerant bacteria to produce some classes of hydrolases, namely, lipases, proteases, amylases and cellulases, and biopolymers. The strain characterized as of Brevibacterium avium presented cellulase and amylase activities up to 4 M NaCl and also produced EPSs and PHAs. These results indicate the biotechnological potential of certain microorganisms recovered from the composting process, including halotolerant species, which have the ability to produce enzymes and biopolymers, offering new perspectives for environmental and industrial applications.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/isolation & purification , Biological Products/analysis , Brevibacterium/isolation & purification , Hydrolases/analysis , Soil Microbiology , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Staphylococcus/isolation & purification , Brazil , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/metabolism , Brevibacterium/classification , Brevibacterium/genetics , Brevibacterium/metabolism , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Soil , Staphylococcus/classification , Staphylococcus/genetics , Staphylococcus/metabolism
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 455-464, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749744

ABSTRACT

Biomineralization is a known natural phenomenon associated with a wide range of bacterial species. Bacterial-induced calcium carbonate precipitation by marine isolates was investigated in this study. Three genera of ureolytic bacteria, Sporosarcina sp., Bacillus sp. and Brevundimonas sp. were observed to precipitate calcium carbonate minerals. Of these species, Sporosarcina sp. dominated the cultured isolates. B. lentus CP28 generated higher urease activity and facilitated more efficient precipitation of calcium carbonate at 3.24 ± 0.25 × 10−4 mg/cell. X-ray diffraction indicated that the dominant calcium carbonate phase was calcite. Scanning electron microscopy showed that morphologies of the minerals were dominated by cubic, rhombic and polygonal plate-like crystals. The dynamic process of microbial calcium carbonate precipitation revealed that B. lentus CP28 precipitated calcite crystals through the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea, and that when ammonium ion concentrations reached 746 mM and the pH reached 9.6, that favored calcite precipitation at a higher level of 96 mg/L. The results of this research provide evidence that a variety of marine bacteria can induce calcium carbonate precipitation, and may influence the marine carbonate cycle in natural environments.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/isolation & purification , Calcium Carbonate/metabolism , Caulobacteraceae/isolation & purification , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , Sporosarcina/isolation & purification , Ammonium Compounds/metabolism , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/metabolism , Cluster Analysis , Caulobacteraceae/classification , Caulobacteraceae/genetics , Caulobacteraceae/metabolism , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sporosarcina/classification , Sporosarcina/genetics , Sporosarcina/metabolism , Urea/metabolism , X-Ray Diffraction
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163224

ABSTRACT

A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of biochar on the abundance of soil bacteria and compare it with the source biomass. Seven different treatments and a control were used in the experimental set-up. Three different types of biomass were selected and three types of biochar were produced from them. Both the materials were applied to the soil at a rate of 5t/ha. All treatments were incubated for 30, 60 and 90 days. Cultural, microscopic and biochemical tests were carried out to identify the bacterial isolates in soils treated with biochar and its source biomass. Bacterial isolates identified in soil and in some of the biomasses before treatments were applied include Bacillus badius, Bacillus krulwichiae, Bacillus siralis, Bacillus sylvestris, Bacillus flexus, Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus and Bacillus thuringiensis while after incubation periods, seven new isolates were identified. This was true for the biomass treated soils where additional one to two isolates reappeared. Conversely, in the biochar treated soils, most of the isolates disappeared except Bacillus badius that survived in all soils till 90 days. Because of its tolerant nature, it was further investigated for cellulase enzyme activity. Interestingly, the isolate did not show any such activity. Conclusively, biochar application may exert negative effect on the distribution and proliferation of soil bacteria with possible effect on soil quality and crop production.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/drug effects , Bacillus/metabolism , Cellulase , Charcoal/adverse effects , Charcoal/physiology , Soil/microbiology , Soil Microbiology
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jul; 52(7): 739-747
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153754

ABSTRACT

Mosquitocidal bacteria are environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides for controlling mosquitoes and therefore, there have been tremendous world-wide efforts to identify novel mosquitocidal bacteria from natural environment. In the present study, excreta from arid-birds were analyzed for identifying mosquitocidal bacteria. The selection of sample for bacterial screening is significant, because, arid-birds are the unique living species and gathering the foods from variety of sources from environment. Out of 1000 samples examined, twelve bacterial strains were identified as mosquitocidal and the 16S rRNA gene sequence alignment depicted that these isolates belonged to Bacillus species (Bacillus thuringiensis, B.sphaericus and B.cereus). Toxicity assay against mosquito vectors have shown that these isolates are potential. The B. sphaericus VCRC-B547 (NCBI: JN377789) has shown a higher toxicity against Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi, and Aed. aegypti. Result from SDS-PAGE has shown that there was considerable difference in the protein profiles among the new bacterial isolates. Phylogenetic tree with branch length 0.05 revealed three distinct groups with homology among the closely related Bacillus strains. This study therefore throws considerable interest on the diversity of microbial organisms from arid birds and its application in mosquito control.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Bacterial Toxins/toxicity , Birds/parasitology , Culicidae/drug effects , Culicidae/parasitology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Feces/parasitology , Larva/parasitology , Mosquito Control/methods , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 621-625, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723126

ABSTRACT

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.


Subject(s)
Azospirillum brasilense/isolation & purification , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Hordeum/microbiology , Nitrogen Fixation , Pseudomonas/isolation & purification , Seeds/microbiology , Antibiosis , Azospirillum brasilense/classification , Azospirillum brasilense/genetics , Azospirillum brasilense/metabolism , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/metabolism , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Molecular Typing , Pseudomonas/classification , Pseudomonas/genetics , Pseudomonas/metabolism , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163096

ABSTRACT

Aims: To isolate and optimize the culture conditions for thermo stable and alkaline amylase production from bacteria. Study Design: Optimization of different physiological and nutritional parameters for amylase production and kinetic studies of amylase. Place and Duration of Study: Soil Samples: Herbal garden of Amity University Haryana, Gurgaon (Manesar), India, between April 2012 and September 2012. Methodology: Amylolytic isolates were selected by flooding the nutrient agar plates containing 2% starch with Lugol solution. Isolates were selected on the basis of higher ratio of clear zone to colony size and grown in nutrient broth containing 2% starch. The level of amylase was detected in the culture filtrate. The selected isolate showing maximum amylase production was identified on the basis of 16S rDNA amplification. Results: An Alkalo-thermostable amylase producing bacterial isolate from soil was identified as Bacillus sp. strain PM1 on the basis of 16S rRNA. It yielded 3.5 U/ml of amylase in medium containing (%) starch 2.0, beef extract 0.5, NaCl 0.5 at 50ºC, pH 7.0 at 180 rpm after 72 h. The optimum pH and temperature for amylase activity was 8.0 and 50°C, respectively. The enzyme exhibited 67% activity after 60 minute incubation at 50ºC. At pH 8.0, the enzyme retained 78% activity after 4 h. Conclusion: The properties of the isolated enzyme are adequate for its use in starch processing and baking industry.


Subject(s)
Amylases/biosynthesis , Amylases/physiology , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/enzymology , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Culture Techniques , Enzyme Stability , India , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Starch/biosynthesis , Starch/physiology , Temperature
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Nov; 51(11): 1018-1023
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149412

ABSTRACT

A bench-scale biotrickling filter was operated in the laboratory for the treatment of dimethyl sulphide (DMS). The biotrickling filter was packed with pre-sterilized polyurethane foam and seeded with biomass developed from garden soil enriched with DMS. The biotrickling filter was operated for the generation of process parameters. The biotrickling filter could remove an average removal efficiency of 40.95 % at an effective bed contact time of 84 sec with an average loading rate of 0.56 mg/m3/h. Evaluation of microbiological status of the biotrickling filter indicated the presence of other bacterial cultures viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium, besides Bacillus sphaericus.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/metabolism , Biomass , Bioreactors , Filtration/methods , Gases , Polyurethanes , Sulfides/chemistry
17.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 43(4): 294-310, dic. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-634707

ABSTRACT

Bacillus anthracis es un bacilo gram positivo del grupo Bacillus cereus, que posee un genoma extremadamente monomórfco y comparte gran similitud fsiológica y de estructura genética con B. cereus y Bacillus thuringiensis. En este artículo se describen nuevos métodos moleculares para la identifcación y tipifcación de B. anthracis, basados en repeticiones en tándem de número variable o en diferencias genéticas detectadas por secuenciación, desarrollados en los últimos años. Los aspectos moleculares de los factores de virulencia tradicionales, cápsula, antígeno protector, factor letal y factor edema se describen en profundidad, junto con factores de virulencia recientemente propuestos, como los sideróforos, petrobactina y bacilibactina, la adhesina de la capa S y la lipoproteína MntA. También se detalla la organización molecular de los megaplásmidos pXO1 y pXO2, incluyendo la isla de patogenicidad de pXO1. El esqueleto genético de estos plásmidos se ha encontrado en otras especies relacionadas, probablemente debido a eventos de transferencia lateral. Finalmente, se presentan los dos receptores celulares del antígeno protector, ANTXR1/TEM8 y ANTXR2/CMG2, esenciales en la interacción del patógeno con el hospedador. Los estudios moleculares realizados en los últimos años han permitido aumentar enormemente el conocimiento de los diferentes aspectos de este microorganismo y su relación con el hospedador, pero a la vez han abierto nuevos interrogantes sobre este notorio patógeno.


Bacillus anthracis, a gram-positive rod belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, has an extremely monomorphic genome, and presents high structural and physiological similarity with B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. In this work, the new molecular methods for the identifcation and typing of B. anthracis developed in the last years, based on variable number tandem repeats or on genetic differences detected through sequencing, are described. The molecular aspects of traditional virulence factors: capsule, protective antigen, lethal factor and edema factor are described in depth, together with virulence factors recently proposed, such as the siderophores petrobactin and bacillibactin, the S-layer adhesin and the MntA lipoprotein. It is detailed the molecular organization of megaplasmids pXO1 and pXO2, including the pathogenicity island of pXO1. The genetic skeleton of these plasmids has been observed in related species, and this could be attributed to lateral gene transfer. Finally, the two anthrax toxin protective antigen receptors, ANTXR1/TEM8 and ANTXR2/CMG2, essential for the interaction of the pathogen with the host, are presented. The molecular studies performed in recent years have greatly increased knowledge in different aspects of this microorganism and its relationship with the host, but at the same time they have raised new questions about this noted pathogen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Anthrax/microbiology , Bacillus anthracis/physiology , Anthrax/epidemiology , Anthrax/veterinary , Antigens, Bacterial/immunology , Antigens, Bacterial/physiology , Bacterial Toxins , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Base Sequence , Bacillus anthracis/classification , Bacillus anthracis/genetics , Bacillus anthracis/pathogenicity , Bacillus/classification , Bacterial Capsules/physiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Genomic Islands/physiology , Minisatellite Repeats , Molecular Sequence Data , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/physiology , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Neoplasm Proteins/physiology , Plasmids , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , Receptors, Cell Surface/physiology , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Virulence/genetics , Virulence/physiology , Zoonoses
18.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 31(3): 403-409, sept. 2011. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-617486

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El diagnóstico de la lepra es clínico pero requiere métodos de clasificación para establecer el tratamiento y el pronóstico de los pacientes, acordes con su carga bacilar; ésta se detecta en extendidos de piel y se establece mediante la escala logarítmica de Ridley. En Colombia se emplea una escala semicuantitativa.Objetivo. Establecer la reproducibilidad entre observadores para las dos escalas y establecer el nivel de correlación de la concordancia entre el índice bacilar obtenido con la escala colombiana y con la de Ridley, para evaluar cuánto se pueden intercambiar. Materiales y métodos. Se estandarizó la lectura de las baciloscopias por dos lectores, con posterior evaluación del acuerdo entre observadores en un ensayo ciego. Cada lector cuantificó la carga bacilar de las muestras, usando la escala colombiana y la internacional. El grado de concordancia entre observadores se evaluó con el coeficiente kappa ponderado. El nivel de correlación de la concordancia entre las mediciones del índice bacilar, se estableció con el coeficiente de Lin. Resultados. El coeficiente kappa ponderado entre observadores fue de 0,83, y de 0,85 para las escalas colombiana y la de Ridley, respectivamente. El coeficiente de Lin fue de 0,96 para la evaluación de correlación de la concordancia de los índices bacilares obtenidos con ambas escalas. Conclusiones. La concordancia entre observadores obtenida para ambas escalas fue excelente, al igual que la correlación de la concordancia de los índices bacilares calculados con los dos métodos. Con los puntos de corte establecidos, se obtuvo un nivel de concordancia excelente, lo que garantiza que las escalas son intercambiables a la hora de establecer si la carga bacilar es alta o baja.


Introduction. After the clinical diagnosis of leprosy, classification methods are necessary to define a treatment and prognosis of patients consistent with bacterial load. Bacteria are detected in skin smear, and bacterial load typically is established by the internationally used Ridley’s logarithmic scale, However, in Colombia an alternative semiquantitative scale is used. Objective. The interobserver reproducibility was established for the Ridley and Colombia scales, and the level of correlation-matching was identified between the bacillary indices obtained in order to assess the degree of interchangeability.Materials and methods. Standardization was attained by a reading of the smears by 2 readers with subsequent, blinded evaluation of inter-observer agreement. Each reader quantified the bacterial load of for each sample (n=325) using the Colombian and the Ridley scales. The degree of interobserver agreement was assessed with weighted kappa coefficient. The level of correlation and agreement between the measurements of the bacillary index was established with coefficient of Lin. Results. The interobserver weighted kappa coefficient was 0.83 for the Colombia scale and 0.85 for the Ridley scale. The Lin coefficient was 0.96 for the correlation-matching of bacillary indexes.Conclusions. Interobserver agreement obtained for both scales was excellent as the correlation-matching bacillary indices determined with both methods. With the cut-off points yielded a good level of agreement, ensuring interchangeability between the scales defining the high or low bacterial load.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacillus/classification , Leprosy , Weights and Measures , Therapeutics , Pharmaceutical Preparations
19.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2011 Apr; 48(2): 95-100
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135306

ABSTRACT

A halotolerant bacterium Bacillus acquimaris VITP4 was used for the production of extracellular protease. Fractional precipitation using ammonium chloride was used to obtain the enzyme. The protease exhibited optimum activity at pH 8.0 and 40°C and retained 50% of its optimal proteolytic activity even in the presence of 4 M NaCl, suggesting that it is halotolerant. The molecular mass of protease, as revealed by SDS-PAGE was found to be 34 kDa and the homogeneity of the enzyme was confirmed by gelatin zymography and reverse-phase HPLC. Upon purification, the specific activity of th enzyme increased from 533 U/mg to 1719 U/mg. Protease inhibitors like phenyl methane sulphonyl fluoride and 2-mercaptoethanol did not affect the activity of the enzyme, but EDTA inhibited the activity, indicating the requirement of metal ions for activity. Cu­­­2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ enhanced the enzyme activity, but Zn2+, Hg2+ and Fe2+ decreased the activity, while Mg2+, Ca2+ and K+ had no effect on the enzyme activity. The protease was quite stable in the presence of cationic (CTAB), anionic (SDS) and neutral detergents (Triton X-100 and Tween-20) and exhibited antimicrobial activity against selected bacterial and fungal strains. The stability characteristics and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity indicated the potential use of this protease in industrial applications.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/cytology , Bacillus/drug effects , Bacillus/enzymology , Bacterial Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Detergents/pharmacology , Electrophoresis , Endopeptidases/chemistry , Endopeptidases/isolation & purification , Endopeptidases/pharmacology , Enzyme Stability/drug effects , Extracellular Space/enzymology , Fungi/drug effects , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Metals/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Temperature
20.
J Environ Biol ; 2006 May; 27(2 Suppl): 323-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113203

ABSTRACT

A heterotrophic nitrifier, named Bacillus sp. LY, was newly isolated from a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Bacillus sp. LY could utilize the organic carbon as the source of assimilation when it grew on glucose and ammonium chloride medium companying the formation of oxidized-nitrogen. It also could denitrify nitrate while nitrification. After 24 days incubation, the removal efficiencies of the COD and TN by Bacillus sp. LY were 71.7% and 61.2%, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of Bacillus sp. LY was performed and the phylogenetic tree of Bacillus sp. LY and the neighbouring nitrifiers was given. Bacillus sp. LY could become a new bacterial resource for heterotrophic nitrification and might play a bioremediation role for nutrient removal.


Subject(s)
Bacillus/classification , Base Sequence , DNA Primers , Nitrites/metabolism , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
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